JP4199331B2 - Power limiting device for a vehicle with an accumulator - Google Patents

Power limiting device for a vehicle with an accumulator Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4199331B2
JP4199331B2 JP17520798A JP17520798A JP4199331B2 JP 4199331 B2 JP4199331 B2 JP 4199331B2 JP 17520798 A JP17520798 A JP 17520798A JP 17520798 A JP17520798 A JP 17520798A JP 4199331 B2 JP4199331 B2 JP 4199331B2
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motor
power
generator
torque
battery
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JP2000013914A (en
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誠志 中村
豊 多賀
正弥 天野
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トヨタ自動車株式会社
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/20Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed
    • B60L15/2009Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed for braking
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/20Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
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    • B60L3/0023Detecting, eliminating, remedying or compensating for drive train abnormalities, e.g. failures within the drive train
    • B60L3/0046Detecting, eliminating, remedying or compensating for drive train abnormalities, e.g. failures within the drive train relating to electric energy storage systems, e.g. batteries or capacitors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
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    • B60L3/06Limiting the traction current under mechanical overload conditions
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    • B60L3/12Recording operating variables ; Monitoring of operating variables
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    • B60L50/50Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells
    • B60L50/51Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells characterised by AC-motors
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    • B60L58/14Preventing excessive discharging
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    • B60L58/15Preventing overcharging
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B60L7/00Electrodynamic brake systems for vehicles in general
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    • B60L2210/00Converter types
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B60L2250/00Driver interactions
    • B60L2250/26Driver interactions by pedal actuation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
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    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/64Electric machine technologies for applications in electromobilty
    • Y02T10/642Control strategies of electric machines for automotive applications
    • Y02T10/645Control strategies for dc machines
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
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    • Y02T10/7005Batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02T10/7044Controlling the battery or capacitor state of charge
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02T10/7275Desired performance achievement

Description

【0001】 [0001]
【発明の属する技術分野】 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
この発明は、電気自動車やハイブリッドカーなどの蓄電器(バッテリー)を動力源として備えている車両の電力を制限する装置に関するものである。 The present invention is a capacitor such as an electric vehicle or a hybrid car (battery) relates to an apparatus for limiting the power of the vehicle is provided as a power source.
【0002】 [0002]
【従来の技術】 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
周知のように、電気自動車やハイブリッドカーは、バッテリーからモータ(電動機)に電力を供給し、そのモータが出力するトルクによって車輪を回転させて走行する。 As is well known, electric cars and hybrid cars, and supplies electric power to the motor (electric motor) from the battery travels by rotating wheels by the torque which the motor output. また一方、減速時には車両の有する運動エネルギによって発電機を駆動することによって発電をおこない、これをバッテリーに蓄える回生をおこなっている。 On the other hand, at the time of deceleration to generate electricity by driving a generator by the kinetic energy possessed by the vehicle, it is subjected to regeneration to store it in the battery. そのバッテリーとしては各種のタイプのものが開発されているが、いずれのタイプのものも放電と充電との電力に制限があり、その制限を越えて放電もしくは充電すると耐用寿命が短くなるなどの問題を生じる。 Although any of various types have been developed as a battery, even those of either type is limited to the power of the charge and discharge, problems such as service life is shortened when charging or discharging, beyond its limit cause.
【0003】 [0003]
そこで例えば特開平9−294305号公報に記載された装置では、バッテリーの電流および電圧に基づいて出力制限係数をマップから求め、その係数をバッテリーの最大出力に掛け算することにより出力電力制限値を求めている。 Thus, for example in the apparatus described in JP-A-9-294305 is obtained from the map the output limit coefficient based on the battery current and voltage, determine the output power limit value by multiplying the coefficient to the maximum output of the battery ing. また回生時にも同様に、バッテリーの電流および電圧に基づいて回生電力制限係数をマップから求め、その係数を回生電力最大値に掛け算することにより回生電力制限値を求めている。 Also similarly during regenerative, determined from the map of the regenerative power limit coefficient based on the battery current and voltage, it is seeking regenerative power limit value by multiplying the coefficient regenerative power maximum value. そしてこれらの電力制限値とモータ回転数ならびに目標トルクとに基づいて駆動力指令値を定めている。 Then defines a driving force command value based on the these power limit value and the motor rotation speed and the target torque.
【0004】 [0004]
また、特開平9−74605号公報には、バッテリーのSOC(充電状態)および温度に基づいて充電上限パワーを決定し、その充電上限パワーとモータ(発電機)のパワー定格とからパワー制約値を求め、さらにそのパワー制約値とモータ回転数とから回生トルク上限値を定めている。 JP-A-9-74605, to determine the upper limit charging power based on the battery SOC (state of charge) and temperature, the power constraint values ​​from its upper limit charging power and the power rating of the motor (generator) determined defines a regenerative torque upper limit value from the further its power constraint value and the motor rotation speed.
