JP3724490B2 - Light emitting diode - Google Patents

Light emitting diode Download PDF

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JP3724490B2
JP3724490B2 JP2004011214A JP2004011214A JP3724490B2 JP 3724490 B2 JP3724490 B2 JP 3724490B2 JP 2004011214 A JP2004011214 A JP 2004011214A JP 2004011214 A JP2004011214 A JP 2004011214A JP 3724490 B2 JP3724490 B2 JP 3724490B2
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light emitting
emitting element
light
resin
wavelength
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JP2004158873A (en
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修二 中村
芳昭 多田津
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日亜化学工業株式会社
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/42Wire connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/44Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors prior to the connecting process
    • H01L2224/45Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors prior to the connecting process of an individual wire connector
    • H01L2224/45001Core members of the connector
    • H01L2224/45099Material
    • H01L2224/451Material with a principal constituent of the material being a metal or a metalloid, e.g. boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te) and polonium (Po), and alloys thereof
    • H01L2224/45138Material with a principal constituent of the material being a metal or a metalloid, e.g. boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te) and polonium (Po), and alloys thereof the principal constituent melting at a temperature of greater than or equal to 950°C and less than 1550°C
    • H01L2224/45144Gold (Au) as principal constituent
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/42Wire connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/47Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/48Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process of an individual wire connector
    • H01L2224/4805Shape
    • H01L2224/4809Loop shape
    • H01L2224/48091Arched
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/42Wire connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/47Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/48Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process of an individual wire connector
    • H01L2224/481Disposition
    • H01L2224/48151Connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive
    • H01L2224/48221Connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked
    • H01L2224/48245Connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being metallic
    • H01L2224/48247Connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being metallic connecting the wire to a bond pad of the item
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/42Wire connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/47Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/48Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process of an individual wire connector
    • H01L2224/481Disposition
    • H01L2224/48151Connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive
    • H01L2224/48221Connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked
    • H01L2224/48245Connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being metallic
    • H01L2224/48257Connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being metallic connecting the wire to a die pad of the item
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/42Wire connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/47Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/49Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process of a plurality of wire connectors
    • H01L2224/491Disposition
    • H01L2224/49105Connecting at different heights
    • H01L2224/49107Connecting at different heights on the semiconductor or solid-state body

Description

本発明は発光素子を樹脂モールドで包囲してなる発光ダイオード(以下LEDという)に係り、特に一種類の発光素子で多種類の発光ができ、さらに高輝度な波長変換発光ダイオードに関する。 The present invention is a light emitting element relates to a light emitting diode formed by surrounded by a resin mold (hereinafter referred to as LED), can be various types of light emission, especially in one type of light-emitting elements, to further higher luminance wavelength converted LED.

一般に、LEDは図1に示すような構造を有している。 In general, LED has a structure as shown in FIG. 1は1mm角以下に切断された例えばGaAlAs、GaP等よりなる発光素子、2はメタルステム、3はメタルポスト、4は発光素子を包囲する樹脂モールドである。 1, for example GaAlAs was cut below 1mm square, made of GaP light emitting elements or the like, 2 metal stem 3 metal post, 4 a resin mold that surrounds the light emitting device. 発光素子1の裏面電極はメタルステム2に銀ペースト等で接着され電気的に接続されており、発光素子1の表面電極は他端子であるメタルポスト3から伸ばされた金線によりその表面でワイヤボンドされ、さらに発光素子1は透明な樹脂モールド4でモールドされている。 The back electrode of the light emitting element 1 is connected electrically bonded by silver paste or the like to the metal stem 2, the surface electrode of the light-emitting element 1 a wire at its surface by gold wire that is extended from the metal post 3 which is another terminal are bonded, further light-emitting element 1 is molded by a transparent resin mold 4.

