JP3389087B2 - Optical disc, recording method, reproducing method, and reproducing apparatus - Google Patents

Optical disc, recording method, reproducing method, and reproducing apparatus

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Publication number
JP3389087B2
JP3389087B2 JP04087798A JP4087798A JP3389087B2 JP 3389087 B2 JP3389087 B2 JP 3389087B2 JP 04087798 A JP04087798 A JP 04087798A JP 4087798 A JP4087798 A JP 4087798A JP 3389087 B2 JP3389087 B2 JP 3389087B2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
information
recording
data
recorded
video
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JP04087798A
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JPH11238316A (en
Inventor
秀夫 安東
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株式会社東芝
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Priority to JP04087798A priority Critical patent/JP3389087B2/en
Priority claimed from EP10173635A external-priority patent/EP2267720A3/en
Publication of JPH11238316A publication Critical patent/JPH11238316A/en
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Description

Detailed Description of the Invention

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention records video information.
Optical disc and those who record or delete video information
Method, and a reproducing method and reproducing apparatus for the optical disk.

In particular, a recording / reproducing system which gives a condition for guaranteeing continuous reproduction (or continuous recording) when continuous reproduction (or continuous recording) of information is performed using a reproducing apparatus (disk drive) having various access performances. Regarding

[0003]

2. Description of the Related Art In recent years, a system for reproducing an optical disc on which video (moving image) and audio is recorded has been developed, and movie software, karaoke, etc. such as LD (laser disc) or video CD (video compact disc) can be produced. It is widely used for the purpose of reproduction.

Among them, the international standardized MPEG2 (moving picture expert group) system is used, and AC-3 (digital audio compression) is used.
A DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) standard using another audio compression method has been proposed. This DV
The D standard includes read-only DVD video (or DVD-ROM), write-once DVD-R, and rewritable DVD-RW (or DVD-RAM).

According to the MPEG2 system layer, the standard of DVD video (DVD-ROM) is MPEG2 as a moving picture compression system and linear PC as an audio recording system.
In addition to M, it supports AC3 audio and MPEG audio. Furthermore, this DVD video standard
The sub-picture data is run-length-compressed bitmap data for subtitles, and control data (navigation data) for reproduction control such as fast-forward / rewind data search is added.

[0006] In addition, this standard also specifies ISO 9660 and U so that a computer can read data.
It also supports the DF bridge format. Therefore, the video information of the DVD video can be handled even in the personal computer environment.

[0007]

By the way, in the medium in which the video information (cell) is recorded, the recorded information can be edited / edited.
As the partial deletion is repeated, the video information here is scattered or scattered on the medium. Frequent access operations are required to continuously reproduce the scattered or scattered video information groups in a specific order. During this access operation, the recorded information group (cell connection) cannot be reproduced from the medium, so the reproduction is interrupted.

That is, when a group of scattered or scattered recording information is reproduced while being frequently accessed by a specific reproducing apparatus (disk drive), if the access frequency exceeds a specific number of times (in that drive), the recording information will be recorded. Continuous output becomes impossible and seamless (without interruption)
Regeneration is impaired.

The present invention is a recording / deleting process in ECC units.
Optical discs that can speed up recording and record video information or
It aims to provide a deleting method, a reproducing method and a reproducing apparatus.
Target

[0010]

An optical disc according to the present invention is for recording video information and management information for managing the video information, and in the area of the optical disc for recording the video information, It is also assumed that a physical sector number of 2 kbyte unit is given and either the logical sector number or the logical block number of 2 kbyte unit is associated with the area to which the physical sector number is given. To the area in which the physical sector number and the logical sector number or the logical block number are associated with each other, an address of 32 kbyte unit as an ECC block is given, and every 32 kbyte of the ECC block The video information is recorded or deleted with the boundary position as a boundary, and the boundary position of the ECC block is further changed. Wherein in order to Itasa those having a dummy region immediately before the boundary position of ECC blocks.

In recording and deleting the video information and the management information for managing the video information according to the present invention on the optical disk, in units of 2 kbytes with respect to the area of the optical disk in which the video information is recorded. Of the physical sector number, and the area to which the physical sector number is assigned is associated with either a logical sector number or a logical block number in units of 2 kbytes .
It is, with the physical sector number, with respect to the logical sector number or the logical block number the and are associated area, address 32k bytes as ECC block is given, for each 32k bytes of the ECC block The video information is recorded or deleted at a boundary position as a boundary, and further, data is recorded in a dummy area immediately before the boundary position of the ECC block in order to match the boundary position of the ECC block. The video information is recorded or deleted.

[0012]

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION A digital information recording / reproducing system according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.

As a typical embodiment of the digital information recording / reproducing system according to the present invention, there is an apparatus for recording / reproducing a moving image encoded based on MPEG2 at a variable bit rate, for example, a DVD digital video recorder. (A specific configuration example of this DVD digital video recorder will be described later.) FIG. 1 shows a recordable optical disk (DVD-RAM / DVD-R) used in the DVD digital video recorder.
FIG. 3 is a perspective view illustrating the structure of a W disk or the like) 10.

As shown in FIG. 1, this optical disk 10
Is a pair of transparent substrates 1 each provided with a recording layer 17.
4 has a structure in which the adhesive layers 20 are bonded together. Each board 14
Can be made of polycarbonate having a thickness of 0.6 mm, and the adhesive layer 20 can be made of an ultrathin (for example, 40 μm thick) ultraviolet curable resin. These pair of 0.
By laminating the 6 mm substrate 14 so that the recording layer 17 is in contact with the surface of the adhesive layer 20, the large-capacity optical disk 10 having a thickness of 1.2 mm is obtained.

The recording layer 17 can have a two-layer structure of ROM / RAM. In that case, the ROM layer / light reflecting layer (embossing layer) 17 is closer to the read surface 19 side.
A is formed, and RA is distant from the reading surface 19 side.
The M layer / phase change recording layer 17B is formed.

A center hole 22 is provided in the optical disk 10, and a clamp area 24 for clamping the optical disk 10 during rotational driving is provided around the center hole 22 on both sides of the disk. A spindle of a disc motor is inserted into the center hole 22 when the optical disc 10 is loaded in a disc drive device (not shown).
Then, the optical disc 10 is clamped in the clamp area 24 by a disc clamper (not shown) while the disc is rotating.

The optical disk 10 has, around the clamp area 24, an information area 25 in which video data, audio data and other information can be recorded.

A lead-out area 26 is provided on the outer peripheral side of the information area 25. In addition, the lead-in area 27 is provided on the inner peripheral side in contact with the clamp area 24.
Is provided. A data recording area 28 is defined between the lead-out area 26 and the lead-in area 27.

Recording layer (light reflecting layer) 17 in the information area 25
Recording tracks are continuously formed in, for example, a spiral shape. The continuous track is divided into a plurality of physical sectors, and these sectors are numbered consecutively. Various data is recorded on the optical disc 10 using this sector as a recording unit.

The data recording area 28 is an actual data recording area. As recording / reproducing information, video data (main video data) of movies, sub-video data of subtitles / menus, and lines / sound effects are recorded. Audio data is recorded as a series of similar pits (a physical shape or phase state that causes an optical change in laser reflected light).

The optical disk 10 has a single-sided single layer and double-sided recording R
In the case of an AM disc, each recording layer 17 can be composed of a triple layer in which a phase change recording material layer (for example, Ge2Sb2Te5) is sandwiched between two zinc sulfide / silicon oxide mixtures (ZnS / SiO2).

The optical disc 10 has a single-sided single-layered R recording
In the case of an AM disc, the recording layer 17 on the read surface 19 side
Can be composed of a triple layer including the phase change recording material layer. In this case, the layer 17 arranged on the opposite side from the reading surface 19 does not need to be an information recording layer, and may be a simple dummy layer.

The optical disk 10 is a single-sided read type dual layer R
In the case of an AM / ROM disc, the two recording layers 17 are
One phase change recording layer (back side from the reading surface 19; for reading and writing) and one semitransparent metal reflection layer (reading surface 19
The front side when viewed from the side; only for playback).

When the optical disk 10 is a write-once DVD-R, polycarbonate is used as the substrate, gold is used as the reflecting film (not shown), and ultraviolet curable resin is used as the protective film (not shown). In this case, an organic dye is used for the recording layer 17. As this organic dye, cyanine, squarylium, croconic, triphenylmenthane dye, xanthene, quinone dye (naphthoquine, anthraquinone, etc.), metal complex dye (phthalocyanine, porphyrin, dithiol complex, etc.) and others can be used. is there.

Data can be written on such a DVD-R disc at a wavelength of 650 nm and an output of 6 to 12 m.
It can be performed using a semiconductor laser of about W.

The optical disk 10 is a single-sided read type dual layer R
In the case of an OM disc, the two recording layers 17 can be composed of one metal reflective layer (the back side when viewed from the read surface 19) and one semitransparent metal reflective layer (the front side when viewed from the read surface 19).

Read-only DVD-ROM disc 1
In the case of 0, a pit train is formed in advance on the substrate 14 by a stamper, a reflective layer of metal or the like is formed on the surface of the substrate 14 on which the pit train is formed, and this reflective layer is used as the recording layer 17. . In such a DVD-ROM disc 10, normally, no groove is provided as a recording track, and a pit row formed on the surface of the substrate 14 functions as a track.

In each of the various optical discs 10 described above, read-only ROM information is recorded in the recording layer 17 as an embossed signal. On the other hand, the substrate 14 having the recording layer 17 for reading and writing (or for write once) is not engraved with such an emboss signal, but instead is engraved with a continuous groove groove. A phase change recording layer is provided in the groove. In the case of a read / write DVD-RAM disc, the phase change recording layer in the land portion is also used for information recording in addition to the groove.

When the optical disk 10 is a single-sided reading type (whether the recording layer is one layer or two layers), the substrate 14 on the back side as viewed from the reading surface 19 need not be transparent to the reading / writing laser. In this case, the label may be printed on the entire surface of the back substrate 14.

A DVD digital video recorder, which will be described later, includes a D-RAM disc (or a DVD-RW disc) for repetitive recording / reproducing (reading / writing) and D
One-time recording / repeating playback for VD-R discs and D
The VD-ROM disc can be configured to be repeatedly played back.

FIG. 2 shows the optical disk (DVD-RA shown in FIG.
It is a figure explaining the correspondence of the data recording area 28 of (M etc.) 10 and the recording track of the data recorded there.

The disk 10 is a DVD-RAM (or D
In the case of VD-RW), the main body of the disk 10 is housed in the cartridge 11 in order to protect the delicate disk surface. When the DVD-RAM disk 10 together with the cartridge 11 is inserted into a disk drive of a DVD video recorder to be described later, the disk 10 is pulled out from the cartridge 11 and clamped by a turntable of a spindle motor (not shown) so as to face an optical head (not shown). It is driven to rotate.

On the other hand, the disk 10 is a DVD-R or D
In the case of the VD-ROM, the main body of the disc 10 is not housed in the cartridge 11, and the bare disc 10 is set directly on the disc tray of the disc drive.

The recording layer 17 of the information area 25 shown in FIG.
The data recording tracks are continuously formed in a spiral shape. As shown in FIG. 2, the continuous track is divided into a plurality of logical sectors (minimum recording unit) having a constant storage capacity, and data is recorded on the basis of the logical sectors. The recording capacity of one logical sector is set to 2048 bytes (or 2 kbytes), which is the same as one pack data length (see FIG. 24).

The data recording area 28 is an actual data recording area in which management data, main video (video) data, sub-video data and audio (audio) data are similarly recorded.

As will be described later with reference to FIG. 4, the data recording area 28 of the disk 10 of FIG. 2 can be divided into a plurality of recording areas (a plurality of recording zones) in a ring shape (annular ring shape). . Although the disk rotation speed differs for each recording zone, the linear velocity or angular velocity can be made constant within each zone. In this case, a spare recording area, that is, a spare area (free space) can be provided for each zone. The free space for each zone can be collected and used as a reserve area for the disc 10.

FIG. 3 shows a two-layer laminated optical disc 10 of FIG.
FIG. 3 is a partial cross-sectional view showing a deformed data recording portion in the case of being used for both reading and writing. Here, it is a mixture (ZnS.SiO2) of gold (Au) or zinc sulfide (ZnS) and silicon oxide (SiO2) and has a thickness of, for example, 20 nm.
Read-only information recording layer (ROM layer 17A).

Further, two zinc sulfide / silicon oxide mixtures ZnS / SiO 2 (between the light reflection film made of aluminum (Al) or aluminum-molybdenum alloy (Al / Mo) and the ultraviolet-curing resin adhesive layer 20 are provided. 92, 9
4) a triple layer (90 to 9) in which the phase change recording material layer 90 (Ge2Sb2Te5 or GeAnTe, etc.) is sandwiched.
4) is provided. This triple layer forms a readable / writable information recording layer (RAM layer 17B).

The thickness of the aluminum or aluminum-molybdenum alloy reflective film is selected to be about 100 nm, and the thickness of the ZnS.SiO2 mixture layer 94 is, for example, 2 nm.
The thickness of the Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change recording material layer 90 is selected to be, for example, about 20 nm.
The thickness of the S / SiO2 mixture layer 92 is 180 nm, for example.
Selected to the degree.

Writing laser light WL for the RAM layer 17B
Penetrates the semitransparent ROM layer 17A from the substrate 14 side and enters the phase change recording material layer 90.

Read laser beam RL for RAM layer 17B
Penetrates the semitransparent ROM layer 17A from the substrate 14 side and enters the phase change recording material layer 90, where it is reflected according to the writing state (crystalline or amorphous). .

On the other hand, the read laser beam RL for the ROM layer 17A enters from the substrate 14 side and is semi-transparent.
It is designed to reflect according to the unevenness (embossing) of A. Whether to read the ROM layer 17A or the RAM layer 17B can be switched depending on which layer the focus of the optical pickup is focused on.

In contrast to the substrate 14 in which read-only information is recorded as an embossed signal, such an embossed signal is not engraved on the read / write substrate, but instead a continuous groove groove is engraved. It is rare. The phase change recording material layer 90 is provided in the groove.

FIG. 4 shows an example of the data track structure of the RAM layer of the dual-layer optical disk of FIG.
It is a figure explaining the structure where 00-SA23 are arrange | positioned outside each user area UA00-UA23).

The number of revolutions per second (Hz) is N0 in a concentric manner outside the user area UA00 whose number of revolutions per second (Hz) is N00.
A spare area SA00 of 0 (for replacement processing of a defective portion generated in the user area UA00) is provided. Similarly, the number of revolutions per second (Hz) is N01 in the user area UA0.
1, a spare area SA01 having a rotation speed (Hz) N01 of N01 is concentrically provided, and the rotation speed (Hz) is N
The number of rotations per second (H
The spare area SA23 whose z) is N23 is concentrically provided.

In this concentric area structure, each rotation zone 00 (UA00 + SA00) to 23 (UA23 + S).
In order to average the recording densities between A23) and secure a large recording capacity in the entire disc, the number of rotations in each constant rotation zone is N00>N01>...> N23.

Although the number of concentric zones is 24 (zones 00 to 23) here, the present invention can be implemented with a number other than 24.

When writing to the user area UA00 in the optical disc 10 having the configuration shown in FIG. 4, the management thereof (where in the user area UA00 the corresponding data is written, etc.) and the replacement processing when a defect occurs are the same. Perform in the rotation speed zone. Similarly, the user area UA0
The write management and defect management in 1 are performed in the same rotation speed zone, and the write management and defect management in the user area UA23 are performed in the same rotation speed zone.

By doing so, it is not necessary to switch the rotation speed of the disk 10 during the write management process or the replacement process, so that the writing process and the replacement process can be speeded up.

FIG. 5 is a diagram for explaining the layout of the RAM layer of the two-layer optical disc shown in FIG.

That is, the lead-in area 27 on the inner circumference side of the disk is composed of an emboss zone having a concave and convex light reflecting surface, a mirror zone having a flat surface (mirror surface), and a rewritable zone. The emboss zone includes a reference signal zone and a control data zone, and the mirror zone includes a connection zone.

The rewritable zone is a disc test zone, a drive test zone, and a disc ID (identifier).
It includes a zone and defect management areas DMA1 and DMA2.

Lead-out area 26 on the outer peripheral side of the disk
Are defect management areas DMA3 and DMA4, a disc ID (identifier) zone, a drive test zone,
It consists of rewritable zones including the disc test zone.

The data area 28 between the lead-in area 27 and the lead-out area 26 is divided into 24 annual ring-shaped zones 00 to 23. Each zone has a constant rotation speed, but different zones have different rotation speeds. Further, the number of sectors forming each zone also differs for each zone. Specifically, in the zone on the inner circumference side of the disk (zone 00, etc.), the rotation speed is high and the number of constituent sectors is small. On the other hand, the zone on the outer peripheral side of the disc (zone 23
Etc.) have a low rotation speed and a large number of constituent sectors. With such a layout, high-speed accessibility like CAV is realized in each zone, and high-density recording like CLV is realized in the entire zone.

FIG. 6 is a diagram for explaining the details of the lead-in portion and the lead-out portion in the layout of FIG.

In the control data zone of the embossed data zone, the type of DVD standard (DVD-ROM
-DVD-RAM, DVD-R, etc.) and part version, disk size and minimum read rate, and disk structure (1-layer ROM disk-1-layer RAM disk-
(2-layer ROM / RAM disc, etc.), recording density, data area allocation, descriptor of burst cutting area, linear velocity condition for designating exposure amount at recording, read power, peak power, bias Information about power and manufacture of the medium is recorded.

In other words, in this control data zone, information about the entire information storage medium such as the physical sector number indicating the recording start / recording end position and the recording power,
Information such as recording pulse width, erasing power, reproducing power, linear velocity at the time of recording / erasing, information on recording / reproducing / erasing characteristics, information on manufacturing of information storage medium such as serial number of individual disk, etc. It is recorded.

In the rewritable data zone of the lead-in and the lead-out, a unique disc name recording area for each medium, a trial recording area (for confirming recording and erasing conditions),
A management information recording area related to the defective area in the data area is provided. By using these areas, optimum recording can be performed on each disc.

FIG. 7 is a diagram for explaining the details of the data area portion in the layout of FIG.

The same number of groups are assigned to each of the 24 zones, and each group includes a pair of a user area used for data recording and a spare area used for replacement processing. The user area and the spare area of each group are contained in the zone of the same rotation speed, the smaller group number belongs to the high-speed rotation zone, and the larger group number belongs to the low-speed rotation zone. The group of low-speed rotation zones has more sectors than the group of high-speed rotation zones, but since the rotation radius of the disk is large in the low-speed rotation zone, the physical recording density on the disk 10 is spread over the entire zone (all groups). It becomes almost uniform.

In each group, the user area is arranged in the smaller sector number (that is, the inner circumference side on the disk), and the spare area is arranged in the larger sector number (outer circumference side on the disk). The method of assigning this sector number is based on the user area UA on the disk 10 of FIG.
And the spare area SA.

Next, a recording signal structure of information recorded on the information storage medium (DVD-RAM disk 10 or the like) and a method of creating the recording signal structure will be described. The content of the information recorded on the medium is called "information",
The structure or expression after scrambling or modulating the same information, that is, the connection of the states of "1" to "0" after the signal form is converted is expressed as "signal", and both are expressed. We will make appropriate distinctions.

FIG. 8 is a diagram for explaining the structure of the sectors included in the data area portion of FIG. One sector in FIG. 8 corresponds to one of the sector numbers in FIG. 7, and as shown in FIG.
It has a size of 048 bytes. Each sector is a disk 10
At the beginning, the header is engraved with embossing, and the sync code and modulated signal (video data, etc.) are alternately included.

Next, an ECC block processing method in the DVD-RAM disk 10 will be described.

FIG. 9 shows a recording unit of information included in the data area portion of FIG. 5 (ECC of error correction code).
It is a figure explaining a unit.

In an FAT (file allocation table) often used in a file system of an information storage medium (hard disk HDD, magneto-optical disk MO, etc.) for a personal computer, 256 bytes or 512 bytes are used.
Information is recorded on the information storage medium with bytes as the minimum unit.

On the other hand, CD-ROM and DVD-RO
In information storage media such as M and DVD-RAM, UDF (Universal Disk Format; details will be described later) is used as a file system, and here, information is recorded in the information storage medium with 2048 bytes as a minimum unit. This minimum unit is called a sector. That is, as shown in FIG. 9, 2048 bytes of information are recorded for each sector 501 on the information storage medium (optical disk 10) using the UDF.

Since CD-ROMs and DVD-ROMs are handled as bare disks without using cartridges, the surface of the information storage medium is easily scratched or dust is easily attached to the surface on the user side. There may be a case where a specific sector (for example, sector 501c in FIG. 9) cannot be reproduced (or cannot be recorded) due to the influence of dust or scratches on the surface of the information storage medium.

The DVD employs an error correction method (ECC using a product code) in consideration of such a situation. Specifically, one ECC (Error Correction Code) block 5 is provided for each 16 sectors (16 sectors from sector 501a to sector 501p in FIG. 9).
02 has a strong error correction function. As a result, even if an error occurs in the ECC block 502 such that the sector 501c cannot be reproduced, the error is corrected and all the information in the ECC block 502 can be correctly reproduced.

FIG. 10 is a diagram for explaining the relationship between zones and groups (see FIG. 7) in the data area of FIG.

The zones 00 to 23 in FIG. 5 are physically arranged on the disk 10 as shown in FIG. 4, and in addition to the data area (user area + spare area) actually used, It has a guard area that divides the data usage area between zones. On the other hand, the group of FIG. 7 is assigned to the data area (user area + spare area) actually used.

That is, in FIG. 10, the guard area 7
The group 00 separated by 11 is the user area UA0 starting from the physical sector number 031000h of the disk 10.
0 and spare area SA00, including guard area 7
The group 01 separated by 11 and the guard area 712 includes a user area UA01 and a spare area SA01. Similarly, the groups 23 separated by the guard area 713 on the outermost peripheral side of the disk 10 include a user area UA23 and a spare area SA23 ending with the last physical sector number of the disk 10.

The optical disk (D
When the VD-RAM disk) 10 is loaded on a disk drive (not shown), it is possible to perform a process of switching the rotation speed of the disk 10 while passing through the guard area. For example, an optical head (not shown) is a group 00
From the guard area 71 when seeking from group 01
The rotational speed of the disk 10 during passing 1 is from N00 to N0.
Switched to 1.

FIG. 11 is a diagram for explaining a method of setting a logical sector in the data area of FIG. Physically Figure 1
Although a guard area 0 is provided on the disk 10, the groups 00 to 23 are logically arranged (that is, viewed from the software that performs write control) in a dense array. In the arrangement of the groups 00 to 23, the smaller group number (the smaller physical sector number) is arranged on the inner circumference side (lead-in side) of the disk 10, and the larger group number (the larger physical sector number). ) Is arranged on the outer peripheral side (lead-out side) of the disk 10.

In this arrangement, the logical sector number of the spare area in the same group is not set in advance, and when a defect occurs in the user area, the logical sector number at the defective position of the user area before the replacement process is It is moved to the corresponding spare area position after the replacement process. However, regarding the physical sector number, both the user area and the spare area are set from the beginning.

Next, some methods for processing defects generated in the user area will be described. Before that, the defect management area (DMA 1 to DMA 1 in FIG. 5 or FIG. 6) necessary for defect processing is
4) and related matters will be explained.

[Defect Management Area] Defect Management Area (DM
A1 to DMA4) include information on the structure of the data area and defect management, and are composed of 32 sectors, for example. The two defect management areas (DMA1, DMA2) are arranged in the lead-in area 27 of the optical disk (DVD-RAM disk) 10, and the other two defect management areas (DMA3, DMA4) are in the lead-out area 26 of the optical disk 10. Is located in. Each defect management area (DM
A spare sector (spare sector) is appropriately added after A1 to DMA4).

Defect management areas (DMA1 to DMA4)
Consists of two ECC blocks. In the first ECC block of each defect management area (DMA1 to DMA4),
Definition information structure (DDS; Disc Definitio) of the disc 10
n Structure) and Primary Defect List (PDL)
Defect List) is included. Each defect management area (DMA
The second ECC block (1 to DMA4) includes a secondary defect list (SDL). 4 of 4 defect management areas (DMA1 to DMA4)
The one primary defect list (PDL) has the same content, and the four secondary defect lists (SDL) also have the same content.

Four defect management areas (DMA1 to DMA
The four definition information structures (DDS) of 4) have basically the same contents, but the PDL of each of the four defect management areas.
The pointers to SDL and SDL have individual contents.

Here, the DDS / PDL block is the DDS
And an ECC block including PDL. Also,
The SDL block means an ECC block including SDL.

Optical disc (DVD-RAM disc) 1
Each defect management area after initializing 0 (DMA1 to D
The contents of MA4) are as follows: (1) The first sector of each DDS / PDL block is DD
(2) The second sector of each DDS / PDL block is P
Include DL; (3) The first sector of each SDL block contains the SDL.

The block lengths of the primary defect list PDL and the secondary defect list SDL are determined by the number of respective entries. Each defect management area (DMA1 to DMA
The unused sector of 4) is overwritten with data 0FFh.
Also, all spare sectors are overwritten with 00h.

[Disc definition information] Definition information structure DDS
Consists of a table having a length of one sector. This DDS
Has the contents of defining the initialization method of the disk 10 and the start addresses of the PDL and SDL. DDS
Are recorded in the first sector of each defect management area (DMA) when the initialization of the disk 10 is completed.

[Partitioning] During initialization of the disk 10, the data area is divided into 24 consecutive groups 00.
~ 23. Except for the first zone 00 and the last zone 23, a plurality of buffer blocks are arranged at the head of each partitioned zone. Each group is designed to completely cover one zone except the buffer flocs.

Each group has a full block of data sectors (user areas) and a full block of spare sectors (spare areas) following it.

[Spare Sector] The defective sector in each data area is subjected to a predetermined defect management method (verification, slipping replacement, skipping replacement, linear replacement) described later.
It is replaced (replaced) with a normal sector. The spare sector block for this replacement is included in the spare area of each group in FIG.

The optical disk 10 can be initialized before use, but this initialization can be executed regardless of whether verification is performed.

The defective sector is subjected to slipping replacement processing (Sl
ipping Replacement Algorithm), skipping replacement algorithm (Skipping Replacement Algorithm) or linear replacement algorithm (Linear Replacement Algorithm). By these processing (Algorithm), the PDL
And the total number of entries listed in the SDL is set to a predetermined number, for example, 4092 or less.

[Initialization] Upon initialization of the disc 10, four defect management areas (DMA1 to DMA4) are recorded in advance before the first use of the disc. The data area has 24 groups (group 00 in FIG. 7).
~ 23). Each group includes a large number of blocks for data sectors (user areas), and a large number of spare blocks following the blocks.
These spare blocks can be used for replacement of defective sectors.

At the time of initialization, each group can be verified (certified). As a result, the defective sector found in the initialization stage is identified and skipped when used.

Parameters of all definition information structure DDS are recorded in four DDS sectors. The primary defect list PDL and the secondary defect list SDL are recorded in four defect management areas (DMA1 to DMA4). On the first initialization, the update counter in the SDL is set to 00h and all reserved blocks are filled with 00h.

[Verification / Certification] When verifying the disk 10, data sectors (user areas) and spare sectors (spare areas) in each group.
Will be verified. This verification can be performed by reading / writing the sectors in each group.

Defective sectors found during verification are processed, for example, by slipping alternation. This defective sector must not be used for reading or writing.

When the spare sectors in the zone of the disk 10 are used up during the verification, the disk 10 is determined to be defective, and the disk 10 is not used thereafter.

When the disk 10 is used for data storage of a computer, the above initialization + verification is performed, but when it is used for video recording, video recording is suddenly performed without performing the above initialization + verification. It is possible.

FIG. 12 is a diagram for explaining the replacement process (slipping replacement method) in the data area of FIG.

When the verification is executed, the slipping replacement process is individually applied to all the groups in the data area.

The defective data sector (for example, m defective sectors 731) found during the verification is replaced (or replaced) with the first normal sector (user area 723b) following the defective sector (replacement processing 734). ). As a result, slipping (logical sector number backward shift) for m sectors occurs toward the end of the corresponding group. Similarly, if n defective sectors 732 are found thereafter, the defective sectors are replaced with the following normal sectors (user area 723c). If there is a defect in the last data sector (user area 723c),
The spare sectors of the group (in the spare area 724, in order from the recording use area 743 having the smallest logical sector number) are slipped.

The address of the defective sector is written in the primary defect list (PDL). Defective sectors shall not be used for recording user data. If no defective sector is found during verification, nothing is written to the PDL.

Last data sector (user area 723
If the spare area 724 is slipped beyond c), the address of the spare sector in which the defect is found during the verification is written in the PDL. In this case, the number of usable spare sectors (sectors of the unused area 736 of the spare area) decreases.

When m + n defective sectors are found in the user area of the corresponding group, the m + n sectors are slipped onto the recording use area 743 of the spare area 724, and as a result, the unused area 726 of the spare area 724.
Is reduced by m + n sectors.

If the sectors of the spare area 724 of a certain group are used up in the replacement process during verification, it is considered that verification has failed.

When the verification is successful, the user areas 723a to 723c having no defective sector and the recording use area 743 of the spare area become the information recording use area (logical sector number setting area 735) of the group, and the logical areas continuous to this area A sector number is assigned.

FIG. 13 is a diagram for explaining another replacement process (skipping replacement method) in the data area of FIG.

The skipping replacement process can be applied to defects or deterioration caused by repeated reading and writing during use of the disk 10. This skipping replacement process is executed in units of 16 sectors, that is, in units of ECC blocks (32 kbyte units because one sector is 2 kbytes).

For example, if one defective ECC block 741 is found after the user area 723a composed of normal ECC blocks, this defective ECC block 7 is found.
The data scheduled to be recorded in 41 is recorded in place of the ECC block in the normal user area 723b immediately after that (replacement process 744). Similarly, if k defective ECC blocks 742 are found, these defective blocks 742
The data that was scheduled to be recorded in (1) is recorded instead of the k ECC blocks in the normal user area 723c immediately after.

Thus, when 1 + k defective ECC blocks are found in the user area of the corresponding group,
(1 + k) ECC blocks are skipped to the recording use extension area 743 of the spare area 724. as a result,
The unused area 726 of the spare area 724 is (1 + k) E
The CC block is reduced and the remaining unused area 746 is reduced. The unused area 726 of the spare area 724
Is reduced by m + n sectors.

