JP4086352B2 - Oil composition - Google Patents

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JP4086352B2
JP4086352B2 JP02353498A JP2353498A JP4086352B2 JP 4086352 B2 JP4086352 B2 JP 4086352B2 JP 02353498 A JP02353498 A JP 02353498A JP 2353498 A JP2353498 A JP 2353498A JP 4086352 B2 JP4086352 B2 JP 4086352B2
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oil
water
bread
fat composition
modified starch
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JPH11221017A (en
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克佳 田中
文子 入江
哲成 藪下
啓介 長谷川
良治 宗像
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Adeka Corp
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Adeka Corp
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【0001】
【発明の属する技術分野】
本発明は、水で膨潤させた化工澱粉とプロテアーゼを含有するパン練り込み用の油脂組成物に関するものであり、特に電子レンジ加熱に適したパン類を製造することができる油脂組成物に関するものである。
【0002】
【従来の技術】
近年、ハンバーガーやホットドックなどの温めて食するパン製品を冷蔵または冷凍で流通・保管し、店頭や家庭にて電子レンジで再加熱して食することが行われるようになっている。しかし、通常のパンを電子レンジで加熱すると、パンの表面にシワがより、外観が悪化するばかりでなく、「ヒキ」が強く歯切れの悪い食感となり、パン本来の美味しさを味わうことは出来なかった。特に、ハンバーガーやホットドックのようにパン具材をサンドまたはフィリングしたものは、パン部分に比べ具材であるハンバーグやソーセージ部分の温度上昇が遅いため、具材を十分に加熱するまで電子レンジ加熱を行った場合、パン部分が過剰に加熱され、食感の悪化がより顕著になるという問題点があった。一方、パン部分の食感を悪化させないために加熱時間を短縮すると、具材の加熱が不足し本来の美味しさを感じることが出来ないため、具材が十分に加熱するまで電子レンジ加熱を行っても食感が変化しないパンが求められていた。
【0003】
この問題を解決するため、▲1▼パン生地中の油脂量を10〜30%と多量に添加し、更に麩切りを行う方法(特開昭63―287435号公報)、▲2▼ショ糖脂肪酸エステル等の乳化剤を小麦粉に対して1〜6%と多量に配合する方法(特開平2―222639号公報)、▲3▼α化処理澱粉および保水性を有する食物繊維を添加する方法(特開平4―36140号公報)、▲4▼液晶状態の乳化剤およびプロテアーゼ類・アミラーゼ類・保水剤を混合した組成物を配合する方法(特開平5―68466号公報)、▲5▼小麦粉の一部を米粉に置換し、更にバイタルグルテンを添加し、小麦粉由来のタンパク質量を調整する方法(特開平5―15298号公報)などが提案されている。
【0004】
【発明が解決しようとする課題】
しかしながら、特開昭63―287435号公報に記載の方法では、十分な電子レンジ加熱耐性を付与することは出来ず、また麩切りを行うため適用できるパン製品が限定されてしまう。また、特開平2―222639号公報に記載の方法では、乳化剤を多量に使用するため、食感がネチャつき、更に乳化剤の味によりパン本来の風味が損なわれてしまう。また、特開平4―36140号、特開平5―68466号および特開平5―15298号の各公報に記載の方法も、ある程度の電子レンジ加熱耐性は得られるが、ハンバーガーやホットドックの具材を十分に温めるまで電子レンジ加熱した場合には上述した食感の悪化や表面のシワの発生などの欠点があった。
【0005】
従って、本発明の目的は、パン本来の良好な風味と「サクさ」のある食感を有し、かつ電子レンジ加熱を行っても、食感や外観の悪化のない、電子レンジ加熱に適したパン類を製造できる油脂組成物を提供することにある。
【0006】
本発明は、上記目的を、水で膨潤させた化工澱粉とプロテアーゼが油脂中に分散しており、かつモノグリセリン脂肪酸エステル0.5〜1.0重量%とコハク酸モノグリセリド0.5〜1.0重量%またはジアセチル酒石酸モノグリセリド0.5重量%とを含有し、乳化物でないことを特徴とする電子レンジ加熱用パン類製造用の油脂組成物を提供することにより達成したものである。
【0007】
【発明の実施の形態】
以下に、本発明の油脂組成物について詳述する。
本発明で使用する油脂としては、特に限定されないが、例えばパーム油、パーム核油、ヤシ油、コーン油、綿実油、大豆油、ナタネ油、米油、ヒマワリ油、サフラワー油、牛脂、乳脂、豚脂、カカオ脂、魚油、鯨油などの各種植物油脂、動物油脂並びにこれらを水素添加、分別およびエステル交換から選択される一または二以上の処理を施した加工油脂が挙げられる。本発明においてはこれらの油脂を単独で用いることもでき、または二種以上を組み合わせて用いることもできる。上記油脂の配合量は、本発明の油脂組成物中、好ましくは20〜90重量%(以下、%と略記する)、さらに好ましくは40〜80%である。