【0005】 [0005]
【発明が解決しようとする課題】 [Problems that the Invention is to Solve
ところで、従来一般の電気自動車やハイブリッドカーなどにおいては、バッテリーとモータもしくは発電機との間にインバータが介在されている。 Incidentally, in such a conventional general electric vehicles and hybrid cars, an inverter is interposed between the battery and the motor or generator. したがってバッテリーが出力する電力とモータで発生する動力との間、あるいは発電機に入力される回生動力とバッテリーに入力される電力との間には、インバータやモータあるいは発電機における損失分の動力差が不可避的に生じる。 Thus between the power generated by the power and motor battery output or between the power input to the regenerative power and battery input to the generator, the power difference between the loss in the inverter and the motor or generator, There arise inevitably.
【0006】 [0006]
これに対して上述した各公報に記載されたいずれの装置も、電力の制限値とモータ回転数とに基づいてモータ(発電機)トルクを定めていて、インバータやモータ(発電機)での損失を考慮していないので、回生時に充電電力を不必要に制限してしまい、制動エネルギ回収率が低下する不都合があった。 Any of the apparatus described in the publications described above for which also have established the motor (generator) torque on the basis of the limit value of power and the motor rotational speed, the loss in the inverter and the motor (generator) since not taken into consideration, charging power during regenerative would limit unnecessarily, braking energy recovery rate was a disadvantage to decrease. すなわち上記のようにして求められたモータトルクに設定して得られる回生エネルギのうちの幾分かはモータやインバータの損失として消費されてしまい、バッテリーに充電されないので、その分、回生効率が低下する。 That will be consumed as some loss of motor and inverter of the regenerative energy obtained by setting the motor torque determined as described above, since it is not charged in the battery, correspondingly, reduced regeneration efficiency to.
【0007】 [0007]
また、出力時においては、前記電力制限値とモータ回転数とに基づいて求められたモータトルクとなるように制御すると、バッテリーからはそのモータトルクに応じた電力に加えて、モータやインバータでの損失に応じた電力が出力されるから、結局、過放電状態が生じ、バッテリーの耐用寿命が低下する可能性があった。 Further, at the time of output, the when controlled to be the motor torque obtained on the basis of the power limit value and the motor rotation speed, from a battery in addition to the power corresponding to the motor torque, the motor and the inverter since electric power corresponding to the loss is output, eventually, over-discharge state occurs, the service life of the battery is may decrease.
【0008】 [0008]
さらに、インバータやモータでのエネルギ損失は、モータなどの動作状態に応じて変化するので、上記従来の装置では、損失の大きい動作領域での回生効率が低下し、また出力時にはバッテリーに対する過負荷状態が生じる可能性があった。 Furthermore, the energy loss in the inverter and the motor varies in accordance with operating conditions such as motor, the conventional apparatus is, reduces the regeneration efficiency of a large operation area of ​​loss, also overloaded for battery on output there is a possibility that may occur.
【0009】 [0009]
この発明は上記事情に鑑みてなされたものであり、回生効率を向上させ、また過充電やそれに起因するバッテリーの耐用寿命の低下などを防止することのできる電力制限装置を提供することを目的とするものである。 The present invention has been made in view of the above circumstances, and aims to provide a power limiting device that can improve the regeneration efficiency and also prevent a decrease in the service life of the battery due to overcharge or it it is intended to.
【0010】 [0010]
【課題を解決するための手段およびその作用】 Means and operation for solving the problem]
この発明は、上記目的を達成するために、蓄電器から出力する電力によって走行のための駆動力を発生し、また走行していることによる運動エネルギを電力に変換して前記蓄電器に蓄え、前記蓄電器から出力する電力もしくは前記運動エネルギを変換した電力が前記蓄電器の限界値を超えている場合に前記蓄電器からの放電もしくは前記蓄電器に対する充電を制限する車両の電力制限装置において、前記蓄電器にインバータを介して接続されたモータもしくは発電機の回転数および要求トルク、ならびに前記回転数および要求トルクとに基づいてマップ化された、前記インバータでの損失および前記モータもしくは発電機での損失を含む電力損失に応じて要求電力を算出する手段と、前記モータもしくは発電機の回転数および電力の実測値を The present invention, in order to achieve the above object, a driving force for traveling by the electric power output from the capacitor occurs, also by converting the kinetic energy into electric power by the running stored in the capacitor, before Symbol in the discharge or power limiting device for a vehicle for limiting the charging of the capacitor from the capacitor when the power obtained by converting the power or the kinetic energy outputted from the capacitor exceeds a limit value of the capacitor, inverter to the capacitor connected via a motor or the rotational speed and the required torque of the generator, and is mapped on the basis of said rotational speed and the required torque, electric power including a loss in the loss and the motor or generator with the inverter means for calculating the required power in accordance with the losses, the measured value of the rotational speed and power of the motor or generator ラメータとしたトルクのマップに基づいて、所定の前記回転数で前記蓄電器における限界値になる前記モータもしくは発電機の限界トルクを求める手段と、前記算出された要求電力が前記蓄電器における限界値を超えている場合に前記モータもしくは発電機におけるトルクを前記限界トルクに制限する手段とを備えていることを特徴とするものである。 Based on the map of the torque as a parameter, means for determining the limit torque of the motor or generator be limits on the capacitor at a predetermined of said rotational speed, the required power of the calculated the limit value in the accumulator it is characterized in that a means for limiting the torque to the limit torque in the motor or generator when it exceeds.