If the spare area 724 of the corresponding group is used up in the replacement process during the verification, it is considered that the verification has failed.

When the verification is successful, the user areas 723a to 723c having no defective ECC block are the information recording use part of the group (logical sector number setting area 725).
Becomes And defective ECC blocks 741 and 74
The second logical sector number setting position moves in parallel to the extension area 743 of the spare area 724. At this time, the user areas 723a to 723c having no defective ECC block are kept unchanged regardless of the presence or absence of a defect, as the logical sector numbers assigned when there is no defect.

Parallel movement of the logical sector number setting position 7
45 skipped to the extension region 743 (1
+ K) the logical sector number of the sector forming the ECC blocks is the defective ECC block 741 and k consecutive ECs.
It will carry the logical sector number pre-allocated to the C block.

In this skipping replacement processing method, even if the disk 10 has not been verified (certified) in advance, if an error is found in units of ECC blocks, immediately,
It can be performed by executing the replacement process.

FIG. 14 is a diagram for explaining still another replacement process (linear replacement method) in the data area of FIG.

The linear replacement process can be applied to both the defective sector and the deteriorated sector generated by the repeated reading and writing after the verification. This linear replacement process is also performed in units of 16 sectors.
That is, it is executed in ECC block units (32 kbyte units).

In the linear replacement process, the defective ECC block 751 is replaced (replaced) with the first usable normal spare block in the corresponding group (the first recording use area 753 of the spare area 724) (replacement process 758). . If there are no spare blocks left in the group,
That is, when there are less than 16 sectors remaining in the group, that fact is recorded in the secondary defect list (SDL). Then, the defective block is replaced (replaced) with the first usable normal spare block in another group. The address of the defective block and the address of its final replacement (replacement) block are written to the SDL.

As described above, when there is no spare block in the corresponding group, that fact is recorded in the SDL. No spare block in group 00 means SD
This is indicated by setting "1" in a predetermined bit of L.
When this predetermined bit is set to "0", it indicates that a spare block still remains in the group 00. This predetermined bit is provided corresponding to group 00. Another predetermined bit corresponds to group 01. Similarly, 24 individual predetermined bits are 2
It corresponds to each of the four groups 00 to 23.

After the verification, if a defect is found in the data block (ECC block), the block is regarded as a defective block, and that fact is listed as a new entry in the SDL.

When the replacement block listed in the SDL is later found to be a defective block, it is registered in the SDL by using the direct pointer method. In this direct pointer method, the address of the replacement block is changed from that of the defective block to a new one, thereby correcting the SDL entry in which the replaced defective block is registered.

When updating the secondary defect list SDL, the update counter in the SDL is incremented by one.

[Unverified Disc] The skipping replacement process or the linear replacement process can be applied to the defective sector found in the unverified disk 10. This replacement process is performed in units of 16 sectors (that is, 1 EC
It is executed in units of C blocks.

For example, in the case of the linear replacement process, the defective block is replaced (replaced) with the first usable normal spare block in the corresponding group. If no spare block remains in the group, that fact is recorded in the secondary defect list (SDL). Then, the defective block is replaced (replaced) with the first usable normal spare block in another group. The address of the defective block and the address of its last replacement (replacement) block are SD
Written to L.

When there is no spare block in the corresponding group, that fact is recorded in the SDL. The fact that there is no spare block in group 00 is indicated by setting "1" in a predetermined bit of that group. When this predetermined bit is set to "0", the group 00
Indicates that there are still spare blocks left inside.

If the address list of defective sectors exists in the primary defect list (PDL), these defective sectors are skipped when the disc is used, even if the disc has not been verified. This process is similar to the process for a verified disc.

[Write Processing] When data is written to a sector of a certain group, the defective sectors listed in the primary defect list (PDL) are skipped. Then, according to the slipping replacement process described above, the data to be written in the defective sector is written in the next data sector. If the block to be written is the secondary defect list (SD
If it is listed in L), the data to be written to that block is written to the spare block designated by the SDL according to the above-described linear replacement processing or skipping replacement processing.

In the environment of a personal computer, a linear replacement process is used when recording a personal computer file, and a skipping replacement process is used when recording an AV file.

[Primary Defect List; PDL] The primary defect list (PDL) is always recorded on the optical disc 10, but its contents may be empty.

The list of defective sectors may be obtained by means other than verification of the disk 10.

The PDL contains the addresses of all defective sectors specified at initialization. These addresses are listed in ascending order. PDL should be recorded with the minimum required number of sectors. Then, the PDL starts from the first user byte of the first sector. All unused bytes in the last sector of PDL are set to 0FFh.
The following information will be written to this PDL: Byte position PDL content 0000h; PDL identifier 1 01h; PDL identifier 2 Number of addresses in PDL; MSB 3 Number of addresses in PDL; LSB 4 First Address of defective sector (sector number; MSB) 5 Address of first defective sector (sector number) 6 Address of first defective sector (sector number) 7 Address of first defective sector (sector number; LSB) x-3 Last Address of defective sector (sector number; MSB) x-2 Address of last defective sector (sector number) x-1 Address of last defective sector (sector number) x Address of last defective sector (sector number; LSB) * Note: When the 2nd and 3rd bytes are set to 00h, the 3rd byte is PDL Is the end of.

In the case of the primary defect list (PDL) for multiple sectors, the address list of defective sectors is
It follows the first byte of the second and subsequent sectors. That is, the PDL identifier and the number of PDL addresses are
Only present in the first sector.

Second byte and third if PDL is empty
Byte set to 00h, 4th to 20th bytes
47 bytes are set to FFh.

FFh is written in the unused sectors in the DDS / PDL block.

[Secondary Defect List; SDL] The secondary defect list (SDL) is generated in the initialization stage and is used after the certification. SDL is recorded on all disks during initialization.

This SDL includes a plurality of entries in the form of an address of a defective data block and an address of a spare block which replaces this defective block.
Eight bytes are allocated to each entry in the SDL. That is, 4 bytes are allocated to the address of the defective block, and the remaining 4 bytes are allocated to the address of the replacement block.

The address list includes the first addresses of the defective block and its replacement block. The addresses of defective blocks are given in ascending order.

The SDL is recorded with the minimum required number of sectors, and this SDL starts from the first user data byte of the first sector. All unused bytes in the last sector of SDL are set to 0FFh. Subsequent information is recorded in each of the four SDLs.

When the replacement block listed in the SDL is later found to be a defective block, it is registered in the SDL by using the direct pointer method. In this direct pointer method, the address of the replacement block is changed from that of the defective block to a new one, thereby correcting the SDL entry in which the replaced defective block is registered. At that time, the number of entries in the SDL is not changed by the deteriorated sector.

The following information will be written in this SDL: Byte position SDL content 0 (00); SDL identifier 1 (02); SDL identifier 2 (00) 3 (01) 4 Update counter MSB 5 update counter 6 update counter 7 update counter; LSB 8 to 26 spare (00h) 27 to 29 flag indicating that all spare sectors in the zone are used up 30 number of entries in SDL; MSB 31 number of entries in SDL; LSB 32 Address of first defective block (sector number; MSB) 33 Address of first defective block (sector number) 34 Address of first defective block (sector number) 35 Address of first defective block (sector number; LSB) 36 First Replacement block address (sector number; MSB) 37 Address of replacement block (sector number) 38 Address of first replacement block (sector number) 39 Address of first replacement block (sector number; LSB) y-7 Address of last defective block (sector number; MSB) y- 6 Last defective block address (sector number) y-5 Last defective block address (sector number) y-4 Last defective block address (sector number; LSB) y-3 Last replacement block address (sector) No .; MSB) y-2 Address of last replacement block (sector number) y-1 Address of last replacement block (sector number) y Address of last replacement block (sector number; LSB) * Note: 30th to 30th Each entry in the 31st byte is 8 bytes long.

In the case of the secondary defect list (SDL) for the multi-sector, the address list of the defective block and the replacement block follows the first byte of the second and subsequent sectors. That is, the 0th byte to the 31st byte of the SDL contents exist only in the first sector.

In addition, FFh is written in the unused sector in the SDL block.

FIG. 15 is a diagram for explaining a method of setting a logical sector in the ROM layer portion of the double-layer optical disc shown in FIG. Here, in the volume space from the lead-in area to the lead-out area, the physical sector number PSN and the logical sector number LSN of the data area of layer 0 are made to correspond 1: 1. The sector structure of the ROM layer can be applied to a DVD-ROM disc having a single layer structure.

FIG. 16 is a diagram for explaining a method of setting the logical sector of the ROM layer / RAM layer in the two-layer optical disc of FIG. In the volume space from the lead-in area to the lead-out area, the layer 0 data area (reproducing ROM layer) is arranged in the smaller physical sector number PSN (first half of the volume space), and the larger physical sector number PSN is arranged. On the other side (the latter half of the volume space), the data area of Layer 1 (recording RAM layer) is arranged. Here, the physical sector number PSN of the first half ROM layer + the physical sector number PSN of the second half RAM layer is
It corresponds to the logical sector number LSN of a single volume space.

FIG. 17 is a diagram for explaining another method of setting the logical sector of the ROM layer / RAM layer in the dual-layer optical disc of FIG. The ROM layer is arranged in the first half of the volume space and the RAM layer is arranged in the latter half of the volume space, which is the same as in the case of FIG. 16, but the physical position of the joint between the ROM layer and the RAM layer is different.

That is, in FIG. 16, both the ROM layer of layer 0 and the RAM layer of layer 1 increase in physical sector number PSN from the inner circumference to the outer circumference of the disc. On the other hand, in the case of FIG. 17, the physical sector number PSN increases from the inner circumference of the disc to the outer circumference in the ROM layer of layer 0, but the physical sector number PSN increases from the outer circumference of the disc to the inner circumference of the RAM layer of layer 1. The sector number PSN is increased. However, the physical sector number P of the ROM layer
The physical sector number PSN of the SN + RAM layer corresponds to the logical sector number LSN of a single volume space.

The example of FIG. 15 has a one-layer structure (layer 0).
16 shows the case of one disc, and the examples of FIGS. 16 and 17 show the case of one disc having a two-layer structure (layer 0 and layer 1). Although not shown, three layers (layer 0 to layer 0)
All the layers of one layer 2) or four layers (layer 0 to layer 3) are made into one continuous volume space, that is, all the physical sector numbers PSN of each layer are connected to make one continuous logical space. It is naturally possible to correspond to the sector number LSN.

When a disc changer (or disc pack) capable of continuously handling a plurality of discs is adopted, the physical sector numbers PSN of each layer of all the discs are connected in total to form one continuous logical sector number. It can also correspond to the LSN.

As described above, the logical sector number LSN of a volume including all the physical sector numbers of a plurality of layers of a plurality of disks is likely to be a considerably large value, but its address management is performed in units of 32 kbyte ECC block (AV address described later). By adopting (units), you can do it without difficulty.

FIG. 18 shows, for example, the optical disk (particularly a DVD-RAM or DVD-RW disk) 10 shown in FIG.
It is a figure explaining an example of the hierarchical structure of the information recorded on.

The lead-in area 27 includes an embossed data zone having a light-reflecting surface having an uneven shape, a mirror zone having a flat surface (mirror surface), and a rewritable data zone capable of rewriting information. .

Data recording area (volume space)
Reference numeral 28 is composed of volume / file management information 70 and a data area DA which can be rewritten by the user.

In the data area DA sandwiched between the lead-in area 27 and the lead-out area 26, mixed recording of computer data and AV data is possible. The recording order of computer data and AV data and the size of each recording information are arbitrary, and the place where the computer data is recorded is defined as the computer data area (DA1, DA
The area in which the AV data is recorded is called an AV data area (DA2).

The volume / file management information 70 contains
Information about the entire volume, volume space 28
The number of files of computer data (personal computer data) and the number of files relating to AV data, information regarding recording layer information, and the like are recorded.

In particular, the recording layer information includes the following: * number of constituent layers (for example, one ROM / RAM two-layer disc has two layers, and one ROM-only two-layer disc also has two layers) N single-sided single-layer discs are n layers in both ROM and RAM); * Logical sector number range table assigned to each layer (indicating capacity of each layer); * Characteristics of each layer (DVD-RAM Disk, ROM
/ RAM dual-layer disc RAM section, DVD-R, CD-ROM, CD-R, etc.) * Allocation zone table in the RAM area for each layer in zone units (rewritable area for each layer) Capacity information is also included); and * Unique ID information for each layer (to discover disk exchange in multiple disk pack).

By using the recording layer information including the above contents, continuous logical sector numbers can be set and handled as one large volume space even for a multiple disc pack or a ROM / RAM two-layer disc.

Computer data, video data, audio data and the like are recorded in the data area DA. In the volume / file management information 70, information about the file of audio / video data recorded in the data area DA or the entire volume is recorded.

The lead-out area 26 is also constructed so that information can be rewritten.

The following information, for example, is recorded in advance in the embossed data zone of the lead-in area 27: (1) DVD-ROM, DVD-RAM (or DVD
-RW), DVD-R and other disc types; 12 cm,
Disc size such as 8 cm; recording density; physical sector number indicating recording start / recording end position and other information about the entire information storage medium; (2) recording power and recording pulse width; erasing power; reproducing power; recording / erasing Recording / playback of time linear velocity, etc.
Information regarding erase characteristics; and (3) Information regarding the manufacture of individual information storage media, such as the serial number.

The rewritable zones of the lead-in area 27 and the lead-out area 26 include, for example, the following areas: (4) Area for recording the unique disc name of each information storage medium; 5) Trial recording area (for confirming recording and erasing conditions); and (6) Area for recording management information about defective area in data area DA.

In the areas (4) to (6) described above, recording by a DVD recording device (DVD video recorder dedicated machine or personal computer with a DVD video processing board and processing software installed, etc.) becomes possible. There is.

In the data area DA, audio / video data DA2 and computer data DA1 and DA3 can be mixed and recorded.

Computer data and audio
The recording order of video data and the size of recorded information are arbitrary. It is possible to record only computer data or only audio / video data in the data area DA.

Audio / video data area DA2
Is control information DA21, video object DA22,
The picture object DA23 and the audio object DA24 are included.

At the first position of the audio / video data area DA2, there is an anchor pointer AP having information indicating the recording position of the control information DA21. In the information recording / reproducing system, this audio / video data area D
When using the information of A2, first, the recording position of the control information DA21 is checked from the anchor pointer AP, and the control information DA21 is read by accessing the recording position.

The video object DA22 includes information on the contents (contents) of the recorded video data.

The picture object DA23 includes still picture information such as a still picture, a slide picture, and a reduced picture (thumbnail picture) representing the contents of the video object DA22 used at the time of searching / editing.

The audio object DA24 includes information on the contents (contents) of the recorded audio data.

The recording information of the reproduction target (content) of the audio / video data is included in the video object set VOBS of FIG. 19 described later.

The control information DA21 includes AV data control information DA210, reproduction control information DA211, and recording control information D.
A 212, edit control information DA 213, and reduced image control information DA 214 are included.

The AV data control information DA210 indicates information for managing the data structure in the video object DA22 and information for recording position on the information storage medium (optical disk etc.) 10 and the number of times the control information is rewritten. Contains the information CIRWNs.

The reproduction control information DA211 includes information necessary for reproduction and has a function of designating the connection of the program chains PGC. Specifically, information regarding a playback sequence in which PGCs are integrated; in relation to this information, the information storage medium 10 is regarded as, for example, one tape (digital video cassette DVC or video tape VTR) and indicates "pseudo recording position". Information (sequence of continuously reproducing all recorded cells); Information regarding simultaneous reproduction of plural screens having different video information; Search information (cell ID corresponding to each search category and a table of start time in the cell) Information that is recorded and allows the user to directly access the corresponding video information by selecting a category) and the like are included in the reproduction control information DA211.

By the reproduction control information DA211, the AV
File name of file, path of directory name, P
A GC ID and a cell ID can be designated.

The recording control information DA212 includes control information (program reservation recording information, etc.) necessary for recording (recording and / or recording).

The editing control information DA213 includes control information necessary for editing. For example, special editing information (EDL information such as relevant time setting information and special editing contents) in each PGC unit, or file conversion information (a specific portion in the AV file is converted to the AVI file in FIG. 23 and the file storage position after conversion). Information specifying) is included.

The reduced image control information DA214 includes management information and reduced image data relating to a reduced image (thumbnail picture) for searching or editing a desired place in the video data.

The reduced image control information DA214 can include a picture address table, reduced image data, and the like. The reduced image control information DA214 may also include menu index information, index picture information, slide and still picture information, information picture information, defect area information, wallpaper picture information, etc. as lower layer information of the picture address table and reduced image data. Yes (not shown).

The AV data control information DA210 includes an allocation map table AMT, program chain control information PGCCI, and cell time control information CTCI.

The allocation map table AMT is
It includes information about address setting according to the actual data arrangement on the information storage medium (optical disk 10 etc.), identification of recorded / unrecorded areas, and the like. In the example of FIG. 18, the allocation map table AMT includes a user area allocation descriptor UAD, a spare area allocation descriptor SAD and an address conversion table ACT (see FIG. 65 for another example of the allocation map AMT).

Program chain control information PGCCI
Contains information about the video playback program (sequence).

Further, the cell time control information CTCI includes information on the data structure of the basic unit (cell) of video information. The cell time control information CTCI includes cell time control general information CTCGI, cell time search information CTSI,
It includes m pieces of cell time search information CTI # 1 to CTI # m.

Cell time control general information CTCGI includes information on individual cells. Cell time search information CTSI
Is map information indicating a description position (AV address) of cell time information corresponding to a specific cell ID designated.

Each cell time search information (CTI # m) is composed of cell time general information CTGI # m and cell VOBU table CVT # m. This cell time search information (CT
Details of I # m) will be described later with reference to FIG.

The outline of FIG. 18 is as described above, but the supplementary explanation for each information is summarized below.

<1> Volume / file management information 70
Contains the following information: Volume Space 28
Information about the whole; Number of files of computer data (DA1, DA3) and files of audio / video data (AV data DA2) included in the volume space 28; Information storage medium (DVD-RAM disc, DVD-ROM disc or DVD- ROM
/ RAM multi-layer disc) recording layer information;

Here, as the recording layer information, the number of constituent layers (for example, one RAM / ROM two-layer disc is 2
Layer, ROM two-layer disc is also two layers, single-sided disc n is counted as n layer); Logical sector number range table assigned to each layer (corresponding to capacity of each layer); Characteristics of each layer (example : DVD-RAM disc, RAM part of RAM / ROM dual-layer disc, CD
-ROM, CD-R, etc.) Allocation logical sector number range table in zone units in the RAM area for each layer (including rewritable area capacity information for each layer); unique ID information for each layer ( For example, to discover a disk exchange in a Multiple Disk Pack); Others recorded, Multiple Disk Pack or RAM
A continuous logical sector number is set for a / ROM dual-layer disc so that it can be handled as one large volume space.

<2> The reproduction control information DA211 contains PG
Information about playback sequence in which C is integrated; PGC above
In connection with the reproduction sequence in which the
"Information indicating a pseudo recording position" where 0 is regarded as one tape like a video tape recorder VTR or a digital video cassette DVC (a sequence in which all recorded cells are continuously reproduced); different video information Information related to simultaneous playback of multiple screens; search information (a table of cell IDs corresponding to each search category and start times in the cells is recorded, and the user can select a category to directly access the corresponding video information. Information); etc. are recorded.

<3> Program reservation recording information; etc. are recorded in the recording control information DA212.

<4> Each P is included in the edit control information DA213.
Special editing information in GC units (corresponding time setting information and special editing contents are described as editing library (EDL) information); file conversion information (special portion in AV file is specially edited on PC such as AVI file) Information that specifies the location where the converted file is stored and the converted file is stored);

FIG. 19 shows the cell structure of the video object and the program chain P in the information hierarchical structure of FIG.
It is a figure which illustrates the example of correspondence with GC. In this information hierarchical structure, the video object DA22 is composed of the video object set VOBS. This VOBS
Have contents corresponding to one or more program chains PGC # 1 to #k each of which specifies a cell reproduction order by a different method.

Video Object Set (VOBS)
Is defined as a set of one or more video objects (VOBs). Video object set VOBS
The video object VOB inside is used for the same purpose.

For example, a VOBS for a menu is usually
One VOB is configured to store a plurality of menu screen display data. On the other hand, a VOBS for a title set is usually composed of a plurality of VOBs.

Here, the VOBs that compose the video object set for title set (VTSTT_VOBS)
Can be considered to be equivalent to the video data of the performance of the band, for example, when a concert video of a certain rock band is taken as an example. In this case, by designating VOB, the concert performance tune of the band, for example, the third tune can be reproduced.

Further, the VOB which constitutes the video object set VTSM_VOBS for the menu stores the menu data of all the songs of the concert performance songs of the band, and according to the display of the menu, a specific song, for example, an encore performance song is reproduced. be able to.

It should be noted that in a normal video program, one VOB can form one VOBS. In this case, one video stream is completed by one VOB.

On the other hand, for example, in an animation collection of multiple stories or a movie in the omnibus format, one VO
It is possible to provide a plurality of video streams (a plurality of program chains PGC) corresponding to each story in the BS. In this case, the VO corresponding to each video stream
Will be stored in B. At that time, the audio stream and the sub-picture stream related to each video stream are also completed in each VOB.

The VOB has an identification number (VOB_IDN #
i; i = 0 to i) is added, and the VOB can be specified by this identification number. The VOB is composed of one or more cells. A normal video stream is composed of a plurality of cells, but a menu video stream may be composed of one cell. In each cell,
The identification number (C_IDN # j) is added as in the case of VOB.

FIG. 20 is a diagram for explaining the logical structure of information (corresponding to the lead-in data portion of FIG. 6 although the expression method is different) recorded in the lead-in area of the optical disc of FIG.

When the disc 10 is set in a DVD video recorder (or a DV video player, not shown) not shown, the information in the lead-in area 27 is read first. In the lead-in area 27, predetermined reference codes and control data are recorded in the ascending order of sector numbers.

The reference code of the lead-in area 27 includes a predetermined pattern (a repeating pattern of a specific symbol "172") and is composed of two error correction code blocks (ECC blocks). Each ECC block is composed of 16 sectors. These two ECC blocks (32 sectors) are generated by adding scrambled data. When the reference code added with the scrambled data is reproduced, a filter operation on the reproducing side is performed so that a specific data symbol (“172”) is reproduced to ensure the accuracy of subsequent data reading. .

The control data of the lead-in area 27 is 1
It is composed of 92 ECC blocks. In the control data portion, the contents of 16 sectors in each block are
It has been recorded 192 times repeatedly.

FIG. 21 is a diagram for explaining an example of the contents of control data recorded in the lead-in area of FIG.
This control data composed of 16 sectors includes physical format information in the first 1 sector (2048 bytes), and thereafter includes disc manufacturing information and content provider information.

FIG. 22 is a view for explaining an example of the contents of the 2048-byte physical format information (corresponding to the control data zone portion of FIG. 6 although the expression method is different) included in the control data of FIG.

[0200] At the first byte position "0", "book type & part version" indicating which version of the DVD standard the recording information complies with is described.

At the second byte position "1", the size (12 cm, 8 cm, etc.) of the recording medium (optical disk 10) and the minimum read rate are described. Read-only DV
For D-video, the minimum read rate is 2.52M
Although bps, 5.04 Mbps and 10.08 Mbps are specified, other minimum read rates are also reserved. For example, when a DVD video recorder capable of variable bit rate recording is recorded at an average bit rate of 2 Mbps, the minimum read rate can be reduced to 1.5 to 1.8 M by using the reserved portion.
It can be set to bps.

At the third byte position "2", the disc structure of the recording medium (optical disc 10) (the number of recording layers, track pitch, recording layer type, etc.) is described. Depending on the type of the recording layer, how many layers of the disc 10 the DVD-ROM has, the DVD-R, and the DVD-RA.
It is possible to identify whether it is M (or DVD-RW).

At the fourth byte position "3", the recording density (linear density and track density) of the recording medium (optical disk 10) is written. The linear density is the recording length per bit (0.267 μm / bit or 0.29
3 μm / bit). Also, the track density is
The adjacent track spacing (0.74 μm / track or 0.80 μm / track, etc.) is shown. DVD-RAM
Alternatively, a reserve part is also provided at the fourth byte position "3" so that different numerical values can be designated as the DVD-R linear density and track density.

At the fifth byte position "4 to 15", the start sector number and end sector number of the data area 28 of the recording medium (optical disc 10) are recorded.

A burst cutting area (BCA) descriptor is written in the sixth byte position "16".
This BCA is optionally applied only to DVD-ROM discs, and is an area for storing recording information after the disc manufacturing process is completed.

At the seventh byte position "17-20",
The free space of the recording medium (optical disc 10) is described.
For example, the disk 10 is a DVD-RAM with single-sided single-layer recording
If it is a disc, this position on disc 10
Information indicating 2.6 Gbytes (or the number of sectors corresponding to this number of bytes) is described. If the disk 10 is a double-sided recording DVD-RAM disk, at this position,
Information indicating 5.2 Gbytes (or the number of sectors corresponding to this number of bytes) is described.

The eighth byte position "21 to 31" and the ninth byte position "32 to 2047" are reserved so that they can be used for another purpose.

FIG. 23 is a view for explaining an example of the directory structure of information (data files) recorded on the optical disc of FIG.

Similar to the hierarchical file structure adopted by the general-purpose operating system of a computer, the subdirectory of the video title set VTS, the subdirectory of the audio title set ATS, and the audio / video information AVI are stored under the root directory. The subdirectory and the subdirectory of the video RAM file are connected.

Then, in the subdirectory of the video title set VTS, various video files (VMG
I, VMGM, VTSI, VTSM, VTS, etc.) are arranged and each file is managed in an orderly manner. Specific files (eg specific VT
S) can be accessed by specifying the path from the root directory to the file.

In a system in which a DVD processing board and processing software are installed in a personal computer, a video file handled by the personal computer is
It can be stored in the VI directory, and an AV file containing management information can be stored in the video RAM directory.

In such a personal computer system, the PGC sequence in the AV file (PG in FIG.
C # 1-PGC # k) to DVD video format and convert it to video title set VT
It can also be saved in a VTS file in the S directory.

The method of accessing the data (file) in the AVI directory and the video RAM directory can be the same as the method of accessing a normal file (data) in a personal computer. Generally, it is accessed by designating a path from the root directory to a target file (data). However, in a personal computer in which system software adopting the hypertext structure is installed, for example, a video RAM is stored in the AVI directory. It is also possible to directly access the data in the directory. Alternatively, the video title set VTS can be accessed from the video RAM directory. As a result, the DVD in the ROM layer is recorded when recording is performed on the RAM layer using the ROM / RAM dual layer disc 10.
It is also possible to insert video cells into the recording in the RAM layer.

DVD-RA as shown in FIG. 1 or FIG.
The M disc (or DVD-R disc) 10 is shown in FIG.
3 is pre-formatted so as to have a directory structure of 3, and the pre-formatted disc 10 is DV
It can be marketed as an unused disc (raw disc) for D-video recording.

For example, the root directory of the pre-formatted raw disc 10 may include a subdirectory called a video title set or audio / video data. This subdirectory is a menu data file (VMGM, VTSM or reduced image control information DA for storing predetermined menu information).
214 etc.) can be further included.

Alternatively, the disk 10 is a ROM / RAM
In the case of a two-layer disc, system software having the directory structure shown in FIG. 23 and necessary application software are pre-embossed in the ROM layer,
When the user uses the disc, the necessary portion of the system software in the ROM layer can be copied to the RAM layer to use the disc 10.

Alternatively, the directory structure of FIG. 23 can be recorded in advance in the volume / file management information 70 of FIG. Then, when the RAM layer is initialized, the directory structure information of the volume / file management information 70 can be copied to the RAM layer and used.

FIG. 24 shows the video object D of FIG.
It is a figure which illustrates the hierarchical structure of the information contained in A22.

As shown in FIG. 24, each cell (for example, cell #m) forming the video object DA22 is composed of one or more video object units (VOBU). And each video object unit
It is configured as a set (pack row) of a video pack, a sub-picture pack, an audio pack and a dummy pack.

Each of these packs has a size of 2048 bytes and is a minimum unit for performing data transfer processing. Further, the minimum unit for performing logical processing is a cell unit, and the logical processing is performed in this cell unit.

Video object unit VOBU
Of the video object unit VOBU corresponds to the playback time of video data composed of one or more video groups (group of pictures; GOP for short), and the playback time is 0.4 seconds to 1 second. It is set within the range of 2 seconds. 1 GOP is screen data that is normally about 0.5 seconds according to the MPEG standard and is compressed so as to reproduce about 15 frame images during that time.

When the video object unit VOBU includes video data, a GOP (MPE) composed of a video pack, sub-picture pack, audio pack, etc.
G standard) is arranged to form a video data stream. However, regardless of the number of GOPs, GO
The video object unit VOBU is defined based on the playback time of P.

[0223] Even if the reproduction data is only the audio and / or sub-picture data that does not include the video, the reproduction data is configured with the video object unit VOBU as one unit. For example, when the video object unit VOBU is composed of only audio packs, the audio pack to be played within the playback time of the video object unit VOBU to which the audio data belongs is, as in the case of the video object of the video data. Video object unit VOB
Stored in U.

The packs constituting each video object unit VOBU have the same data structure except for the dummy pack. Taking an audio pack as an example, as illustrated in FIG. 24, a pack header is placed at the beginning, a packet header is placed next, a substream ID is placed next, and audio data is placed last. It In such a pack structure, information of the presentation time stamp PTS indicating the start time of the first frame in the packet is written in the packet header.

By the way, a video title set V including a video object DA22 having a structure as shown in FIG.
In a DVD video recorder capable of recording a TS (or a video program) on the optical disc 10, there are cases where it is desired to edit the recorded contents after recording the VTS. In order to respond to this request, a dummy pack can be appropriately inserted into each VOBU. This dummy pack can be used when recording editing data later.

Information on each of the cells # 1 to #m shown in FIG. 24 is recorded in the cell time control information CTCI of FIG. 18, and the contents thereof are the cell time information CTI as shown in FIG. # 1 to CTI # m (information regarding each cell); cell time search information CTSI (map information indicating a description position (AV address) of cell time information corresponding to a specific cell ID when specified); and It is cell time control general information CTCGI (information on the entire cell information).

Also, each cell time information (for example, CTI #
m) is cell time general information (CTGI # m), respectively.
And a cell VOBU table (CVT # m).

Next, the data structure in the video object DA22 will be described.

