JP4536468B2 - Class E amplifier and EER modulation amplifier - Google Patents

Class E amplifier and EER modulation amplifier Download PDF

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JP4536468B2
JP4536468B2 JP2004274138A JP2004274138A JP4536468B2 JP 4536468 B2 JP4536468 B2 JP 4536468B2 JP 2004274138 A JP2004274138 A JP 2004274138A JP 2004274138 A JP2004274138 A JP 2004274138A JP 4536468 B2 JP4536468 B2 JP 4536468B2
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amplifier
class
voltage
signal
transistor
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JP2006093896A (en
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和弘 内山
晋司 大川
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パナソニック株式会社
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  The present invention relates to a class E amplifier that performs power amplification by switching a semiconductor element such as a transistor, and an EER modulation amplifying apparatus using the class E amplifier, and in particular, power amplification with high efficiency corresponding to fluctuations in power supply voltage. The present invention relates to a class E amplifier and an EER modulation amplification apparatus.

  2. Description of the Related Art Conventionally, as one means for realizing high efficiency in a high frequency amplifier, a class E amplifier that treats a transistor used in the high frequency amplifier as a switch has been proposed. Such a class E amplifier operates not as a voltage-controlled current source but as a switch that opens and closes in an ideal manner, so that the drain-source voltage (or collector) when a large current flows through the transistor is used. -Emitter voltage) is 0V, and the drain-source voltage (or collector-emitter voltage) when no current flows through the transistor is the limit voltage (usually the power supply voltage), so that the power loss due to the transistor is reduced. Since it does not exist, the theoretical efficiency is 100%.

  However, in an actual class E amplifier, a capacitor or the like is added between the drain and source (or collector and emitter) of the transistor, or stray capacitance exists in the transistor itself. Therefore, it is impossible to perform theoretical switching that causes either voltage or current to become zero at the switching timing when the transistor is turned ON / OFF due to factors such as an external capacitor and stray capacitance. is there. In other words, power loss occurs because there is a period in which the voltage and current overlap in the rise / fall period of the transistor. Therefore, in a class E amplifier that performs power amplification by switching a transistor, an efficiency reduction due to switching is inevitable.

  As a method for improving the efficiency reduction of the high-frequency amplifier due to the external factor of the transistor, a technique for controlling the bias point of the transistor that has been subjected to the class B amplification operation according to the input power has been reported. In other words, this technology provides a gate voltage control circuit that controls the gate voltage according to the input power between the input matching circuit and the gate of the FET, thereby maintaining output linearity with respect to the input power. Power is always obtained in saturation. As a result, a highly efficient amplification operation can always be performed without losing the matching state of the input / output matching circuit (see, for example, Patent Document 1).

  FIG. 7 is a configuration diagram of a conventional high-frequency amplifier that improves efficiency reduction. In FIG. 7, the high-frequency amplifier responds to fluctuations in the input signal level obtained from the power distributor 16 for distributing the power of the input signal, the input matching circuit 17 for matching the input impedance of the transistor 20, and the power distributor 16. The voltage generator 18 generates a gate voltage and a drain voltage, the output matching circuit 19 performs impedance matching on the output side of the transistor 20, and the transistor 20 performs a class B amplification operation.

In general, in order to optimally use the transistor 20 so as to perform the class B amplification operation, it is necessary to uniquely apply an input voltage level corresponding to the transistor 20 from the gate voltage and the drain voltage biased to the transistor 20. Therefore, when the input voltage level fluctuates, the class B operation is not an optimal operation state. Therefore, in the high-frequency amplifier shown in FIG. 7, fluctuations in the input voltage level are detected by the power distributor 16, and the gate voltage and the drain voltage are controlled by the voltage generator 18 according to the fluctuations in the input voltage level. The transistor 20 is operated with high efficiency.
JP-A-5-267585

  However, the gate voltage and drain voltage of the high-frequency amplifier as shown in FIG. 7 is adjusted by adjusting the saturation region by controlling the bias point of the transistor in the class B amplifier according to the input power. The improvement is realized. Therefore, no countermeasure is taken against power loss due to the overlap of current and voltage during the rise and fall times of the input / output voltage due to transistor switching. The technique of Patent Document 1 is also a technique for improving the efficiency by adjusting the saturation region, and no measures for improving the efficiency due to the switching loss of the amplifying transistor have been made. Therefore, in the conventional high-frequency amplifier, the effect of improving the efficiency is extremely small for a class E amplifier that requires control of the rise time and fall time of the input / output voltage by transistor switching.