【0008】
本発明で用いられる化工澱粉としては、特に限定されないが、生澱粉の表面構造を保持しており、その結果、酵素による分解を受け難く、耐老化性を有し、しかも水膨潤力を有する化工澱粉であることが好ましい。上記性質を有するものであれば、市販のものを使用することができる。
上記化工澱粉としては、プロピレンオキサイドによるヒドロキシプロピルエーテル化処理および酸架橋処理を施した澱粉を、生澱粉の表面構造を保持した状態になるようにアルファ化処理し乾燥させた、アルファ化変性澱粉および/または部分アルファ化澱粉であることが好ましい。澱粉をプロピレンオキサイドによるヒドロキシプロピルエーテル化処理および酸架橋処理を施す方法としては、特に限定されず、公知のいかなる方法によっても実施することができる。
【0009】
本発明の油脂組成物中の化工澱粉は、上記化工澱粉を水で膨潤させたものである。この化工澱粉を水で膨潤させる方法としては、例えば、粉体混合機中に化工澱粉の粉末を投入し、攪拌しながら水を噴霧して化工澱粉を水で膨潤させる方法や、油脂組成物を製造する際、油脂中に化工澱粉を粉末のまま添加し、分散させ、該油脂に水を添加することにより、油脂中の化工澱粉を水で膨潤させる方法がある。
【0010】
化工澱粉を膨潤させるのに用いる水としては、特に限定されず、通常の水道水、ミネラルウォーター、イオン交換処理水、蒸留水などのいずれを使用してもよく、これらの2種以上を混合して使用してもよい。また、水についてはそのpHや塩濃度、糖濃度などの水分活性を調整したり、各種保存料を添加することによって細菌やカビに対する安定性を向上させることも可能である。
【0011】
水の配合量は、化工澱粉100重量部(以下、部と略記する)に対して、好ましくは20〜500部、さらに好ましくは22〜300部、最も好ましくは25〜200部である。水の配合量が20部未満では、化工澱粉が油脂組成物中で吸水膨潤せず、澱粉の粉体成分が配合槽内や配管内に沈降しやすくなり、不都合が生じたり、油脂中に硬い粉体成分が含まれるため、冷却可塑化工程での製造機内部の摩耗を早めてしまうなどの問題を生じることがある。一方、500部より多いと、油脂組成物中の水分含量が高くなりすぎ、上記化工澱粉に保持できる水分量の限界を超えるため、いわゆる乳化物になってしまい、油中水型の乳化状態となってしまったり、また外相を油相とした油脂組成物の安定性が低下したり、水分離などの弊害が生じやすいので、上記範囲内とするのが好ましい。
水の最大配合量は、本発明に使用する化工澱粉が有する最大保水力(吸水力)である。通常の澱粉粉体には5〜15%程度の既存の水分が含まれるが、本発明を実施するためにはそれだけの水分では不十分である。また、水の配合量にその既存の水分を加算してよい。
【0012】
上記の水で膨潤させた化工澱粉の配合量は、本発明の油脂組成物中、好ましくは0.3〜80%、さらに好ましくは3〜50%である。上記の水で膨潤させた化工澱粉の配合量が0.3%未満では、練り込み用油脂としてパン生地に用い、焼成したパンを電子レンジ加熱したときにパンの食感が悪化してしまうことがある。また、80%より多いと、練り込み用油脂として使用した場合、パン生地の延びが悪くなってしまうことがある。
【0013】
本発明の油脂組成物においては、上記化工澱粉は澱粉粒子を保持したまま吸水膨潤した状態で外相となる油脂中に分散している。その結果、適度に膨潤した化工澱粉の澱粉粒子が外相となる油脂にコーティングされるため、生地に添加し、混捏した場合でも、化工澱粉の急激な吸水が起こらず、通常の混捏条件によって、グルテンが十分に吸水することができ、良好な生地が形成される。
【0014】
本発明で用いられるプロテアーゼとしては、ペプシン、パパイン、トリプシンなどがあげられ、これらの中でもトリプシンを用いるのが好ましい。
本発明では、酵素としてプロテアーゼを用いることにより、パンの材料である小麦粉中の蛋白質が適度に分解され、焼成したパンを電子レンジ加熱したときのグルテンの硬化を抑制し、またパン生地にプロテアーゼがゆっくり作用するためパン生地がだれてしまうことがない。
上記プロテアーゼの配合量は、本発明の油脂組成物中、好ましくは0.2〜1.0%、さらに好ましくは0.25〜0.5%、最も好ましくは0.3〜0.4%である。
【0015】
また、本発明の油脂組成物中に配合するプロテアーゼを力価に換算すると、好ましくは0.66〜3.3AU単位、さらに好ましくは0.825〜1.65AU単位、最も好ましくは0.99〜1.32AU単位である。この力価の測定方法は、M/25リン酸緩衝液でpH7.5に調整した環境下でヘモグロビンを基質とし、酵素溶液を1ml加えて、25℃の温度にて10分間反応させたとき、1分間に1μgのチロシンに相当する275nmの吸光度をTCA可溶成分として遊離する活性量を1AU単位とした。
【0016】
本発明の油脂組成物には、電子レンジ加熱耐性を付与するために、必要により、ベーカリー生地のグルテンを強化する乳化剤、グルテンを酸化することによって強固なグルテン膜を形成する酸化剤、プロテアーゼ以外のグルテン膜の伸びを改良する酵素などを添加することもできる。
【0017】
本発明の油脂組成物には、乳化剤として、モノグリセリン脂肪酸エステル0.5〜1.0重量%とコハク酸モノグリセリド0.5〜1.0重量%またはジアセチル酒石酸モノグリセリド0.5重量%を併用して用いる