The minimum basic unit of video information is called a cell. The data in the video object DA22 is configured as an aggregate of one or more cells # 1 to #m as shown in FIG.

MPEG2 (or MPEG1) is often used as a video information compression technique in the video object DA22. In MPEG, video information is divided into groups called GOPs at intervals of about 0.5 seconds,
Video information is compressed in units of GOP. This G
A video information compression unit called a video object unit VOBU is formed in almost the same size as the OP in synchronization with the GOP.

In the present invention, this VOBU size is EC
It is adjusted to an integral multiple of the C block size (32 kbytes) (one of the important features of the present invention).

[0232] Further, each VOBU is divided into packs of 2048 bytes, and raw video information (video data), audio information (audio data), sub-picture information (caption data, menu data, etc.) is provided for each pack. ,
Dummy information and the like are recorded. Those are video packs,
It is recorded in the form of audio packs, sub-picture packs and dummy packs.

[0233] Here, the dummy pack is for post-addition of information to be additionally recorded after recording (memo information for inserting after-recording information in the audio pack and exchanging with the dummy pack is stored in the sub-picture pack as sub-picture information). In each VOBU for the purpose of use, such as inserting and exchanging with a dummy pack; in order to match the size of VOBU to an integer multiple of ECC block size (32 kbytes) Has been inserted into.

In each pack, a pack header, a packet header (and a substream I) are placed in front of the object data (audio data in the case of an audio pack).
D) are arranged in this order.

In the DVD video standard, the audio pack and the sub-picture pack include a substream ID between the packet header and the object data.

In addition, a time code for time management is recorded in the packet header. Taking an audio packet as an example, as this time code, PTS (Presentation Time Stamp) information in which the start time of the first audio frame in the packet is recorded is inserted in a form as shown in FIG. There is.

FIG. 25 shows the structure of the contents of the dummy pack of FIG. 24 (one dummy pack). That is,
The dummy pack 89 of one pack has a pack header 891.
And a packet header 892 having a predetermined stream ID
And padding data 893 filled with a predetermined code (invalid data). (The packet header 892 and the padding data 893 constitute the padding packet 890.) The padding data 893 of the unused dummy pack has no special meaning.

This dummy pack 89 can be used as appropriate when editing the recorded contents after a predetermined recording is made on the disc 10 of FIG. The dummy pack 89 can also be used to store reduced image data used in the user menu. Furthermore, the dummy pack 89 can also be used for the purpose of matching each VOBU in the AV data DA2 with an integer multiple of 32 kbytes (32 kbyte alignment).

For example, consider a case where a video tape recording a family trip is recorded on a DVD-RAM (or DVD-RW) disk 10 and edited by a portable video camera.

In this case, first, only the video scenes to be put together on one disc are selectively recorded on the disc 10. This video scene is recorded in the video pack of FIG. Also, the voices simultaneously recorded by the video camera are recorded in the audio pack.

The VOBU including these video packs, audio packs, etc., has a DVD at the beginning, if necessary.
It can have a navigation pack (not shown) employed in video (usually, as shown in FIG. 24, a DVD video RAM does not use a navigation pack). This navigation pack includes reproduction control information PCI and data search information DSI.
This PCI or DSI can be used to control the reproduction procedure of each VOBU (for example, it is possible to automatically connect scattered scenes or record a multi-angle scene).

[0242] Alternatively, a synchronous navigation pack (S that does not have as complicated a content as a DVD video standard navigation pack, but simply has synchronization information in VOBU units (S
NV_PCK; not shown) may also be included.

After the video tape is edited and recorded on the DVD-RAM disk 10, after-recording the voice / effect sound in each scene in VOBU unit or adding the background music BGM, the after-recording voice or BGM is recorded. It can be recorded in the dummy pack 89. Further, in the case of adding a description of the recorded contents, additional images such as additional characters and figures can be recorded in the dummy pack 89. When it is desired to insert an additional video image, the insert video can be recorded in the dummy pack 89.

The above-mentioned after-recording sound and the like are used as an audio pack in a dummy pack 89.
Padding data 893. Further, the above-mentioned additional explanations are written in the padding data 893 of the dummy pack 89 used as the sub-picture pack. Similarly, the insert video is written in the padding data 893 of the dummy pack 89 used as a video pack.

Further, when the size of each VOBU including each pack sequence after recording / editing is not an integral multiple of the ECC block size (32 kbytes), invalid data such that this VOBU size becomes an integral multiple of 32 kbytes. It is also possible to insert a dummy pack 89 including the padding data 893 into each VOBU.

[0246] In this way, a dummy pack (padding pack) in which each VOBU is an integral multiple of the ECC block
By properly inserting each of the VOBUs after recording and editing, all VOBUs can be rewritten in units of ECC blocks at all times. Or disk 1
When a defect occurs in the 0 RAM layer, only the defective part can be replaced in ECC block units. Further, each VOBU can be easily address-converted with the ECC block unit as an AV address unit.

That is, the dummy pack 89 is a pack like a wild card which can be an audio pack, a sub-picture pack, a video pack or a padding pack depending on the purpose of use.

FIG. 26 is a diagram for explaining the internal structure of the cell time information CTI of FIG.

As mentioned in the explanation of FIG. 18, the cell time search information (CTI # m) is the cell time general information CTGI # m.
And a cell VOBU table CVT # m.

As shown in the upper half of FIG. 26, the cell time general information includes (1) cell data general information, (2) time code table, (3) acquired defect information, and
It includes (4) cell video information, (5) cell audio information, and (6) cell sub-picture information.

The cell data general information of (1) is the cell ID
The information includes the total time length of the cell, the number of cell data aggregates, the cell data aggregate descriptor, the physical time size of the cell, and the number of constituent VOBUs of the cell.

Here, the cell ID is a unique ID for each cell.
Is. The total time length indicates the total time required for reproduction within the cell.

The cell data aggregate number indicates the number of cell data aggregate descriptors in the cell.

The cell data aggregate descriptor is shown in FIG.
It will be described later with reference to FIG.

The cell time physical size indicates the size of the recording position on the information storage medium in which the cell including the congenital defect location is recorded. By combining the information on the physical size of the cell time and the information on the total time length, the size of the innate defect area in the cell can be known, and the substantial transfer rate can be predicted. This cell time physical size can be used when determining a cell recording position candidate that can guarantee continuous reproduction.

The number of constituent VOBUs is equal to the number of Vs constituting the cell.
The number of OBUs is shown.

In the time code table (2), the picture numbers # 1 to #n of the VOBUs forming the cell and the ECC block numbers # 1 to # 1 of the VOBUs forming the cell.
#N is included.

The time code in this table is the number of pictures for each VOBU in the corresponding cell (the number of video frames; expressed in 1 byte) and each VOBU at the recording position on the medium indicated by the cell data aggregate descriptor. And the number of ECC blocks used (1 byte expression). By adopting this notation method
(Compared to attaching a time code for each frame)
It becomes possible to record the time code with a very small amount of information.

The access method using this time code will be described later with reference to FIG.

The (3) acquired defect information includes information on the number of acquired defects and the address of the acquired defects in the cell.

The number of acquired defects indicates the number of ECC blocks in which acquired defects (see FIG. 28) occur in the cell.
In addition, the acquired defect address is a position where the acquired defect exists, which is indicated by an AV address value for each ECC block. Whenever a defect occurs during cell reproduction (that is, when ECC error correction fails), the AV address of the defective ECC block is sequentially registered in the acquired defective address.

The cell video information of (4) includes the type of video information of the cell (NTSC or PAL, etc.), compression method (MPEG2, MPEG1, Motion JPEG, etc.), stream ID and substream ID (main screen? Sub-screen; used for simultaneous recording / playback of multiple screens), maximum transfer rate, etc.

The cell audio information of (5) is the type of audio signal (linear PCM, MPEG1 or MPEG2).
Or Dolby AC-3, etc., sampling frequency (48 kHz
Or 96 kHz), the number of quantization bits (16 bits or 20
Information such as bit or 24 bits).

The cell sub-picture information of (6) includes information indicating the number of sub-picture streams in each cell and the recording location thereof.

On the other hand, as shown in the lower half of FIG. 26, the cell VOBU table shows that the VOBUs that compose the cell.
It includes information # 1 to #n. Each VOBU information is VO
It contains BU general information, dummy pack information, and audio synchronization information.

In FIG. 26, cell time information (CTI #
The individual information contents in m) are summarized as follows: (1) Cell data general information (general information about individual cells, including the following contents); (1.1) Cell ID (Unique identifier for each cell) (1.2) Total time length (time required for playback in a cell) (1.3) Number of cell data aggregates (Number of cell data aggregate descriptors in a cell) (1.4) Cell data aggregate descriptor (a description example will be described later with reference to FIG. 33) (1.5) Cell time physical size (on the information storage medium in which cells including innate defect locations are recorded Indicates the size of the recording position.By combining with the above-mentioned "total time length", the size of the congenital defective area in the cell can be known, and the substantial transfer rate can be predicted. This information will be explained in another section. “Define cell recording position candidates that can guarantee continuous playback
Sometimes used. ) (1.6) Number of constituent VOBUs (VOBUs constituting a cell
Number (2) Time code table (details will be described later); (3) Acquired defect information (acquired defect information detected in the cell, including the following contents); (3.1) Acquired defect number ( (Number of ECC blocks in which an acquired defect has occurred in a cell) (3.2) Acquired defect address (the existence position of the acquired defect shown in FIG. 28 is indicated by an AV address value for each ECC block. (4) Cell video information (including the following contents); (4.1) Video signal type (NTSC or PAL) (4.2) Compression method (MPEG2) (MPEG1 or motion JPEG) (4.3) Stream ID and substream ID information (whether main screen or subscreen → for multiple screen simultaneous recording / playback) (4.4) Maximum transfer rate (5) cells Audio information (below Including the contents); (5.1) Signal type (or linear PCM, MPEG1 or,
MPEG2 or Dolby AC-3) (5.2) Sampling frequency (5.3) Quantization bit number (6) Cell sub-picture information (indicates the number of streams of sub-picture information in each cell and its recording location) As shown in the upper part of FIG. 26, the “time code table” includes the number of pictures (frame number: 1-byte expression) # 1 to #n for each VOBU in a cell, and the “cell data aggregate descriptor”. , The number of ECC blocks used (1-byte expression) # 1 to #n for each VOBU at the recording position on the information storage medium.

By using this notation method, the time code can be recorded with a very small amount of information.
An access method using this time code will be described below (the contents of FIG. 36 will be described in another section).

1. The cell ID to be accessed and its time are designated from the recording / playback application in FIG. 36; The video management layer of FIG. 36 determines the picture number (frame number) from the cell start position of the corresponding pickture (video frame) from this designated time. The video management layer of FIG. 36 sequentially accumulates the number of pictures (the number of frames) for each VOBU from the cell head shown in FIG. 26, and the picture (frame) designated by the recording / playback application of FIG. 3. Find out which further picture (frame) in the VOBU corresponds; 4. From the cell data aggregate descriptor of FIG. 26 and the allocation map table AMT of FIG. 18, determine the recording position on the information storage medium of all the data in the cell; The number of ECC blocks (# 1) of the VOBU (#n) shown in FIG. 26 up to the VOBU number (#n) determined in “3.” above.
~ #N) are added and the AV address at the corresponding VOBU start position is checked; VOBU directly applicable based on the result of "5."
7. Access to the head position and trace until the predetermined picture (frame) obtained in “3.” above is reached; At this time, if the I picture recording final position information in the VOBU of the access destination is required, the information of the I picture end position in FIG. 27 is used.

FIG. 27 is a diagram for explaining the internal structure of the cell VOBU table (VOBU information) of FIG.

Time management information (P
TS) is recorded in the packet header as shown in FIG. However, since the recording position is recorded deep in the management hierarchy, it is necessary to directly reproduce the information of the audio pack in order to take out this information, and it takes a very long time to edit the video information in cell units.

In order to deal with the problem that "it takes time when editing in cell units", the AV data control information DA210 of FIG. 18 has synchronization information for audio information. This synchronization information is the audio synchronization information of FIG.

In FIG. 27, VOBU information is MPE.
It indicates the end position of the I picture of the G-encoded video information, and is represented by a differential address from the start position of the VOBU at the final position of the I picture (1 byte).

The dummy pack information is the number of dummy packs (1 byte) indicating the number of dummy packs (FIG. 25) inserted in each VOBU, and the differential address (2 bytes from the beginning of the VOBU to the dummy pack insertion position). ) And a dummy pack distribution (number of dummy packs X2 bytes) including the number of individual dummy packs (2 bytes).

The audio synchronization information indicates the audio stream channel number (1 byte) indicating the number of channels of the audio stream, and the differential address value from the VOBU head of the ECC block including the audio pack at the same time as the I picture start time. I-picture audio positions # 1, # 2, ... (1 byte each; most significant bit specifies the direction of the position containing the same-time audio pack ... “0”
In the ECC block), and the sample numbers of the audio sample positions at the same time as the I picture start time in the ECC block are displayed as I picture start audio sample numbers # 1 and #.
.. (2 bytes each), audio synchronization information flags # 1, # 2, ... (1 byte each) indicating the presence / absence of synchronization information between the audio stream and the video stream, and this audio synchronization information flag It is added to each audio synchronization information flag only when it indicates "with synchronization information" and is expressed as audio synchronization data (2 bytes) indicating the number of audio samples included in the corresponding VOBU.

According to the audio positions # 1, # 2, ... At the start of the I picture in FIG. 27, the corresponding V of the ECC block including the audio pack at the same time as the I picture start time
The differential address value from the beginning of the OBU is shown.

Further, by the I picture start audio sample numbers # 1, # 2, ... In FIG. 27, the sample number in the ECC block at the audio sample position at the same time as the I picture start time is a serial number of all audio packs. The count is displayed.

For example, when AV information in a cell is divided at the time of video editing, and VOBU in the cell is further divided into two and the divided information is re-encoded, the above information (I picture) in FIG. By using the start audio position # 1 and the I picture start audio sample number # 1), it is possible to perform division without interruption of reproduced sound and phase shift between reproduced channels. This point will be described below with reference to specific examples.

It is said that the frequency shift amount of the reference clock of a normal digital audio recording device is about 0.1%. Then, for example, a digital video tape (DA
T) When the sound source information digitally recorded by the recorder is recorded over the already recorded video information by digital copy, the reference clock shift between the video information and the audio information may be deviated by about 0.1%. This deviation of the reference clock becomes a non-negligible magnitude as digital copying (or non-linear editing using a personal computer or the like) is repeated, and appears as a discontinuity of reproduced sound or a phase shift between reproduced channels.

In one embodiment of the present invention, the video information and the audio information can be reproduced in synchronization even if the reference clock of the audio information is deviated (or the inter-channel phase synchronization of multi-channel audio can be obtained). , It is also possible to record synchronization information as an option.

That is, in the audio synchronization information of FIG. 27, the presence / absence of the synchronization information between the audio stream and the video stream indicates whether each audio stream ID (# 1,
# 2, ...) can be set for each.

If there is this audio synchronization information,
In the audio synchronization data therein, the number of audio samples is described for each VOBU. By using this information (the number of audio samples), it becomes possible to synchronize the video information and the audio information or the inter-channel synchronization of the multi-channel audio in units of VOBU for each audio stream during reproduction.

FIG. 28 is a diagram for explaining the types of defects (congenital defects and acquired defects) in relation to the defect information of FIG.

For defects on the information storage medium 10, defect types are classified according to the time of occurrence of the defects, and defect information is recorded at different positions according to each defect.

The following are methods for detecting the defective area on the information storage medium.

* Verification (Certify) ... Dummy data is recorded in the inspection area before information is recorded and reproduced to perform an ECC error check to detect a defective portion.

* Preliminary reproduction check: The inspection area is reproduced before recording information. If the surface of the information storage medium becomes dusty or scratched, the detection amount of the reproduction signal decreases, so that, for example, as shown in FIG.
The check is performed by detecting the output of the amplifier 213 of No. 4 and considering the place below the specific level as the defective area.

* ID error during recording ... As shown in FIG. 8, there is an embossed structure header at the beginning of one sector. At the time of recording, the information in this header is first reproduced, the physical sector number is confirmed, and then the synchronization code and the modulated signal are recorded. At this time, the case where the header cannot be reproduced is called an ID error, which is a kind of defect on the information storage medium.

* Error during reproduction: Reproduction is performed after recording is completed, and an area in the ECC block where error correction is impossible is regarded as a defective portion.

When video information is recorded or updated on the information storage medium 10, new information or update should be made without performing pre-reproduction in ECC block units and changing / rewriting in ECC blocks. Information is directly overwritten in ECC block (AV address) units.

A defective portion whose location is known in advance before recording or an ID error portion found during recording is called "congenital defect" here. The skipping replacement process shown in FIG. 13 is performed on the area of this innate defect to protect the recorded information.

On the other hand, * The recording was not properly recorded on the information storage medium due to the nonconformity of the recording conditions; or * The recording was performed correctly, but thereafter, dust adhesion and scratches were generated on the surface of the removal recording medium. For some reason, such as when information reproduction becomes impossible, there may occur a place where ECC error correction becomes impossible at the time of reproduction after recording.

[0292] Defects generated in this state are "acquired defects".
Call. It is impossible to protect or compensate the information for the acquired defects. On the other hand, on the side displaying the image to the user, the screen before the defect screen is displayed again; the screens before and after the defect screen are interpolated and displayed; Interpolation processing such as locally delaying the display speed of the previous plurality of screens and performing thinning display of defective screens is required.

FIG. 28 is a table summarizing the definition and the coping method for the above-mentioned congenital defects and acquired defects.

FIG. 29 shows the addresses of the AV files (that is, AV addresses; AVA) included in the video RAM files of FIG. 23, and the logical block number (LBN) / logical sector number (LSN) / physical sector of the optical disk of FIG. It is a figure explaining the correspondence with a number (PSN).

The total recording area on the information storage medium 10 is 20
It is divided into logical sectors with a minimum unit of 48 bytes (2 kbytes), and all logical sectors have logical sector numbers (LS
N) are serially numbered. When information is recorded on the information storage medium 10, information is recorded in units of this logical sector. The recording position on the information storage medium 10 is managed by the logical sector number (LSN) of the logical sector in which this information is recorded.

The reason why the AV address in FIG. 29 uses the ECC block size of 32 kbytes as the minimum unit will be described later with reference to FIG.

In FIG. 29, the physical sector number PSN,
The logical sector number LSN, the logical block number LBN, and the AV address AVA have the following contents: * The physical sector number PSN has a minimum unit of 2 kbytes (2048 bytes) of the physical sector size, and the disc 1
Start with the 0 lead-in reference signal zone (reference signal zone in FIG. 5). When a defect occurs, P at the defect
A missing number of SN occurs. PSN with or without defects
Is immutable on the medium. Further, the PSN does not change in association with the replacement process for the defect. The PSNs are numbered so as to sequentially increase from the inner circumference side (lead-in side) to the outer circumference side (lead-out side) of the medium. This PS
N is recognized by the microcomputer (MPU) in the recording / reproducing device (disk drive).

* The minimum unit of the logical sector number LSN is 2 kbytes, which is the physical sector size, and starts from the data area of the disk 10 (030000h in FIG. 20).
Due to the replacement processing when a defect occurs, no missing number or duplicate number is generated in the LSN, and the start number and the last number are unchanged. Further, the corresponding number addition position on the medium is appropriately changed in conjunction with the replacement process for the defect. Further, the number addition position changes in conjunction with the replacement process for the defect.
The LSN corresponds to the DMA information (DMA1 to DMA4 in FIG. 6) and changes with respect to the PSN. This LSN is recognized by the MPU in the file system (such as UDF in FIG. 36) and the recording / reproducing apparatus (disk drive).

* The logical block number LBN has a physical sector size of 2 kbytes as its minimum unit, and starts from the file structure start position on the disk 10. Due to the replacement process when a defect occurs, no missing number or duplicate number is generated in the LBN, and the start number and the final number are unchanged.
Further, the corresponding number addition position on the medium is appropriately changed in conjunction with the replacement process for the defect. Further, the number addition position changes in conjunction with the replacement process for the defect. The number of LBN is converted by parallel translation of LSN (LBN = LSN-LS
Nfs; LSNfs is the LSN at the LBN start position). This LBN is recognized by the MPU in the file system (such as UDF in FIG. 36) and the recording / reproducing apparatus (disk drive).

* The minimum unit of the AV address AVA is EC
The block size is 32 kbytes (= 16 sectors), which starts from the AV data (DA2 in FIG. 18) start position on the disk 10. AVA by replacement processing when a defect occurs
There is no missing number or duplicate number, and its start number and end number are unchanged. Further, the corresponding number addition position on the medium is appropriately changed in conjunction with the replacement process for the defect. Further, the number addition position changes in conjunction with the replacement process for the defect. The number of AVA is converted according to LBN (AVA = (LBN-LBNav) / 16; LB
Nav is LBN at the AVA start position). This AVA is
It is recognized by the video management layer (described later with reference to FIG. 36).

FIG. 30 shows AV address setting and extent (ECC) when a defect occurs in the optical disk of FIG.
It is a figure explaining the description method of the aggregate of data) descriptor.

A description example of the user area aggregate descriptor is shown in FIG.
0 is shown. In this example, individual user area aggregate descriptors are arranged and described according to the arrangement order on the information storage medium 10. In this user area aggregate descriptor, 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, D, E, F are registered as AV addresses, and 4,5, 6, A, B, C are missing numbers. It has become.

The missing number position here is the place where the "congenital defect" exists. As a result, the defect position and defect length on the information storage medium 10, the distribution of used (used) AV address numbers and unused AV addresses can be known.

In the present invention, the AV address unit and ECC
Although the block units are made to coincide with each other, it is possible to describe the recording position or the defect position by, for example, a logical block number, and that case is also included in the content of the present invention.

As can be seen from the example of FIG. 30, the AV address numbers according to the arrangement on the information storage medium 10 in the spare area 724 are arranged in a random order as A, B, 6, C, 4,5. There is.

Therefore, the description method of each extent (aggregation) of the spare area allocation descriptor SAD (FIG. 18) is expressed by a set of a connection size and a start address like the user area aggregate descriptor UAD. Instead, instead, the individual AV addresses along the arrangement on the information storage medium 10 are described side by side. This is because the number of bytes required for description is smaller.

Therefore, in the spare area 724, the AV
For the ECC block for which the address is set, as a spare area aggregate descriptor, as shown in FIG.
Only the AV address number is represented by "3 bytes".

Similarly to the user area aggregate descriptor,
A flag is added to the most significant bit of the 3-byte area, and the extent (aggregate) in which the most significant bit is "0" is regarded as an already used extent. As a result, the unused extent whose most significant bit is “1” can be distinguished (by identification) from the used extent.

Since the AV address numbers are arranged in random order in the spare area 724, the defective position cannot be specified only by looking at the AV address arrangement. Therefore, the innate defect aggregate descriptor DED (FIG. 30) is arranged for each ECC block, and a value of 3 bytes is set as FFFFFF as an identifier of the innate defect aggregate descriptor DED.

By the way, for the congenital defect, A on the information storage medium 10 is adjusted in accordance with the skipping replacement process of FIG.
If a large number of defects occur on the information storage medium 10 when the V address setting position moves, a phenomenon occurs in which the AV address number setting order differs from the arrangement order on the information storage medium 10.

For example, in the example of FIG. 30, 1) 3 ECC behind the AV address before new recording of video information
Block defect found → A in spare area 724
Move AV address position by B and C; 2) 3E after AV address before video information is overwritten
CC block defect found → Move AV address position to spare area 724 for 4, 5 and 6 minutes; 3) Finally, before overwriting video information, AV address C, 4, 5 in spare area 724 3 new in position
Occurrence of defective area for ECC block → shift the AV address setting position of the rear 3 ECC blocks of AV address B in the spare area 724 to the rear side of AV address 6; When a congenital defect occurs, the AV addresses when viewed along the order on the information storage medium are 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, D, E, F, A, B,
It is set in the order of 6, C, 4,5.

When new video information is overwritten on this information, in order to ensure continuity of recording / reproduction,
It becomes necessary to record the recordable portions in the order of arrangement on the information storage medium 10. Therefore, an AV address setting map according to the arrangement order on the information storage medium is required. This AV address setting map is the allocation map table AMT in FIG. 18, which is the information storage medium 10.
Recorded in.

This allocation map table AMT
18 shows a user area allocation descriptor UAD and a spare area allocation descriptor SA.
It is divided into three areas, D and the address conversion table ACT.

As can be seen from FIG. 30, the arrangement order of the AV addresses is such that the information storage medium 10 is set in the user area 723.
The arrangement order is the same as the above arrangement order, and the arrangement order on the information storage medium 10 does not match in the spare area 724. Therefore, the AV address arrangement information can be compressed and recorded in the user area 723.

That is, an area in which AV address setting positions continue including the defective area is regarded as one unit called an extent (aggregation), and is expressed by a user area aggregate descriptor UED (*, *). This is (a) Expressing the number of consecutive AV address settings (corresponding to the number of consecutive ECC blocks) in 2 bytes; (b) Representing the AV address number at the beginning of the extent (aggregate) in 3 bytes; (c) Above Two types of information (a) and (b) are described as one set side by side, and the description method is consistent with the description method of the allocation descriptor (AD) described in another section (FIG. 39).

By using the above expression method, when there are few defective places in the user area 723, each AV
The number of bits required for the description is smaller than the case where the distribution is individually described for each address, and the amount of information required for the description of the allocation map table AMT in FIG. 18 is smaller. Then, since the total capacity of the information storage medium 10 is determined, each object (DA22 in FIG.
~ DA24), the storage capacity of the information storage medium 10 is
Increase relatively.

In the user area 723, since the arrangement order of the AV addresses and the arrangement order of the information storage media are the same, it is not specified in the user area aggregate descriptor (described later in FIG. 31). It can be seen that there is a congenital defect at the AV address number position.

FIG. 31 is a diagram for explaining the correspondence between various extent descriptors (aggregate descriptors).

For the user area aggregate descriptor, A
"Used (used)" or "unused" in units of V addresses
There is a flag for determining whether or not. That is, as shown in the column of “used / unused discrimination information” in FIG. 31, a flag is added to the most significant bit of the 3-byte area describing the start address in the user area aggregate descriptor, and the most significant bit Extents (aggregates) with "0" are regarded as already used extents, and the most significant bit is "1"
Extents (aggregates) are identified as unused extents.

By the way, as shown in FIG. 24, the minimum unit of video information is a cell unit, and as shown in FIG. 7, in the DVD-RAM disc, there is a guard area between each zone. Therefore, when the cell information is recorded in one or more cells across two zones, it takes time for the optical head to move between the guard areas (as shown in FIG. The rotation speed changes, so it takes time to switch the rotation servo), and continuous recording / reproducing cannot be guaranteed.

Therefore, in the present invention, "prohibit recording or recording across zones of the same cell information".
Is added.

According to this, the constraint condition that "a user area aggregate (user area extent)" is not defined across zones (that is, the size of all user area extents is smaller than one zone size) Is also added.

Since the number of ECC blocks existing in one zone is relatively small as shown in FIG. 7, the ECC block size (EC
As the number of C blocks), as shown in FIG. 31, it is sufficient to express only 2 bytes.

By thus defining "the user area aggregate (user area extent) does not extend between zones", the total number of bytes (size) required to describe the user area aggregate descriptor can be reduced. The size of the allocation map table AMT becomes smaller accordingly.
As a result, the recording capacity for the video object can be relatively increased.

In the information storage medium 10 of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 18, AV files (DA2) and ordinary computer files (DA1, DA3) can be mixedly recorded.

Therefore, as shown in the example of FIG. 30, the spare area 724 may include a replacement area of the computer data area.

In order to distinguish this place from the defective portion of the AV data, a PC (personal computer) use aggregate descriptor can also be described as shown in FIG.

The value of this PC use aggregate descriptor is set to FFFFFE as shown in FIG. 31, for example. (The PED in FIGS. 30 and 31 is an acronym for the extent descriptor of the personal computer.) As can be seen from FIG. 7, the recordable area of the DVD-RAM disc is divided into 24 zones. Has been done. Therefore, in order to understand the boundaries of each zone, in the table of FIG. 31,
An identifier such as FFFFFC is also set as the next zone start mark. (FIGS. 30 and 31)
The ZSM inside is an acronym for the start mark of the next zone. ) The contents and description methods of the various aggregate descriptors (extent descriptors) described above are collectively described in the list of FIG. This list is basically in the form of sequentially arranging each aggregate descriptor (extent descriptor) in ECC block units according to the arrangement on the information storage medium 10.

FIG. 65 is a view for explaining another example of the hierarchical structure of information recorded on the optical disc of FIG. 2 (an example having an allocation map table AMT having contents different from the allocation map table AMT of FIG. 18).

As shown in FIG. 30, the spare area allocation descriptor SAD in the structure shown in FIG.
It is necessary to describe the AV address and congenital defect status for each CC block. Therefore, the amount of data in the management area (control information DA21) in the AV data area DA2 increases. On the other hand, as shown in FIG. 7, the user area 7
The capacity of the spare area 724 for 23 is about 1/1
There are only 9.

From such a situation, as another implementation method of the video information recording method, * skipping replacement processing is performed as a replacement processing method when a congenital defect occurs; * replacement processing when a congenital defect occurs There is also a usage such that only the AV address and the logical sector number (and the logical block number) are changed to the spare area 724; * the information (video information etc.) is not recorded in the spare area 724.

In this implementation method, since information (video information and the like) is recorded only in the user area 723, the description of the aggregate descriptor (extent descriptor) for each ECC block in the spare area allocation descriptor SAD becomes unnecessary. , The amount of information in the management area (control information DA21) is significantly reduced.

FIG. 66 is a diagram for explaining a method of describing a congenital defect allocation descriptor and a space descriptor that is not allocated when the optical disc of FIG. 2 has a congenital defect.

With reference to FIGS. 65 and 66, the user area allocation descriptor S for recording video information (AV data) and the like only within the user area 723 will be described below.
An application example for AD (FIG. 30) will be described.

As shown in FIG. 65, a congenital defect allocation descriptor PD is used as a management method of the congenital defect position information.
A space descriptor (Unallocated Space Descri) that is not allocated as a management method of unrecorded location information using AD
ptors) Use USD. The specific contents of the management information will be described with reference to FIG.

When a defective portion occurs in the AV data area DA2 in the user area 723, a replacement portion is automatically created in the spare area 724 by the replacement processing, and the AV address and the logic set in advance in the defective portion are set. The sector number and the logical block number are moved as they are to the replacement location of the spare area 724.