【0011】 [0011]
したがってこの発明の装置では、蓄電器から出力する電力によりモータを駆動して車両が走行し、また、車両の走行に伴う運動エネルギによって発電機が駆動されて発電がおこなわれ、蓄電器に電力が蓄えられる。 Thus the apparatus of the invention, the vehicle travels by driving the motor with electric power output from the electric storage pack, also power generator is driven by the kinetic energy accompanying the traveling of the vehicle is performed, the power stored in the capacitor . このようにして蓄電器から出力され、あるいは入力される要求電力は、モータあるいは発電機の回転数およびトルクならびに電力損失によって決まる。 In this way, the output from the capacitor, or request power that will be input is determined by the rotational speed and torque as well as the power loss of the motor or generator. そこで蓄電器に対して入出力される要求電力が、モータもしくは発電機の回転数とトルクならびに電力損失とによって求められ、その要求電力が蓄電器の限界値を超えていれば、その限界値に制限される。 Therefore request power that will be input to and output from the storage battery, determined by the rotational speed and the torque and power loss in the motor or generator, required power of that is if exceeds the limit value of the storage battery, the limit value It is limited to. その制限をおこなうために、この発明の装置では、限界値と回転数とに基づき、かつ少なくともモータもしくは発電機でのエネルギ損失および蓄電器とモータもしくは発電機との間のインバータでの損失を補い得るトルクを求める。 To perform the restriction, the apparatus of the present invention to obtain compensate for losses in the inverter between the energy loss and the capacitor and a motor or generator in based on the engine speed and the limit value, and at least a motor or generator determine the torque. その算出されたトルクでモータもしくは発電機を駆動すると、蓄電器から出力されるいわゆる実電力は、モータで発生する動力とモータおよびインバータでの損失とを含めた値であって限界値以下の値となる。 When driving the motor or generator with the calculated torque, Ruiwayuru actual power output from the electric storage pack, the limit value or less of the value is a value including the loss in the power the motor and the inverter generated by the motor to become. また、蓄電器に入力する場合、発電機で発生する電力は、発電機およびインバータでの損失と蓄電器に入力される電力となり、蓄電器に入力される電力が限界値となる。 Also, when entering the condenser, power generated by the generator, the generator and becomes power input to the losses and the capacitor in the inverter, power input to the capacitor becomes the limit value. すなわちこの発明の装置では、蓄電器から出力する場合、モータのトルクを少なくともモータでの回転数およびトルクに基づく損失に応じて低下させるので、過放電が防止され、また蓄電器に入力する場合、発電機での発電量を少なくとも発電機での損失に応じて増大させるので、過不足なく充電することができる。 That is, in apparatus of the present invention, when outputting from the storage battery, as it reduces in accordance with the losses based on the rotational speed and torque at least the motor torque of the motor, when over-discharge is prevented, also input to the capacitor, the generator because it increases in accordance with the loss in the least the generator the power generation amount in, it can be charged without excess or deficiency.
【0012】 [0012]
【発明の実施の形態】 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
つぎにこの発明を図に基づいて具体的に説明する。 Next will be specifically described with reference to FIG this invention. 図2は、この発明が対象とする一例である電気自動車の駆動系統を模式的に示しており、動力源としてのモータ・ジェネレータ1の出力軸2がプロペラシャフトなどの所定の伝動機構を介して駆動輪3に連結されている。 2, the drive system of an electric vehicle to which the present invention is an example of interest shows schematically, an output shaft 2 of the motor-generator 1 as a power source via a predetermined transmission mechanism such as a propeller shaft It is connected to the driving wheels 3. この駆動輪3を含む全ての車輪に付設されたブレーキ(図示せず)が、ブレーキ操作やその他の制御状態に応じた信号に基づいて電気的に制御されるように構成されている。 Brake annexed to all wheels including the driving wheels 3 (not shown) is configured to be electrically controlled based on a signal corresponding to the brake operation or other control state.
【0013】 [0013]
前記モータ・ジェネレータ1は、交流同期型のものであって、このモータ・ジェネレータ1には交流・直流の変換と電力の制御のためのインバータ4を介してバッテリー(蓄電器)5が接続されている。 The motor generator 1 is intended for AC synchronous, a battery (capacitor) 5 via the inverter 4 for controlling the conversion and the power of an AC-DC is connected to the motor-generator 1 .