【0018】
また、上記酸化剤としては、特に制限はなく、例えばアルコルビン酸、アスコルビン酸ナトリウム、アスコルビン酸カリウム、臭素酸カリウム、ヨウ素酸カリウムなどをあげることができる。これらの酸化剤は単独でも2種以上を組み合わせてもよく、アスコルビン酸、アスコルビン酸ナトリウム、アスコルビン酸カリウムを用いることが好ましい。
上記酸化剤の配合量は、本発明の油脂組成物中、好ましくは0.001〜1%、さらに好ましくは0.01〜0.5%である。酸化剤の配合量が0.001%よりも少ないと、酸化剤による生地改良効果が現れず、1%よりも多いと、酸化剤が過度に作用し、生地が締まりすぎ硬くなってしまい、作業性や品質の悪い生地となってしまうので好ましくない。
【0019】
上記のプロテアーゼ以外の酵素としては、セルラーゼ、ヘミセルラーゼ、ペントサナーゼなどの繊維質分解酵素などの中から選ばれる1種または2種以上の酵素をあげることができる。
また、本発明の油脂組成物には、必要により、糖類、乳製品、香料、調味料などの呈味成分、色素類、酸化防止剤、pH調整剤などを添加してもよい。
【0020】
次に本発明の油脂組成物の製造方法について説明する。
1つめの方法として、油脂を加熱し、乳化剤をこれに添加し、溶解し、油相とする。一方、化工澱粉に水をスプレーし、膨潤化工澱粉を調製しておく。この調製した膨潤化工澱粉を油相に添加分散させる。そしてこれを加熱殺菌し、冷却可塑化する。熱安定性に欠ける酸化剤や酵素類などは、急冷可塑化し、冷却した後に、添加混合し、本発明の油脂組成物とする。
【0021】
2つめの方法として、油脂を加熱し、乳化剤をこれに添加し、溶解し、油相とする。これに化工澱粉を粉末のまま添加、分散させる。そして、この油相を攪拌しながら、水を徐々に添加する。添加した水により油相に分散した化工澱粉が吸水膨潤した状態となる。そしてこれを加熱殺菌し、冷却可塑化する。熱安定性に欠ける酸化剤や酵素類などは、急冷可塑化し、冷却した後に、添加混合し、本発明の油脂組成物とする。
このようにして得られた本発明の油脂組成物は、すべての水が化工澱粉に吸収されているため、乳化物(油中水型乳化の状態)ではない。
【0022】
本発明の油脂組成物をパン生地に使用する場合のパン生地への添加量としては、パン生地に使用する小麦粉100部に対して、好ましくは5〜35部、より好ましくは8〜25部、さらに好ましくは10〜20部である。5部よりも少ないと、電子レンジ加熱を行った際に十分な電子レンジ加熱耐性が得られないので好ましくなく、35部よりも多いと、生地配合バランスが崩れ、作業性が悪化し、結果として良好な製品が得られない。
なおこのとき添加量の基準となる小麦粉とはパン生地を製造するときに使用する小麦粉すべてのことであり、中種工程のあるパン生地の場合、中種工程で使用する小麦粉と本捏工程で使用する小麦粉とをあわせたものである。
【0023】
そして本発明の油脂組成物を用いたパン類の製造方法は以下の通りである。
ストレート法の場合は、本発明の油脂組成物をパンの製造工程中、パン生地混捏時に添加すればよい。
中種法の場合は、本発明の油脂組成物を中種、本捏のどちらの時点で添加しても構わないが、本捏工程で本発明の油脂組成物を添加するほうが好ましい。
このようにして得られた本発明のパン生地を常法により焼成することにより、本発明のパン類を得ることができる。パン類の種類としては、小麦粉を主体とするパン類であればどのようなものでも構わない。例えば、食パン、菓子パン、デニッシュ、クロワッサン、フランスパンなどをあげることができる。
【0024】
本発明の油脂組成物を使用したパン類は、そのまま食することもできるが、電子レンジの加熱による食感の悪化や表面のシワが発生しないパン類となる。つまり、焼成したパン類、パン生地を冷蔵または冷凍した後に焼成したパン類、あるいは焼成したパン類を冷蔵または冷凍したパン類などを、電子レンジで加熱しても、食感の悪化や表面のシワの発生がないパン類とすることができる。
【0025】
【実施例】
次に、実施例及び比較例により本発明を更に詳細に説明するが、本発明はこれらにより何ら制限を受けるものではない。
【0026】
(実施例1)
下記〔表1〕に示す配合にて、次のような製造方法で本発明の油脂組成物を製造した。
約60℃に加熱した各原料油脂を混合槽にて混合し、これに化工澱粉を粉末のまま添加、分散させた。乳化剤をこの加熱した配合油中に添加し、攪拌、溶解させた。そして、配合油を攪拌しながら、食用精製塩を溶解した水を徐々に添加した。化工澱粉は徐々に吸水、膨潤し、膨潤化工澱粉が油脂に分散した油脂組成物となった。 そして、上記の膨潤化工澱粉が油相中に分散した油脂組成物を掻き取り式殺菌機にて加熱殺菌し、チューブ式冷却可塑化機などを用いて急冷可塑化し、油脂組成物を得た。酸化剤や酵素類の安定性に欠けるものについては、組成物が冷却されたあとに添加し、混合した。
得られた油脂組成物は、乳化物ではなかった。
【0027】
(実施例2および3)
下記〔表1〕に示す配合にて、次のような製造方法で本発明の油脂組成物を製造した。
約60℃に加熱した各原料油脂を混合槽にて混合し、油相を得た。乳化剤をこの加熱混合した油相に添加し、攪拌した。一方、粉体混合機中に化工澱粉を投入し、攪拌をしながら、水を化工澱粉にスプレーし、膨潤化工澱粉とした。得られた膨潤化工澱粉を、先に調製した油相中に添加、分散させた。
そして、上記の膨潤化工澱粉が油相中に分散した油脂組成物を掻き取り式殺菌機にて加熱殺菌し、チューブ式冷却可塑化機などを用いて急冷可塑化し、油脂組成物を得た。酸化剤や酵素類の安定性に欠けるものについては、組成物が冷却されたあとに添加し、混合した。