  The present invention has been made in view of the above points, and by controlling the rise time and fall time at the time of switching of the amplifying transistor in accordance with the fluctuation of the power supply voltage, it prevents the efficiency from being lowered due to the fluctuation of the power supply voltage. It is an object of the present invention to provide a class E amplifier and an EER modulation amplification apparatus using the class E amplifier.

Class E amplifier of the present invention is a class E amplifier a semiconductor device having a predetermined amplification factor by switching operation performs power amplification, voltage detecting means for detecting a voltage applied to the semiconductor element, is detected Based on the voltage level of the applied voltage, the rise time / fall time of the voltage due to the switching operation of the semiconductor element is shortened, and the region where the voltage and current in the semiconductor element overlap in time is reduced. controlled, and control means for generating a control signal indicating the control result, is connected in parallel with the semiconductor device employs a configuration including a variable capacitance that is varied the capacitance value of the self in response to said control signal .

  The class E amplifier of the present invention is a class E amplifier that performs power amplification by switching a semiconductor element having a predetermined amplification factor, and detects an input signal level that becomes a control voltage of the semiconductor element. Means, a control means for generating a control signal according to the input signal level detected by the input level detection means, and a self-capacitance value is varied according to the control signal generated by the control means, and the switching operation of the semiconductor element A configuration including a variable capacitor for controlling the rise time / fall time of the voltage is adopted.

  The class E amplifier according to the present invention is a class E amplifier that performs power amplification by switching a semiconductor element having a predetermined amplification factor, and detects an output signal level amplified by the semiconductor element. And a control means for generating a control signal according to the output signal level detected by the output level detection means; and a voltage generated by the switching operation of the semiconductor element by varying its own capacitance value according to the control signal generated by the control means. And a variable capacitor for controlling the rise time / fall time.

  The EER modulation amplification apparatus according to the present invention includes a signal distribution unit that separates an input high-frequency signal into an amplitude signal and a phase signal, and an amplification unit that amplifies the phase signal and performs amplitude modulation using the amplitude signal as a power source. The amplifying means employs a configuration using the class E amplifier according to claim 1.

  The EER modulation amplification apparatus according to the present invention includes a signal distribution unit that separates an input high-frequency signal into an amplitude signal and a phase signal, and an amplification unit that amplifies the phase signal and performs amplitude modulation using the amplitude signal as a power source. The amplification means employs a configuration using the class E amplifier according to claim 2.

  The EER modulation amplification apparatus according to the present invention includes a signal distribution unit that separates an input high-frequency signal into an amplitude signal and a phase signal, and an amplification unit that amplifies the phase signal and performs amplitude modulation using the amplitude signal as a power source. The amplification means employs a configuration using the class E amplifier according to claim 3.

  According to the present invention, the capacitor for grounding used in the class E amplifier has a variable capacity that can be controlled by an external signal, and the capacitance value of the capacitor is adjusted according to the fluctuation of the power supply voltage. It is possible to improve the decrease in efficiency due to the fluctuation of the power supply voltage. That is, the class E amplifier according to the present invention detects the voltage level of the power supply voltage, generates a control signal corresponding to the voltage level, and is connected to a grounded capacitor (that is, a variable capacitor) connected in parallel to the transistor. The capacity value is controlled. This makes it possible to control the rise / fall time of the voltage when the transistor is switched on / off, and as a result, it is possible to prevent a decrease in efficiency due to fluctuations in the power supply voltage.

  In addition, according to the present invention, the capacitor for grounding used in the class E amplifier has a variable capacity that can be controlled by an external signal, and the value of the capacitor is adjusted according to the fluctuation of the input signal level. The reduction in efficiency due to the fluctuation of the input signal level in the class amplifier can be improved. That is, the class E amplifier of the present invention detects the input signal level, generates a control signal corresponding to the level, and sets the capacitance value of a capacitor to ground (that is, a variable capacitor) connected in parallel to the transistor. I have control. This makes it possible to control the rise / fall time of the voltage when the transistor is switched on / off, and as a result, it is possible to prevent a decrease in efficiency due to fluctuations in the input signal level.