通常、樹脂モールド4は、発光素子の発光を空気中に効率よく放出する目的で、屈折率が高く、かつ透明度の高い樹脂が選択されるが、他に、その発光素子の発光色を変換する目的で、あるいは色を補正する目的で、その樹脂モールド4の中に着色剤として無機顔料、または有機顔料が混入される場合がある。 Usually, the resin mold 4, the light emission of the light-emitting element in order to efficiently released into the air, a high refractive index, and is highly transparent resin is selected, otherwise, to convert the emission color of the light emitting element for the purpose, or for the purpose of correcting the color, there is a case where an inorganic or organic pigments, can be mixed as a colorant in the resin mold 4. 例えば、GaPの半導体材料を有する緑色発光素子の樹脂モールド中に、赤色顔料を添加すれば発光色は白色とすることができる。 For example, in the resin molding of the green light emitting device having a GaP semiconductor material, luminescent color be added to the red pigment may be white.

しかしながら、従来、樹脂モールドに着色剤を添加して波長を変換するという技術はほとんど実用化されておらず、着色剤により色補正する技術がわずかに使われているのみである。 However, conventional techniques of converting the wavelength by adding a colorant to the resin mold is hardly practical use, it is only a technique for color correction has been slightly used by the colorant. なぜなら、樹脂モールドに、波長を変換できるほどの非発光物質である着色剤を添加すると、LEDそのもの自体の輝度が大きく低下してしまうからである。 This is because, in the resin molding, the addition of colorant is a non-luminescent material enough to convert wavelengths, because the brightness of the LED itself itself greatly decreases.

ところで、現在、LEDとして実用化されているのは、赤外、赤、黄色、緑色発光のLEDであり、青色または紫外のLEDは未だ実用化されていない。 However, now, what it is practically used as the LED, infrared, an LED of red, yellow, green-emitting, blue or ultraviolet LED has not yet been put to practical use. 青色、紫外発光の発光素子はII-VI族のZnSe、IV-IV族のSiC、III-V族のGaN等の半導体材料を用いて研究が進められ、最近、その中でも一般式がGaXAl1-XN(但しXは0≦X≦1である。)で表される窒化ガリウム系化合物半導体が、常温で、比較的優れた発光を示すことが発表され注目されている。 Blue light-emitting element of ultraviolet emission ZnSe group II-VI, IV-IV group of SiC, is studied using a semiconductor material such as GaN group III-V underway, recently, the general formula among which GaXAl1-XN (where X is 0 ≦ X ≦ 1.) the gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor which is expressed by, at room temperature, are announced to exhibit relatively excellent light emitting attention. また、窒化ガリウム系化合物半導体を用いて、初めてpn接合を実現したLEDが発表されている(応用物理,60巻,2号,p163〜p166,1991)。 Further, by using the gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor, the first LED that achieves pn junction is published (Applied Physics, Vol. 60, No. 2, p163~p166,1991). それによるとpn接合の窒化ガリウム系化合物半導体を有するLEDの発光波長は、主として430nm付近にあり、さらに370nm付近の紫外域にも発光ピークを有している。 Emission wavelength of the LED having the by the gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor pn junction which is primarily located in the vicinity of 430 nm, also has an emission peak in the ultraviolet region in the vicinity of more 370 nm. その波長は上記半導体材料の中で最も短い波長である。 Its wavelength is the shortest wavelength in the semiconductor material. しかし、そのLEDは発光波長が示すように紫色に近い発光色を有しているため視感度が悪いという欠点がある。 However, the LED has the drawback of visibility because it has an emission color close to violet As the emission wavelength is poor.

本発明はこのような事情を鑑みなされたもので、その目的とするところは、発光ピークが430nm付近、および370nm付近にある窒化ガリウム系化合物半導体材料よりなる発光素子を有するLEDの視感度を良くし、またその輝度を向上させることにある。 The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, it is an object near the emission peak 430 nm, and good visibility of the LED having a light emitting element made of a gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor material in the vicinity 370nm and also it is to improve the brightness.