得られた油脂組成物は、乳化物ではなかった。
【0028】
(比較例1)
下記〔表1〕に示す配合にて、実施例1と同様の製造方法で油脂組成物を製造した。
得られた油脂組成物は、乳化物ではなかった。
【0029】
(比較例2)
下記〔表1〕に示す配合にて、次のような製造方法で油脂組成物を製造した。約60℃に加熱した各原料油脂を混合槽にて混合し、乳化剤をこの加熱した配合油中に添加し、攪拌、溶解させた。そして、配合油を攪拌しながら、食用精製塩を溶解した水を徐々に添加した。
そして、この油脂組成物を掻き取り式殺菌機にて加熱殺菌し、チューブ式冷却可塑化機などを用いて急冷可塑化し、油脂組成物を得た。酸化剤や酵素類の安定性に欠けるものについては、組成物が冷却されたあとに添加し、混合した。
得られた油脂組成物は、自由水が存在し、油中水型の乳化状態であった。
【0030】
(比較例3)
下記〔表1〕に示す配合にて、次のような製造方法で油脂組成物を製造した。約60℃に加熱した各原料油脂を混合槽にて混合し、これに化工澱粉を粉末のまま添加、分散させた。乳化剤をこの加熱した配合油中に添加し、攪拌、溶解させた。そして、配合油を攪拌しながら、水を徐々に添加した。化工澱粉は徐々に吸水、膨潤し、膨潤化工澱粉が油脂に分散した油脂組成物となった。
そして、上記の膨潤化工澱粉が油相中に分散した油脂組成物を掻き取り式殺菌機にて加熱殺菌し、チューブ式冷却可塑化機などを用いて急冷可塑化し、油脂組成物を得た。
得られた油脂組成物は、乳化物ではなかった。
【0031】
【表1】

Figure 0004086352
【0032】
上記〔表1〕において、1)〜12)を付した配合成分は、下記の通りである。
化工澱粉A1): アルファ化変性澱粉(5倍の水の保持力を有し、吸水後も生澱粉粒の表面構造を保持するもの)
化工澱粉B2): 部分アルファ化澱粉(5倍の水の保持力を有し、吸水後も生澱粉粒の表面構造を保持するもの)
MG3): モノグリセリド
LC4): レシチン
コハク酸MG5): コハク酸モノグリセリド
DATEM6): ジアセチル酒石酸モノグリセリド
PGE7): ポリグリセリン脂肪酸エステル
PGPR8): ポリグリセリン縮合リシノレイン酸エステル
CSL9): ステアロイル乳酸カルシウム
SSL10) : ステアロイル乳酸ナトリウム
トリプシン製剤11) : トリプシン力価3.3AU単位の市販酵素製剤
アミラーゼ製剤12) : アミラーゼ力価800単位の市販酵素製剤
【0033】
(使用試験例)
実施例1〜3および比較例1〜3の油脂組成物を用い、以下のような配合、製法でプルマン型食パンを製造した。
Figure 0004086352
【0034】
「評価方法」
実施例1〜3および比較例1〜3の油脂組成物を用いて得られたプルマン型食パンを20℃で24時間保存した後に、プルマン型食パンを3cm厚に切断した。そして電子レンジ加熱前後のクラムのヒキの強さを次のようにして測定した。電子レンジ加熱は、高周波出力500Wの家庭用電子レンジを用い60秒加熱した。加熱後のパン中心部温度は80〜90℃となった。
クラムのヒキの強さは、上記の3cm厚に切断したプルマン型食パンをさらに7cm×2cmに切断して7cm×2cm×3cmの短冊状にクラム部分をつくり、レオメーターを用いて、以下の測定条件にて試料が完全にちぎれるまでの時間(秒)及び抵抗(g)から測定した。この際のレオメーターのチャート波形は図1に示すようなものとなり、試料の「ヒキ」は斜線部分の面積となる。斜線部分の面積は近似的に、時間(秒)×抵抗(g)/2で求めることができ、この計算式で計算した値を試料の「ヒキ」とした。その結果を下記〔表2〕に示した。
(測定条件)
使用機種 NRM−2005J型 (不動工業株式会社製)
使用アダプター No17(食品引っ張り用)
試料引っ張り速度 30cm/分
【0035】
また、上記のプルマン型食パンの食感についてパネルテストも実施した。その結果を下記〔表2〕に示した。食感はパネラー5名にて、以下のように評価した。
○:電子レンジ加熱後の食感が、電子レンジ加熱前と同様に「ヒキ」がなくソフトで歯切れの良い状態。
△:電子レンジ加熱後の食感が、電子レンジ加熱前に比べ「ヒキ」が強くなることを感じるが、ソフトな状態。
×:電子レンジ加熱後の食感が、電子レンジ加熱前に比べ著しく「ヒキ」が強くゴム様の食感となった状態。
【0036】
【表2】
Figure 0004086352
【0037】
【発明の効果】
本発明の油脂組成物によれば、パン本来の良好な風味と「サクさ」のある食感を有し、かつ電子レンジ加熱を行っても、食感や外観の悪化のない、電子レンジ加熱に適したパン類を製造できる。
【図面の簡単な説明】
【図1】図1は、レオメーターを用いてクラムのヒキの強さを測定した際のレオメーターのチャート波形の概略図である。[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an oil and fat composition for bread kneading, which contains a modified starch swollen with water and a protease, and particularly relates to an oil and fat composition capable of producing breads suitable for microwave heating. is there.