  In addition, according to the present invention, the capacitor for grounding used in the class E amplifier has a variable capacity that can be controlled by an external signal, and the value of the capacitor is adjusted according to the fluctuation of the output signal level. It is possible to improve the decrease in efficiency due to the fluctuation of the output signal level in the class amplifier. That is, the class E amplifier of the present invention detects the output signal level, generates a control signal according to the level, and determines the capacitance value of a ground capacitor (that is, a variable capacitor) connected in parallel to the transistor. I have control. This makes it possible to control the rise / fall time of the voltage when the transistor is switched on / off, and as a result, it is possible to prevent a decrease in efficiency due to fluctuations in the output signal level.

  In addition, according to the present invention, an EER modulation amplifier is realized using a class E amplifier that has improved efficiency reduction due to fluctuations in power supply voltage, input signal level, or output signal level. Therefore, it is possible to construct an EER modulation amplifier that can maintain a highly efficient amplification operation even when the power supply voltage, the input signal level, or the output signal level fluctuates. Thus, the EER high-frequency amplifier of the present invention can be applied to a base station apparatus and terminal equipment in mobile communication, a terrestrial digital television transmitter, a high-speed wireless data communication apparatus, and the like.

  In the present invention, a capacitor to ground that is connected in parallel to a semiconductor element (for example, a transistor) of a class E amplifier has a variable capacitance that can be controlled by an external signal, and the capacitance value of the capacitor according to fluctuations in power supply voltage. Configured to adjust. As a result, even when the power supply voltage fluctuates, the rise time and the fall time at the time of transistor switching can be controlled, so that it is possible to improve the efficiency reduction due to the power supply voltage fluctuation in the class E amplifier. . At this time, since a simple and versatile circuit configuration can prevent the efficiency from being reduced with respect to fluctuations in the power supply voltage, the cost of the class E amplifier of the present invention is hardly increased.

  First, before describing an embodiment of a class E amplifier according to the present invention, a basic configuration of a class E amplifier will be described in order to facilitate understanding of the present invention. FIG. 2 is a circuit diagram showing a basic configuration of a general class E amplifier. As shown in FIG. 2, the class E amplifier is connected between the amplifying transistor 4 for inputting the high-frequency signal Vin generated by the input signal generator 5 and the transistor 4 and the power supply, and is sufficient at the operating frequency. And a fixed capacitor Cp7, one end of which is grounded and connected in parallel with the transistor 4, and L and C connected in series to the output line. The output is a load R6. Is connected. The values of the fixed capacitors Cp7, L, C, and the load R6 are such that when the transistor 4 is turned off, the collector voltage Vx is kept at a low value until the current flowing through the transistor 4 becomes 0 A. The voltage Vx is adjusted to be 0V.

  That is, the class E amplifier configured as shown in FIG. 2 has a rise in the input voltage and the output voltage by appropriately selecting the constants of the output circuit of the transistor 4 (ie, Cp, L, C, and R). By controlling the time and the fall time to be short so that the region where the voltage and current in the transistor 4 overlap in time is reduced, the power loss in the transistor 4 is reduced and the power efficiency is improved. .

  In particular, by inserting the fixed capacitor Cp7 in parallel with the output circuit of the transistor 4, it takes time for the collector voltage Vx to fall / rise at the time of ON / OFF due to switching of the transistor 4; Can be suppressed. Thus, the rise time / fall time when the transistor 4 is turned on / off is determined by the value of the fixed capacitor Cp7. L, C, and R are constants for adjusting the transient response of the output voltage when the transistor 4 is turned off.

  However, since the value of the fixed capacitor Cp7 that is most important in the class E amplifier depends on the power supply voltage Vdd, the operating frequency f, and the output power Pout, the value of the fixed capacitor Cp7 is changed when these conditions change. May deviate from the optimal constant. Among these, in particular, the power supply voltage Vdd often fluctuates in an actual use state. For example, when the power supply voltage Vdd varies due to temperature change or aging change, the efficiency may decrease.

A generally known formula for calculating the fixed capacitance Cp7 is as shown in the following formula (1).

Where Cp is the capacitance value of a capacitor connected in parallel to the output stage of the amplification transistor, Pout is the output power, ω is the operating angular frequency, and Vdd is the power supply voltage.