【0014】 [0014]
モータ・ジェネレータ1およびインバータ4を制御するための電子制御装置(モータECU)6が設けられている。 An electronic control unit (motor ECU) 6 for controlling the motor-generator 1 and the inverter 4 is provided. このモータECU6は、いわゆるマイクロコンピュータを主体に構成されたものであり、アクセルペダル(図示せず)の踏み込み量(アクセル開度)や車速などに基づいてモータ要求トルクやバッテリー5での充電状態(SOC)に基づくジェネレータ要求トルクに従ってモータ・ジェネレータ1を制御するように構成されている。 The motor ECU6 has been constructed so-called microcomputer mainly, the depression amount of an accelerator pedal (not shown) state of charge at the required motor torque and battery 5 based like (accelerator opening) and vehicle speed ( It is configured to control the motor-generator 1 according generator demand torque based on SOC).
【0015】 [0015]
また、前記バッテリー5を制御するための電子制御装置(バッテリーECU)7が設けられている。 The electronic control unit (battery ECU) 7 for controlling the battery 5 is provided. このバッテリーECU7もいわゆるマイクロコンピュータを主体にして構成されたものであり、バッテリー5のSOCを監視し、その結果に応じた信号を出力するように構成されている。 The battery ECU7 also has been configured by a so-called microcomputer mainly monitors the SOC of the battery 5, and is configured to output a signal corresponding to the result.
【0016】 [0016]
前述したようにブレーキは電気的に制御できるように構成されており、その制御のための電子制御装置(ブレーキECU)8が設けられている。 Brake As mentioned above is configured so as to be electrically controlled, the electronic control unit (brake ECU) 8 for the control is provided. このブレーキECU8もマイクロコンピュータを主体とするものであり、制動操作に基づく信号や回生要求信号などによってブレーキによる制動トルクを制御するように構成されている。 The brake ECU8 also essentially provided by a microcomputer, and is configured to control the braking torque by the brake depending on the signal and the regeneration request signal based on the braking operation.
【0017】 [0017]
これらの各ECU6,7,8が互いにデータ通信可能に接続されている。 Each of these ECU6,7,8 is connected to communicate data with each other. そして、バッテリーECU7からモータECU6には充電状態や電流、電圧などに関するデータが送信されており、またブレーキECU8とモータECU6との間では、回生要求値や回生実行値などが送受信されている。 Then, in the period from the battery ECU7 the motor ECU 6 charge state and current, and voltage data about such being transmitted, the brake ECU8 and the motor ECU 6, etc. regeneration request value and regeneration execution value is transmitted and received.
【0018】 [0018]
上述した駆動系統を備えた電気自動車では、アクセルペダルを踏み込むなどのことによる出力要求があった場合、その要求に適合するトルクが発生するようにモータ・ジェネレータ1を制御する。 In the electric vehicle having the above-mentioned drive system, when there is an output request by such depresses the accelerator pedal, adapted torque to the request for controlling the motor-generator 1 to generate. これは、モータECU6が入力信号に基づいて演算をおこない、その結果に応じてモータ・ジェネレータ1およびインバータ4を制御することにより実行される。 This motor ECU6 performs calculation based on the input signal, is performed by controlling the motor-generator 1 and the inverter 4 accordingly. またブレーキ操作された場合、車両の有する運動エネルギを電気エネルギに変換するために回生制御が実行される。 Also when it is braking, regenerative control is performed to convert the kinetic energy possessed by the vehicle into electrical energy. すなわちブレーキによって制動をおこなう一方、モータ・ジェネレータ1を駆動輪3側から入力されるトルクによって駆動して発電をおこない、その電力をインバータ4を介してバッテリー5に充電する。 That while the braking by the brake, to generate electricity by driving by the torque inputted to the motor-generator 1 from the drive wheel 3 side, to charge its power to the battery 5 via the inverter 4. この制御は、ブレーキECU8の回生要求値に対するモータECU6からの回生実行信号に基づいてブレーキECU8がブレーキによる制動力を制御することによって実行される。 This control, brake ECU8 based on regeneration execution signal from the motor ECU6 for regeneration required value of the brake ECU8 is performed by controlling the braking force by the brake.
【0019】 [0019]
これら走行のためのバッテリー5からの出力および回生によるバッテリー5に対する入力をおこなう場合、バッテリー5の状態に応じて入出力値に制限があるので、以下のようにして電力の制限がおこなわれる。 When performing an input with respect to the battery 5 by the output and regeneration from a battery 5 for these cars, there is a limit to the output value in accordance with the state of the battery 5, the power limitation is carried out as follows. 図1はその制御例を示しており、先ず、モータ・ジェネレータ1での要求トルクTm を入力する(ステップ1)。 Figure 1 shows the control example, first, enter the required torque Tm of the motor-generator 1 (step 1). この要求トルクTm は、モータ・ジェネレータ1で駆動力を発生させて力行する場合には、その時点の車速およびアクセル開度などに基づいて求められる。 The required torque Tm is in the case of power running by generating a driving force by the motor-generator 1 is determined based such as the vehicle speed and the accelerator opening at that time. また、回生の場合には、例えば車速およびブレーキ力に基づいて求めることができる。 In the case of regeneration it can be for example determined based on the vehicle speed and the brake force.