本発明の発光ダイオードは、凹状部分のメタル上に配置される発光素子を樹脂で包囲している。 Light-emitting diode of the present invention is a light emitting element disposed on the recessed portion metal surrounded by a resin. 前記発光素子は、n型及びp型に積層されてなる窒化ガリウム系化合物半導体であり、前記発光素子の電極とメタルとを金線によりワイヤボンドされて電気的に接続している。 The light emitting element is an n-type and p-type laminated are gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor comprising, electrically connects the electrode and the metal of the light emitting element is wire-bonded by a gold wire. 前記樹脂には、前記発光素子からの光により励起されて、励起波長よりも長波長の可視光を出して発光ダイオードの色補正をすると共に、視感度を良くする蛍光染料又は蛍光顔料が添加されており、かつ、断面において凸状に前記樹脂を形成している。 The resin, the being excited by the light from the light emitting element, while the color correction of the light emitting diodes than the excitation wavelength out visible light of longer wavelength, a fluorescent dye or fluorescent pigment to improve visibility is added and, and, to form the resin in a convex shape in cross section.

蛍光染料、蛍光顔料は、一般に短波長の光によって励起され、励起波長よりも長波長光を発光する。 Fluorescent dyes, fluorescent pigments are generally excited by light of a shorter wavelength, than the excitation wavelength to emit longer wavelength light. 逆に長波長の光によって励起されて短波長の光を発光する蛍光顔料もあるが、それはエネルギー効率が非常に悪く微弱にしか発光しない。 Conversely is excited by light having a long wavelength is also fluorescent pigment that emits light in the short wavelength, it is energy efficient not only emit light in very poor weak. 前記したように窒化ガリウム系化合物半導体はLEDに使用される半導体材料中で最も短波長側にその発光ピークを有するものであり、しかも紫外域にも発光ピークを有している。 Gallium nitride-based compound as described above semiconductor is one having the most the emission peak in the short wavelength side in the semiconductor material used in the LED, yet has an emission peak in ultraviolet region. そのためそれを発光素子の材料として使用した場合、その発光素子を包囲する樹脂モールドに蛍光染料、蛍光顔料を添加することにより、最も好適にそれら蛍光物質を励起することができる。 Therefore when using it as a material for a light-emitting element, a fluorescent dye in a resin mold surrounding the light emitting element, by adding a fluorescent pigment, it can best suitably excite them fluorescent substance. したがって青色LEDの色補正はいうにおよばず、蛍光染料、蛍光顔料の種類によって数々の波長の光を変換することができる。 Therefore, not to mention the color correction blue LED, it can convert light of a number of wavelengths by the fluorescent dye, the kind of the fluorescent pigment. さらに、短波長の光を長波長に変え、エネルギー効率がよい為、添加する蛍光染料、蛍光顔料が微量で済み、輝度の低下の点からも非常に好都合である。 Furthermore, changing the light having a short wavelength to a long wavelength, for energy efficient, fluorescent dyes to be added, requires fluorescent pigment is in trace amounts, is extremely advantageous in terms of reduction in brightness.

図2は本発明のLEDの構造を示す一実施例である。 Figure 2 shows an example of the structure of an LED of the present invention. 11はサファイア基板の上にGaAlNがn型およびp型に積層されてなる青色発光素子、2および3は図1と同じくメタルステム、メタルポスト、4は発光素子を包囲する樹脂モールドである。 11 blue light emitting element GaAlN on the sapphire substrate is laminated on the n-type and p-type, 2 and 3 also metal stem and 1, the metal posts, and 4 a resin mold that surrounds the light emitting device. 発光素子11の裏面はサファイアの絶縁基板であり裏面から電極を取り出せないため、GaAlN層のn電極をメタルステム2と電気的に接続するため、GaAlN層をエッチングしてn型層の表面を露出させてオーミック電極を付け、金線によって電気的に接続する手法が取られている。 Since the rear surface of the light emitting element 11 can not eject the electrode from the back is a sapphire insulating substrate, for connecting the n electrode of GaAlN layer metal stem 2 and electrically, exposing the surface of the n-type layer by etching the GaAlN layer with the ohmic electrodes by a technique of electrically connected by gold wire has been taken. また他の電極は図1と同様にメタルポスト3から伸ばした金線によりp型層の表面でワイヤボンドされている。 The other electrode is the surface by wire bonding of the p-type layer by gold wire extended from the metal post 3 in the same manner as FIG. さらに樹脂モールド4には420〜440nm付近の波長によって励起されて480nmに発光ピークを有する波長を発光する蛍光染料5が添加されている。 Further the resin mold 4 is doped with a fluorescent dye 5 which emits a wavelength having an emission peak at 480nm is excited by the wavelength of the near 420~440Nm.