  FIG. 6 is a characteristic diagram showing an example of the Cp value calculated from the above equation (1). That is, FIG. 6 is a characteristic diagram showing the relationship between the power supply voltage and the fixed capacitor Cp, which is applied to a general class E amplifier. The frequency f of the high frequency signal is f = 850 MHz, and the flow angle of the transistor switch ON is The optimum value of the fixed capacitor Cp7 at 110 degrees is shown. As shown in FIG. 6, when the power supply voltage Vdd is low, the value of the fixed capacitor Cp7 may be large. However, as the power supply voltage Vdd increases, the value of the fixed capacitor Cp7 is decreased to increase the rise time / fall time. There is a need. In this way, by controlling the value of the fixed capacitor Cp7 according to the power supply voltage Vdd, the switching loss of the transistor can be suppressed and the reduction in efficiency can be improved.

  Hereinafter, in the class E amplifier of the present invention, some embodiments for improving the efficiency reduction by controlling the value of the capacitor connected in parallel with the transistor according to the fluctuation of the power supply voltage will be described. In addition, the same code | symbol is attached | subjected to the same component in drawing used for each following embodiment, and the overlapping description is abbreviate | omitted as much as possible.

(Embodiment 1)
FIG. 1 is a circuit diagram of a class E amplifier according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention. This class E amplifier includes a power supply voltage detection unit 1 that detects the power supply voltage Vdd, a control unit 2 that controls the capacitance value of the variable capacitor Cp3 in accordance with the power supply voltage Vdd, and a voltage rise when the transistor 4 is turned on / off. / The variable capacitor Cp3 that controls the fall time, the transistor 4 that constitutes the class E amplifier and performs the switching operation, the input signal generator 5 that generates the input high-frequency signal Vin, and L, C, and RFC are connected. The load R6 is connected. Note that the RFC is connected between the transistor 4 and the power supply, and a constant is selected so as to have a sufficient impedance at the operating frequency of the transistor 4.

  In FIG. 1, the power supply voltage detection unit 1 detects the voltage level of the power supply voltage Vdd and supplies the voltage level to the control unit 2. Then, the control unit 2 generates a control signal corresponding to the voltage level, and controls the variable capacitor Cp3 with the control signal so that the capacitance value of the variable capacitor Cp3 becomes an optimum value according to the voltage level of the power supply voltage Vdd. . By adopting the class E amplifier that varies the capacitance value of the variable capacitor Cp3 in accordance with the power supply voltage Vdd in this way, the amplification operation of the class E amplifier is automatically optimized for optimum efficiency even when the power supply voltage Vdd varies. Can be adjusted.

  The variable capacitor Cp3 shown in FIG. 1 is most easily configured by a varicap or the like, which is a voltage-controlled variable capacitor. In addition, a plurality of capacitors are connected in parallel, for example, and the number of parallel capacitors Cp3 is controlled by a control signal. May be switched. Of course, other components having a function similar to that of the capacitor may be used.

(Embodiment 2)
FIG. 3 is a circuit diagram of the class E amplifier according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention. The second embodiment differs from the first embodiment in that the detection point for controlling the variable capacitor Cp3 is changed from the detection position of the power supply voltage to the detection position of the input high-frequency signal. That is, in the first embodiment, the power supply voltage detection unit 1 detects the power supply voltage Vdd and the control unit 2 controls the variable capacitor Cp3. However, in the second embodiment, the input level detection unit 8 uses the input signal generator 5. The input high frequency signal Vin is detected, and the control unit 9 controls the variable capacitor Cp3. Since other configurations and operations are the same as those in the first embodiment, a duplicate description is omitted.

  In the second embodiment shown in FIG. 3, the input level detector 8 detects the voltage level of the input high-frequency signal Vin and supplies it to the controller 9. Then, the control unit 9 generates a control signal according to the voltage level of the input high-frequency signal Vin, and controls the control signal so that the capacitance value of the variable capacitor Cp3 becomes an optimum value according to the voltage level of the input high-frequency signal Vin. The capacitance value of the variable capacitor Cp3 is controlled. By adopting the class E amplifier that varies the capacitance value of the variable capacitor Cp3 according to the voltage level of the input high frequency signal Vin in this way, the amplification operation of the class E amplifier is performed even if the voltage level of the input high frequency signal Vin varies. Can be automatically adjusted for optimum efficiency.