[0002]
[Prior art]
In recent years, baked and baked bread products such as hamburgers and hot dogs are distributed and stored refrigerated or frozen, and reheated in a microwave oven at a store or at home to eat. However, when a normal bread is heated in a microwave oven, not only will the surface of the bread become wrinkled, the appearance will deteriorate, but the texture will be strong and crisp, and you will be able to enjoy the original taste of bread. There wasn't. In particular, hamburgers and hot-docked bread ingredients such as hamburgers and hot dogs have a slower temperature rise in the hamburger and sausage parts, which are ingredients than in the bread part, so microwave heating until the ingredients are fully heated When performing, there was a problem that the bread portion was excessively heated and the deterioration of the texture became more remarkable. On the other hand, if the heating time is shortened in order not to deteriorate the texture of the bread portion, the ingredients are not heated enough to feel the original taste, so microwave heating is performed until the ingredients are sufficiently heated. There was a need for bread that did not change its texture.
[0003]
In order to solve this problem, (1) a method of adding a large amount of fat and oil in bread dough as 10 to 30% and further chopping (JP-A 63-287435), (2) sucrose fatty acid ester A method of adding a large amount of an emulsifier such as 1 to 6% with respect to wheat flour (JP-A-2-222239), (3) a method of adding pregelatinized starch and dietary fiber having water retention (JP-A-4 No. 36140), (4) a method of blending a composition comprising a liquid crystal emulsifier and proteases / amylases / water retention agents (Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 5-68466), and (5) part of wheat flour is made from rice flour. And a method for adjusting the amount of protein derived from wheat flour (JP-A-5-15298) and the like have been proposed.
[0004]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
However, in the method described in JP-A-63-287435, sufficient microwave oven heat resistance cannot be imparted, and bread products that can be applied are limited because of the cutting. Further, in the method described in JP-A-2-2223939, a large amount of an emulsifier is used, so the texture becomes sticky, and the flavor of the bread is impaired by the taste of the emulsifier. Also, the methods described in JP-A-4-36140, JP-A-5-68466 and JP-A-5-15298 can provide a certain degree of resistance to heating in a microwave oven. When the microwave oven is heated until it is sufficiently warmed, there are disadvantages such as the deterioration of the texture and the generation of wrinkles on the surface.
[0005]
Therefore, the object of the present invention is suitable for microwave oven heating, which has an original good flavor of bread and a “crispy” texture, and does not deteriorate in texture or appearance even when heated in a microwave oven. It is providing the oil-fat composition which can manufacture the bread.
[0006]
In the present invention, a modified starch swollen with water and a protease are dispersed in oil and fat for the above purpose, and 0.5 to 1.0% by weight of a monoglycerin fatty acid ester and 0.5 to 1.% succinic acid monoglyceride. This is achieved by providing an oil / fat composition for producing bread for heating with a microwave oven, characterized in that it contains 0% by weight or 0.5% by weight of diacetyltartaric acid monoglyceride and is not an emulsion.
[0007]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Below, the oil-fat composition of this invention is explained in full detail.
Oils and fats used in the present invention are not particularly limited, but for example, palm oil, palm kernel oil, coconut oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, rice oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, beef tallow, milk fat, Examples include various vegetable oils and fats such as pork fat, cacao fat, fish oil and whale oil, and processed oils and fats subjected to one or more treatments selected from hydrogenation, fractionation and transesterification. In the present invention, these fats and oils can be used alone or in combination of two or more. The blending amount of the fat is preferably 20 to 90% by weight (hereinafter abbreviated as%), more preferably 40 to 80% in the fat and oil composition of the present invention.
[0008]
The modified starch used in the present invention is not particularly limited, but retains the surface structure of raw starch, and as a result, is resistant to degradation by enzymes, has aging resistance, and has water swelling ability. Starch is preferred. A commercially available product can be used as long as it has the above properties.
As the above-mentioned modified starch, a starch that has been subjected to hydroxypropyl etherification treatment with propylene oxide and acid crosslinking treatment is pregelatinized and dried so as to maintain the surface structure of raw starch, It is preferably a partially pregelatinized starch. The method for subjecting starch to hydroxypropyl etherification treatment with propylene oxide and acid crosslinking treatment is not particularly limited, and any known method can be used.
[0009]
The modified starch in the oil and fat composition of the present invention is obtained by swelling the modified starch with water. Examples of the method of swelling this modified starch with water include, for example, a method in which a powder of the modified starch is put into a powder mixer, and water is sprayed while stirring to swell the modified starch with water, or an oil / fat composition. When manufacturing, there is a method in which the modified starch in the fat is swelled with water by adding and dispersing the modified starch in the form of powder and dispersing it, and adding water to the fat.
[0010]
The water used to swell the modified starch is not particularly limited, and any of normal tap water, mineral water, ion exchange treated water, distilled water, etc. may be used, and two or more of these may be mixed. May be used. Moreover, about water, it is also possible to improve the stability with respect to bacteria and mold | fungi by adjusting water activities, such as the pH, salt concentration, and sugar concentration, and adding various preservatives.