【0020】 [0020]
つぎにその要求トルクTm でのバッテリー電力Pb が演算される(ステップ2)。 Then battery power Pb at the request torque Tm is calculated (Step 2). すなわちPb =Nm ・Tm +Pmlos That is Pb = Nm · Tm + Pmlos
が計算される。 There is calculated. ここで、Nm はモータ・ジェネレータ1の回転数、Pmlosはモータ・ジェネレータ1での電力損失である。 Here, Nm is the rotational speed of the motor generator 1, Pmlos is the power loss in the motor generator 1. この電力損失Pmlosは、モータ・ジェネレータ1の回転数Nm とその時点のトルクTm とに基づいて定まり、例えば予め試験をしてマップ値として求めておくことができる。 The power loss Pmlos is Sadamari based on the rotational speed Nm of the motor-generator 1 and the torque Tm of the time, it can be determined in a map value by, for example, pre-test. また、バッテリー電力Pb の算出手段としては、バッテリーECU7などで検出した値を使用する手段を採用してもよい。 As the calculation means of battery power Pb, it may be employed means for using the detected values ​​such as a battery ECU 7. なお、この電力損失には、インバータ4での損失を含ませてもよい。 Note that this power loss, may be included the loss of the inverter 4.
【0021】 [0021]
このようにして求めたバッテリー電力Pb が制限値を超えているか否かが判断される(ステップ3)。 Whether this manner battery power Pb obtained exceeds the limit value is determined (Step 3). この制限値は、出力する場合には放電上限値Pbmaxであり、また回生の場合には充電上限値Pbminであり、これらは、バッテリー5の温度およびSOCなどによって定めることができる。 This limit, when output is discharging upper limit Pbmax, in the case of regeneration is charging upper limit value Pbmin, it can be determined by such as temperature and SOC of the battery 5. ステップ2で求めたバッテリー電力Pb が制限値を超えていない場合には、ステップ1で入力されたモータトルクでモータ・ジェネレータ1を動作させる。 In the case where battery power Pb obtained it does not exceed the limit value Step 2, to operate the motor generator 1 in motor torque inputted in Step 1. すなわちそのトルクとなるように電力を出力し、または回生をおこなう。 That output power such that its torque, or performing regeneration.
【0022】 [0022]
これに対してステップ2で求めたバッテリー電力Pb が上限値Pbmax,Pbminを超えていた場合には、それぞれの上限値Pbmax,Pbminでのモータ最大トルクTmlimを求める(ステップ4,5)。 Battery power Pb is an upper limit value Pbmax the contrast obtained in step 2, if it is exceeded Pbmin, each upper limit Pbmax, determine the maximum motor torque Tmlim at Pbmin (step 4,5). すなわちバッテリー電力Pb が放電上限値Pbmaxを超えていれば(Pb >Pbmax)、バッテリー出力上限でのモータ最大トルクTmlimを求める(ステップ4)。 In other words, when the battery power Pb is greater than the discharge limit Pbmax (Pb> Pbmax), determine the maximum motor torque Tmlim of the battery output upper limit (Step 4). あるいはバッテリー電力Pb がバッテリー入力上限値Pbminを超えていれば(Pb<Pbmin)、バッテリー入力上限での最大トルクTmlimを求める(ステップ5)。 Or if the battery power Pb exceeds the battery input limit Pbmin (Pb <Pbmin), obtaining the maximum torque Tmlim of the battery input limit (Step 5). これらの最大トルクTmlimは、モータ電力が上限値Pbmax,Pbminでかつモータ・ジェネレータ1のその時点の回転数Nm の状態でのトルクであり、モータ・ジェネレータ1での損失を加味して求められる。 These maximum torque Tmlim, the motor power upper limit value Pbmax, a torque in the state of rotation speed Nm of a and the time of the motor-generator 1 Pbmin, determined in consideration of loss in the motor generator 1.
【0023】 [0023]
具体的には、対象とする駆動系統についてモータ・ジェネレータ1の回転数Nm とモータ電力Pm とをパラメータとしたモータトルクTm の二次元マップを作成しておく。 Specifically, it creates a two-dimensional map of the motor torque Tm that the rotational speed Nm and the motor power Pm of motor generator 1 as a parameter for the drive system in question. その例を図3に示してある。 It is as shown in the FIG. これらモータ回転数Nm 、モータ電力Pm 、モータトルクTm は実測値であり、したがってモータ・ジェネレータ1で生じる損失が含まれた値である。 These motor rotation speed Nm, motor power Pm, the motor torque Tm is measured values, therefore the value of losses included caused by the motor-generator 1. またモータ・ジェネレータ1での損失は、回転数やトルクなどの動作点が異なれば、異なる値となるが、ステップ4もしくはステップ5では、その時点の回転数Nm で上限値Pbmax,PbminとなるモータトルクTmlimを求めるから、実際の運転点でのモータ損失を加味したものとなる。 Loss in the motor generator 1 also, different operating points, such as rotational speed and torque, but a different value, so in step 4 or step 5, a rotational speed Nm of the time limit Pbmax, and Pbmin motor since obtaining the torque Tmlim, the ones in consideration of the motor loss in the actual operating point.