(Embodiment 3)
FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram of the class E amplifier according to Embodiment 3 of the present invention. The third embodiment differs from the first embodiment in that the detection point for controlling the variable capacitor Cp3 is changed from the position of the power supply voltage to the position on the load side. That is, in the first embodiment, the power supply voltage detection unit 1 detects the power supply voltage Vdd and the control unit 2 controls the variable capacitor Cp3. However, in the third embodiment, the output level detection unit 10 outputs to the load R6. The voltage level of the high-frequency signal Vout is detected, and the variable capacitance Cp3 is controlled by the control unit 11. Since other configurations and operations are the same as those in the first embodiment, a duplicate description is omitted.

  In the third embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the output level detection unit 10 detects the voltage level of the output high-frequency signal Vout and supplies it to the control unit 11. Then, the control unit 11 generates a control signal according to the voltage level of the output high-frequency signal Vout, and is variable by the control signal so that the value of the variable capacitor Cp3 becomes an optimum value according to the voltage level of the output high-frequency signal Vout. The capacitor Cp3 is controlled. By adopting the class E amplifier that varies the capacitance value of the variable capacitor Cp3 in accordance with the voltage level of the output high-frequency signal Vout in this way, the amplification operation of the class E amplifier is performed even if the voltage level of the output high-frequency signal Vout varies. Can be automatically adjusted for optimum efficiency.

(Embodiment 4)
FIG. 5 is a basic block diagram of an EER (envelope elimination and restoration) modulation amplification apparatus. This EER modulation amplification device receives a high-frequency input signal RFin12 and distributes it to an amplitude signal and a phase signal, and amplifies the phase signal by using the amplitude signal as a power source to regenerate the phase signal and the amplitude signal. A high-frequency amplifier 14 that performs synthesis and amplitude modulation and outputs a high-frequency output signal RFout15 is provided.

  In the EER modulation amplification apparatus shown in FIG. 5, the signal distribution unit 13 to which the high frequency input signal RFin12 is input distributes the high frequency input signal RFin12 into an amplitude signal and a phase signal. Therefore, the high-frequency amplifier 14 amplifies only the phase signal without amplitude information, and the high-frequency amplifier 14 composed of a transistor (not shown) uses the characteristic that the gain varies depending on the power supply voltage of the transistor, and responds to the amplitude signal. Amplitude modulation is performed by controlling the power supply voltage. As a result, the high frequency output signal RFout15 obtained by recombining the amplitude component and the phase component to be linearly amplified is output. With such a configuration, since the high frequency amplifier 14 does not amplify the amplitude signal, a saturated amplifier having excellent efficiency can be used for the high frequency amplifier 14. As a result, it is possible to improve the efficiency of EER modulation amplification.

  However, in the configuration of the EER modulation amplifying apparatus as shown in FIG. 5, the power supply voltage of the high-frequency amplifier 14 always fluctuates. Therefore, when a class E amplifier is used for the high-frequency amplifier 14, the capacitance value of the capacitor to ground Is not an optimum value, and the efficiency varies depending on the amplitude level. Therefore, in the fourth embodiment, the class E amplifier as shown in FIG. 1 described in the first embodiment is used as the high-frequency amplifier 14 used in the EER modulation amplification apparatus. As a result, even if amplitude modulation is applied to the power supply voltage of the transistor in the high-frequency amplifier 14, the high-frequency amplifier 14 can be automatically adjusted to the optimum efficiency.

(Embodiment 5)
In the fifth embodiment of the present invention, the class E amplifier as shown in FIG. 3 described in the second embodiment is employed as the high frequency amplifier 14 used in the EER modulation amplification apparatus shown in FIG. As a result, even if amplitude modulation is applied to the power supply voltage of the transistor in the high-frequency amplifier 14, the high-frequency amplifier 14 can be automatically adjusted to the optimum efficiency.

(Embodiment 6)
In the sixth embodiment of the present invention, the class E amplifier shown in FIG. 4 described in the third embodiment is employed as the high frequency amplifier 14 used in the EER modulation amplification apparatus shown in FIG. As a result, even if amplitude modulation is applied to the power supply voltage of the transistor in the high-frequency amplifier 14, the high-frequency amplifier 14 can be automatically adjusted to the optimum efficiency.