[0011]
The amount of water is preferably 20 to 500 parts, more preferably 22 to 300 parts, and most preferably 25 to 200 parts with respect to 100 parts by weight of the modified starch (hereinafter abbreviated as “parts”). If the blending amount of water is less than 20 parts, the modified starch does not swell and absorb water in the oil / fat composition, and the starch powder component tends to settle in the blending tank or pipe, resulting in inconvenience or being hard in the oil / fat. Since the powder component is contained, there may be a problem that wear in the manufacturing machine is accelerated in the cooling plasticization process. On the other hand, if it exceeds 500 parts, the water content in the oil and fat composition becomes too high and exceeds the limit of the amount of water that can be retained in the modified starch, so that it becomes a so-called emulsion, and the water-in-oil type emulsified state It is preferable to be within the above range, because the stability of the oil and fat composition having the outer phase as the oil phase is decreased and harmful effects such as water separation are likely to occur.
The maximum blending amount of water is the maximum water holding power (water absorbing power) of the modified starch used in the present invention. Ordinary starch powder contains about 5 to 15% of existing moisture, but that amount of moisture is insufficient to carry out the present invention. Moreover, you may add the existing water | moisture content to the compounding quantity of water.
[0012]
The amount of the modified starch swollen with water is preferably 0.3 to 80%, more preferably 3 to 50% in the oil and fat composition of the present invention. If the amount of the modified starch swollen with water is less than 0.3%, the texture of the bread may be deteriorated when the baked bread is heated in a microwave oven as a kneading fat. is there. On the other hand, if it is more than 80%, the bread dough may become worse when used as a kneading fat.
[0013]
In the oil / fat composition of the present invention, the modified starch is dispersed in the oil / fat that forms the outer phase in a state of water-absorbing and swelling while retaining the starch particles. As a result, moderately swollen starch particles of the modified starch are coated with the outer oil and fat, so even when added to the dough and kneaded, the modified starch does not absorb water rapidly, and depending on the normal kneading conditions, gluten Can sufficiently absorb water, and a good dough is formed.
[0014]
Examples of the protease used in the present invention include pepsin, papain, and trypsin. Among these, trypsin is preferably used.
In the present invention, by using protease as an enzyme, the protein in wheat flour, which is a material of bread, is moderately decomposed, gluten hardening is suppressed when the baked bread is heated in a microwave oven, and the protease is slowly added to the bread dough. The dough is not dripped because it works.
The amount of the protease is preferably 0.2 to 1.0%, more preferably 0.25 to 0.5%, and most preferably 0.3 to 0.4% in the oil and fat composition of the present invention. is there.
[0015]
In addition, when the protease compounded in the oil and fat composition of the present invention is converted to titer, it is preferably 0.66 to 3.3 AU units, more preferably 0.825 to 1.65 AU units, and most preferably 0.99 to 1.32 AU units. The titer measurement method is as follows. When hemoglobin is used as a substrate in an environment adjusted to pH 7.5 with M / 25 phosphate buffer, 1 ml of enzyme solution is added and reacted at a temperature of 25 ° C. for 10 minutes. The amount of activity that releases an absorbance at 275 nm corresponding to 1 μg of tyrosine per minute as a TCA-soluble component was defined as 1 AU unit.
[0016]
In order to impart microwave oven heat resistance to the oil and fat composition of the present invention, if necessary, an emulsifier that strengthens gluten in bakery dough, an oxidant that forms a strong gluten film by oxidizing gluten, and a protease other than protease An enzyme or the like for improving the elongation of the gluten film can also be added.
[0017]
In the oil and fat composition of the present invention, 0.5 to 1.0% by weight of monoglycerin fatty acid ester and 0.5 to 1.0% by weight of succinic acid monoglyceride or 0.5% by weight of diacetyltartaric acid monoglyceride are used in combination as emulsifiers. Use .
[0018]
Moreover, there is no restriction | limiting in particular as said oxidizing agent, For example, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, potassium ascorbate, potassium bromate, potassium iodate etc. can be mention | raise | lifted. These oxidizing agents may be used alone or in combination of two or more, and it is preferable to use ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, or potassium ascorbate.
The blending amount of the oxidizing agent is preferably 0.001 to 1%, more preferably 0.01 to 0.5% in the oil and fat composition of the present invention. If the blending amount of the oxidizer is less than 0.001%, the effect of improving the fabric due to the oxidizer does not appear. If it exceeds 1%, the oxidizer acts excessively and the fabric becomes too tight and hard. It is not preferable because the fabric becomes poor in quality and quality.
[0019]
Examples of the enzyme other than the protease include one or more enzymes selected from fiber degrading enzymes such as cellulase, hemicellulase, and pentosanase.
Moreover, you may add taste components, such as saccharides, dairy products, a fragrance | flavor, a seasoning, pigments, antioxidant, a pH adjuster, etc. to the oil-fat composition of this invention as needed.
[0020]
Next, the manufacturing method of the oil-fat composition of this invention is demonstrated.
As first method, oil is heated, the addition of emulsifying agent thereto, and dissolved, and the oil phase. On the other hand, the modified starch is sprayed with water to prepare the swollen modified starch. The prepared swelled starch is added and dispersed in the oil phase. And this is heat-sterilized and cooled and plasticized. Oxidizing agents and enzymes that lack thermal stability are rapidly plasticized and cooled, and then added and mixed to obtain the oil and fat composition of the present invention.