【0024】 [0024]
このようにしてステップ4もしくはステップ5で求められた最大トルクTmlimにモータトルクTm を制限する(ステップ6)。 In this way, to limit the motor torque Tm to the maximum torque Tmlim obtained in Step 4 or Step 5 (Step 6). そしてモータ・ジェネレータ1の出力軸2でのトルクがこのステップ6で設定したトルクとなるように制御する。 The torque at the output shaft 2 of the motor-generator 1 is controlled to be the torque set in this step 6. 具体的には、力行の場合には、モータ・ジェネレータ1の出力軸トルクがステップ6で設定されたトルクとなるように電力を制御する。 Specifically, in the case of power running controls power so that the output shaft torque of the motor generator 1 is torque set in step 6. したがってバッテリー5から出力される電力は放電上限値となるが、その電力のうちの幾分かは、モータ・ジェネレータ1での損失として消費されるので、実際にモータ・ジェネレータ1の出力軸2に現れる動力はその損失分、少なくなる。 Thus the power output from the battery 5 is the discharge limit, the some of its power, since it is consumed as a loss in the motor generator 1, actually the output shaft 2 of the motor-generator 1 appearing power its loss, fewer. 言い換えれば、上記の制御によれば、モータ最大トルクがモータ・ジェネレータ1での損失分だけ小さく算定されるので、ステップ6で設定されたモータトルクに基づいて制御を実行しても、バッテリー5からその放電上限値を超えて放電することがなく、その耐用寿命が低下することを未然に防止することができる。 In other words, according to the control described above, the maximum motor torque is calculated loss as small in the motor-generator 1, executing a control based on the motor torque set in step 6, from the battery 5 without discharging beyond its discharge upper limit, it is possible to its useful life is prevented from being lowered.
【0025】 [0025]
また、回生の場合、ブレーキでの制動トルクを制御してモータ・ジェネレータ1の出力軸2のトルクをステップ6で定められたトルクに設定する。 Also, in the case of regeneration, to set the controls the braking torque torque of the output shaft 2 of the motor-generator 1 in brake torque which is determined in step 6. そのトルクはモータ損失を含んだ値であるから、出力軸における計算の上では、バッテリー5の充電上限値を超えた電力を発電することになるが、実際にモータ・ジェネレータ1から出力される電力は、モータ損失分、少なくなって充電上限値にほぼ一致する。 Since the torque is a value including the motor loss, power on the calculation in the output shaft is made to generate power that exceeds the charging upper limit of the battery 5, which is actually output from the motor-generator 1 the motor loss, approximately matches the charge upper limit value is low. その結果、充電上限値を下回ることなく回生および充電をおこなうことができ、回生効率が向上する。 As a result, it is possible to perform regenerative and charging without falls below the charging limit value, thereby improving the regeneration efficiency.
【0026】 [0026]
ところで上述した例から知られるようにこの発明の装置は、モータもしくは発電機での損失を考慮して出力時もしくは回生時のモータトルクを決定してモータもしくは発電機の制御を実行する。 Meanwhile apparatus of the present invention as is known from the above-described example, to determine the motor torque or regeneration at the time of output in consideration of the loss in the motor or generator to perform the control of the motor or generator. したがってその損失を制御に取り込む方法は、上述の例で示した方法に限られないのであり、以下に述べるようにしてもよい。 Therefore, the method for taking the control its loss, there does not limited to the method shown in the above example, it may be described below.
【0027】 [0027]
すなわちモータ損失は、モータ回転数Nm とモータ電力Pm とによって定まるから、対象とする駆動系統について実際の運転によるモータ回転数Nm およびモータ電力Pm ごとのモータ損失Pmlosを測定し、マップとして用意する。 That motor loss, because determined by the motor rotation speed Nm and the motor power Pm, measured motor loss Pmlos per motor rotation speed Nm and motor power Pm by the actual operating the driving system of interest is prepared as a map. 図4はそのマップの例を示している。 Figure 4 shows an example of the map. こうして求められるモータ損失Pmlosを考慮したモータトルクTm は、 Motor torque Tm Considering motor loss Pmlos thus obtained is
Tm =(Pm +Pmlos)/Nm Tm = (Pm + Pmlos) / Nm
である。 It is. したがって力行の際のモータ電力Pm がバッテリー最大出力電力Pbmaxであれば、制限されたモータトルクTmlimは、 Therefore, if the motor power Pm Battery maximum output power Pbmax during power running, the limited motor torque Tmlim was the
Tmlim=(Pbmax−Pmlos)/Nm Tmlim = (Pbmax-Pmlos) / Nm
として求められ、また回生の際のモータ電力Pm がバッテリー最大入力電力Pbminであれば、制限されたモータトルクTmlimは、 Determined as, also if the motor power Pm Battery maximum input power Pbmin during regeneration, the limited motor torque Tmlim was the
Tmlim=(Pbmin−Pmlos)/Nm Tmlim = (Pbmin-Pmlos) / Nm
として求めることができる。 It can be obtained as. なお、これらの演算は、上述したステップ4もしくはステップ5でおこなえばよい。 Note that these operations may be performed in Step 4 or Step 5 described above.