When recording video information or the like, the defective portion in the user area 723 is skipped and recording is performed at the recording portion immediately after that.

As described above, recording of video information and the like is limited to the user area 723 only, so the spare area 72
No image information or the like is recorded in No. 4, and it is left unrecorded. Therefore, the defect position management and the unrecorded area management in the spare area 724 are unnecessary, and the management information in this location is not held.

In the user area allocation descriptor UAD of FIG. 30, the innate defect position information is not specified, and the AV address not specified by the user area aggregate descriptor UED is determined to be the innate defect position.

In contrast to this, in the congenital defect allocation descriptor PDAD of FIG. 65, as shown in FIG.
Set the preset AV address at the congenital defect position to 3
Write byte by byte.

Therefore, it is possible to recognize that the AV address not specified in the inborn defect allocation descriptor PDAD can be used.

Also, in the user area allocation descriptor UAD of FIG. 30, as shown in FIG. 31, the data recorded in the most significant bit of the head AV address of the user area aggregate descriptor UED (already used = “0”), Unrecorded (unused =
It has an identification flag of "1").

On the other hand, in the space descriptor USD which is not allocated in FIG. 65, the AV address of the unrecorded location is specified. The non-allocated space descriptor USD indicating this unrecorded location does not take into consideration the innate defect location, and performs location designation for each aggregate (extent) indicating the connection of consecutive AV addresses.

That is, E in the aggregate (extent)
The number of CC blocks is represented by the first two bytes, the AV address at the head of the aggregate (extent) is represented by 3 bytes, and both are treated as one set of aggregate (extent) information.

[0345] In the above description, each AV file has its own A
It has a V address and has used this AV address for management information (control information DA21). However, without being limited to this, for example, a logical block number can be used for the management information (control information DA21). That is, it is possible to describe the allocation map table AMT and the cell time control information CTCI by using a logical block unit of 2048 bytes as a basic unit at the time of recording information and using a logical block number as an address.

FIG. 32 is a diagram showing an example of a hierarchical structure of information included in the control information DA21 of FIG.

The cell in FIG. 19 or FIG. 24 shows a reproduction section in which reproduction data is designated by a start address and an end address. The program chain PGC in FIG. 19 is a series of reproduction execution units that specify the reproduction order of cells. The reproduction of the video object set VOBS of FIG. 19 is determined by the program chain PGC and the cells that compose it.

AV data control information DA210 of FIG.
Is the control information P of such a program chain PGC.
Has GCCI. This PGC control information PGCCI is P
GC information management information PGC_MAI and n (1 or more)
PGC information search pointers and k (one or more) P
It is composed of GC information.

The PGC information management information PGC_MAI contains
Information that indicates the number of PGCs is included. The PGC information search pointer points to the beginning of each PGC information PGCI, and the corresponding PGC information PGC is indicated by this search pointer.
I can be easily searched.

Each PGC information PGCI includes PGC general information and m pieces of cell reproduction information. This PGC general information is PG
It includes the playback time of C and the number of cell playback information.

FIG. 33 shows an example of the description contents of the “cell data aggregate descriptor (cell data extent descriptor)” mentioned in the explanation of FIG. Here, a block of recording information relating to the same cell is regarded as one cell data aggregate (cell data extent) in the arrangement order of usable ECC blocks.

In FIG. 33, a specific cell # 1 is different from another cell # 2.
Unless divided by, it is regarded as one cell data aggregate. As a concrete description method, the length of the cell data aggregate (the number of ECC blocks in which the cell data aggregate is recorded) is expressed by "2 bytes", and the beginning AV address of the cell data aggregate is "3 bytes". ", And describe them side by side. That is, it is expressed as CED (*, *).

As shown in FIG. 33, a descriptive sentence in which all the cell data aggregates forming one cell are described side by side is a cell data aggregate descriptor. With this descriptor, the distribution of all AV addresses in which cells are recorded can be known and access becomes easy.

Further, when the length of the cell data aggregate and the head AV address of the cell data aggregate are described as a set and arranged side by side, if there are many areas continuously recorded on the information storage medium 10, The number of bytes required for describing the cell data aggregate descriptor is reduced, and the amount of data required for the cell time general information (#m) is reduced.
The recording capacity that can be used for A22 is relatively increased.

Note that, as shown in FIG. 33, the information storage medium 1
The corresponding AV address numbers viewed along the array of 0 are often arranged in a discontinuous order. However, according to the embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG.
Therefore, it is possible to specify the recording position on the information storage medium of all the data in the cell simply by setting the beginning AV address in the cell data aggregate descriptor. This is a major feature of the present invention, together with the AV address being in units of ECC blocks.

Next, with reference to FIG. 34, a problem when the position between the ECC block position which is the minimum unit of the AV address and the video object unit VOBU shown in FIG. 24> is deviated will be described.

When new information is recorded or information is updated in the data change area of FIG. 34, 1) reproduction of the ECC block at the start position of VOBU # g; 2) deinterleaving of the ECC block; 3) It is necessary to perform a complicated process such as changing the information of the portion related to the data change area in the ECC block; 4) replacing the error correction code in the ECC block; 5) overwriting the changed information in the ECC block position; Become. Then, the continuous recording process in the NTSC video recording which requires a frame rate of 30 frames per second is hindered.

Furthermore, when the surface of the information storage medium (DVD-RAM disk 10) has dust or scratches, the recording process is more affected than the reproducing process.

That is, when there is dust or a scratch near the position of the ECC block subjected to the above-mentioned 1) to 5), the VOBU # g has been reproduced without any problems until then, but the ECC block is written. There is a case where an information defect occurs due to the replacement process, and it becomes impossible to reproduce the VOBU # g.

Further, every time the information is rewritten in the data change area unrelated to VOBU # g, the head position of VOBU # g needs to be rewritten. A phase change recording film used as a recording material for a DVD-RAM disk tends to deteriorate in characteristics and increase in defects when recording is repeated many times. Therefore, a place that is not originally necessary (VOBU # in FIG. 34)
It is desirable to reduce the number of times of rewriting of the head part of g as much as possible (this number of times of rewriting is the control information rewriting frequency CIR of FIG. 18).
It can be recorded in WNs).

From the above reasons, for the purpose of guaranteeing continuous recording processing at a frame rate of 30 frames per second and reducing the number of times of rewriting unnecessary portions, in the present invention, as shown in FIG. 24, VOBU recording is performed. The unit is an integral multiple of the ECC block (32 kbytes). This is called 32 kbyte alignment.

Because of this 32 kbyte alignment, that is, the size of each VOBU is always 32 k before and after data change.
A dummy pack (FIG. 25) of an appropriate size is inserted in each VOBU so that it becomes an integral multiple of bytes.

A table comparing the method of setting the AV address number newly set in this invention with other logical block numbering methods based on the above conditions (32 kbyte alignment for making the recording unit an integral multiple of the ECC block) is shown in FIG. 29
Shown in.

In order to facilitate the conversion with the logical block number used in the file system, a missing number or a duplicate number due to a replacement process for a defect occurring on the information storage medium 10 is avoided.

When recording video information, the skipping replacement process of FIG. 13 is performed on the defect on the information storage medium. At this time, the setting location of the AV address is moved on the information storage medium 10 by the replacement processing.

When the AV address number is encoded as "AVA", the logical block number is "LBN", and the logical block number LBN at the AV file start position is encoded as "LBNav",
There is the following relationship between the logical block number and the AV address number: AVA = (LBN-LBNav) / 16 Here, all values below the decimal point when divided by 16 are rounded down.

FIG. 35 shows that the dummy pack is inserted into a cell whose data has been changed after recording, thereby
It shows a case where 2 kbyte alignment is executed. Then, the video object unit VOB in the cell
The boundary position of U coincides with the boundary position of the ECC block (16 sectors, 32 kbytes) forming the data in this cell.

In this case, even if the data is rewritten thereafter, the data can be overwritten in the ECC block unit (there is no need to re-encode the ECC). Moreover, since the AV address is in units of ECC blocks, address management is easy even if overwriting (insert editing, etc.) is performed after recording. Since this overwriting is performed regardless of the VOBU # g in which the data has not been changed, there is no fear that the data in the VOBU # g will become unreproducible due to the rewriting of the data changed area.

It should be noted that each V can be inserted without inserting a dummy pack.
When the OBU size is an integer multiple of 32 kbytes before and after data change, it is not necessary to add a dummy pack for the purpose of aligning 32 kbytes. However, since the dummy pack may be used for purposes other than 32 kbyte alignment (a spare area for after recording, etc.), it is preferable to insert an appropriate number of dummy packs regardless of whether 32 kbyte alignment is performed.

Next, the hierarchical structure of the information processing equipment control system used in the present invention will be described. FIG. 36 exemplifies the relationship between the system hierarchy and individual management target information in an information processing device (personal computer or the like) that handles information recorded on an information storage medium (DVD-RAM disc or the like).

Specifically, in this system layer, the first layer is "recording / playback application", the second layer is "video management layer", and the third layer is "I / O".
It has a "manager" layer, a "file system (UDF, etc.)" layer at the fourth level, a "device driver" layer at the fifth level, and a "hardware (recording / reproducing device)" layer at the sixth level. have.

The "recording / playback application" in the highest layer has a function of performing a recording / playback process for video information (AV file data), and manages cells or PGCs. Here, time is used as a processing unit, and defect management is not performed.

The "video management layer" of the second layer is A
It has the function of controlling the recording position in the V file.
The AV address and the internal cell structure are managed.
Here, a video frame is used as a processing unit, and defect management is also performed. That is, the defect position on the information storage medium (DVD-RAM disk or the like) is also considered in management in order to ensure continuity of recording and reproduction.

The "I / O manager" in the third hierarchy is
System and information storage medium (DVD-RAM disc, etc.)
It has an interface processing function between and, and manages files recorded on the medium (AV files and the like in FIG. 23). Here, a file is used as a processing unit, and defect management is not performed.

The "file system" of the fourth hierarchy is
It mainly carries out the address control function of recording / reproducing in file units, and manages the logical block number LBN and the logical sector number LSN (see FIG. 29) assigned to the information storage medium (DVD-RAM disk etc.). There is. Here, a file is used as a processing unit, and defect management is not performed.

The "device driver" of the fifth hierarchy is
It is responsible for the operation control function of the recording / playback device (DVD-RAM drive, etc.) from the system side, and is used for the information storage medium (D
A logical sector number LSN assigned to a VD-RAM disk or the like) is a management target. Here, the sector size (2 kbytes) is used as the processing unit, and defect management is not performed.

The sixth layer "recording / reproducing device" has a function of executing simple recording and simple reproduction on an information storage medium (DVD-RAM disk or the like), and is a physical sector number assigned to the information storage medium. PSN (Fig. 29
(See) is the management target. Here, a video frame is used as a processing unit, and defect management is also performed.

Next, the relationship between the system hierarchy of FIG. 36 and the hardware to which this hierarchy is applied (a personal computer PC etc. which will be described later with reference to FIG. 52) will be briefly described.

In the system hierarchy of FIG. 36, the processing according to the program from the recording / playback application to the device driver is executed by the main CPU 1 of the PC of FIG.
11 does. The information recording / reproducing apparatus (internal structure is not shown) shown in the bottom row of FIG. 36 corresponds to the DVD-ROM / RAM drive 140 of FIG. However, not limited to this, the information recording / reproducing apparatus of FIG.
It is also possible to correspond to the CD-ROM drive 122. The programs from the I / O manager to the device driver in the system hierarchy shown in FIG. 36 can be stored in a nonvolatile semiconductor memory such as an EEPROM which constitutes a part of the main memory 112 shown in FIG.

FIG. 5 utilizing the system hierarchy of FIG.
The information processing device No. 2 is a hard disk drive H that is an essential item in a normal personal computer.
It is characterized by not having (requiring) a DD (this does not mean, however, that an HDD cannot be used together).

In the system hierarchy of FIG. 36, the recording / playback application and the video management layer are information recording / playback apparatus (DVD-ROM / RAM drive) 140.
It is stored in the information storage medium (ROM area of the optical disc 10) mounted on the optical disc 10.

Next, a control method for recording / deleting video information (AV data) in the video management layer in FIG. 36 will be described by taking cell # 3 in FIG. 24 as an example.

[Method of re-recording video information of cell # 3 after additional processing] <01> Cell # 3 is read and additional processing is performed.

<02> It is checked whether cell # 3 after additional processing returns to the original position in terms of data size (here, the case of recording at another position without completely entering the original position in size) will be described. .

<03> Allocation map table A
An unused AV address is searched for from MT (FIG. 18).

<04> PGC control information PGCCI (Fig. 1
From 8), the cell IDs in the reproduction order before and after cell # 3 are checked.

<05> An AV indicating the storage location of cells in the reproduction order before and after cell # 3 from the cell time control information CTCI.
Examine the address.

<06> Allocation map table A
The recording positions on the information storage medium 10 of cells in the reproduction order before and after cell # 3 are estimated from MT (FIG. 18).

<07> A recording position candidate of cell # 3 that can guarantee continuous reproduction is determined based on the result found in <03>.

<08> Preliminary confirmation work is performed for the recording position candidates defined in <07> above. For example, performance information such as the access speed of the information recording / reproducing apparatus (such as the drive 140 in FIG. 52) is received from the information recording / reproducing apparatus, and a place where continuous reproduction is dangerous is extracted. The information recording / reproducing apparatus is actually made to access only this dangerous place, and if continuous reproduction cannot be ensured, another recording position is searched. Here, in the worst case, that is, when a recording position where continuous reproduction is possible is not found, the recording position candidates are shifted to the recording positions of the cells before and after that.

<09> When the recording position is confirmed, the process of recording the information of the cell # 3 after the additional processing is started.

<10> Monitoring the recording status during recording,
Check ID error.

(Note) Regarding ID error during recording: FIG.
As shown in, there is a header having an embossed structure at the beginning of one sector. At the time of recording, the header information is first reproduced, the physical sector number is confirmed, and then the synchronization code and the modulated signal are recorded. At this time, the case where the header cannot be reproduced is called an ID error, which is a kind of defect on the information storage medium.

<11> When the ID error of the above <10> is detected, when the ID error occurrence information is received from the information recording / reproducing apparatus (drive 140 or the like in FIG. 52), skipping replacement processing (FIG. 13) is executed. Together with the sequential allocation map table AMT based on the information
Information on the congenital defect (FIG. 28) is added to (FIG. 18).

<12> When the recording process of <11> above is completed, the unused registration of the AV address in which the information of the cell # 3 after the additional processing is recorded is changed to the allocation map table A.
Perform on MT.

<13> Finally, the device driver of FIG. 36 is controlled to record the skipping replacement processing information in the DMA management area (DMA1 & DMA2 and DMA3 & DMA4 of FIG. 6) of the information storage medium 10.

[Method of Deleting Video Information of Cell # 3] <21> Data change processing is executed for PGC control information PGCCI (FIG. 18).

<22> Cell time control information CTCI (see FIG. 1)
Information regarding cell # 3 is deleted from 8).

<23> Allocation map table A
In the AV address list in MT (FIG. 18), the AV address used by cell # 3 is changed to “unused”.

<24> If the acquired defect address (FIG. 26) for the cell # 3 is registered, the defect location is changed to the innate defect, and the pseudo skipping replacement process is performed. The result is registered in the allocation map table AMT (FIG. 18).

Thereafter, the device driver (FIG. 36) is controlled according to the registered information, and the DM of the information storage medium 10 is controlled.
A management area (DMA1 & DMA2 and DMA3 & D in FIG. 6)
Record the skipping replacement processing information in MA4).

In the file system of FIG. 36, the recording position of the additional write / update information on the information storage medium 10 is controlled, but the file entry manages only the logical block number information in file units.

On the other hand, in order to perform the recording / reproducing process of the video information including the editing, as shown in FIG. 24, the position control on the information storage medium 10 in the cell unit which is the minimum unit of the video information is performed. Will be needed.

Further, it is necessary to satisfy both the continuous recording condition and the continuous reproducing condition of the video information. In the information storage medium 10, surface dust and flaws are successively generated. As the replacement process for the defect, the skipping replacement process shown in FIG. 13 is performed on the video information.

However, defect management on the information storage medium is not limited to UDF (Universal Disk Format), but file systems such as FAT (File Allocation Table), NTFS (New Technology File System), and UNIX (Unix of general-purpose operating system). not going.

Description of UDF in another section (3rd section)
Even in FIGS. 7 to 46), the numbers are set on the assumption that there is no defect in the logical sector number space and the logical block number space.

However, if defects are continuously generated over a wide area, continuous recording or continuous reproduction of video information becomes impossible.

From the above, in the DVD video recording system satisfying the continuous recording / reproducing, in order to enable the continuous recording / reproducing of the image information,
A system having two management functions: recording / playback management that takes into account the defect position on the information storage medium 10; and * recording / playback management of information in units (for example, cell units) smaller than the file unit. Hierarchy is required.

However, as is clear from the example of the commercial (editing) video tape recorder VTR, the general recording / playback related application software performs the higher-order recording / playback processing using the time code as shown in FIG. Do,
Defect management on the information storage medium (video tape) is not performed.

In the conventional computer system,
This continuity is not considered because there is no need to ensure continuity during recording and playback.

Therefore, in the present invention, a "video management layer" is newly provided in the upper layer of the file system (UDF in FIG. 36), and here the management of the recording / reproducing position on the information storage medium 10 including defect management is performed. And control.

[0412] Next, the information content on the information storage medium, which is handled by the fourth file system described in the system hierarchy of Fig. 36, will be described. As a representative example of this file system, the UDF standard currently adopted in DVD will be described.

First, the UDF format adopted in DVD will be described.

<<< Outline of UDF >>>><< What is UDF >> UDF is an abbreviation for Universal Disc Format, and mainly indicates "rules regarding file management method" in a disc-shaped information storage medium.

CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, D
VD-Video, DVD-ROM, DVD-R, DVD-
The RAM and the like adopt the UDF format standardized by the international standard “ISO9660”.

The file management method is basically based on a hierarchical file system that has a root directory as a parent and manages files in a tree shape.

Here, the UDF format conforming to the DVD-RAM standard will be mainly described, but most of the contents of this description also match the contents of the DVD-ROM standard.

<< Outline of UDF >><File Information Recording Content in Information Storage Medium> When information is recorded in the information storage medium, a group of information is called “file data” and recording is performed in file data units. . A unique file name is added to each file data in order to distinguish each file data from other file data.

Grouping by a plurality of file data having common information contents facilitates file management and file search. The group for each of the plurality of file data is called a "directory" or a "folder". A unique directory name (or folder name) is added to each directory (or folder).

Furthermore, a plurality of directories (folders)
Can be collected and put together in a higher-level directory (upper-level folder) as a group in a hierarchy above it. Here, file data and directories (folders) will be collectively referred to as files.

When recording information, (a) the information content itself of the file data; (b) the file name corresponding to the file data; and (c) the storage location of the file data (under which directory to record) All of the information about is recorded on an information storage medium (eg, disk 10 of FIG. 1).

Further, regarding (d) directory name (folder name) for each directory (folder); and (e) the position to which each directory (folder) belongs (that is, the position of the parent upper directory / upper folder) All information, information storage medium (10)
Record above.

FIG. 37 is a diagram for explaining the basic relationship between the hierarchical file system structure of FIG. 23 and the information content recorded on the information storage medium (DVD-RAM disk 10). FIG. 37 shows a simple example of the hierarchical file system structure on the upper side, and shows an example of the file system recorded contents according to the UDF on the lower side.

<Simple example of hierarchical file system structure>
UNIX, MacOS, MS-DOS, which is a general-purpose operating system (OS) for small computers,
Most OS file management systems such as Windows have a tree-like hierarchical structure as illustrated in FIG. 37 or FIG.

In FIG. 37, one disk drive (for example, when one hard disk drive HDD is divided into a plurality of partitions, each partition unit is considered as one disk drive).
Has one root directory 40 which is the parent of the whole
1 exists, and a subdirectory 402 belongs to the subdirectory 402. File data 403 exists in this subdirectory 402.

Actually, the present invention is not limited to this example, and there may be file data 403 directly under the root directory 401 or a complicated hierarchical structure in which a plurality of subdirectories 402 are connected in series.

<File System Recording Contents on Information Storage Medium> The file system information is recorded in logical block units (or logical sector units; see FIG. 36), and the contents recorded in each logical block are mainly as follows. There are the following: * File ID descriptor FID (descriptive text indicating file information) ... Describes the file type and file name (root directory name, subdirectory name, file data name, etc.). In the file ID descriptor FID, the data content of the file data following it and the position where the information about the contents of the directory are recorded are also described.

* File entry FE (descriptive text indicating the recording location of the file content) ... Position on the information storage medium (logical block number) where the information about the content of the file data and the contents of the directory (subdirectory etc.) is recorded. Those that describe such as.

In the central portion of FIG. 37, the information storage medium 10 stores information on the file system structure as shown in the upper part of FIG.
The recorded contents when recorded in FIG. Hereinafter, this example content will be specifically described.

* The contents of the root directory 401 are shown in the logical block having the logical block number "1".

In the example of FIG. 37, the root directory 40
Only the subdirectory 402 is included in 1.
Therefore, the contents of the root directory 401 are:
Information about the subdirectory 402 is described in a file ID descriptor (FID) 404. Although not shown, the root directory 4 is included in the same logical block.
The information of 01 itself is also written in the sentence of the file ID descriptor.

In the file ID descriptor 404 of this root directory 401, a file entry (F
E) The recording position of 405 is described by the long allocation descriptor (LAD (2)).

* A file entry 405 indicating the position where the contents of the subdirectory 402 are recorded is recorded in the logical block of logical block number "2".

In the example of FIG. 37, the subdirectory 402
Only the file data 403 is contained in. Therefore, the contents of the subdirectory 402 substantially indicate the recording position of the file ID descriptor 406 in which the information regarding the file data 403 is described.

In the file entry 405, the short allocation descriptor therein describes that the contents of the subdirectory 402 are recorded in the third logical block (AD (3)).

* The contents of the subdirectory 402 are recorded in the logical block with the logical block number "3".

In the example of FIG. 37, the subdirectory 402
Since only file data 403 is contained in
File data 4 as contents of subdirectory 402
03 information is described in the file ID descriptor 406. Although not shown, the information of the subdirectory 402 itself is also a file ID in the same logical block.
It is written in the descriptor text.

File I relating to file data 403
A file entry 4 indicating where the contents of this file data 403 are recorded in the D descriptor 406.
The recording position of 07 is the long allocation descriptor (LA
D (4)).

* In the logical block of logical block number "4", the contents of the file data 403 (408, 409)
A file entry 407 indicating the position where is recorded is recorded.

The short allocation descriptor in the file entry 407 describes that the contents (408, 409) of the file data 403 are recorded in the fifth and sixth logical blocks (AD (5), AD).
(6)) has been done.

* The content 408 of the file data 403 is recorded in the logical block with the logical block number "5".

* The content 409 of the file data 403 is recorded in the logical block with the logical block number "6".

<Method of Accessing File Data According to Information of FIG. 37> As described above, the file ID descriptor FID and the file entry FE describe the logical block number in which the following information is described. is there.

[0445] Similarly to reaching the file data from the root directory through the subdirectory while descending the hierarchy, according to the file ID descriptor FID and the logical block number described in the file entry, on the information storage medium 10. The contents of the target file data are accessed while sequentially reproducing the information in the logical block.

That is, the file data 40 shown in FIG.
In order to access 3, the first logical block information is read first, and then the second logical block information is read according to the LAD (2) in the first logical block information. Since the file data 403 exists in the subdirectory 402, the file ID descriptor FID of the subdirectory 402 is included in the file data 403.
And read AD (3). Then read A
Read the third logical block information according to D (3). Since LAD (4) is described therein, the fourth logical block information is read, the file ID descriptor FID related to the file data 403 is searched for, and the fifth file is read according to AD (5) described therein. Read the logical block information,
The sixth logical block is reached according to AD (6).

Incidentally, AD (logical block number), LAD
For the contents of the description such as (logical block number),
It will be described later.

<<< Detailed Description of UDF Descriptive Statements (Descriptors / Descriptors) >>>><< Logical Block Number Descriptive Statements >><AllocationDescriptors><File System Information on Information Storage Medium> Recorded Content> As described above, a description statement that is included in a part of the file ID descriptor FID or a file entry and that indicates the position (logical block number) at which the information that follows is recorded as an allocation descriptor. Call.

The allocation descriptor includes a long allocation descriptor and a short allocation descriptor shown.

<Long allocation descriptor> FIG. 38.
FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating the description content of a long allocation descriptor that displays the recording position of a continuous sector aggregate (extent) on an information storage medium.

The long allocation descriptor LAD (logical block number) is composed of an extent length 410, an extent position 411, and an implementation use 412.

The extent length 410 represents the number of logical blocks in 4 bytes, the extent position 411 represents the corresponding logical block number in 4 bytes, and the implementation use 412 represents arithmetic processing. The information used for is displayed in 8 bytes.

Here, in order to simplify the description, "L
Abbreviations such as "AD (logical block number)" are used in the description of the long allocation descriptor.

<Short allocation descriptor> FIG. 39
FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating the description content of a short allocation descriptor that displays the recording position of a continuous sector aggregate (extent) on the information storage medium 10.

The short allocation descriptor AD (logical block number) is composed of an extent length 410 and an extent position 411.

The extent length 410 represents the number of logical blocks in 4 bytes, and the extent position 411 represents the corresponding logical block number in 4 bytes.

Here, in order to simplify the description, "A
Abbreviations such as "D (logical block number)" are used to describe the short allocation descriptor.

<Space entry not allocated>
FIG. 40 is a search for an unrecorded continuous sector aggregate (unrecorded extent) on the information storage medium and is not allocated space entry (Unallocated Space Entry;
It is a figure explaining the content of the description sentence used as USE for short.

The space entry that is not allocated is a description used in the space table (see FIGS. 44 to 46) that represents “recorded logical block” or “unrecorded logical block” in the recording area of the information storage medium 10. It is a sentence.

This non-allocated space entry USE has a descriptor tag 413, an ICB tag 414, and
It is composed of the total length 415 of the allocation descriptor string and the allocation descriptor 416.

* The descriptor tag 413 represents an identifier of the description content, and is "263" in this example.

* ICB tag 414 indicates a file type.

File type = 1 in the ICB tag means a space entry USE that is not allocated, file type = 4 represents a directory, and file type = 5 represents file data.

* Total length of allocation descriptor string 415
Indicates the total number of bytes of the allocation descriptor string by 4 bytes.

* The allocation descriptor 416 is a list of recording positions (logical block numbers) on the medium 10 of each extent (sector aggregate). For example,
(AD (*), AD (*), ..., AD (*)).

<File Entry> FIG. 41 shows a part of the description content of the file entry for displaying the recording position of the designated file in the file structure having the hierarchical structure as shown in FIG. 23 or 37. FIG.

A file entry has a descriptor tag 417.
, ICB tag 418, and permission 41
9 and an allocation descriptor 420.

* The descriptor tag 417 represents the identifier of the description content, and in this case is "261".

* The ICB tag 418 indicates the file type, and its contents are the same as the ICB tag 414 of the unallocated space entry in FIG.

* Permissions 419
Indicates permission information for recording / playback / deletion for each user. It is mainly used to secure the security of files.

* The allocation descriptor 420 describes the position where the contents of the file are recorded, with short allocation descriptors arranged for each extent. For example, FE (AD (*), AD (*), ...
..., AD (*)).

<File ID Descriptor FID> FIG.
FIG. 23 is a diagram illustrating a part of a file ID descriptor that describes information of a file (root directory, subdirectory, file data, etc.) within a file structure having a hierarchical structure as shown in FIG. 23 or FIG. is there.

The file ID descriptor FID is composed of a descriptor tag 421, a file character 422, an information control block ICB423, a file identifier 424 and padding 437.

* The descriptor tag 421 represents the identifier of the description content, and in this case is "257".

* File characteristic 422 indicates the type of file, and means one of parent directory, directory, file data, and file deletion flag.

* Information control block ICB423 has FE position (file entry position) corresponding to this file.
Is described by a long allocation descriptor.

* The file identifier 424 describes a directory name or a file name.

* Padding 437 is file identifier 4
This is a dummy area added to adjust the length of the entire 24, and normally all "0" (or 000h) is recorded.

According to the present invention, as shown in FIG. 18, computer data (DA1, DA3) and AV data (DA2) can be mixed in one volume space. In this case, two types of files, computer files and AV files, may coexist.

There are two possible methods for setting an AV file identifier for distinguishing an AV file from a computer file: 1) Attaching a predetermined extension (.VOB or the like) to the end of the file name of the AV file. 2) Insert a unique flag (not shown) into the padding 437 of the AV file (if this flag is "1", AV
Indicates a file, "0" indicates a computer file, etc.).

The encrypted user password can be recorded in the area of the padding 437.

FIG. 43 shows a file system structure which is a more generalized version of the file structure shown in FIG. Figure 4
In FIG. 3, information in the parentheses indicates the logical block number on the information storage medium 10 in which the data content of the directory or the data content of the file data is recorded.

<< Example of File Structure Description Recorded According to UDF >> The contents (structure of file system) shown in << Outline of UDF >> described above will be described below using a specific example.

There are the following methods for managing unrecorded positions on the information storage medium (DVD-RAM disk etc.): [Space Bitmap Method] This method uses a space bitmap descriptor. In this method, all the logical blocks in the recording area in the information storage medium are flagged as "recorded" or "unrecorded".

[Space Table Method] This method is shown in FIG.
This is a method of describing the recorded logical block number by listing the short allocation descriptors using the description method of 0.

[0485] Here, in order to summarize the explanation,
Both methods (space bitmap method and space table method) are shown in FIGS. 44 to 46, but both are actually used together (recorded on the information storage medium).
Very rarely, only one is used.

The description contents (description / arrangement of short allocation descriptors) in the space table are adjusted to the file system structure of FIG. 43 for the time being, but not limited to this, the short allocation descriptor can be freely described. You can

44 to 46 show an example in which the information of the file system structure of FIG. 43 is recorded on the information storage medium 10 according to the UDF format. 44 shows the first half thereof, FIG. 45 shows the middle stage thereof, and FIG. 46 shows the latter half thereof.