従来の一LEDの構造を示す模式断面図。 Schematic cross-sectional view showing a structure of a conventional single LED. 本発明のLEDの一実施例の構造を示す模式断面図。 Schematic cross-sectional view showing the structure of an embodiment of a LED of the present invention.

符号の説明 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

11・・・発光素子 11 ... light-emitting element
2・・・メタルステム 3・・・メタルポスト 2 ... metal stem 3 ... metal post
4・・・樹脂モールド 5・・・蛍光染料。 4 ... resin molding 5 ... fluorescent dye.

Claims (1)

  1. 凹状部分のメタル上に配置される発光素子を樹脂で包囲している発光ダイオードにおいて、 A light emitting element disposed on the metal of the concave portions in the light emitting diodes are surrounded by resin,
    前記発光素子は、n型及びp型に積層されてなる窒化ガリウム系化合物半導体であり、前記発光素子の電極とメタルとを金線によりワイヤボンドされて電気的に接続しており、前記樹脂には、前記発光素子からの光により励起されて、励起波長よりも長波長の可視光を出して発光ダイオードの色補正をすると共に、視感度を良くする蛍光染料又は蛍光顔料が添加されており、かつ、断面において凸状に前記樹脂を形成してなる発光ダイオード。 The light emitting element is an n-type and p-type are stacked are to become a gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor, the electrode and the metal of the light emitting element are connected are wire-bonded by gold wires electrically, the resin , the being excited by the light from the light emitting element, while the color correction of the light emitting diodes than the excitation wavelength out visible light of longer wavelength, a fluorescent dye or fluorescent pigment to improve visibility are added, and made by forming the resin in a convex shape in cross section a light emitting diode.
JP2004011214A 2004-01-19 2004-01-19 Light emitting diode Expired - Lifetime JP3724490B2 (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2009041237A1 (en) 2007-09-27 2009-04-02 Showa Denko K.K. Iii nitride semiconductor light emitting element
US7868340B2 (en) 2008-05-30 2011-01-11 Bridgelux, Inc. Method and apparatus for generating white light from solid state light emitting devices
US8659034B2 (en) 1996-03-26 2014-02-25 Cree, Inc. Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US9115868B2 (en) 2011-10-13 2015-08-25 Intematix Corporation Wavelength conversion component with improved protective characteristics for remote wavelength conversion
US9739444B2 (en) 2007-03-05 2017-08-22 Intematix Corporation Light emitting diode (LED) based lighting systems
US10204888B2 (en) 2011-04-13 2019-02-12 Intematix Corporation LED-based light sources for light emitting devices and lighting arrangements with photoluminescence wavelength conversion
US10234725B2 (en) 2015-03-23 2019-03-19 Intematix Corporation Photoluminescence color display

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9698313B2 (en) 1996-03-26 2017-07-04 Cree, Inc. Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US8659034B2 (en) 1996-03-26 2014-02-25 Cree, Inc. Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US8860058B2 (en) 1996-03-26 2014-10-14 Cree, Inc. Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US8963182B2 (en) 1996-03-26 2015-02-24 Cree, Inc. Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US9739444B2 (en) 2007-03-05 2017-08-22 Intematix Corporation Light emitting diode (LED) based lighting systems
WO2009041237A1 (en) 2007-09-27 2009-04-02 Showa Denko K.K. Iii nitride semiconductor light emitting element
US7868340B2 (en) 2008-05-30 2011-01-11 Bridgelux, Inc. Method and apparatus for generating white light from solid state light emitting devices
US10263163B2 (en) 2008-05-30 2019-04-16 Bridgelux, Inc. Method and apparatus for generating white light from solid state light emitting devices
US10204888B2 (en) 2011-04-13 2019-02-12 Intematix Corporation LED-based light sources for light emitting devices and lighting arrangements with photoluminescence wavelength conversion
US9115868B2 (en) 2011-10-13 2015-08-25 Intematix Corporation Wavelength conversion component with improved protective characteristics for remote wavelength conversion
US10234725B2 (en) 2015-03-23 2019-03-19 Intematix Corporation Photoluminescence color display

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