【0028】 [0028]
このような制御をおこなった場合であっても、実際のモータ・ジェネレータ1の運転点での損失を見込んでモータトルク(モータ電力)を制限するから、過放電や過充電を防止することができる。 Even when subjected to such control, will limit the motor torque (motor power) in anticipation of losses in the actual operating point of the motor-generator 1, it is possible to prevent overdischarge and overcharge .
【0029】 [0029]
なお、上述した制御におけるステップ2では、モータ損失を加えてバッテリー電力Pb を求めており、その値が上限値を超えた場合にモータトルクあるいはモータ電力を制限する。 In step 2 in the control described above, and obtains the battery power Pb by adding motor loss, limiting the motor torque or the motor power if the value exceeds the upper limit value. したがってその点ではモータ損失を考慮した制御となっているので、バッテリー電力Pb が上限値を超えた場合には、そのバッテリー電力Pb と上限値との差およびその時点のモータ回転数Nm とに基づいて超過しているトルクを算出し、その算出された超過モータトルクを、その時点の実際のモータトルクから減じてこれをモータトルクの上限値としてもよい。 Since therefore in that respect it has a control in consideration of the motor loss, if the battery power Pb exceeds the upper limit, based on the motor rotational speed Nm of the difference and the time of its battery power Pb and the upper limit value calculating a torque that exceeds Te, the excess motor torque that is calculated, or it is subtracted from the actual motor torque at that time as the upper limit of the motor torque. その場合、得られたモータトルクでの運転点におけるモータ損失が、ステップ2で考慮したモータ損失とは異なることになるので、その点で若干制御精度が低下し、過放電傾向もしくは過充電傾向が生じる可能性がある。 In that case, the motor losses at the operating point of the obtained motor torque, since different from the motor loss in consideration in Step 2, was reduced slightly control accuracy at that point, overdischarge tendency or overcharge tendency it may occur.
【0030】 [0030]
ここでこの発明と上記の具体例との関係を説明すると、ステップ2がこの発明における回転数および要求トルクならびに電力損失に応じて電力を算出する手段に相当し、またステップ4がこの発明における限界トルクを算出する手段に相当し、さらにステップ6がこの発明におけるトルクを制限する手段に相当する。 Now to explain this invention in the relationship with the above embodiment corresponds to means for calculating the power according to the rotation speed and the required torque and power loss Step 2 that put to the invention, also step 4 is the invention corresponds to means for calculating a limit torque at further step 6 corresponds to means for limiting the torque in the present invention.
【0031】 [0031]
以上の具体例では、モータ・ジェネレータのみを動力源とした電気自動車を例に採って説明したが、この発明は上記の例に限定されないのであって、モータとジェネレータとを個別に備えた電気自動車やモータ・ジェネレータおよび内燃機関を動力源として備えたハイブリッド車、モータおよびジェネレータならびに内燃機関を備えたハイブリッド車など、要は、電力による力行と電力を回収する回生とを可能な車両を対象とする制御装置に適用することができる。 In the above embodiment, although only the motor-generator has been described by way of example an electric vehicle powered, the invention has been not limited to the above example, an electric vehicle that includes a motor and a generator separately hybrid vehicles a and the motor-generator and an internal combustion engine equipped with a power source, such as a hybrid vehicle having a motor and a generator and an internal combustion engine, in short, to target the vehicle as possible and regeneration for recovering power running and power by the power it can be applied to a control device. また、この発明におけるモータやジェネレータは、交流型のもの以外に、直流型のものであってもよい。 The motor and generator in the present invention, in addition to those of the AC-type, may be of direct current type.