As shown in FIGS. 44 to 46, the logical sector in which the information about the file structure 486 and the file data 487 is recorded is also called a “logical block” and is linked with the logical sector number (LSN). The logical block number (LBN) is set. (The length of the logical block is 2048 bytes as in the case of the logical sector.) The contents of the main descriptors described in FIGS. 44 to 46 are as follows: * Extent area description The child start 445 indicates the start position of a volume recognition sequence (VRS for short).

* The volume structure descriptor 446 describes the contents of the disc (contents of the volume).

* The boot descriptor 447 is a part that describes the processing contents at the time of boot, such as the boot start position of the computer system.

* End extent area descriptor 448
Indicates the end position of the volume recognition sequence (VRS).

* The partition descriptor 450 describes partition information such as the size of the partition.

In the DVD-RAM, one partition is basically used for each volume.

* The logical volume descriptor 454 describes the contents of the logical volume.

* Anchor volume descriptor pointer 45
Reference numeral 8 indicates the final recording position of the recorded information in the recording area of the information storage medium 10.

* Reservations 459 to 465 are adjustment areas for securing a logical sector number for recording a specific descriptor (descriptor), and all "00h" are written at the beginning.

* Reserve volume descriptor sequence 4
67 is a pack-up area of information recorded in the main volume descriptor sequence 449.

<<< Accessing File Data at Playback >>> Using the file system information shown in FIGS. 44 to 46, for example, the file data H432 shown in FIG. 43.
A file data access processing method on the information storage medium 10 will be described on the assumption that the data content of 1 is reproduced.

(1) The information of the boot descriptor 447 in the volume recognition sequence 444 area is reproduced as a boot area when the information recording / reproducing apparatus is started or when the information storage medium is mounted. The boot process starts according to the contents of the boot descriptor 447.

At this time, if there is no special boot process specified, (2) first, main volume descriptor sequence 449
The information of the logical volume descriptor 454 in the area is reproduced.

(3) The logical volume descriptor 454 describes the logical volume content usage 455. A logical block number indicating the position where the file set descriptor 472 is recorded is described therein in the form of long allocation descriptor (FIG. 38). (In the example of FIGS. 44 to 46, since it is LAD (100), it is recorded in the 100th logical block.) (4) Access the 100th logical block (the logical sector number becomes the 400th), Play the file set descriptor 472. Root directory IC in it
In B473, the location (logical block number) where the file entry related to the root directory A425 is recorded is described in the format of the long allocation descriptor (FIG. 38) (LAD (10 in the example of FIGS. 44 to 46).
Since it is 2), it is recorded in the 102nd logical block).

In this case, the root directory ICB47
According to the LAD (102) of No. 3, (5) the 102nd logical block is accessed, and the file entry 475 relating to the root directory A 425
Is read, and the position (logical block number) where the information regarding the contents of the root directory A425 is recorded is read (AD (103); recorded in the 103rd logical block).

(6) The 103rd logical block is accessed to reproduce the information regarding the contents of the root directory A425.

File data H432 is directory D
Since it exists under the 428 series, the directory D428
The logical block number in which the file entry relating to the directory D428 is recorded (LAD (110); recorded in the 110th logical block, not shown in FIGS. 44 to 46).
To read.

(7) The 110th logical block is accessed, the file entry 480 relating to the directory D428 is reproduced, and the position (logical block number) where the information relating to the contents of the directory D428 is recorded is read (AD (111); Recorded in the 111th logical block).

(8) The 111th logical block is accessed to reproduce the information regarding the contents of the directory D428.

Since the file data H432 exists directly under the subdirectory F430, the file ID descriptor FID related to the subdirectory F430 is searched for, and the logical block number (LAD (112); 11
Read in the second logical block).

(9) The 112th logical block is accessed, the file entry 482 relating to the subdirectory F430 is reproduced, and the position (logical block number) where the information relating to the contents of the subdirectory F430 is recorded is read (AD (113 ); Recorded in the 113th logical block).

(10) The 113th logical block is accessed, the information on the contents of the subdirectory F430 is reproduced, and the file I on the file data H432 is reproduced.
Find the D descriptor FID. Then, the logical block number (LAD (114); recorded in the 114th logical block) in which the file entry related to the file data H432 is recorded is read therefrom.

(11) The 114th logical block is accessed, the file entry 484 relating to the file data H432 is reproduced, and the position where the data content 489 of the file data H432 is recorded is read.

(12) The information is reproduced from the information storage medium in the order of the logical block numbers described in the file entry 484 relating to the file data H432, and the data content 489 of the file data H432 is read.

<<< Specific File Data Content Changing Method >>> Next, including access when changing the data content of the file data H432 using the file system information shown in FIGS. The processing method will be described.

(1) Obtain the capacity difference of the data contents before and after the change of the file data H432, divide that value by 2048 bytes, and determine how many additional logical blocks are used to record the changed data. Calculate in advance whether you will not need them.

(2) The information of the boot descriptor 447 in the volume recognition sequence 444 area is reproduced as a boot area when the information recording / reproducing apparatus is activated or when the information storage medium is mounted. The boot process starts according to the contents of the boot descriptor 447.

At this time, if there is no special boot process specified, (3) first, main volume descriptor sequence 449
The partition descriptor 450 in the area is reproduced, and the information of the partition content use 451 described therein is read. The recording position of the space table or space bitmap is shown in this partition content use 451 (also called a partition header descriptor).

* The space table position is described in the form of a short allocation descriptor in the column of the space table 452 which is not allocated (AD (80) in the examples of FIGS. 44 to 46). Also, the * space bitmap position is described in the form of the short allocation descriptor in the space bitmap field 453 that is not allocated (AD (0) in the examples of FIGS. 44 to 46).

(4) Access the logical block number (0) described in the space bitmap read in (3) above. The space bitmap information is read from the space bitmap descriptor, an unrecorded logical block is searched for, and the use of the logical block for the calculation result of (1) above is registered (rewriting process of the space bitmap descriptor information).

Alternatively, (4 *) the logical block number (80) described in the space table read in (3) above is accessed.
USE of file data I from space table USE (AD (*)) not allocated in space table
(AD (*), AD (*)) is read, an unrecorded logical block is searched for, and the use of the logical block for the calculation result of the above (1) is registered (space table information rewriting processing).

In actual processing, the above (4) or (4
Either one of *) is performed.

(5) Next, the information of the logical volume descriptor 454 in the area of the main volume descriptor sequence 449 is reproduced.

(6) A logical volume content usage 455 is described in the logical volume descriptor 454.
A logical block number indicating the position where the file set descriptor 472 is recorded is described therein in the form of long allocation descriptor (FIG. 38) (FIGS. 44 to 46).
In the above example, it is recorded in the 100th logical block from LAD (100)).

(7) The 100th logical block (400th in the logical sector number) is accessed and the file set descriptor 472 is reproduced. In the root directory ICB473 among them, the root directory A425
The location (logical block number) where the file entry for the file is recorded is the long allocation descriptor (see FIG. 3).
8) (L in the example of FIGS. 44 to 46)
(Recorded in the 102nd logical block from AD (102)).

Then, the root directory ICB473
(8) The 102nd logical block is accessed according to the LAD (102) of
Is read, and the position (logical block number) where information about the contents of the root directory A425 is recorded is read (AD (103)).

(9) The 103rd logical block is accessed to reproduce the information regarding the contents of the root directory A425.

The file data H432 is the directory D
Since it exists under the 428 series, the directory D428
The file ID descriptor FID regarding the directory D428 is searched for, and the logical block number (LAD (110)) in which the file entry regarding the directory D428 is recorded is read.

(10) The 110th logical block is accessed, the file entry 480 relating to the directory D428 is reproduced, and the position (logical block number) where the information relating to the contents of the directory D428 is recorded is read (AD (111)). .

(11) The 111th logical block is accessed to reproduce the information regarding the contents of the directory D428.

Since the file data H432 exists directly under the subdirectory F430, the file ID descriptor FID for the subdirectory F430 is searched for, and the logical block number (LAD (112)) in which the file entry for the subdirectory F430 is recorded. To read.

(12) The 112th logical block is accessed, the file entry 482 relating to the subdirectory F430 is reproduced, and the position (logical block number) where the information relating to the contents of the subdirectory F430 is recorded is read (AD (113 )).

(13) Access the 113th logical block, reproduce the information related to the contents of the subdirectory F430, and the file I related to the file data H432.
Find the D descriptor FID. Then, the logical block number (LAD (114)) in which the file entry relating to the file data H432 is recorded is read therefrom.

(14) The 114th logical block is accessed, the file entry 484 relating to the file data H432 is reproduced, and the position where the data content 489 of the file data H432 is recorded is read.

(15) The data content 489 of the changed file data H432 is recorded in consideration of the logical block number additionally registered in (4) or (4 *).

<<< Specific File Data / Directory Erasure Processing Method >>>> As an example, the file data H4
A method of deleting 32 or the subdirectory F430 will be described.

(1) The information of the boot descriptor 447 in the volume recognition sequence 444 area is reproduced as the boot area when the information recording / reproducing apparatus is started or when the information storage medium is mounted. The boot process starts according to the contents of the boot descriptor 447.

If there is no special boot process specified, (2) first, main volume descriptor sequence 449
The information of the logical volume descriptor 54 in the area is reproduced.

(3) The logical volume content use 455 is described in the logical volume descriptor 454, and the logical block number indicating the position where the file set descriptor 472 is recorded therein is the long allocation descriptor (Fig. 38) format (L in the example of FIGS. 44 to 46)
(Recorded in the 100th logical block from AD (100)).

(4) The 100th logical block (400th in the logical sector number) is accessed and the file set descriptor 472 is reproduced. In the root directory ICB473 among them, the root directory A425
The location (logical block number) where the file entry for the file is recorded is the long allocation descriptor (see FIG. 3).
8) format (LA in the example of FIGS. 44 to 46)
(Recorded in the 102nd logical block from D (102)).

Therefore, the root directory ICB473
(5) The 102nd logical block is accessed according to the LAD (102) of
Is read, and the position (logical block number) where information about the contents of the root directory A425 is recorded is read (AD (103)).

(6) The 103rd logical block is accessed to reproduce information relating to the contents of the root directory A425.

File data H432 is directory D
Since it exists under the 428 series, the directory D428
The file ID descriptor FID regarding the directory D428 is searched for, and the logical block number (LAD (110)) in which the file entry regarding the directory D428 is recorded is read.

(7) The 110th logical block is accessed, the file entry 480 relating to the directory D428 is reproduced, and the position (logical block number) where the information relating to the contents of the directory D428 is recorded is read (AD (111)). .

(8) The 111th logical block is accessed to reproduce the information regarding the contents of the directory D428.

Since the file data H432 exists directly under the subdirectory F430, the file ID descriptor FID regarding the subdirectory F430 is searched for.

Now, assume that the subdirectory F430 is deleted. In this case, subdirectory F
A "file deletion flag" is set to the file characteristic 422 (FIG. 42) in the file ID descriptor FID regarding 430.

Then, the logical block number (LAD (112)) in which the file entry for the subdirectory F430 is recorded is read.

(9) The 112th logical block is accessed, the file entry 482 relating to the subdirectory F430 is reproduced, and the position (logical block number) where the information relating to the contents of the subdirectory F430 is recorded is read (AD (113 )).

(10) The 113th logical block is accessed, the information regarding the contents of the subdirectory F430 is reproduced, and the file I regarding the file data H432 is accessed.
Find the D descriptor FID.

Next, assume that the file data H432 is deleted. In this case, the file data H43
A "file deletion flag" is set to the file characteristic 422 (FIG. 42) in the file ID descriptor FID related to 2.

Further, the logical block number (LAD (114)) in which the file entry relating to the file data H432 is recorded is read therefrom.

(11) The 114th logical block is accessed, the file entry 484 relating to the file data H432 is reproduced, and the position where the data content 489 of the file data H432 is recorded is read.

When the file data H432 is erased, the logical block in which the data content 489 of the file data H432 was recorded is released (the logical block is registered in the unrecorded state) by the following method.

(12) Next, the partition descriptor 450 in the area of the main volume descriptor sequence 449 is reproduced, and the partition content use 4 described therein is used.
The information of 51 is read. In this partition content use (partition header descriptor) 451, the recording position of the space table or space bitmap is shown.

* The space table position is described in the form of the short allocation descriptor in the column of the space table 452 which is not allocated (FIG. 44 to FIG. 46).
In the example, AD (80)). Also, the * space bitmap position is described in the form of the short allocation descriptor in the column of the space bitmap 453 that is not allocated (AD (0) in the examples of FIGS. 44 to 46).

(13) Logical block number (0) described in the space bitmap read in (12) above
Access to and rewrite the “logical block number to be released” obtained as a result of the above (11) into a space bitmap descriptor.

Alternatively, (13 *) the logical block number (80) described in the space table read in (12) above is accessed, and the “logical block number to be released” obtained as a result of (11) above is accessed. Rewrite to the space table.

In actual processing, the above (13) or (1
Either one of 3 *) is performed.

When the file data H432 is to be erased, (12) the position where the data content 490 of the file data I433 is recorded is read by following the same procedure as the above (10) to (11).

(13) Next, the partition descriptor 450 in the area of the main volume descriptor sequence 449 is reproduced, and the partition contents use 4 described therein is used.
The information of 51 is read. In this partition content use (partition header descriptor) 451, the recording position of the space table or space bitmap is shown.

* The space table position is described in the form of short allocation descriptor in the column of the space table 452 which is not allocated. (FIGS. 44 to 46)
In the example, AD (80)). Also, the * space bitmap position is described in the form of the short allocation descriptor in the column of the space bitmap 453 that is not allocated (AD (0) in the examples of FIGS. 44 to 46).

(14) Logical block number (0) described in the space bitmap read in (13) above
Access and rewrite the “logical block number to be released” obtained as a result of the above (11) and (12) into a space bitmap descriptor.

Alternatively, (14 *) the logical block number (80) described in the space table read in (13) above is accessed, and “release” obtained as a result of (11) and (12) above. Rewrite the "logical block number" to the space table.

In the actual processing, the above (14) or (1
Either one of 4 *) is performed.

<<< File Data / Directory Addition Processing >>>> As an example, an access / addition processing method for newly adding file data or a directory under the subdirectory F430 will be described.

(1) When adding file data, check the capacity of the file data contents to be added, and set the value to 2
Divide by 048 bytes and calculate the number of logical blocks required to add file data.

(2) The information of the boot descriptor 447 in the volume recognition sequence 444 area is reproduced as the boot area when the information recording / reproducing apparatus is started or when the information storage medium is mounted. The boot process starts according to the contents of the boot descriptor 447.

If there is no special boot process specified, (3) first, main volume descriptor sequence 449
The partition descriptor 450 in the area is reproduced, and the information of the partition content use 451 described therein is read. In this partition content use (partition header descriptor) 451, the recording position of the space table or space bitmap is shown.

* The space table position is described in the form of a short allocation descriptor in the column of the space table 452 which is not allocated (AD (80) in the examples of FIGS. 44 to 46). Also, the * space bitmap position is described in the form of the short allocation descriptor in the column of the space bitmap 453 that is not allocated (AD (0) in the examples of FIGS. 44 to 46).

(4) Access the logical block number (0) described in the space bitmap read in (3) above. The space bitmap information is read from the space bitmap descriptor, an unrecorded logical block is searched for, and the use of the logical block for the calculation result of (1) above is registered (rewriting process of the space bitmap descriptor information).

Alternatively, (4 *) the logical block number (80) described in the space table read in (3) above is accessed.
Space table USE (AD (*)) 461 to file data I USE (AD (*), AD (*)) 4
Up to 70 are read, an unrecorded logical block is searched for, and the use of the logical block for the calculation result of (1) above is registered (space table information rewriting processing).

In actual processing, the above (4) or (4
Either one of *) is performed.

(5) Next, the information of the logical volume descriptor 454 in the area of the main volume descriptor sequence 449 is reproduced.

(6) The logical volume content usage 455 is described in the logical volume descriptor 454, and the logical block number indicating the position where the file set descriptor 472 is recorded therein is the long allocation descriptor ( 38) format (in the example of FIGS. 44 to 46, it is recorded in the 100th logical block from LAD (100)).

(7) The 100th logical block (400th in the logical sector number) is accessed and the file set descriptor 472 is reproduced. In the root directory ICB473 among them, the root directory A425
The location (logical block number) where the file entry for the file is recorded is the long allocation descriptor (see FIG. 3).
8) format (in the example of FIGS. 44 to 46, L
From AD (102), the file entry for the root directory A425 is recorded in the 102nd logical block).

L of this root directory ICB473
According to AD (102), (8) the 102nd logical block is accessed, and the file entry 475 relating to the root directory A 425 is accessed.
Is read, and the position (logical block number) where information about the contents of the root directory A425 is recorded is read (AD (103)).

(9) The 103rd logical block is accessed to reproduce information relating to the contents of the root directory A425.

File I for Directory D428
The D descriptor FID is searched for, and the logical block number (L
Read AD (110).

(10) The 110th logical block is accessed, the file entry 480 relating to the directory D428 is reproduced, and the position (logical block number) where the information relating to the contents of the directory D428 is recorded is read (AD (111)). .

(11) The 111th logical block is accessed to reproduce the information regarding the contents of the directory D428.

The file ID descriptor FID relating to the subdirectory F430 is searched for, and the subdirectory F430 is searched.
The logical block number (LAD (112)) in which the file entry relating to this is recorded is read.

(12) The 112th logical block is accessed, the file entry 482 related to the subdirectory F430 is reproduced, and the position (logical block number) where the information related to the contents of the subdirectory F430 is recorded is read (AD (113 )).

(13) The 113th logical block is accessed, and the file ID descriptor FID of the file data or directory to be newly added is registered in the information regarding the contents of the subdirectory F430.

(14) Access the logical block number position registered in (4) or (4 *) above, and write the file entry for the file data or directory to be newly added.

(15) The logical block number position shown in the short allocation descriptor in the file entry of (14) above is accessed, and the file ID descriptor FID of the parent directory relating to the directory to be added or the data content of the file data to be added To record.

44 to 46, LSN is an abbreviation showing the logical sector number (LSN) 491, and LSN
BN is an abbreviation indicating the logical block number (LBN) 492, and LLSN is the last logical sector number (last LS
N) is an abbreviation showing 493.

Specific examples of the first anchor point 456 of FIG. 44 and the second anchor point 457 of FIG. 46 will be mentioned in the description of FIGS. 47 to 49.

<< Features of UDF >><Description of Features of UDF>
Universal data format UDF by comparing with file allocation table FAT used in floppy disk FDD, magneto-optical disk MO, etc.
The features of will be explained.

(1) FAT is an allocation management table (file allocation table) for allocating files to information storage media.
Is recorded locally on the information storage medium,
With UDF, file management information can be distributed and recorded at arbitrary positions on the disc.

Since the FAT is centrally managed in the file management area, it is suitable for applications where the file structure needs to be changed frequently (mainly frequent rewriting applications). (Because it is recorded in the centralized area, it is easy to rewrite the management information.)
Since the recording location of the file management information is predetermined in the FAT, it is premised on the high reliability of the recording medium (the number of defective areas is small).

Since file management information is distributed and arranged in UDF, the file structure is not significantly changed, and the lower part of the hierarchy (mainly the part below the root directory).
It is suitable for applications where new file structure is added later (mainly for additional writing). (Because there are few changes to the previous file management information at the time of additional recording.) Also, since the recording position of the distributed file management information can be arbitrarily specified, it is possible to avoid the congenital defect and perform recording.

Furthermore, since the file management information can be recorded at an arbitrary position, the advantage of FAT can be obtained by collecting and recording all the file management information in one place, and it can be considered as a more versatile file system.

(2) In UDF, the minimum unit (minimum logical block size, minimum logical sector size, etc.) is large,
It is suitable for recording video information and music information with a large amount of information to be recorded.

That is, the logical sector size of FAT is 5
UDF logical sector (block) for 12 bytes
The size is as large as 2048 bytes.

In the UDF, the recording position on the disc regarding the file management information and the file data is described in the allocation descriptor as a logical sector (block) number.

The above is an outline of UDF. At the end of the description of UDF, the necessity of newly defining an AV address in a DVD video recorder handling a large amount of information will be mentioned.

In the case of the file system (UDF or the like) that does not require continuous recording / reproducing, as shown in FIG. 36, there is no correspondence with the actual recording position on the information storage medium for addressing. The logical block number and logical sector number are used. On the other hand, according to the present invention, it is necessary to set a video management layer suitable for management of large-sized video information (AV data) and set an optimum address for the function of the video management layer in accordance with this. The "AV address" of the present invention is newly defined in response to this need.

The conditions desired for the AV address and the method for satisfying the conditions are described below.

(1) Portability to another medium FIG. 18 The AV data area DA2 is composed of one or a plurality of AV files, and one volume = 1 AV file. It is necessary to allow this AV file to be directly ported to a hard disk HDD, a magneto-optical MO disk or the like as needed.

When there is a computer data area DA1 before the AV file (DA2) as shown in FIG.
According to the method of setting the logical sector number (or logical block number) shown in, the logical block (sector) number at the AV file start position has an offset value (a value other than 0).
Will be attached.

[0599] Keep the AV file as it is in the HDD or M
Logical block (sector) when ported to another medium such as O
The numbers will be misaligned.

In order to ensure portability to another medium, the above "logical block number offset" is not preferable. In other words, considering portability to another medium, AV
It is desirable that the AV address at the file head position is "0".

Therefore, in one embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 18, allocation map table AM is used.
T is prepared. If this allocation map table AMT is used, it is not necessary to rewrite all the AV address information when porting an AV file to another medium, which makes porting very easy. Specifically, it suffices to appropriately change the inside of the allocation map table AMT according to the address setting method of the porting destination medium.

(2) The logical block (sector) size used on the recording processing unit UDF capable of high-speed additional recording or change recording is 2
It is in units of 048 bytes.

By the way, in a DVD-RAM disc,
As shown in FIG. 9, an ECC block 502 is composed of a group of 16 sectors, and an error correction code (product code) is added in this ECC block 502. For example, when changing the information of one sector 501b in FIG. 9, after reading all the information (32 kbytes) for the ECC block 502 on the information recording / reproducing apparatus side not shown and performing deinterleave processing, only the information of the sector 501b is read. To change. Then, the error correction code of the ECC block is reattached and recorded again.

If the error correction code re-assignment process is performed without any measures, the continuity at the time of recording will be impaired. Therefore, in order to ensure continuity during recording, in the present invention,
Recording on the information storage medium 10 is performed by the ECC block 502 (3
2 kbytes), and each ECC block 502 is directly overwritten.

That is, in an information recording device using a DVD-RAM disc, EC is used as a unit of recording processing.
A C block unit (2048 × 16 = 32 kbytes) is adopted. Then, the address management of the AV data DA2 (FIG. 18) is performed in units of this ECC block.

[0606] FIG. 47 is a diagram recorded on the disc of FIG.
An example of the file structure of the menu created by the user in the V data (video content) is conceptually shown.

The format of the user menu file can be conceptually configured as shown in FIG. 47, and specifically can be configured as shown in FIGS. 48 to 49.

First, the order of the data contained in the user menu file is, as illustrated from top to bottom in FIG. 47, the first anchor point (the first anchor point in FIG. 44).
(Corresponding to anchor point 456), reduced image management unit, backup of the reduced image management unit (not shown), reduced image data group, second anchor point (corresponding to second anchor point 457 in FIG. 46). ing.

The first and second anchor points shown in FIG. 47 are present in the reduced image control information DA214 of FIG. 18, and the recording position of the reduced image management section in the reduced image control information DA214 and the backup of this reduced image management section. Have information that indicates. The first and second anchor points shown in FIG. 47 differ from the anchor pointer AP indicating the recording position of the control information DA21 in FIG. 18 in the information content of the indicated position.

The first anchor point (a, p, in FIG. 47) entered in this user menu file is
b, q), each of which is a pointer address
The start address (a) and end address (p) of the reduced image management unit and the start address (b) and end address (q) of the backup data of the reduced image management unit are described.

Next to the first anchor point, a reduced image management section (broadly speaking, control information DA21 in FIG. 18) is recorded, and this data has been subjected to the "32 kbyte align" processing described later. . In this reduced image management unit, data regarding each reduced image forming the user menu is recorded.

The actual data relating to each reduced image forming the user menu includes the PGC number, the time code (which can be used for time search, etc.), the start address of the reduced image, the number of sectors used (= data length), and the reduced image. There are a size, an address (pointer) to the original file (AV data) of the reduced image, text data used for searching and titles, and the like.

After that, if there is a defective area in the file, the start address and data length of the defective area are recorded. Then, with respect to the background image data of the user menu, the registration number and its start address are recorded.

After that, although not shown, a backup of the reduced image management section is recorded. This backup is recorded for insurance against damage to the reduced image management area.

Further, after that, a packed actual reduced image data group (object groups DA22 to DA24 in FIG. 18 in a broader sense; AV data DA in a broader sense)
2) is recorded. However, these data are
3 for each reduced image (or for each 1VOBU)
It is 2k byte aligned.

[0616] After that, the second anchor point (a, p, b,
q) is described. This is done by considering that the file is usually damaged from the first management area that is accessed frequently. Anchor points are also placed at the end of the file to improve safety.

Also, the reason that 32 kbytes are aligned at each delimiter of this file is to allow access to each 32 kbyte ECC group when changing, adding or deleting data. This 3
By performing 2 kbyte alignment (in other words, ECC block alignment), faster access becomes possible, and the MPU in the DVD drive 140 of FIG.
Alternatively, the operational load on the data processor 36 of FIG. 84 is reduced.

Note that all the address information in this user menu file is expressed as a relative address from the beginning of the file.

The user menu file shown in FIG. 47 has the following characteristics: (a) User menu in which the image data for menu selection (that is, reduced image data) at least representing a still image of a part of video data is the same. One or more is recorded in the file.

(B) A reduced image management section is provided, and all the reduced image data (a storage location of the video signal corresponding to the storage location of the reduced image data recorded on the recording medium (DVD-RAM disc, DVD-RW disc or DVD-R disc) is recorded. Designate) management collectively.

The contents specifically illustrated in FIGS. 48 to 49 are written in the user menu file of FIG. 47.

That is, as shown in FIGS. 48 and 49, as the first anchor pointer for the picture address table, the start position of the picture address table, the end position of the picture address table, the start position of the reserved picture address table, and the reserved picture. The end position of the address table is described; as the picture address table, menu index information (INFO1), index picture information (INFO2), defective area information (INFO5), wallpaper picture information (INFO6), and padding data are described; picture address As the second anchor pointer for the table, the start position of the picture address table, the end position of the picture address table, the start position of the reserved picture address table, and the reserved picture address. End position of less table is described.

[0623] Incidentally, the slide & still picture information I is stored in the picture address tables of Figs. 48 and 49.
NFO3 and information picture information INF
O4 is also described as appropriate.

The menu index information of FIG. 48 includes the number of index pictures, the number of information pictures, the number of slide & still pictures, the number of defective areas and the number of wallpaper pictures.

The index picture information of FIG. 48 includes the content characteristics, the ID of the index picture program chain, the time code of the index picture, the start position of the index picture, the number of sectors used for index picture recording, the picture size, and the original audio / video. Includes data address and search text data.

[0626] Note that the content characteristic included in the index picture information describes "1" if a still image used in the user menu has been recorded, and records only the recording position (address) of this still image. Then, "0" is described.

As shown in FIG. 49, the index picture information in the case of designating the user menu image only by the address has the content characteristic in which "0" is described and the slide &
Program chain PGC ID for still picture
And the address of the original audio / video data and the time code of the slide & still picture.

The wallpaper picture information of FIG. 49 includes the number of wallpaper pictures that can be used as the background image of the user menu (the number of the registered background image), the start position of the wallpaper picture, and the area in which the wallpaper picture is recorded. Including the number of used sectors.

The padding data of FIG. 49 includes the contents of the index picture, the contents of the defective area, the contents of the wallpaper picture, and the like.

Next, the above-mentioned "32 kbyte alignment" is performed.
Will be described.

The user menu files shown in FIGS. 47 to 49 are all divided into 32 kbytes, which are units of error correction code (ECC group), regardless of the recorded area and unrecorded area. The position of the “ECC boundary”, which is the boundary part, is fixed in advance.

When recording each reduced image data, anchor point, and backup of the reduced image management unit and reduced image management unit, the recording start position and recording end position of all data match the above-mentioned "ECC boundary" position. Is recorded (see FIG. 35).

When each data amount is slightly smaller than the integer value of 32 kbytes, as shown in FIG. 47, "dummy area"
Is added to match the recording end position with the “ECC boundary” position. This "dummy area" means the "padding" area in FIG.

At the time of recording / erasing the reduced image data, information is recorded / erased for each "ECC boundary" described above. In this case, since it is not necessary to change a part of the information in the ECC group, the reduced data can be directly overwritten according to the ECC boundary during recording.

By performing the "32 kbyte alignment" as described above, the reduced image data is recorded in the ECC group unit.
Since the error correction information added for erasing is not required to be corrected, the recording / erasing process for each ECC group can be speeded up.

The user menu file shown in FIG. 47 considers portability to another recording medium using a personal computer or the like. Therefore, the reduced image for the user menu, the background image, and the storage address of the reduced image management area are all represented by the differential address (relative address) from the user menu file top position.

In the related table in the reduced image management area of FIG. 47, two rows from the PGC number to the search text data size represent one set of correspondence tables.

In this case, the relationship between the reduced image data recorded and the video signal can be known from the correspondence between the set of the time code of the video signal and the start address.

By searching the entire related table, the unrecorded area in the user menu file or the erased position of the reduced image data after deletion can be found, and new reduced image data can be recorded in this area. it can.

In the user menu file of FIG. 47, the defective area is managed in the relation table between the position on the AV file containing audio / video data and the reduced image recording position.

Here, a specific processing method when the reduced image management unit is damaged by dust or scratches adhering to the surface of the disk (recording medium) 10 will be described.

First, damage to the reduced image management unit due to dust or scratches on the surface of the disk (recording medium) is detected. (It can be judged whether it is damaged or not by the error correction of the ECC group.) When the damage is detected, the information of the anchor point is read, the backup data address of the reduced image management section is checked, and the reduced image is read. Read the backup data of the management section.

Next, the unrecorded area in the user menu file is searched for from the relation table between the reduced image recording positions in FIG. Then, the reduced image management data is recorded in the unrecorded area in the user menu file, and the address information of the anchor point is updated.

Subsequently, the location where the reduced image management section is damaged by dust or scratches on the surface of the disc (recording medium) is registered as a defective area in the relation table between the reduced image recording positions in FIG.