[0021]
As second method, oil is heated, the addition of emulsifying agent thereto, and dissolved, and the oil phase. To this, the modified starch is added and dispersed as a powder. Then, water is gradually added while stirring the oil phase. The modified starch dispersed in the oil phase by the added water is in a state of water absorption and swelling. And this is heat-sterilized and cooled and plasticized. Oxidizing agents and enzymes that lack thermal stability are rapidly plasticized and cooled, and then added and mixed to obtain the oil and fat composition of the present invention.
The oil / fat composition of the present invention thus obtained is not an emulsion (water-in-oil emulsified state) because all water is absorbed by the modified starch.
[0022]
As the addition amount to bread dough when using the oil and fat composition of the present invention for bread dough, it is preferably 5 to 35 parts, more preferably 8 to 25 parts, and still more preferably, with respect to 100 parts of flour used for bread dough. 10 to 20 parts. If the amount is less than 5 parts, sufficient microwave oven heat resistance cannot be obtained when microwave heating is performed, and if the amount is more than 35 parts, the dough blending balance is lost and workability is deteriorated. A good product cannot be obtained.
At this time, the flour that is the basis for the amount of addition means all flour used when producing bread dough. In the case of bread dough with a medium seed process, the flour used in the medium seed process and the main flour process are used. Combined with flour.
[0023]
And the manufacturing method of bread using the oil-fat composition of this invention is as follows.
In the case of the straight method, the oil and fat composition of the present invention may be added during bread dough mixing during the bread manufacturing process.
In the case of the middle seed method, the oil and fat composition of the present invention may be added at any point of time between the middle seed and the main shell, but it is preferable to add the oil and fat composition of the present invention in the main shell process.
The bread of the present invention can be obtained by baking the bread dough of the present invention thus obtained by a conventional method. Any kind of bread may be used as long as the bread is mainly made of flour. For example, white bread, sweet bread, Danish, croissant, French bread and the like can be mentioned.
[0024]
Breads using the oil and fat composition of the present invention can be eaten as they are, but become breads that do not cause deterioration of the texture or wrinkles on the surface due to heating in a microwave oven. In other words, when baking baked bread, bread baked after refrigeration or freezing of bread dough, or bread baked baked bread is refrigerated or frozen, even if it is heated in a microwave oven, the texture deteriorates and the surface wrinkles It can be made bread without generation | occurrence | production of.
[0025]
【Example】
EXAMPLES Next, although an Example and a comparative example demonstrate this invention further in detail, this invention does not receive a restriction | limiting at all by these.
[0026]
Example 1
The oil and fat composition of the present invention was produced by the following production method with the formulation shown in [Table 1] below.
Each raw material fat heated to about 60 degreeC was mixed in the mixing tank, and the chemical starch was added and disperse | distributed to this with the powder. An emulsifier was added to the heated blended oil and stirred and dissolved. And the water which melt | dissolved the edible refined salt was added gradually, stirring a compounding oil. The modified starch gradually absorbed water and swelled, resulting in an oil / fat composition in which the swollen modified starch was dispersed in the oil / fat. And the oil-and-fat composition which said swelling swelling starch dispersed in the oil phase was heat-sterilized with the scraping-type sterilizer, and rapidly plasticized using the tube type cooling plasticizer etc., and the oil-and-fat composition was obtained. Those that lack the stability of oxidants and enzymes were added and mixed after the composition had cooled.
The obtained oil and fat composition was not an emulsion.
[0027]
(Examples 2 and 3)
The oil and fat composition of the present invention was produced by the following production method with the formulation shown in [Table 1] below.
Each raw material fat heated to about 60 degreeC was mixed in the mixing tank, and the oil phase was obtained. An emulsifier was added to the heat-mixed oil phase and stirred. On the other hand, the modified starch was put into a powder mixer and water was sprayed onto the modified starch while stirring to obtain a swollen modified starch. The obtained swollen modified starch was added and dispersed in the previously prepared oil phase.
And the oil-and-fat composition which said swelling swelling starch dispersed in the oil phase was heat-sterilized with the scraping-type sterilizer, and rapidly plasticized using the tube type cooling plasticizer etc., and the oil-and-fat composition was obtained. Those that lack the stability of oxidants and enzymes were added and mixed after the composition had cooled.
The obtained oil and fat composition was not an emulsion.
[0028]
(Comparative Example 1)
The oil and fat composition was manufactured by the manufacturing method similar to Example 1 by the mixing | blending shown to the following [Table 1].
The obtained oil and fat composition was not an emulsion.
[0029]
(Comparative Example 2)
With the formulation shown in [Table 1] below, an oil and fat composition was produced by the following production method. Each raw material fat heated to about 60 ° C. was mixed in a mixing tank, and an emulsifier was added to the heated blended oil, and stirred and dissolved. And the water which melt | dissolved the edible refined salt was added gradually, stirring a compounding oil.
And this oil-fat composition was heat-sterilized with a scraping-type sterilizer, and rapidly cooled and plasticized using a tube-type cooling plasticizer to obtain an oil-fat composition. Those that lack the stability of oxidants and enzymes were added and mixed after the composition had cooled.
The obtained oil and fat composition was free of water and was in a water-in-oil emulsified state.