  As described above, by using the class E amplifier of the present invention, a highly efficient amplification operation can be maintained even if the power supply voltage fluctuates. Therefore, if the class E amplifier of the present invention is employed in an EER high-frequency amplifier, it can be applied not only to base station apparatuses and terminal equipment in mobile communication, but also to terrestrial digital television transmitters and high-speed wireless data communication apparatuses. be able to.

Circuit diagram of class E amplifier according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention Circuit diagram showing basic configuration of general class E amplifier Circuit diagram of class E amplifier according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention Circuit diagram of class E amplifier according to Embodiment 3 of the present invention Basic block diagram of EER modulation amplifier A characteristic diagram showing the relationship between the power supply voltage and the fixed capacitor Cp, applied to a general class E amplifier Configuration diagram of a conventional high-frequency amplifier that improves efficiency reduction

Explanation of symbols

1 Power supply voltage detection unit 2, 9, 11 Control unit 3 Variable capacitance Cp
4 Transistor (semiconductor element)
5 Input signal generator 6 Load R
7 Fixed capacitance Cp
8 Input level detector 10 Output level detector 12 High frequency input signal RFin
13 Signal Distribution Unit 14 High Frequency Amplifier 15 High Frequency Output Signal RFout

Claims (2)

  1. A class E amplifier that performs power amplification by switching a semiconductor element having a predetermined amplification factor,
    Voltage detecting means for detecting a voltage applied to the semiconductor element;
    Based on the voltage level of the test out the the applied voltage, the rise time / fall time of the voltage due to the switching operation of the semiconductor device is short and less space to voltage and current overlap in time in the semiconductor device And control means for generating a control signal indicating the control result ,
    Which is connected in parallel to the semiconductor element, a variable capacitance that is varied the capacitance value of the self in response to said control signal,
    E-class amplifier Ru equipped with.
  2. Signal distribution means for separating the input high-frequency signal into an amplitude signal and a phase signal;
    Amplifying means for amplifying the phase signal and performing amplitude modulation using the amplitude signal as a power source;
    It said amplifying means, Ru is constituted by the class E amplifier according to claim 1, EER modulator amplifier.
JP2004274138A 2004-09-21 2004-09-21 Class E amplifier and EER modulation amplifier Expired - Fee Related JP4536468B2 (en)

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JP4689586B2 (en) * 2006-12-06 2011-05-25 太陽誘電株式会社 Low distortion variable frequency amplifier
KR101146051B1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2012-05-14 후지쯔 가부시끼가이샤 Amplifier apparatus
JP5010542B2 (en) * 2008-03-05 2012-08-29 株式会社東芝 High frequency power amplifier and amplification method
US7872543B2 (en) * 2008-06-05 2011-01-18 Qualcomm, Incorporated Bi-polar modulator
CN101404478B (en) * 2008-10-30 2011-05-04 华为技术有限公司 Method and apparatus for improving efficiency of class E power amplifier
JP5593246B2 (en) * 2010-04-01 2014-09-17 株式会社日立国際電気 Power amplifier
JP2013030973A (en) * 2011-07-28 2013-02-07 Nippon Soken Inc Power supply device, contactless power transmission apparatus, vehicle, and contactless power transmission system
JP5780879B2 (en) * 2011-08-09 2015-09-16 株式会社東芝 Power amplifier and power transmission device
JP6074745B2 (en) * 2012-01-25 2017-02-08 パナソニックIpマネジメント株式会社 Wireless power transmission system and power transmission device
JP5786745B2 (en) 2012-02-09 2015-09-30 三菱電機株式会社 power amplifier

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JP2004207939A (en) * 2002-12-25 2004-07-22 Hitachi Kokusai Electric Inc Power amplifier

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US3919656A (en) * 1973-04-23 1975-11-11 Nathan O Sokal High-efficiency tuned switching power amplifier
US4719556A (en) * 1986-08-07 1988-01-12 Armstrong World Industries, Inc. Current and voltage limited inverter
JPS63272107A (en) * 1987-04-30 1988-11-09 Hitachi Ltd High frequency power amplifier
JPH06505844A (en) * 1991-02-04 1994-06-30
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