When the user menu file formats shown in FIGS. 47 to 49 are adopted, the following effects can be expected: (a) Addition / search of reduced image data and high-speed access can be achieved by the "32 kbyte alignment"; b) When displaying a plurality of reduced images at one time on the display unit of a monitor display (not shown), it is necessary to access the corresponding reduced image data position on the recording medium for each reduced screen. When the reduced image data is scattered (scattered) on the recording medium, it takes time to access, and it takes a long time to display a plurality of reduced images. However, as shown in FIG. 47, if a plurality of reduced image data are collectively arranged in the same user menu file, a plurality of reduced images can be displayed at high speed simply by reproducing the user menu file. it can.

(C) By collectively managing all the reduced image data in the reduced image management unit, it becomes easy to manage the deletion of the reduced image data and the addition processing. That is, the unrecorded area (or the reduced image data deletion area) in the user menu file can be easily searched, and new reduced image data can be additionally registered at high speed.

(D) In the DVD video recorder, which will be described later, the data processor 36 collectively puts error correction information as an ECC group for every 16 packs (= 32 kbytes) into a disc (DVD-RAM, DVD-RW or DVD-R). ) 10 is recorded. If a part of the information in the ECC group is changed, it is necessary to correct the added error correction information, which complicates the process and takes a lot of time for the information changing process. However, by performing the "32 kbyte alignment", it is not necessary to correct error correction information added when recording / erasing reduced image data in units of ECC groups, and recording and erasing of user menu data can be processed at high speed. It will be possible.

(E) It is possible to secure high reliability of the anchor points and the backup data of the reduced image management unit and the reduced image management unit by the following method: * Securing reliability of the reduced image management area ... Backup of the reduced image management area An area is provided to prepare for a defect in the reduced image management area and it is possible to move the recording location when a defect occurs; * Securing the reliability of anchor point information indicating the recording location in the reduced image management area ... ECC block is configured independently However, the number of data changes is reduced and the data is recorded at two locations (first and second anchor points in FIG. 47); * Defect management processing ... Reduced image management section and anchor points due to dust and scratches on the surface of the disk (recording medium) If the information cannot be played back from the device, the data can be reread from the backup unit and re-recorded at another position. Unisuru.
As a result, it is possible to prevent the defective area from being registered and the defective location being used again by mistake.

There are cases where the reduced image data used for the user menu has a closed caption or multiple characters superimposed on the original image. In such a case, the reduced image may be formed after the characters are multiplexed. It is also possible to construct a reduced image using only this character data.

Furthermore, without having actual reduced image data,
It is also possible to represent the reduced image for the user menu only by the pointer to the main image (in the configuration of FIG. 51 described later, in order to configure the user menu on the hardware side, the reduced image is displayed in the decoder while being displayed. If you do). According to this method, since the disk search is frequently performed when the menu is displayed, it takes some time to display the user menu, but there is an advantage that the disk capacity to be used is small because the user does not actually have a reduced image.

By the way, the AV data control information D in FIG.
The PGC control information PGCCI in A210 has a data structure as shown in FIG. 32, and the playback order is determined by the PGC and the cell. PGC indicates a unit for executing a series of reproductions in which the reproduction order of cells is designated. A cell indicates a reproduction section in which reproduction data is designated by a start address and an end address.

FIG. 50 schematically shows an example of reproducing cell data recorded on the disk 10 of FIG. As shown in the figure, the reproduction data is from cell A to cell F.
Is specified in the playback section up to. The playback combinations of these cells in each program chain (PGC) are defined in the program chain information.

FIG. 51 is a view for explaining an example of the relationship between cells constituting the reproduction data of FIG. 50 and program chain information (PGCI) (see FIG. 19).

That is, PGC # 1 composed of three cells # 1 to # 3 designates cell reproduction in the order of cell A → cell B → cell C. Also, three cells # 1 to #
The PGC # 2 composed of 3 has cell D → cell E → cell F
Cell playback is specified in this order. Further, the PGC # 3 composed of the five cells # 1 to # 5 designates cell reproduction in the order of cell E → cell A → cell D → cell B → cell E.

In FIG. 50 and FIG. 51, PGC # 1
Shows an example of a continuous reproduction section from cell A to cell C, and PGC # 2 shows an example of an intermittent reproduction section from cell D to cell F. Further, PGC # 3 shows an example in which discontinuous cell reproduction is possible regardless of the cell reproduction direction and the overlapping reproduction (cell C and cell D).

FIG. 52 shows an example of a personal computer PC configured to record / reproduce digital video information using the information storage medium (DVD-RAM disk or the like) 10 having the configuration shown in FIGS. It is a block diagram explaining.

<< Description of Internal Structure of General Personal Computer System PC >> (1) Data / Address Line Directly Connected to Main CPU Main CPU 111 in personal computer PC inputs / outputs information to / from main memory 112. And a memory address line 113 for designating the address of the information recorded in the main memory 112, and the execution processing of the main CPU 111 proceeds according to the program loaded in the main memory 112.

Further, the main CPU 111 transfers information with various controllers through the I / O data line 146, and by specifying the address of the I / O address line 145, specifies the information transfer destination controller and the information content to be transferred. It is carried out.

(2) Display Control and Keyboard Control The display controller 115, which controls the display contents of the bitmap display (monitor CRT) 116, exchanges information with the main CPU 111 via the memory data line 114.

Furthermore, in order to realize rich color expression (and gradation expression) with high resolution, the CRT display 11
A video RAM 117 is provided as a memory dedicated to the six. LCD controller 115 has memory data line 1
Information can be directly input from the main memory 112 via 14 and displayed on the CRT display 116.

Numerical key information input from the keyboard 119 is converted by the keyboard controller 118 and input into I / O.
It is input to the main CPU 111 via the O data line 146.

(3) Information reproducing apparatus (DVD-ROM / R
Control system for AM drive, etc. CD-RO built in personal computer PC
The optical information reproducing apparatus such as the M drive 122 and the DVD-ROM / RAM compatible drive 140 has I
A DE interface or SCSI interface is often used. CD-ROM drive 122
The reproduction information from is transferred to the I / O data line 146 via the IDE controller 120.

(4) Serial / Parallel Interface with External of PC A serial line and a parallel line are prepared for information transfer with an external device of the personal computer system.

Parallel I / F controller 123 for controlling parallel lines represented by "Centronics"
Is used when directly driving the printer 124 or the scanner 125 without going through a network or the like. Information transferred from the scanner 125 is transferred to the I / O data line 146 via the parallel I / F controller 123. The information transferred on the I / O data line 146 is transferred to the printer 124 via the parallel I / F controller 123.

For example, the information in the video RAM 117 displayed on the display 116 and the main memory 11 are displayed.
When the specific information in 2 is printed out, this information is sent to the I / O data line 1 via the main CPU 111.
After the transfer to 46, the parallel I / F controller 123
Then, the protocol is converted and output to the printer 124.

Regarding the serial information output to the outside, the information transferred by the I / O data line 146 is protocol-converted by the serial I / F controller 130,
For example, it is output as an RS-232C serial signal.

(5) Bus line for function expansion The personal computer system has various bus lines for function expansion. In a desktop personal computer, PCI buses 133 and E are used as bus lines.
It often has an ISA bus 126.

PCI bus 133 and EISA bus 12
6 Each bus line is a PCI bus controller 1
43 and the EISA bus controller 144,
I / O data line 146 and I / O address line 14
Connected to 5.

[0669] Various boards connected to the bus line are EI
It is divided into an SA bus 126 dedicated board and a PCI bus 133 dedicated board. Since the PCI bus 133 is relatively suitable for high-speed transfer, the number of boards connected to the PCI bus 133 is large in the configuration of FIG. 52, but this is merely an example. Not limited to the configuration of FIG. 52, the EISA bus 12
6 dedicated board, LAN board 13
9 or the SCSI board 138 can be connected to the EISA bus 126.

(6) General functional description of various boards connected to the bus line (6.1) Sound blaster board 127 The sound blaster board 127 converts the audio signal input from the microphone 128 into digital information, and EI
The data is input to the main memory 112 or the DVD-RAM drive 140 via the SA bus 126 and the I / O data line 146, and is appropriately processed.

If you want to listen to music, etc., you can use CD-R
The user specifies the file name recorded in the OM drive 122 or the DVD-ROM / RAM drive 140, and the digital sound source signal is transferred to the sound blaster board 127 via the I / O data line 146 and the EISA bus 126. After being converted into an analog signal, it is output from the speaker 129.

(6.2) Dedicated DSP 137 When it is desired to execute a certain special processing at high speed, the DSP board 137 dedicated to the processing can be connected to the PCI bus line 133.

(6.3) SCSI Interface A SCSI interface is often used for inputting / outputting information from / to an external storage device. SCSI board 13
8, the protocol conversion for transferring the SCSI format information input / output to / from the external storage device such as the DVD-ROM / RAM drive 140 to the PCI bus 133 or the EISA bus 126 and the transfer information format conversion are performed. To be executed.

(6.4) Dedicated board for information compression / decompression Multimedia information such as audio, still images, and moving images is information-compressed and is stored in the information storage medium (DVD-RAM in FIG. 1 by the DVD-ROM / RAM drive 140, etc. Disk 1
0) Recorded. This information compression / decompression board (13
4 to 136) is a DVD-ROM / RAM drive 14
When the compressed information is reproduced from 0, the compressed information is expanded to generate image information to be displayed on the display 116 or an audio signal for ringing the speaker 129. In addition, the DVD-ROM / RAM drive 140 is provided by compressing information such as the audio signal input from the microphone 128.
Also used when recording in.

[0675] Various dedicated boards are in charge of the above-mentioned information compression / expansion function.

More specifically, the audio encoder / decoder board 136 compresses / expands music / voice signals, the MPEG board 134 compresses / expands moving images (video images), and JPEG compresses / expands still images. Board 1
I try to do it at 35.

<< Connection of Personal Computer to External Network >> (7) Network Connection Using Telephone Line A modem 131 is used to transfer information to the outside via a telephone line. That is, in order to make a telephone connection to a desired destination, an NCU (Network Control Unit) not shown transmits the destination telephone number to the telephone exchange through the telephone line. When the telephone line is connected, the serial I / F controller 130 performs transfer information format conversion and protocol conversion on the information on the I / O data line 146,
The resulting RS-232C digital signal is converted into an analog signal by the modem 131 and transferred to the telephone line.

(8) Network connection using IEEE 1394 When transferring multimedia information such as voice, still image and moving image to an external device (not shown), the IEEE 1394 interface is suitable.

[0679] For moving images or voices, if the necessary information cannot be sent within a certain period of time, the motion of the image becomes jerky or the voice is interrupted. IEEE13 to solve the problem
In 94, isochronous data transfer is completed every 125 μs
The ous transfer method is adopted. IEEE 1394 also allows a mixture of this isochronous transfer and normal asynchronous transfer, but the maximum asynchronous transfer time for one cycle is 63.5μ.
s and the upper limit is determined. This is because if this asynchronous transfer time is too long, isochronous transfer cannot be guaranteed.

Note that in IEEE 1394, SCSI commands (instruction sets) can be used as they are.

The IEEE1394 I / F board 132 is
For the information transmitted through the PCI bus 133, the isochron
information format conversion and protocol conversion for ous transfer,
Performs automatic topology setting such as node setting.

As described above, the function of not only transferring the information held in the personal computer system to the outside as the IEEE 1394 signal but also converting the IEEE 1394 signal sent from the outside and transferring it to the PCI bus 133 is also provided. I have the / F board 132.

(9) Network connection using LAN For input / output of LAN signals through a LAN cable as a medium, although not shown, for local area information communication in a specific area such as a company or a government office / school.

TCP / IP, NetBEUI, and the like exist as communication protocols using LAN, and a unique data packet structure (information format structure) is adopted according to various protocols. The LAN board 139 performs information format conversion for information transferred on the PCI bus 133, communication procedure processing with the outside according to various protocols, and the like.

As an example, the DVD-RAM disk 10 set in the DVD-ROM / RAM drive 140.
A procedure and an information transfer path for converting the specific file information recorded in (FIG. 1) into a LAN signal and transferring it to an external personal computer, EWS or network server (not shown) will be described.

[0686] DVD controlled by SCSI board 138
The file directory (FIG. 23) recorded in the RAM disk 10 is output, and the resulting file list is recorded in the main memory 112 by the main CPU 111 and displayed on the CRT display 116.

When the user inputs the file name to be transferred from the keyboard 119, the contents are sent to the main CPU 111 via the keyboard controller 118, and C
It is recognized by the PU 111. Main CPU111 is S
When the file name to be transferred is notified to the CSI board 138, the DVD-ROM / RAM drive 140 determines and accesses the information recording location inside the DVD-RAM disk 10, and the reproduction information from there accesses the SCSI board 138 and the PCI bus 133. Is transferred to the LAN board 139 via the.

On the LAN board 139, after establishing a session with the transfer destination by a series of communication procedures, the PCI bus 1
After receiving the file information from 33 and converting it into a data packet structure according to the transmitted protocol, it is transferred to the outside as a LAN signal.

<< Information Transfer from Information Playback Device or Information Storage / Playback Device >> (10) Standard Interface and Information Transfer Path CD-ROM, DVD-ROM drive 122 which is a device for handling read-only optical disks, DVD-RAM, P
When the drive 140, which is an apparatus for handling recordable and reproducible optical disks such as D (phase change recording disk) and MO (magneto-optical disk), is incorporated in a personal computer system and used, "I" is used as a standard interface.
"DE", "SCSI", "IEEE1394", etc. exist.

Generally, a PCI bus controller 143
The EISA bus controller 144 has a DMA (direct memory access) function inside. This DM
Under the control of A, the information can be directly transferred between the blocks without interposing the main CPU 111.

For example, when the reproduction information from the DVD drive 140 is transferred to the MPEG board 134, the processing from the main CPU 111 is performed by the PCI bus controller 14
All that is required is to give a transfer command to the third node. PC for information transfer management
It is entrusted to the DMA in the I-bus controller 143. As a result, during the actual information transfer, the main CPU is not busy with the information transfer processing and can execute other processing in parallel during the information transfer processing.

Similarly, when the reproduction information from the CD drive 122 is transferred to the memory 112, for example, the main C
The PU 111 only issues a transfer command to the IDE controller 120 and manages subsequent transfer processing by the IDE controller 12.
It can be left to the DMA in 0.

(11) Authentication function information recording / reproducing device (DVD-RAM drive, etc.) 140
Or information reproducing device (CD-ROM drive etc.) 12
As described above, the information transfer processing relating to No. 2 is performed by the DMA in the PCI bus controller 143, the DMA in the EISA bus controller 144, or the IDE controller 12.
Although the DMA in 0 manages, the actual transfer processing itself is the information recording / reproducing device 140 or the information reproducing device 12
The authentication function unit of 2 carries out the actual transfer process.

DVD video, DVD-ROM, DVD-
In a DVD system such as R, video and audio bit streams are recorded in the MPEG2 program stream format, and audio streams, video streams, sub-picture streams, private streams, and the like are mixed and recorded.

Information recording / reproducing apparatus (DVD-ROM / RA
The M drive, etc.) 140 separates and extracts an audio stream, a video stream, a sub-picture stream, a private stream, etc. from the program stream at the time of reproducing information, and extracts the extracted stream from the main CP.
It directly transfers to the audio encoding / decoding board 136, the MPEG board 134, or the JPEG board 135 via the PCI bus 133 without interposing the U111.

Similarly, the information reproducing apparatus (CD-ROM drive, etc.) 122 also separates and extracts the program stream reproduced therefrom into various stream information, and the individual stream information is divided into I / O data lines 146 and PCI bus 1.
It directly transfers to the audio encoding / decoding board 136, the MPEG board 134, or the JPEG board 135 via 33 (without interposing the main CPU 111).

Information recording / reproducing device 140 and information reproducing device 1
22 like the voice coding / decoding board 136, MPEG
The board 134 or the JPEG board 135 itself also has an internal authentication function.

With this function, a PC can be
Through the I bus 133 (and I / O data line 146), the information recording / reproducing device 140, the information reproducing device 122, the audio encoding / decoding board 136, the MPEG board 134,
The JPEG boards 135 can authenticate each other. When the mutual authentication is completed, the video stream information reproduced by the information recording / reproducing device 140 or the information reproducing device 122 is transferred only to the MPEG board 134. Similarly, the audio stream information is the audio encoding / decoding board 13.
6 only. Also, the still image stream is JPE
The private stream and text information are sent to the G board 135 and to the main CPU 111.

By the way, the information recording / reproducing apparatus is roughly divided into an information recording / reproducing section (physical system block) for recording / reproducing information on / from an information storage medium, an interface section with the outside, and an information recording / reproducing apparatus. It can be classified into an application configuration unit (application system block) configured by a function execution unit for performing a unique device function.

FIG. 53 is a diagram for explaining a physical block and an application block separately in the digital video recording / playback function personal computer PC of FIG.

The information reproducing apparatus (DVD player or the like) or information recording / reproducing apparatus (DVD recorder or the like) 103 is roughly composed of two blocks as shown in FIG.

The information reproducing section or the information recording / reproducing section (physical system block) 101 rotates the information storage medium (optical disk 10 in FIG. 1) and reads the information previously recorded in the information storage medium using the optical head ( Or recording new information in the information storage medium).

Specifically, a spindle motor for rotating the optical disc 10 as an information storage medium, an optical head for reproducing information recorded on the optical disc 10, a radial position on the optical disc 10 on which information to be reproduced is recorded. It is composed of an optical head moving mechanism for moving the optical head and various other servo circuits. The structure of the variegated block 101 will be described later.

Application configuration unit (application block)
Reference numeral 102 serves to send the reproduction information a to the outside of the information reproducing apparatus or the information recording / reproducing apparatus 103 by processing the reproduction signal c obtained from the information reproducing section or the information recording / reproducing section (physical system block) 101. . The configuration in this application block changes according to the specific use (purpose of use) of the information reproducing apparatus or the information recording / reproducing apparatus 103. The configuration of this application block 102 will also be described later.

In the case of an information recording / reproducing apparatus (DVD recorder or the like), the recording information b given from the outside by the following procedure.
Is recorded on the information storage medium (optical disk 10).

* Record information b given from outside is directly transferred to the application block 102.

* After the recording information b is processed in the application block 102, the recording signal d is transmitted to the physical block 101.

* The transmitted recording signal d is recorded on the optical disc 10 in the physical block 101.

FIG. 54 shows the DVD-ROM / RA shown in FIG.
M drive 140 (speaking of physical system block 10 in FIG. 53)
It is a block diagram explaining an example of composition of 1).

First, the internal structure of the information recording / reproducing section (physical system block 101) in the information recording / reproducing apparatus will be described.

<<< Functional Description of Information Recording / Reproducing Unit >>>><< Basic Function of Information Recording / Reproducing Unit >> In the information recording / reproducing unit, at a predetermined position on the information storage medium (optical disc) 10,
New information is recorded or rewritten (including erasing information) using the focused spot of the laser beam.

The information already recorded is reproduced from a predetermined position on the information storage medium 10 by using the focused spot of the laser beam.

<< Basic Function Achieving Means of Information Recording / Reproducing Unit >>
> In order to achieve the above-mentioned basic function, the information recording / reproducing unit traces (follows) the focused spot along the track on the information storage medium 10. The recording / reproducing / erasing of information is switched by changing the light amount (intensity) of the focused spot irradiated on the information storage medium 10. The recording signal d given from the outside is converted into an optimum signal for recording with high density and low error rate.

<<< Structure of mechanism and operation of detector>
>><< Basic Structure of Optical Head 202 and Signal Detection Circuit >><< Signal Detection by Optical Head 202>
Basically, it is composed of a semiconductor laser element which is a light source, a photodetector and an objective lens.

The laser light emitted from the semiconductor laser element is transmitted through the objective lens to the information storage medium (optical disk) 10
Focused on top. The laser light reflected by the light reflecting film or the light reflecting recording film of the information storage medium 10 is photoelectrically converted by the photodetector.

The detected current obtained by the photodetector is the amplifier 2
A current-voltage conversion is performed by 13 and becomes a detection signal. This detection signal is the focus / track error detection circuit 21.
7 or the binarization circuit 212.

In general, the photodetector is divided into a plurality of photodetection areas and individually detects changes in the amount of light with which each photodetection area is irradiated. The focus / track error detection circuit 217 calculates the sum / difference of these individual detection signals to detect focus deviation and track deviation.
After the focus shift and the track shift are substantially removed by this detection, a change in the amount of reflected light from the light reflecting film or the light reflecting recording film of the information storage medium 10 is detected, and the signal on the information storage medium 10 is reproduced. .

<Focus Deviation Detection Method> As a method for optically detecting the amount of focus deviation, for example, there are the following methods: [Astigmatism method] Light reflection film or light reflective recording of the information storage medium 10. This is a method of arranging an optical element (not shown) that generates astigmatism in the detection optical path of the laser light reflected by the film, and detecting the change in shape of the laser light with which the photodetector is irradiated. The light detection area is divided into four diagonal lines. The focus / track error detection circuit 217 obtains the difference between the diagonal sums of the detection signals obtained from the respective detection areas to obtain the focus error detection signal.

[Knife edge method] A method of arranging a knife edge that asymmetrically shields part of the laser light reflected by the information storage medium 10. The light detection region is divided into two, and the difference between the detection signals obtained from each detection region is taken to obtain the focus error detection signal.

Usually, either the astigmatism method or the knife edge method is adopted.

<Track deviation detection method> The information storage medium (optical disk) 10 has spiral or concentric tracks, and information is recorded on the tracks. Information is reproduced or recorded / erased by tracing a focused spot along this track. In order to stably trace the focused spot along the track, it is necessary to optically detect the relative displacement between the track and the focused spot.

The following methods are generally used as the track deviation detection method: [Differential Phase Detection method] Reflected by the light reflection film or the light reflection recording film of the information storage medium (optical disk) 10. The change in the intensity distribution of the generated laser light on the photodetector is detected. The light detection area is divided into four diagonally. The focus / track error detection circuit 217 obtains the difference between the diagonal sums of the detection signals obtained from the respective detection areas to obtain the track error detection signal.

[Push-Pull Method] A change in intensity distribution of the laser light reflected by the information storage medium 10 on the photodetector is detected. The light detection area is divided into two, and the difference between the detection signals obtained from each detection area is taken to obtain the track error detection signal.

[Twin-Spot Method] A diffraction element or the like is arranged in the light transmitting system between the semiconductor laser element and the information storage medium 10 to divide the light into a plurality of wavefronts, and the information storage medium 1
A change in the amount of reflected light of the ± 1st-order diffracted light that is irradiated on 0 is detected. Separately from the light detection area for reproducing signal detection, a light detection area for individually detecting the reflected light quantity of the + 1st order diffracted light and the reflected light quantity of the −1st order diffracted light is arranged, and the difference between the respective detected signals is taken to detect the track error detection signal. To get

<Objective Lens Actuator Structure> The laser light emitted from the semiconductor laser device is used as the information storage medium 10.
An objective lens (not shown) that is focused on the top has a structure that can move in two axial directions according to the output current of the objective lens actuator drive circuit 218. There are the following two moving directions of the objective lens. That is, it moves in the vertical direction with respect to the information storage medium 10 for the focus shift correction, and moves in the radial direction of the information storage medium 10 for the track shift correction.

The objective lens moving mechanism (not shown) is called an objective lens actuator. For example, the following is often used for the objective lens actuator structure: [Shaft sliding method] A method in which a blade integrated with an objective lens moves along a central axis (shaft), and the blade moves along the central axis. In this method, the focus shift is corrected by moving in the opposite direction, and the track shift is corrected by the rotational movement of the blade with respect to the central axis.

[Four-wire system] This is a method in which a blade integrated with an objective lens is connected to a fixed system by four wires, and the elastic deformation of the wires is used to move the blade in two axial directions.

In any of the above methods, a permanent magnet and a coil are provided, and the blade is moved by passing an electric current through the coil connected to the blade.

<< Rotation Control System of Information Storage Medium 10 >> The information storage medium (optical disk) 10 is mounted on the rotary table 221 which is rotated by the driving force of the spindle motor 204.

The number of rotations of the information storage medium 10 is detected by the reproduction signal obtained from the information storage medium 10. That is, the detection signal (analog signal) output from the amplifier 213 is 2
The digitization circuit 212 converts the signal into a digital signal, and the PLL circuit 211 generates a constant period signal (reference clock signal) from this signal. Information storage medium rotation speed detection circuit 2
At 14, the number of revolutions of the information storage medium 10 is detected using this signal and the value is output.

Playback or recording / recording on the information storage medium 10
A correspondence table of the number of revolutions of the information storage medium corresponding to the radial position to be erased is recorded in the semiconductor memory 219 in advance. When the reproduction position or the recording / erasing position is determined, the control unit 220 refers to the semiconductor memory 219 information to set the target rotation speed of the information storage medium 10, and notifies the spindle motor drive circuit 215 of the value.

In the spindle motor drive circuit 215, the difference between the target rotation speed and the output signal (current rotation speed) of the information storage medium rotation speed detection circuit 214 is obtained, and a drive current corresponding to the result is obtained. The control is performed so that the rotation speed of the spindle motor 204 becomes constant. The output signal of the information storage medium rotation speed detection circuit 214 is a pulse signal having a frequency corresponding to the rotation speed of the information storage medium 10, and the spindle motor drive circuit 215.
Then, control (frequency control and phase control) is performed on both the frequency and the pulse phase of the pulse signal.

<< Optical Head Moving Mechanism >> This mechanism has an optical head moving mechanism (feed motor) 203 for moving the optical head 202 in the radial direction of the information storage medium 10.

As the guide mechanism for moving the optical head 202, a rod-shaped guide shaft is often used.
In this guide mechanism, this guide shaft and the optical head 2
The optical head 202 is moved by utilizing the friction between the bushes attached to a part of 02. In addition, there is also a method of using a bearing whose frictional force is reduced by using rotary motion.

The driving force transmission method for moving the optical head 202 is not shown, but a rotary motor with a pinion (rotary gear) is arranged in a fixed system, and a rack, which is a linear gear meshing with the pinion, is driven by a light. It is arranged on the side surface of the head 202 to convert the rotary motion of the rotary motor into the linear motion of the optical head 202. As another driving force transmission method, there may be used a linear motor method in which a permanent magnet is arranged in a fixed system and an electric current is passed through a coil arranged in the optical head 202 to move the coil in a linear direction.

In both the rotary motor and linear motor systems, basically, a current is passed through the feed motor to cause the optical head 20 to move.
2 Drive force for movement is generated. This drive current is supplied from the feed motor drive circuit 216.

<<<< Functions of Each Control Circuit >>>><< Condensing Spot Trace Control >> In order to perform focus deviation correction or track deviation correction, according to the output signal (detection signal) of the focus / track error detection circuit 217. The objective lens actuator drive circuit 218 is a circuit that supplies a drive current to an objective lens actuator (not shown) in the optical head 202. This drive circuit 2
Reference numeral 18 internally has a phase compensating circuit for improving the characteristics in accordance with the frequency characteristics of the objective lens actuator in order to make the objective lens move at a high speed in a high frequency range.

Objective lens actuator drive circuit 218
Then, in response to a command from the control unit 220, (a) ON / OFF processing of the focus / track deviation correction operation (focus / track loop); and (b) the vertical direction (focus direction) of the information storage medium 10.
A process of moving the objective lens at a low speed (executed when the focus / track loop is off); (c) Using the kick pulse, slightly moving the objective lens in the radial direction of the information storage medium 10 (direction crossing the track). , Processing for moving the focused spot to the adjacent track is performed.

<< Laser Light Amount Control >><Reproduction and Recording / Erase Switching Process> Reproduction and recording / erasing are switched by changing the light amount of the focused spot irradiated on the information storage medium 10.

For an information storage medium using the phase change method, generally, the relationship of [amount of light during recording]> [amount of light during erasing]> [amount of light during reproduction] (1) is established, and An information storage medium using a magnetic system generally has a relationship of [amount of light during recording] ≈ [amount of light during erasing]> [amount of light during reproduction] (2). In the case of the magneto-optical method, the recording / erasing process is controlled by changing the polarity of an external magnetic field (not shown) applied to the information storage medium 10 at the time of recording / erasing.

At the time of reproducing information, the information storage medium 10 is continuously irradiated with a constant light amount.

When recording new information, the pulsed intermittent light quantity is added to the light quantity at the time of reproduction. When the semiconductor laser device emits a pulsed light with a large amount of light, the light reflective recording film of the information storage medium 10 locally causes an optical change or a shape change, and a recording mark is formed. In the case of overwriting on the already-recorded area, the semiconductor laser element is similarly pulsed.

In the case of erasing already recorded information, a constant light amount larger than that at the time of reproduction is continuously irradiated. In the case of continuously erasing information, the irradiation light amount is returned at the time of reproduction in a specific cycle such as a sector unit, and information is intermittently reproduced in parallel with the erasing process. As a result, the track number and address of the track to be erased intermittently are reproduced, and the erase process is performed while confirming that there is no error in the erase track.

<Laser Emission Control> Although not shown, the optical head 202 has a built-in photodetector for detecting the emission amount of the semiconductor laser element. In the laser drive circuit 205, the photodetector output (detection signal of the light emission amount of the semiconductor laser element) and the recording / reproducing / erasing control waveform generating circuit 2
The difference from the light emission reference signal given by 06 is taken, and the drive current to the semiconductor laser is feedback-controlled based on the result.

<<<< Various operations related to the control system of the mechanical portion >>
>><< Startup Control >> When the information storage medium (optical disk) 10 is mounted on the turntable 221 and startup control is started, processing according to the following procedure is performed.

(1) The target rotation speed is transmitted from the control unit 220 to the spindle motor drive circuit 215, a drive current is supplied from the spindle motor drive circuit 215 to the spindle motor 204, and the spindle motor 204 starts rotating.

(2) At the same time, the control unit 220 issues a command (execution command) to the feed motor drive circuit 216, and a drive current is supplied from the feed motor drive circuit 216 to the optical head drive mechanism (feed motor) 203. The optical head 202 moves to the innermost position of the information storage medium 10.
As a result, it is confirmed that the optical head 202 is located further inside the area beyond the area of the information storage medium 10 where information is recorded.

(3) When the spindle motor 204 reaches the target rotation speed, the status (status report) is sent to the control unit 220.

(4) A current is supplied from the semiconductor laser drive circuit 205 to the semiconductor laser element in the optical head 202 in accordance with the reproduction light amount signal sent from the control unit 220 to the recording / reproduction / erasure control waveform generation circuit 206. , Laser emission starts.