[0030]
(Comparative Example 3)
With the formulation shown in [Table 1] below, an oil and fat composition was produced by the following production method. Each raw material fat heated to about 60 degreeC was mixed in the mixing tank, and the chemical starch was added and disperse | distributed to this with the powder. An emulsifier was added to the heated blended oil and stirred and dissolved. Then, water was gradually added while stirring the blended oil. The modified starch gradually absorbed water and swelled, resulting in an oil / fat composition in which the swollen modified starch was dispersed in the oil / fat.
And the oil-and-fat composition which said swelling swelling starch dispersed in the oil phase was heat-sterilized with the scraping-type sterilizer, and rapidly plasticized using the tube type cooling plasticizer etc., and the oil-and-fat composition was obtained.
The obtained oil and fat composition was not an emulsion.
[0031]
[Table 1]
Figure 0004086352
[0032]
In the above [Table 1], the blending components given 1) to 12) are as follows.
Modified starch A 1) : Pregelatinized modified starch (having 5 times the water holding power and retaining the surface structure of raw starch granules after water absorption)
Chemically modified starch B 2) : Partially pregelatinized starch (having 5 times the water holding power and retaining the surface structure of raw starch granules after water absorption)
MG 3) : monoglyceride LC 4) : lecithin succinic acid MG 5) : succinic monoglyceride DATE 6) : diacetyltartaric acid monoglyceride PGE 7) : polyglycerin fatty acid ester PGPR 8) : polyglycerin condensed ricinoleate CSL 9) : stearoyl lactate Calcium SSL 10) : Sodium stearoyl trypsin lactate preparation 11) : Commercial enzyme preparation with trypsin titer 3.3 AU amylase preparation 12) : Commercial enzyme preparation with 800 amylase titer
(Usage test example)
Using the oil and fat compositions of Examples 1 to 3 and Comparative Examples 1 to 3, pullman-type bread was produced by the following formulation and production method.
Figure 0004086352
[0034]
"Evaluation methods"
After the Pullman type bread obtained using the oil and fat compositions of Examples 1 to 3 and Comparative Examples 1 to 3 was stored at 20 ° C. for 24 hours, the Pullman type bread was cut into a thickness of 3 cm. The strength of the crumbs before and after heating in the microwave oven was measured as follows. The microwave heating was performed for 60 seconds using a home microwave oven with a high frequency output of 500 W. The pan center temperature after heating was 80 to 90 ° C.
The strength of the crumb was measured by the following measurement using a rheometer by cutting the pullman-type bread cut to 3 cm thickness into 7 cm x 2 cm to make a 7 cm x 2 cm x 3 cm strip. It was measured from the time (seconds) and resistance (g) until the sample was completely broken under the conditions. The rheometer chart waveform at this time is as shown in FIG. 1, and the “ski” of the sample is the area of the hatched portion. The area of the hatched portion can be approximately obtained by time (seconds) × resistance (g) / 2, and the value calculated by this calculation formula is defined as “ski” of the sample. The results are shown in [Table 2] below.
(Measurement condition)
Model used NRM-2005J (Fudo Kogyo Co., Ltd.)
Use adapter No17 (for food pulling)
Sample pulling speed 30cm / min
A panel test was also conducted on the texture of the pullman bread. The results are shown in [Table 2] below. The texture was evaluated by five panelists as follows.
○: The texture after heating in the microwave oven is soft and crisp with no “scratch” as before the microwave oven heating.
(Triangle | delta): Although the texture after microwave oven heating feels that a "hiki" becomes strong compared with before microwave oven heating, it is a soft state.
X: The texture after microwave heating is remarkably stronger than that before microwave heating, resulting in a rubber-like texture.
[0036]
[Table 2]
Figure 0004086352
[0037]
【The invention's effect】
According to the oil and fat composition of the present invention, a microwave oven heating that has an original good flavor of bread and a “crispy” texture, and does not deteriorate in texture or appearance even when subjected to microwave heating. Bread suitable for food can be manufactured.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a rheometer chart waveform when the strength of crumb cracks is measured using a rheometer.

Claims (4)

水で膨潤させた化工澱粉とプロテアーゼが油脂中に分散しており、かつモノグリセリン脂肪酸エステル0.5〜1.0重量%とコハク酸モノグリセリド0.5〜1.0重量%またはジアセチル酒石酸モノグリセリド0.5重量%とを含有し、乳化物でないことを特徴とする電子レンジ加熱用パン類製造用の油脂組成物。Modified starch and protease swollen with water are dispersed in oil and fat, and 0.5 to 1.0% by weight of monoglycerin fatty acid ester and 0.5 to 1.0% by weight of succinic acid monoglyceride or diacetyl tartaric acid monoglyceride 0 An oil / fat composition for producing bread for heating with a microwave oven, characterized by containing 5% by weight and not an emulsion. 水で膨潤させた化工澱粉が、水で膨潤する前の化工澱粉100重量部に対し、水20〜500重量部を配合し膨潤させたものであることを特徴とする請求項1記載の油脂組成物。  2. The fat composition according to claim 1, wherein the modified starch swollen with water is obtained by adding 20 to 500 parts by weight of water to 100 parts by weight of the modified starch before being swollen with water. object. 請求項1または2記載の油脂組成物を用いることを特徴とするパン生地。  A bread dough using the oil or fat composition according to claim 1 or 2. 請求項3記載のパン生地を焼成してなることを特徴とする電子レンジ加熱用パン類。  A bread for heating in a microwave oven, which is obtained by baking the bread dough according to claim 3.
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