【0032】 [0032]
【発明の効果】 【Effect of the invention】
以上説明したように、この発明の装置によれば、蓄電器に入力もしくは出力される電力を制限するべくトルクを制御するにあたり、限界値と回転数とに基づき、かつ少なくともモータもしくは発電機でのエネルギ損失および蓄電器とモータもしくは発電機との間のインバータでの損失を補い得るトルクを求め、その算出されたトルクでモータもしくは発電機を駆動することにより、蓄電器から出力される電力が、モータで発生する動力とモータおよびインバータでの損失とを含めた値であって限界値以下の値となる。 As described above, according to the apparatus of the present invention, energy in Upon controlling the torque in order to limit the power that is input or output to the capacitor, based on the engine speed and the limit value, and at least a motor or generator loss and determine the torque which can compensate the loss of the inverter between the capacitor and the motor or generator, by driving the motor or generator with the calculated torque, the power output from the electric storage pack, generated by the motor a value including the loss in the power the motor and the inverter to be a value below the limit value. また、蓄電器に入力する場合、発電機で発生する電力が、発電機での損失と蓄電器に入力される電力となり、蓄電器に入力される電力が限界値となる。 Also, when entering the condenser, power generated by the generator becomes the power input to the losses and the capacitor of the generator, the power input to the capacitor becomes the limit value. すなわちこの発明の装置では、蓄電器から出力する場合、モータのトルクを少なくともモータおよびインバータでの損失に応じて低下させるので、過放電が防止され、また蓄電器に入力する場合、発電機のトルクを少なくとも発電機での損失に応じて増大させるので、過不足なく充電することができ、その結果、回生効率やバッテリーの耐用寿命を向上させることができる。 That the device of the present invention, when outputting from the storage battery, as it reduces in accordance with the loss in the least the motor and the inverter torque of the motor, when over-discharge is prevented, also input to the capacitor, the torque of the generator at least because it increases in accordance with the loss in the power generator, it can be charged without excess or deficiency, as a result, it is possible to improve the service life of the regeneration efficiency and battery.
【図面の簡単な説明】 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
【図1】 この発明の制御装置で実行される制御の一例を説明するためのフローチャートである。 1 is a flow chart for explaining an example of control executed by the control apparatus of the present invention.
【図2】 この発明で対象とする電気自動車の駆動系統を模式的に示す図である。 2 is a diagram schematically showing a drive system of an electric vehicle to which the present invention.
【図3】 モータ損失を含むモータ回転数とモータ電力とモータトルクとのマップの一例を示す図である。 3 is a diagram showing an example of a map of the motor speed and the motor power and motor torque including the motor loss.
【図4】 モータ回転数とモータ電力とに基づくモータ損失のマップの一例を示す図である。 4 is a diagram showing an example of a map of motor loss based on the motor speed and motor power.
【符号の説明】 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS
1…モータ・ジェネレータ、 4…インバータ、 5…バッテリー、 6…モータECU、 7…バッテリーECU、 8…ブレーキECU。 1 ... motor-generator, 4 ... inverter, 5 ... battery, 6 ... motor ECU, 7 ... battery ECU, 8 ... brake ECU.

Claims (1)

  1. 蓄電器から出力する電力によって走行のための駆動力を発生し、また走行していることによる運動エネルギを電力に変換して前記蓄電器に蓄え、前記蓄電器から出力する電力もしくは前記運動エネルギを変換した電力が前記蓄電器の限界値を超えている場合に前記蓄電器からの放電もしくは前記蓄電器に対する充電を制限する車両の電力制限装置において、 The driving force for traveling by the electric power output from the capacitor occurs, also the kinetic energy due to running is converted into electric power stored in the capacitor, and converting the power or the kinetic energy output from the previous SL condenser in the discharge or power limiting device for a vehicle for limiting the charging of the capacitor from the capacitor when the power exceeds the limit value of the storage battery;
    前記蓄電器にインバータを介して接続されたモータもしくは発電機の回転数および要求トルク、ならびに前記回転数および要求トルクとに基づいてマップ化された、前記インバータでの損失および前記モータもしくは発電機での損失を含む電力損失に応じて要求電力を算出する手段と、 Speed ​​and the required torque of the motor or generator connected through an inverter to the capacitor, and is mapped on the basis of said speed and the required torque, the losses and the motor or generator with the inverter It means for calculating the required power according to the power loss including loss,
    前記モータもしくは発電機の回転数および電力の実測値をパラメータとしたトルクのマップに基づいて、所定の前記回転数で前記蓄電器における限界値になる前記モータもしくは発電機の限界トルクを求める手段と、 On the basis of the measured values of rotational speed and power of the motor or generator map of torque as a parameter, means for determining the limit torque of the motor or generator be limits on the capacitor at a predetermined of said rotational speed ,
    前記算出された要求電力が前記蓄電器における限界値を超えている場合に前記モータもしくは発電機におけるトルクを前記限界トルクに制限する手段とを備えていることを特徴とする蓄電器を備えた車両の電力制限装置。 The vehicle having a storage battery, characterized in that it comprises a means for limiting the torque to the limit torque in the motor or generator when the request power the calculated exceeds the limit value in the accumulator power-limiting device.
JP17520798A 1998-06-22 1998-06-22 Power limiting device for a vehicle with an accumulator Expired - Fee Related JP4199331B2 (en)

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