The optimum irradiation light amount at the time of reproduction differs depending on the type of the information storage medium (optical disk) 10. At the time of startup, the value corresponding to the lowest irradiation light value among them,
The current value supplied to the semiconductor laser device is set.

(5) In accordance with a command from the control unit 220, the objective lens (not shown) in the optical head 202 is moved to the position farthest from the information storage medium 10, and the objective lens is slowly brought close to the information storage medium 10. The objective lens actuator driving circuit 218 controls the objective lens.

(6) At the same time, the focus / track error detection circuit 217 monitors the amount of defocus, and when the objective lens comes near the in-focus position, the status is issued and "the objective lens comes near the in-focus position". This is notified to the control unit 220.

(7) Upon receipt of the notification, the control unit 220 issues a command to the objective lens actuator drive circuit 218 to turn on the focus loop.

(8) The control section 220 issues a command to the feed motor drive circuit 216 while keeping the focus loop on to slowly move the optical head 202 to the information storage medium 10.
Move toward the outer periphery of.

(9) At the same time, the reproduction signal from the optical head 202 is monitored, and when the optical head 202 reaches the recording area on the information storage medium 10, the movement of the optical head 202 is stopped and the objective lens actuator drive circuit 218 is instructed. Command to turn on the track loop.

(10) Subsequently, the "optimum amount of light at the time of reproduction" and "recording / recording" recorded on the inner peripheral portion of the information storage medium 10 are performed.
The "optimum amount of light at the time of erasure" is reproduced, and the information is reproduced by the controller
It is recorded in the semiconductor memory 219 via 0.

(11) Further, the control section 220 sends a signal in accordance with the "optimum light amount during reproduction" to the recording / reproduction / erasure control waveform generating circuit 206, and resets the light emission amount of the semiconductor laser element during reproduction. To do.

(12) Then, the light emission amount of the semiconductor laser element at the time of recording / erasing is set in accordance with the "optimal light amount at the time of recording / erasing" recorded in the information storage medium 10.

<< Access Control >> Information on which location on the reproduction information storage medium 10 the access destination information recorded on the information storage medium 10 is recorded and what kind of content the information has is. It depends on the 10 types. For example, in a DVD disc, this information is recorded in a directory management area or a navigation pack in the information storage medium 10.

[0760] Here, the directory management area is usually recorded collectively in the inner peripheral area or the outer peripheral area of the information storage medium 10. The navigation pack is M
Included in a data unit called VOBU (video object unit) in VOBS (video object set) that conforms to the PS (program stream) data structure of PEG2, and records information about where the next video is recorded. is doing.

To reproduce or record / erase specific information, the information in the above area is first reproduced, and the access destination is determined from the information obtained there.

<Coarse access control> The control unit 220 calculates the radial position of the access destination and calculates the current optical head 202.
Determine the distance to the position.

The speed curve information that can reach the optical head 202 with respect to the moving distance in the shortest time is previously stored in the semiconductor memory 21.
It is recorded in 9. The control unit 220 reads the information and follows the velocity curve according to the following method.
02 movement control is performed.

That is, after the control unit 220 issues a command to the objective lens actuator drive circuit 218 to turn off the track loop, the feed motor drive circuit 21
6 is controlled to start the movement of the optical head 202.

When the converging spot crosses the track on the information storage medium 10, a track error detection signal is generated in the focus / track error detection circuit 217. The relative speed of the focused spot with respect to the information storage medium 10 can be detected using this track error detection signal.

The feed motor drive circuit 216 computes the difference between the relative velocity of the focused spot obtained from the focus / track error detection circuit 217 and the target velocity information sent from the control unit 220 one by one, and the result is used to calculate the optical head. The optical head 202 is moved while performing feedback control on the drive current to the drive mechanism (feed motor) 203.

As described in the section << Optical head moving mechanism >>, a frictional force always acts between the guide shaft and the bush or the bearing. Dynamic friction works when the optical head 202 is moving at high speed, but static friction works because the moving speed of the optical head 202 is slow at the start and immediately before the stop. When this static friction works (especially immediately before stopping), the frictional force is relatively increasing. In order to cope with this increase in frictional force, the optical head drive mechanism (feed motor) 20
So that the current supplied to the controller 3 becomes large.
Command to increase the gain of the control system.

<Dense Access Control> When the optical head 202 reaches the target position, the controller 220 issues a command to the objective lens actuator drive circuit 218 to turn on the track loop.

The focused spot reproduces the address or track number of that portion while tracing along the track on the information storage medium 10.

The current focus spot position is calculated from the address or track number there, the error track number from the target position to be reached is calculated in the control unit 220, and the number of tracks required to move the focus spot is calculated as the objective lens actuator. The drive circuit 218 is notified.

Objective lens actuator drive circuit 218
When a set of kick pulses is generated inside, the objective lens slightly moves in the radial direction of the information storage medium 10, and the focused spot moves to the adjacent track.

Objective lens actuator drive circuit 218
Inside, the track loop is temporarily turned off, and the control unit 2
After the kick pulse is generated the number of times according to the information from 20, the track loop is turned on again.

After the fine access is completed, the control unit 220 reproduces the information (address or track number) of the position traced by the focused spot and confirms that the target track is being accessed.

<< Continuous Recording / Reproduction / Erasure Control >> The track error detection signal output from the focus / track error detection circuit 217 is input to the feed motor drive circuit 216. At the time of "start control" and "access control", the control unit 220 controls the feed motor drive circuit 216 so that the track error detection signal is not used.

After confirming that the focused spot has reached the target track by the access, a part of the track error detection signal is sent via the motor drive circuit 216 by the command from the control unit 220. It is supplied as a drive current to the motor 203. This control is continued during the period during which the reproducing or recording / erasing process is continuously performed.

The center position of the information storage medium 10 is mounted with an eccentricity slightly deviated from the center position of the rotary table 221. When a part of the track error detection signal is supplied as a drive current, the entire optical head 202 slightly moves according to the eccentricity.

[0777] Further, when the reproducing or recording / erasing process is continuously performed for a long time, the focused spot position gradually moves in the outer peripheral direction or the inner peripheral direction. When a part of the track error detection signal is supplied as a drive current to the optical head moving mechanism (feed motor) 203, the optical head 20 is adjusted accordingly.
2 gradually moves in the outer peripheral direction or the inner peripheral direction.

By thus reducing the burden of correcting the track deviation of the objective lens actuator, the track loop can be stabilized.

<< End Control >> When a series of processing is completed and the operation is ended, the processing is performed according to the following procedure.

(1) The control unit 220 issues a command to the objective lens actuator drive circuit 218 to turn off the track loop.

(2) The control unit 220 issues a command to the objective lens actuator drive circuit 218 to turn off the focus loop.

(3) The control unit 220 issues a command to the recording / reproducing / erasing control waveform generating circuit 206 to stop the emission of the semiconductor laser element.

(4) The spindle motor drive circuit 215 is notified of 0 as the reference rotation speed.

<<<< Flow of recording signal / reproduction signal to information storage medium >>>><< Flow of signal during reproduction >><Binarization / PLL circuit><Signal detection by optical head 202> As described above, the change in the amount of light reflected from the light reflection film or the light reflective recording film of the information storage medium (optical disc) 10 is detected, and the signal on the information storage medium 10 is reproduced. The signal obtained by the amplifier 213 has an analog waveform. The binarization circuit 212 uses a comparator to convert the analog signal into "1" and "0".
Convert to digital signal of value.

[0785] In this way, from the reproduced signal obtained by the binarization circuit 212, the PLL circuit 211 extracts the reference signal at the time of reproducing information. That is, the PLL circuit 211 has a built-in frequency variable oscillator, and the pulse signal (reference clock) output from this oscillator and the binarization circuit 21.
Frequency and phase comparisons are made between the two output signals. By feeding back this comparison result to the oscillator output, the reference signal at the time of reproducing information is taken out.

<Signal Demodulation> The demodulation circuit 210 has a built-in conversion table showing the relationship between the modulated signal and the demodulated signal. The demodulation circuit 210 includes the PLL circuit 21.
The input signal (modulated signal) is returned to the original signal (demodulated signal) while referring to the conversion table according to the reference clock obtained in 1. The demodulated signal is recorded in the semiconductor memory 219.

<Error correction processing> Error correction circuit 209
In the inside, the error location is detected for the signal stored in the semiconductor memory 219 by using the inner code PI and the outer code PO, and a pointer flag of the error location is set. After that, while reading the signal from the semiconductor memory 219, the signal at the error position is sequentially corrected according to the error pointer flag, and then the corrected information is recorded again in the semiconductor memory 219.

When the information reproduced from the information storage medium 10 is output to the outside as the reproduction signal c, the semiconductor memory 2
The inner code PI and the outer code PO are removed from the error-corrected information recorded in 19 and transferred to the data I / O interface 222 via the bus line 224.

Then, the data I / O interface 2
22 outputs the signal sent from the error correction circuit 209 as the reproduction signal c.

<< Signal Format Recorded on Information Storage Medium 10 >> Signals recorded on the information storage medium 10 are required to satisfy the following requirements: (a) Information storage medium To enable correction of a recorded information error caused by a defect on (10) (b) to reduce the DC component of the reproduced signal to "0" to simplify the reproduction processing circuit; (c) to the information storage medium 10; On the other hand, record information as densely as possible.

In order to satisfy the above requirements, the information recording / reproducing unit (physical system block) 101 performs "addition of error correction function" and "signal conversion (modulation / demodulation of signal) for recorded information".

<< Signal Flow During Recording >><Error Correction Code ECC Addition Processing> This error correction code ECC addition processing will be described.

Information d to be recorded in the information storage medium 10 is
It is input to the data I / O interface 222 of FIG. 54 in the form of a raw signal. The recording signal d is recorded in the semiconductor memory 219 as it is. After that, the following ECC addition processing is executed in the ECC encoder 208.

A specific example of the ECC adding method using the product code will be described below.

The recording signal d is stored in the semiconductor memory 219 as follows.
One line is arranged for every 172 bytes, and 1 line is formed for 192 lines.
A set of ECC blocks (172 byte rows x 192)
The amount of information in a byte string is about 32 kbytes).

This "172 byte row x 192 byte column"
For a raw signal (recording signal d) in a set of ECC blocks, a 10-byte inner code PI is calculated for each row of 172 bytes and additionally recorded in the semiconductor memory 219. In addition, 16 bytes of outer code P for each column in bytes
O is calculated and additionally recorded in the semiconductor memory 219.

Then, 12 lines (12 × (172 + 10) bytes) including the 10-byte inner code PI and the outer code P are included.
One line of O (1 x (172 + 10) bytes) total 23
The information to which the error correction code ECC addition process is performed is recorded in one sector of the information storage medium 10 in units of 66 bytes (= (12 + 1) × (172 + 10)).

[0798] When the addition of the inner code PI and the outer code PO is completed, the ECC encoder 208 temporarily transfers the information to the semiconductor memory 219.

When information is recorded on the information storage medium 10, from the semiconductor memory 219 to 2366 for one sector.
The byte-by-byte signal is transferred to the modulation circuit 207.

<Signal Modulation> DC component of reproduced signal (DS
V: Digital Sum Value or Digital Sum Variation)
Is approached to “0”, and in order to record information at high density on the information storage medium 10, signal modulation, which is conversion of signal format, is performed in the modulation circuit 207.

[0801] The modulation circuit 207 and the demodulation circuit 2 in FIG.
Each 10 has a built-in conversion table showing the relationship between the original signal and the modulated signal.

The modulation circuit 207 is the ECC encoder 20.
The signal transferred from No. 8 is divided into a plurality of bits according to a predetermined modulation method, and is converted into another signal (code) with reference to the conversion table.

For example, when 8/16 modulation (RLL (2,10) code) is used as the modulation method, there are two types of conversion tables and the modulated direct current component (DSV)
The conversion table for reference is switched one by one so that the value approaches 0.

<Recording Waveform Generation> When recording a recording mark on the information storage medium (optical disk) 10, the following recording methods are generally adopted: [Mark length recording method] Front end of recording mark "1" comes to the position and the position of the rear terminal.

[Mark-to-mark recording method] The center position of the recording mark coincides with the position of "1".

When the mark length recording is adopted, it is necessary to form a relatively long recording mark. In this case, when the information storage medium 10 is continuously irradiated with a large amount of light for recording for a certain period or more, the width of only the rear portion of the mark is widened due to the heat storage effect of the light-reflective recording film of the information storage medium 10, resulting in “raindrop”.
A recording mark having a shape is formed. To eliminate this adverse effect, when forming a long recording mark,
Measures are taken such as dividing the recording laser drive signal into a plurality of recording pulses and changing the recording waveform of the recording laser in a stepwise manner.

Recording / reproducing / erasing control waveform generation circuit 206
Inside, a recording waveform as described above is created according to the recording signal sent from the modulation circuit 207, and a driving signal having this recording waveform is sent to the semiconductor laser driving circuit 205.

Next, the flow of signals between blocks in the configuration of FIG. 54 will be summarized.

1) Input of Raw Signal to be Recorded into Information Recording / Reproducing Apparatus FIG. 54 shows a part related to information recording processing and reproduction processing on the information storage medium (optical disk) 10 in the information recording / reproducing apparatus. The structure in the information recording / reproducing unit (physical system block) is illustrated. PC (personal computer) and EWS (engineering workstation)
Recording signal d sent from the host computer such as
Is input into the information recording / reproducing unit (physical system block) 101 via the data I / O interface 222.

2) Division processing of recording signal d for each 2048 bytes The data I / O interface 222 divides the recording signal d for each 2048 bytes in time series, and will be described later with reference to FIG.
After adding the data ID 510 and so on, scramble processing is performed. The resulting signal is sent to the ECC encoder 208 of FIG.

3) Creation of ECC block In the ECC encoder 208 of FIG. 54, after 16 sets of signals obtained by scrambling the recording signals of FIG. 57 are collected to form a block of “172 bytes × 192 columns”. ,
An inner code PI (internal parity code) and an outer code PO (external parity code) of FIG. 58 described later are added.

4) Interleaving Processing The ECC encoder 208 of FIG. 54 then performs interleaving processing of the outer code PO, as will be described later with reference to FIG.

5) Signal Modulation Processing In the modulation circuit 207 of FIG. 54, the signal after the interleaving processing of the outer outer code PO is modulated, and then the synchronization code is added as shown in FIG.

6) Recording Waveform Creating Process A recording waveform is created by the recording / reproducing / erasing control waveform generating circuit 206 corresponding to the signal obtained as a result, and this recording waveform is sent to the laser driving circuit 205.

Information storage medium (DVD-RAM disk)
In No. 10, since the "mark length recording" method is adopted, the rising timing of the recording pulse and the falling timing of the recording pulse coincide with the "1" timing of the modulated signal.

7) Recording processing on the information storage medium (optical disc) 10 The amount of laser light emitted from the optical head 202 and focused on the recording film of the information storage medium (optical disc) 10 is intermittently changed, and information is recorded. A recording mark is formed on the recording film of the storage medium (optical disk) 201.

FIG. 55 is a flow chart for explaining an example of a logical block number setting operation for a medium (DVD-RAM disk or the like) used in the digital video recording / playback PC shown in FIG. 52, for example.

When the DVD-RAM disk 10 shown in FIG. 1 is loaded on the turntable 221 shown in FIG. 54 (step ST131), the control section 220 starts the rotation of the spindle motor 204 (step ST132).

After the rotation of the disk 10 is started, the focus servo loop of the objective lens in the optical head 202 is turned on (step ST134), and the semiconductor laser in the optical head starts laser oscillation (light emission) (step ST1).
33).

After the laser emission, the control section 220 operates the feed motor 203 to move the optical head 202 to the lead-in area of the rotating disk 10 (step ST1).
35). Then, the track servo loop of the objective lens in the optical head 202 is turned on (step ST136).

When the track servo becomes active, the optical head 202 reproduces information in the control data zone (see FIG. 6) in the lead-in area of the disk 10 (step ST137). By reproducing the "book type & part version" in this control data zone, the optical disk 10 currently driven for rotation can record a medium (DV).
It is confirmed that the disc is a D-RAM disc or a DVD-R disc (step ST138). Here, it is assumed that the medium 10 is a DVD-RAM disc.

When it is confirmed that the medium 10 is a DVD-RAM disk, the optimum light amount (emission power and emission period or duty ratio of the semiconductor laser) at the time of reproduction / recording / erasing is determined from the control data zone to be reproduced. The information is reproduced (step ST139).

Subsequently, the control unit 220 determines that the DVD-RAM disk 10 currently being rotationally driven has no defect and converts the physical sector number into the logical sector number (see FIG. 7).
(Refer to step ST140).

After the conversion table is created, the control unit 22
0 reproduces the defect management areas DMA1 / DMA2 in the lead-in area and the defect management areas DMA3 / DMA4 in the lead-out area of the disk 10 and investigates the defect distribution of the disk 10 at that time (step ST141).

When the defect distribution on the disk 10 is known by the defect distribution inspection, the control unit 220 proceeds to step ST14.
The conversion table created as "no defect" at 0 is corrected according to the actual defect distribution (step ST142). Specifically, the logical sector number LSN corresponding to the physical sector number PSN is shifted in each part of the sector which is found to be defective (from the "number when defect occurs" column in FIG. FIG. 56 is a flowchart illustrating an example of a defect processing operation (drive side processing) on a medium used (DVD-RAM disk or the like) in the digital video recording / reproducing PC of FIG. 52, for example. . This process is performed by the DVD in FIG.
-ROM / RAM drive 140. Hereinafter, assuming that the drive 140 has a configuration as shown in FIG. 54, the flowchart of FIG. 56 will be described with reference to FIG. The control unit 220 in FIG. 54 is composed of a microcomputer MPU (not shown).

First, for example, the main CPU 1 shown in FIG.
The MPU 11 in FIG. 54 controls the MPU 11 in FIG. 54 to store the medium (eg, DVD-R) currently loaded in the drive.
The head logical block number LBN of the information (for example, the AV file in FIG. 23) to be recorded in the AM disk 10 and the file size of the recording information are designated (step ST15).
1).

Then, the MPU of the control unit 220 is as shown in FIG.
Specified logical block number L based on the relationship
The head logical sector number LSN of the information (AV file) to be recorded is calculated from BN (step ST152). The write address (AV address) to the disk 10 is determined from the thus calculated leading logical sector number LSN and the designated file size.

When the write address (AV address) of the recording information file (AV file) is determined, the MPU of the control unit 220 writes the recording information file at the designated address of the DVD-RAM disc 10 and at the same time detects the defect on the disc 10. Investigate (see the columns of “occurrence time” and “defect detection method” in FIG. 28) (step ST153).

If no defect is detected during the writing of this file, the recorded information file (AV file) is set to the predetermined AV.
Since the address has been recorded without any abnormality (that is, no error has occurred), the recording process is normally completed (step ST155).

On the other hand, if a defect is detected during file writing, a predetermined replacement process (for example, skipping replacement process in FIG. 13) is executed (see the column of "replacement processing method" in FIG. 28) (step ST156). ).

After this replacement processing, the newly detected defect is additionally registered in the lead-in DMA1 / DMA2 and the lead-out DMA3 / DMA4 of the disc (FIG. 2).
Refer to the column of "Location of detection information" in 8) (step ST1)
57). The information on the newly detected defect is also registered in the allocation map table AMT in FIG. 18 (the descriptors UAD and SAD forming the allocation map table AMT have been described with reference to FIG. 30).

After additionally registering DMA1 / DMA2 and DMA3 / DMA4 to the disk 10, this DMA1 / D
Based on the registered contents of MA2 and DMA3 / DMA4, the contents of the conversion table (FIG. 7) created in step ST140 of FIG. 55 are modified (step ST158).

The above recording processing / replacement processing is performed by the drive 1
40 is repeated every time a predetermined AV file data is written to a predetermined AV address.

FIG. 57 is a view for explaining the structure of signals recorded on the information storage medium (DVD-RAM disk or the like) shown in FIG.

Hereinafter, the recording signal structure before scrambling in units of 2048 bytes will be described.

(1) Main data (D0 to D2047)
Generation of 505 to 509 A recording signal d sent from a host computer such as a PC (personal computer) or EWS (engineering workstation) is divided into 2048 bytes in time series in the data I / O interface 222. It The recording signal d for each 2048 bytes is incorporated in the recording signal and is arranged as main data (D0 to D2047) as shown in FIG.

This recording signal contains main data (D0-D0).
Before and after D2047), a data ID (data identifier) 510, an IED (error detection code of the data ID) 511, an RSV (reserve) 512, and an ED, which will be described later.
C (error detection code) 513 is added.

(2) Data ID (data identifier) 510
The creation data ID 510 of is described in 4 bytes, and this data I
D includes:-"data area", "lead-in area", or "lead-out area";-"read-only data" or "read / write data";-what layer Data (necessary when the disc is a multi-layer disc; FIG. 1 exemplifies a double-layer disc); and information such as a value obtained by adding “31000h” to the logical sector number of the corresponding sector.

(3) IED (data ID error detection code) 511
The ED 511 is added to the recording signal. At the time of reproduction, this IED code is arithmetically processed with respect to the reproduced data ID to be used for detecting a reproduction error of the reproduced data ID.

(4) Creation of RSV (Reserve) 512 A 6-byte reserve area RSV 512 is prepared for the recording signal, and the specified information can be recorded at this location by a specific standard set in the future.

(5) EDC (error detection code) 513
The error detection code for the 2060-byte signal from the data ID 510 shown in FIG. 57 to the last byte (D2047) 509 of the main data is EDC513, and ED
4 bytes as C are added to the recording signal.

Information storage medium (when information is reproduced from the optical disk 10, after demodulation by the demodulation circuit 210 in FIG. 54, error correction and descrambling in the ECC block is performed by the error correction circuit 209 to make the structure of the recording signal in FIG. 57. Then, the EDC 513 is used to perform error detection on the 2060-byte signal from the data ID 510 to the final byte (D2047) 509 of the main data in the corresponding sector. , E again
It may return to the error correction processing in the CC block.

The error correction and descrambling in the ECC block will be described later.

(6) Main data (D0 to D2047)
Scramble processing of 505 to 509 The above-described "generation of main data 505 to 509" to "creation of EDC 513" is performed to generate the structure of the recording signal in sector units as shown in FIG. The scramble process is performed only on D2047).

Although not shown, the circuit for scramble processing can be composed of an 8-bit parallel input / serial output shift register and an exclusive OR circuit having 0 to 8 input bits. In this case, the result of the exclusive OR operation between the 10th bit and the 14th bit of the shift register is fed back to the 0th bit of the shift register.

The last 15 bits of the data ID 510 in that sector are used as the initial data of the shift register at the start of scrambling.

The structure and total signal size of the recording signal after scramble processing are completely the same as the structure and size of FIG.

FIG. 58 is a diagram for explaining the structure of an ECC block generated by scrambling the recording signal of FIG.

<< Recording Signal Structure in ECC Block >>
EC for DVD-ROM, DVD-R, DVD-RAM, etc.
A product code is adopted as C (error correction code).

Now, an ECC block forming method will be described with reference to FIG. 9 as an example.

First, in the signal after scramble in the first sector 501a in the ECC block, FIG.
Data ID 510 to 160 bytes of main data (D
The signals from 0 to D159) 505 are shown in FIG. 58 byte 52.
It is located in bytes 523 (0,171) from 1 (0,0).

Next, in the signal after scramble in the first sector 501a in the ECC block, FIG.
Main data of 172 bytes (D160 to D331) 5
The 06 signal is placed in bytes 526 (1,0) through 528 (1,171) of FIG.

Similarly, each signal in the sector 501a is sequentially arranged in FIG.

Second sector 50 in the ECC block
Data ID in the scrambled signal in 1b
510 bytes of main data from 510 (D0 to D15
9) Signals up to 505 are arranged in bytes 536 (12,0) to 538 (12,171) in the 13th column (not shown) counting from the top of FIG.

Next, in the scrambled signal in the second sector 501b in the ECC block, the signal of 172 bytes (D160 to D331) of main data 506 is the 14th column (not shown) from the top in FIG. Is located in.

By the same procedure, the main data 168 bytes (D1880 to D2047) 509 in the 16th sector 501p in the ECC block 502 in FIG. 9 and the EDC 513 in FIG. 57 are located in the 192nd column from the top in FIG. Bytes 551 (191, 0) through 553 (19)
58, the recording signal arrangement shown in FIG. 58 is sequentially executed. Placement of this execution result (Fig. 58)
Is the signal arrangement of the ECC block after scramble.

After the above scrambling is completed, a 10-byte inner code PI (internal parity code) is calculated for the row 172-byte signal from byte 521 (0,0) to byte 523 (0,171) in FIG. , The calculation result from byte 524 (0, 172) to byte 525 (0, 1)
Insert up to 81).

-The same processing is repeated thereafter. At the end of the repetition, the 10-byte inner code PI is calculated for the 172-byte signal from byte 551 (191, 0) to byte 553 (191, 171) in FIG.
54 (191, 172) to byte 555 (191, 1)
The inner code PI calculated up to 81) is inserted.

When the calculation / insertion processing of the above inner code PI is completed, byte 521 (0, 0) to byte 5 in FIG.
A 16-byte outer code PO (external parity code) is calculated for a column 192 byte signal up to 51 (191, 0). The calculation result is the byte 556 in the column direction.
It is inserted from (192,0) to byte 566 (207,0).

The same processing is repeated thereafter. At the end of the repetition, a 16-byte outer code PO is calculated for the column 192 byte signal from byte 525 (0,181) to byte 555 (191,181) in FIG. 58, and the calculation result is byte 560 ( 192, 181) to bytes 570 (207, 181) are inserted in the column.

FIG. 59 is a diagram for explaining a case where the ECC blocks of FIG. 58 are interleaved.

<< Outer Code PO Interleaving Method in ECC Block >> After calculating the inner code PI and the outer code PO in FIG. 58, this recording signal is divided into 12 rows (12 rows), and the outer code is placed between them. Insert one PO each. This is the interleaving of the outer code PO within the ECC block.

That is, as shown in FIG. 59, byte 5
Next to column 12 (column 13) from 31 (11, 0) to byte 533 (11, 171), byte 556 (192, 0) to byte 55 of the first row (horizontal row) of the outer code PO.
Up to 8 (192, 181) are inserted. And so on
Each row (each row) of the outer code PO is 12 rows (12 rows) of the recording signal.
Interleaving is inserted for each row, and the arrangement (after scrambling) of the recording signals in FIG. 58 is rearranged to the arrangement (after interleaving) as shown in FIG.

<< Recording Signal Structure Actually Recorded on Information Storage Medium >> The ECC block recording signal after the outer code PO interleaving shown in FIG. 59 is divided into 13 rows (13 rows) each, Shows each sector 501 in FIG.
a to 501p.

In the information storage medium 10, a header (FIG. 8) in which the physical sector number PSN and the like are recorded in advance in an embossed structure is arranged at the head position of each sector 501.
In the example of FIG. 8, the header (emboss) of a certain sector
From the header of the next sector to the above 13 lines (13
(Rows) signals are recorded.

By the way, in the recording signal structure of FIG. 59, there is a possibility that "0" s are continuously arranged in bit units.
When the signal as it is is recorded in the information storage medium 10,
There is a risk of causing a bit shift error at the time of reproduction in a place where a large number of "0" s are arranged. Therefore, "0"
The signal is converted (modulated) so that high-density recording can be performed while limiting the upper limit number of continuous arrangement. DVD-ROM
In DVD-RAM and DVD-RAM, a modulation method called "8/16 modulation" (RLL (2,10) code when expressed by run-length code) is adopted.

The signal thus modulated has a structure as shown in FIG. 8 and is recorded on the information storage medium 10 after the synchronization code is inserted in the middle thereof.

<< Inverse Conversion Procedure for Reproduced Signal from Information Storage Medium >> When information is reproduced from the information storage medium (optical disk) 10, after inverse conversion is performed by the following procedure,
PC (personal computer) or E as the reproduction signal c
It is transferred (from the data I / O interface 222 in FIG. 54) to a host computer such as WS (engineering workstation).

(1) In FIG. 54, the reproduced signal is the optical head 202, the amplifier 213, the binarization circuit 212, and the P signal.
After passing through the LL circuit 211, it is demodulated in the demodulation circuit 210.

(2) The error correction circuit 209 corrects the error in the ECC block using the inner code PI and the outer code PO of FIG.

(3) Thereafter, in the error correction circuit 209, the "descramble process" which is the reverse process of the "scramble process of the main data (D0 to D2047) 505 to 509" is performed, and the signal after the error correction is It is returned to the main data (D0 to D2047) 505 to 509.

(4) By this descramble processing,
The structure of the recording signal of FIG. 57 is restored.

(5) The EDC 513 of FIG. 57 is used to detect errors in the main data (D0 to D2047) 505 to 509. If an error is detected here, the process returns to (2) ECC block error correction processing.

(6) The reproduction information from the information storage medium 10 obtained for each sector 501 (FIG. 9) is transferred to the host computer or the like as the reproduction signal c via the data I / O interface 222 of FIG. 54. To be done.

<< Outline of Recording Signal Structure Conversion Procedure of Information Recorded on Information Storage Medium >> When a recordable / reproducible DVD-RAM disk 10 is used as the information storage medium, every 16 sectors 501. ECC block 502
Signal recording is performed while configuring (FIG. 9).

In order to record while constructing the ECC block 502, according to a predetermined procedure (FIG. 60), "signal scrambling (signal dispersion / encryption)" and "parity in ECC block" are applied to the original signal. Add code "
"Interleave processing (dispersion of arrangement)""Modulation processing according to characteristics of information storage medium for high recording density"
The recording signal conversion process is performed.

FIG. 60 is a flow chart for explaining the procedure until the recording raw signal is subjected to predetermined signal processing (ECC interleaving / signal modulation, etc.) and recorded on the information storage medium.

[0877] Taking the DVD-RAM disk 10 as an example, the structure conversion procedure for a recording signal will be outlined below according to the flowchart in FIG.

First, the raw signal for recording is, for example, as shown in FIG.
Is input to the ECC encoder circuit 208 (step ST116).

The input recording signal is divided into 2048 bytes, and a pre-scramble recording signal (FIG. 57) is created (step ST117).

After that, an ECC block (FIG. 58) is created (step ST118), and the created ECC block is subjected to interleave processing (FIG. 59) (step ST119).

The ECC block thus interleaved is modulated (for example, 8/16 modulation described above) by the modulation circuit 207 of FIG. 54 (step ST120) and sent to the recording / reproducing / erasing control waveform generating circuit 206.

[0883] Recording / reproducing / erasing control waveform generation circuit 20
6 is the currently loaded DVD-RAM disc 1
Generate a recording waveform that matches the characteristics of 0 (step ST
121). Then, with this recording waveform and the optimum laser emission for the disc 10, a signal corresponding to the recording raw signal in step ST116 (a signal in units of ECC blocks) is transmitted to a predetermined portion of the disc 10 (specified AV address). Is written in the position of the physical sector number corresponding to the logical sector corresponding to (1) (step ST12).
2).

FIG. 61 shows a method of logically rearranging a RAM layer portion having a large physical sector number to a position having a small logical sector number in setting the logical sectors of the ROM layer / RAM layer in the two-layer optical disk of FIG. It is a figure explaining. FIG. 61 has a configuration in which the ROM layer and the RAM layer of FIG. 16 are replaced. Both are similar, but different in the following points.

That is, in the configuration of FIG. 16, the physical sector number PSN of the ROM layer in the first half of the volume space + the physical sector number PSN of the RAM layer in the second half of the volume space
Increases continuously from lead-in to lead-out.

On the other hand, in the configuration of FIG. 61 in which the RAM layer having the larger physical sector number PSN is arranged in the first half of the volume space, the physical sector number PSN is discontinuous at the joint between the end of the RAM layer and the start of the ROM layer. become. This physical sector number discontinuity is due to the continuous logical sector number LS that is continuous over the entire volume space.
This can be solved by pre-embossing N in the ROM layer and using the integrated logical sector number LSN recorded in the embossing.

That is, the volume space of the “RAM layer + ROM layer” which is discontinuous in terms of the physical sector number PSN is also made continuous in terms of the emboss-recorded integrated logical sector number LSN.

Alternatively, by using the address conversion table ACT of FIG. 18 (or FIG. 65), the volume space of “RAM layer + ROM layer” which is discontinuous in terms of the physical sector number PSN can be logically made continuous. . That is, by the AV address conversion using the address conversion table ACT, the volume space of "RAM layer + ROM layer" which is discontinuous in terms of the physical sector number PSN can be made continuous on the logical sector number LSN. The integration of logical sector numbers by AV address conversion using the address conversion table ACT can be used when the disk 10 does not have the "emboss-recorded integrated logical sector number LSN".

FIG. 62 shows RA in setting the logical sector of the ROM layer / RAM layer in the two-layer optical disc of FIG.
It is a figure explaining the method of rearranging so that the M layer portion may logically interrupt the ROM layer portion.

The physical layer number PSN of the ROM layer is different from that of the RAM layer. Therefore, when the RAM portion is interrupted by the ROM portion, the physical sector numbers PSN become discontinuous at the two positions at the beginning and the end of the RAM layer.

This physical discontinuity of sector numbers is also caused by the above-mentioned "emboss-recorded integrated logical sector number LSN".
Or by using the address conversion table ACT of FIG. 18 (or FIG. 65), it is possible to make them logically continuous. That is, by using the integrated logical sector number LSN pre-embossed on the disk 10 for address management, or by using the address conversion table ACT.
By the V address conversion, the volume space consisting of "a part of the ROM layer + the RAM layer + the other part of the ROM layer" which is discontinuous in terms of the physical sector number PSN is converted into the logical sector number L.
It can be serialized on SN.

FIG. 63 is a view for explaining another example of the directory structure of information (data file) recorded on the optical disc of FIG.

In the example of FIG. 23 described above, a video title set VTS directory (for DVD video file) and an audio title set ATS directory (DVD video file or D
VD audio files), audio / video information AVI (for video files handled by personal computers), and video RAM directory (DVD-R)
(For AV data files on AM discs).

On the other hand, the example of FIG. 63 is the DVD-RAM.
It is assumed that the disk 10 is used for a pure computer, and an application directory and application-related directories are arranged under the root directory.

In the application directory, a program (application execution file) that is automatically executed when the personal computer PC shown in FIG. 52 is started (booted or rebooted) is stored.
This automatic execution program is system software (or operating system OS) for personal computers such as Windows, Java, Mac OS, etc.
Can have several types (the user can select which system software to boot).

The application data file in the application directory stores data created by the program of the application execution file.
Further, the application template directory, which is a lower layer directory of the application directory, includes template files # 1, # 2, ... Which are appropriately used when the program of the application execution file executes a predetermined process.

For example, assume that Windows is stored as system software and a spreadsheet is stored as an application program in the application execution file. When the personal computer shown in FIG. 52 is booted in this window, Windows automatically creates a spreadsheet folder (application data file). When you launch a spreadsheet in this window, the user files created with this spreadsheet will be stored in the application data file and the standard template for this spreadsheet (eg mortgage repayment planning sheet)
Are prepared in the template file # 1 and the like.

The application-related directory can store an execution file of other application software (for example, word processor) that can be used by converting the application data file created by the user into an object.

FIG. 64 is a view for explaining still another example of the directory structure of information (data file) recorded on the optical disc of FIG.

The example shown in FIG. 63 is the DVD-RAM disk 10.
Was mainly intended for use as a pure computer, but the example of FIG. 64 is intended for use as the VD-RAM disk 10 for digital video recording. Therefore, in the example of FIG. 64, the video title set V of FIG.
TS directory and audio title set AT
In addition to the S directory, a video directory and an AV conversion information directory are included.

In FIG. 64, a video information processing program for performing processing such as video recording / playback / editing is contained in a video application execution file in the video directory. Information processed by this program (recorded or edited digital video data) is stored in the video directory as AV file data.

All the recorded / edited information (AV data) is recorded in one AV file. As shown in FIG. 18, this AV data includes anchor pointer AP, control information DA21, video object DA22, picture object DA23 and audio object D.
A24 may be included.

A standard template for video editing (or commercial CM information or the like) can be recorded in the video directory as data of AV templates 01, 02, ....

[0904] The AV file data after the recording and the editing are completed are recorded in the DVD video format or DV according to the conversion program in the video application execution file.
It is converted into D audio format information and stored in the video title set VTS directory or the audio title set ATS directory.

At present, the DVD-RAM disc 1
The storage capacity of 0 is 2.6 Gbytes per layer (1 layer), which is not sufficient for long-time video recording. Therefore, according to the present invention, the entire recording layers of a DVD-RAM disk having a plurality of recording layers (double-sided dual-layer RAM disk, etc.) can be managed as one volume space,
The entire recording layer of each of a plurality of DVD-RAM discs is collectively managed as one volume space, and it is possible to record a video for a long time by using the apparently large volume space (Fig. 1
6 to FIG. 17 or FIGS. 61 to 62, all the recording layers are composed of RAM layers, etc.).

As described above, a plurality of recording layers (DVD-RAM
In order to manage layers (such as layers) collectively as one volume space, it is necessary to manage the connection of the logical block numbers for each recording layer (or for each disk). That is, an address (integrated logical sector number) that integrates the logical block numbers set in each disk is set, and the correspondence relationship between this integrated logical sector number and the logical block number of each recording layer (or each disk) is set. The stored address conversion table is required. This address conversion table corresponds to, for example, the address conversion table ACT in the allocation map table AMT of FIG. 18, and is stored in the AV conversion information directory in the example of FIG.

Note that the address conversion table ACT allows the use of integrated logical sector numbers in which ROM layers and RAM layers are mixed, as illustrated in FIG. 16 and others.

Using the configuration of FIG. 64, for example, DV
The information recorded in the ROM layer of the D-video is accessed using the integrated address (AV address), and a part of the DVD-video information extracted therefrom is used as an AV file by using the conversion program in the video application execution file. It is also possible to take in the internal data (data that the user can rewrite / edit / delete).

By combining the directory structure of FIG. 63 and the directory structure of FIG. 23 and / or FIG. 64,
Specific scene (video data) in a certain DVD video (file in VTS directory in FIG. 23 or 64)
Can also be converted into a file and incorporated into an application data file (FIG. 63) for a personal computer. Then, it becomes possible to process the DVD video data taken in by the image processing software of the personal computer and return the processed video information to the AV file of FIG.

67 and 68 are diagrams for explaining the information recording location and the state before and after the initialization of the RAM layer in the ROM / RAM two-layer disc rearranged as described with reference to FIG. 61, for example. . Here, RO of FIG.
The M / RAM dual layer DVD disc 10 will be described as an example (starting from the top of FIG. 67).

[01a] In the disc identifier zone (see FIG. 6) in the rewritable data zone in the lead-in area of the DVD-RAM layer 17B, before initialization, the RAM layer R
It is clarified that the laminated structure of the OM layer, the total recording capacity, and the state before initialization are RAM layer and R after initialization.
The laminated structure of the OM layer, the total recording capacity, and the date and time of initialization are specified.

[0912] The book type & part version in the control data zone in the RAM layer lead-in area are
The disc is a rewritable disc (DVD-RAM
Or DVD-RW).

[02a] In the reserved area of the physical format information in the control data in the lead-in area of the DVD-ROM layer 17A (see FIG. 22), before and after initialization,
DVD-RAM layer 17A to DVD-RAM during initialization
The area copied to the layer 17B is the DVD-ROM layer 17
The physical sector number PSN of A is displayed.

[0914] The book type & part version in the physical format information in the control data in the ROM layer lead-in area describes that the disc is a read-only disc (DVD-ROM or DVD-Video).

[03a] The UDF volume recognition sequence (444 in Fig. 44) is set to DVD-RO before initialization.
Pre-recorded on the M layer 17A (this recording position is different from the recording position of the volume recognition sequence when actually used); after initialization, the DVD-RAM layer 17
It is copied to B (the start position of the copy destination logical sector number is "16").

After the initialization, the "volume recognition sequence" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used.

[04a] First anchor point (Fig. 44)
456) is recorded in advance in the DVD-ROM layer 17A before initialization (the designated destination is the RAM after copying).
(Specified by the logical sector number LSN of the layer 17B); after initialization, it is copied to the DVD-RAM layer 17B (the start position of the logical sector number of the copy destination is "256").

After the initialization, the "first anchor point" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used.

[05a] The UDF main volume descriptor sequence (449 in FIG. 44) is DV before initialization.
Pre-recorded in the D-ROM layer 17A (the designated destination is the logical sector number LSN of the copied RAM layer 17B).
After initialization, the data is copied to the DVD-RAM layer 17B (the logical sector number LSN of the copy destination matches the actually used logical sector number LSN).

After the initialization, the "main volume descriptor sequence" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used.

[06a] The UDF logical volume integrity sequence (Logical Volume Integrity Sequence; not shown) is pre-recorded in the DVD-ROM layer 17A before initialization; after initialization, it is DVD-RAM. Layer 17
Copied to B.

After the initialization, the "logical volume preservation sequence" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used.

[07a] The UDF space bitmap or space table (see FIGS. 44 to 45) is pre-recorded in the DVD-ROM layer 17A before initialization; after initialization, it is DVD-RAM. Copied to layer 17B.

After the initialization, the "space bitmap or space table" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used. All the logical block numbers LBN corresponding to the DVD-ROM layer 17A are set to "used".

Here, the reference diagram changes to FIG. 67.

[08a] The UDF file set descriptor (472 in FIG. 44) is pre-recorded on the DVD-ROM layer 17A before initialization; after initialization, it is copied to the DVD-RAM layer 17B. To be done.

After the initialization, the "file set descriptor" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used. The designated logical block number LBN here designates the RAM layer 17B.

[09a] The file entry of the UDF root directory (475 in FIG. 45; see FIG. 63) is
Before initialization, it is recorded on the DVD-ROM layer 17A in advance; after initialization, it is copied to the DVD-RAM layer 17B.

After the initialization, the "file entry of the root directory" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used. The designated logical block number LBN here is
The RAM layer 17B is designated.

[10a] Long allocation descriptor LAD in the root directory (476, 481 in FIG. 45)
Etc.) is pre-recorded on the DVD-ROM layer 17A including the application directory (FIG. 63) before initialization; after initialization, the DVD-RAM layer 17B.
Copied to.

After the initialization, the user can add the long allocation descriptor LAD using the information copied to the RAM layer 17B. The logical block number LBN designating the file entry of the LAD, including the application directory, designates the RAM layer 17B before copying.

[11a] Information on the application execution file (see FIG. 63) has been recorded in the DVD-ROM layer 1 from the beginning.
It is embossed on 7A. The information of the "application execution file" is not copied to the RAM layer 17B after the initialization. The recording position specifying logical block number LBN of this "application execution file" is
The ROM layer 17A is designated.

[12a] The application template directory (see FIG. 63) is a DVD-RO from the beginning.
It is embossed on the M layer 17A. The information of the "application template directory" is not copied to the RAM layer 17B after the initialization. The recording position specifying logical block number LBN of this "application template directory" specifies the ROM layer 17A.

[13a] The application data file (see FIG. 63) is stored in the ROM layer 17A and the RAM layer 17 as well.
Not recorded in B. This "application data file" is created in the RAM layer 17B after initialization and is newly created after the application software is started.

[14a] The application-related directory (see FIG. 63) is previously recorded in the DVD-ROM layer 17A before initialization; after initialization, it is copied to the DVD-RAM layer 17B.

After the initialization, the "application-related directory" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used. The designated logical block number LBN here is R
The AM layer 17B is designated.

[15a] Second anchor point (see FIG. 46)
No. 457) is emboss-recorded on the DVD-ROM layer 17A from the beginning. The information of the “second anchor point” is not copied to the RAM layer 17B after the initialization. The recording position specifying logical block number LBN of this “application template directory” is a RAM
The layer 17B is designated.

[16a] Reserved Volume Descriptor Sequence (467 in FIG. 46) is a DVD-ROM from the beginning.
Embossed on layer 17A. After initialization, the information of this "reserved volume descriptor sequence" is RA
It is not copied to the M layer 17B. The recording position specifying logical block number LBN of this "reserved volume descriptor sequence" specifies the RAM layer 17B.

In the file system conforming to the UDF of DVD-RAM, * The logical sector number LSN of the start position of the volume recognition sequence 444 of FIG. 44 is set to "16"; * The first anchor point 456 and FIG. The second anchor point 457 of 46 is arranged at two positions of LSN = 256, LSN = final LSN-256, and LSN = final LSN.

FIG. 67 shows an embodiment in which the logical sector number setting method illustrated in FIG. 61 and the like is satisfied while satisfying the above rules.
And FIG. 68.

In the commercially available unused DVD-RAM disc (blank disc) 10, the disc is basically recorded in the disc identifier zone recorded in the rewritable data zone in the lead-in area shown in FIG. Except that it is described that the ROM / RAM has a two-layer structure as shown in FIG. 1 and that it is in a state before initialization,
It is completely unrecorded.

[0942] The user selects the RA of this blank disk 10.
When the M layer 17B is initialized before use, necessary information in the DVD-ROM layer 17A can be automatically copied and used by an information recording / reproducing apparatus (DVD video recorder).

[0943] This copied DVD-ROM layer 17A
The specified address of the internal information is the DVD-RA after all copying.
It is described by an address (logical sector number LSN or logical block number LBN) in the M layer 17B.

At the time of initialization of the blank disk 10, various information shown in FIGS. 44 to 46 (volume recognition sequence 444, first anchor point 456, main volume descriptor sequence 449, logical volume preservation sequence, space bitmap or space table). , File set descriptor 472, root directory file entry, long allocation descriptor LADs476 in the root directory, etc.) is a DVD-R.
It can be used by being copied in the AM layer 17B.

At this time, regarding the second anchor point 457 and the reserve volume descriptor sequence 467,
The final logical sector number LS on the DVD-ROM layer 17A
Since it is arranged on the N side, copying to the DVD-RAM layer 17B is unnecessary.

[0946] The integrated address (integrated logical sector number) setting method described above is applied to an information storage medium (one or more DVD-RAs having a plurality of recording layers including a ROM layer and a RAM layer).
It is also applicable to multiple disc packs with built-in M discs).

[0947] DVD-RA immediately after purchase by general users
Nothing is recorded on the M disc 10. When the user purchases such a blank disc 10 and then loads it into the recording / reproducing device (FIG. 52 or FIG. 84 described later) of the user, the disc drive of this device (DVD in FIG. 52).
-ROM / RAM drive 140; the disc changer 100 + disc drive 32 in FIG. 84 is the number of desks in the drive (or disc changer) and the type of each disc (DVD-ROM or DVD-R).
AM or the like) is automatically determined.

Then, when the blank disc 10 is initialized, a multiple disc pack (or disc changer) is added to the disc identifier zone (disc ID zone) included in the rewritable data zone of the lead-in area of the disc 10. In the case of, the pack's unique ID; * The total recording capacity of the disc (including the capacity of the ROM layer in the case of a ROM / RAM mixed multilayer disc); * The total number of RAM layers in the multiple disc pack; * The multiple disc pack The information such as the recording layer number for each RAM layer in is written.

As a method of setting an integrated address (integrated logical sector number LSN) capable of collectively managing a plurality of ROM layers / RAM layers as one volume, the recording layer number for each RAM layer in this multiple disk pack is used. To do.

[0950] That is, when the disc is initialized, the recording layer (RAM) of the first disc 10 in the disc pack is
Layer), the volume recognition sequence, the first anchor point, the main volume descriptor sequence (see FIGS. 44 to 46), the logical volume preservation sequence, and the like are recorded, and the recording layer (RAM) of the last (nth) disk is recorded. layer)
Then, the second anchor point and the reserved volume descriptor sequence are automatically recorded (copied), and each disc (n sheets) of the disc pack is made usable.

As another embodiment of the present invention, FIG.
(Or FIG. 17), it is also possible to arrange the DVD-ROM layer in the first half logical sector number LSN and arrange the DVD-RAM layer in the second half logical sector number LSN. The initialization method in this case is as shown in FIGS. 69 and 70. Again, the ROM / RAM dual layer D of FIG.
The VD disc 10 will be described as an example (at first, FIG. 6).
9 from the top).

[01b] In the disc identifier zone (see FIG. 6) in the rewritable data zone in the lead-in area of the DVD-RAM layer 17B, before initialization, the RAM layer R
It is clarified that the laminated structure of the OM layer, the total recording capacity, and the state before initialization are RAM layer and R after initialization.
The laminated structure of the OM layer, the total recording capacity, and the date and time of initialization are specified.

[0953] Note that the book type and part version in the control data zone in the RAM layer lead-in area are as follows:
The disc is a rewritable disc (DVD-RAM
Or DVD-RW).

[02b] In the reserved area of the physical format information in the control data in the lead-in area of the DVD-ROM layer 17A (see FIG. 22), before and after initialization,
DVD-RAM layer 17A to DVD-RAM during initialization
The area copied to the layer 17B is the DVD-ROM layer 17
The physical sector number PSN of A is displayed.

[0955] The book type & part version in the physical format information in the control data in the ROM layer lead-in area describes that the disc is a read-only disc (DVD-ROM or DVD-Video).

[03b] The UDF volume recognition sequence (444 in Fig. 44) is embossed and recorded on the DVD-ROM layer 17A from the beginning. After initialization, the information of this "application execution file" is stored in the RAM layer 17B.
Do not copy it to. Logical block number LBN for specifying the recording position of this "application execution file"
Specifies the ROM layer 17A.

[04b] First anchor point (Fig. 44)
No. 456) is emboss-recorded on the DVD-ROM layer 17A from the beginning. The information of the "application execution file" is not copied to the RAM layer 17B after the initialization. This "application executable"
The recording position specifying logical block number LBN of the ROM layer 1 is
7A is specified.

[05b] The main volume descriptor sequence of UDF (449 in FIG. 44) is embossed and recorded on the DVD-ROM layer 17A from the beginning. After initialization, this "application execution file" information is stored in RAM
It does not copy to layer 17B. The recording position specifying logical block number LBN of this "application execution file" specifies the ROM layer 17A.

[06b] The UDF logical volume integrity sequence (Logical Volume Integrity Sequence; not shown) is embossed from the beginning on the DVD-ROM layer 17A. The information of the "application execution file" is not copied to the RAM layer 17B after the initialization. The recording position specifying logical block number LBN of this "application execution file" is the ROM layer 17A.
Is specified.

[07b] The UDF space bitmap or space table (see FIGS. 44 to 45) is pre-recorded in the DVD-ROM layer 17A before initialization; after initialization, DVD-RAM. Copied to layer 17B.

After the initialization, the "space bitmap or space table" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used. All the logical block numbers LBN corresponding to the DVD-ROM layer 17A are set to "used".

Here, the reference diagram changes to FIG.

[08b] The UDF file set descriptor (472 in Fig. 44) is pre-recorded in the DVD-ROM layer 17A before initialization; after initialization, it is copied to the DVD-RAM layer 17B. To be done.

After the initialization, the "file set descriptor" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used. The designated logical block number LBN here designates the RAM layer 17B.

[09b] The file entry of the UDF root directory (475 in FIG. 45; see FIG. 63) is
Before initialization, it is recorded on the DVD-ROM layer 17A in advance; after initialization, it is copied to the DVD-RAM layer 17B.

After the initialization, the "file entry of the root directory" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used. The designated logical block number LBN here is
The RAM layer 17B is designated.

[10b] Long allocation descriptor LAD in the root directory (476, 481 in FIG. 45)
Etc.) is pre-recorded on the DVD-ROM layer 17A including the application directory (FIG. 63) before initialization; after initialization, the DVD-RAM layer 17B.
Copied to.

After the initialization, the user can add the long allocation descriptor LAD by using the information copied to the RAM layer 17B. The logical block number LBN designating the file entry of the LAD, including the application directory, designates the RAM layer 17B before copying.

[11b] The information of the application execution file (see FIG. 63) is recorded on the DVD-ROM layer 1 from the beginning.
It is embossed on 7A. The information of the "application execution file" is not copied to the RAM layer 17B after the initialization. The recording position specifying logical block number LBN of this "application execution file" is
The ROM layer 17A is designated.

[12b] The application template directory (see FIG. 63) is a DVD-RO from the beginning.
It is embossed on the M layer 17A. The information of the "application template directory" is not copied to the RAM layer 17B after the initialization. The recording position specifying logical block number LBN of this "application template directory" specifies the ROM layer 17A.

[13b] The application data file (see FIG. 63) is stored in the ROM layer 17A and the RAM layer 17 as well.
Not recorded in B. This "application data file" is created in the RAM layer 17B after initialization and is newly created after the application software is started.

[14b] The application-related directory (see FIG. 63) is previously recorded in the DVD-ROM layer 17A before initialization; after initialization, it is copied to the DVD-RAM layer 17B.

After the initialization, the "application-related directory" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used. The designated logical block number LBN here is R
The AM layer 17B is designated.

[15b] Second anchor point (Fig. 46)
457) is recorded in the DVD-ROM layer 17A before initialization (the designated destination is the RAM after copying).
After the initialization, it is copied to the DVD-RAM layer 17B (the logical sector number LSN of the copy destination is the "final LSN-256").
Will be).

After the initialization, the "second anchor point" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used.

[16b] Reserve volume descriptor sequence (467 in FIG. 46) is the DVD-R before initialization.
Pre-recorded in the OM layer 17A (the designated destination is designated by the logical sector number LSN of the copied RAM layer 17B); after initialization, it is copied to the DVD-RAM layer 17B (the logical destination of the copy) The sector number LSN matches the logical sector number LSN actually used).

[0977] After initialization, the "reserve volume descriptor sequence" copied to the RAM layer 17B is used.

In the description of FIGS. 67 to 70, anchor points and volume descriptor sequences are transferred from the ROM layer to the RAM.
Although copying to a layer, the present invention is not limited to this.
For example, the information recording / reproducing apparatus does not have an anchor point or a volume descriptor sequence in the ROM layer in advance, and
Only when the AM layer is initialized, the information recording / reproducing apparatus R sets the anchor point, volume descriptor sequence, etc.
It can be configured to record in the AM layer.

Also, as another integrated address setting method,
As shown in FIG. 62, the logical sector number LSN of the RAM layer is inserted in the range of the logical sector number LSN of the ROM layer, or conversely, the logical sector number LSN of the ROM layer is set in the range of the logical sector number LSN of the RAM layer. It is also possible to insert (not shown).

The integrated address setting method of this invention is
It can be used for various information storage media having a plurality of information recording layers including the ROM layer as well as the M layer.

As an information storage medium to which the present invention can be applied, not only a DVD-RAM disk utilizing a phase change recording system but also a conventional phase change (PD) recording disk, a magneto-optical (MO) disk, a hard disk (removable) are used. (Including types) or high-density floppy disks are considered, and it is also possible to use a mixture of these different types of media.

For example, in a personal computer equipped with a DVD-ROM / RAM drive and a hard disk HDD, the above-mentioned integrated logical sector number LSN is assigned to the HDD and the DVD-RAM disk (for example, the HDD is assigned to a small address range of LSN,
DVD-RAM is assigned to a large address range of LSN). Then, using this LSN, HDD and R
Allow access to both AM disks. By doing so, for example, intermediate data that is appropriately created during video editing is temporarily recorded in the HDD, and the edited video data is stored in the DVD-RAM disk. Can be run under control.

As described above, the present invention can be applied to various types of information storage media, but in view of the market demand in the multimedia age, a DVD-RAM disk with a large capacity and excellent portability is promising. In the description of the embodiments of the invention, a DVD-RAM disc (or a DVD-ROM / RAM multi-layer disc) is taken up.

The RAM layer of the DVD-RAM disc is G
It is composed of a phase-change recording material such as eSbTe or GeAnTe (see FIG. 3). This material is guaranteed to be repeatedly recorded up to 50,000 to 100,000 times. However, if recording is repeated more than that, the amount of jitter in the reproduced signal after recording will increase due to factors such as mass transfer and metal fatigue, and errors will occur. Increase.

Each object information (DA2 in FIG. 18) in the AV data area DA2 corresponding to one AV file
2-DA24) new recording / change (overwrite)
Management area (control information DA21) each time erasing is performed
Is rewritten. The number of rewrites is 50,000 to 1
If it exceeds 0,000 times, errors in the RAM layer of phase change recording increase and reliability becomes poor.

Therefore, the embodiment of the present invention is devised so that the management information is not lost even if the number of rewriting of the management area (control information DA21) exceeds 50,000 to 100,000.

That is, as shown in FIG. 18, a control information rewriting frequency CIRWNs recording section for recording the rewriting frequency of the control information DA21 is arranged at the first position of the control information DA21. This control information rewrite count CIRWN
When s exceeds a predetermined number of times (for example, 10,000 times for safety), the recording position of the control information DA21 in the AV data area DA2 is automatically changed.

[0988] Control information DA in AV data area DA2
The recording position of 21 is recorded in the anchor pointer AP as shown in FIG. When the recording position of the control information DA21 is changed, the information of the anchor pointer AP is automatically changed.

FIG. 71 is a flow chart for explaining a method of rewriting video information and its management area. This flowchart is based on the above-mentioned "control information rewriting frequency CIRWNs".
Processing of "recording position automatic change of control information DA21 when the number of times exceeds a predetermined number" is also included. The process of this flowchart can be executed by the main CPU 111 in the example of FIG. 52, and can be executed by the main MPU unit 30 in the example of FIG. 84 described later. In the following, description will be given assuming that the configuration of FIG. 52 is used as hardware.

[0990] First, for example, the user designates an AV file to be edited / newly recorded (step ST16).
1). Then, as shown in FIG. 18, the AV data area D
The anchor pointer AP recorded at the beginning of A2 is read (step ST162). The address (AV address) where the control information DA21 is recorded can be known from the anchor pointer AP.

[0991] The recording position of the control information DA21 is accessed based on the address thus found (step S
T163), and the control information rewriting frequency CIRWNs is read therefrom (step ST164). Read C
IRWNs is the control information DA of the accessed recording position.
21 and are loaded into the main memory 112 of FIG. 52 (step ST165).

[0992] Before recording new video information or overwriting video information after editing work, A
It is necessary to determine the recording location of the new information in the V data area DA2.

First, the size of new information to be newly recorded (or overwritten) is checked, and the connection of the new information with the already recorded information is checked from the PGC information (FIG. 32) (continuous playback). To guarantee). Based on the information obtained as a result of this investigation, from the allocation map table AMT in FIG. 18, the AV data area DA
The unrecorded area in 2 is searched (step ST166).

If an unrecorded area is found, the recording location of the new recording information is determined in the area, and the new video information or the edited video information is recorded as the video object DA22 in the determined location (step ST167). .

[0995] Next, cell time control information CTCI and PGC control information PGCCI relating to the video information are created, and the control information DA21 in the main memory 112 is changed (step ST168).

Here, the value of the control information rewriting number CIRWNs read in step ST164 is checked to check the number of rewritings of the control information DA21 area up to that point (step ST169).

When the number of times of rewriting in the control information DA21 area is equal to or smaller than a predetermined value (for example, 10,000 times) (NO in step ST169), the control information DA21 in the main memory 112 shown in FIG. 52 is stored in the information storage medium (DVD). -Overwrite at the previous recording position on the RAM disk 10) (step ST170). At that time, the control information rewriting count CI in FIG.
Increment RWNs by 1.

This control information DA21 is recorded in ECC block units (AV address units). The control information DA2 to be overwritten on the information storage medium by the above processing
When the amount of 1 is slightly increased from the existing value, the control information DA21 to be overwritten is changed (increased) in units of ECC blocks (integral multiple of 32 kbytes). When the changed control information DA21 is insufficient for an integral multiple of 32 kbytes, a dummy pack (see FIG. 25) having an appropriate amount of padding data is added and recorded on the information storage medium.

For example, the control information DA21 before change is 32.
If it is k bytes and the processed control information DA21 is 50 kbytes, 14 kbytes of padding data are added and recorded as 64 kbytes of control information DA21 on the information storage medium.

If the number of rewrites in the control information DA21 area up to that point has exceeded a predetermined value (10,000 times) (YES in step ST169), the existing location (the location where an error is likely to occur in the future) is performed. The control information DA21 is recorded at a position different from that shown in FIG. That is, an unrecorded area in the AV data area DA2 is searched for from the allocation map table AMT in FIG. 18 (step ST171), and a new recording location of the control information DA21 is set to the information storage medium (DVD
-Set on RAM optical disk 10) (step ST
172).

[1001] Then, the control information DA21 in the main memory 112 is recorded in the newly set position, and the value of the control information rewriting frequency CIRWNs in FIG. 18 is reset to "1" (step ST173). After that, the anchor pointer AP is rewritten to store the recording location (AV address) of the new control information DA21 in the anchor pointer AP.

With the above configuration, when the management area is rewritten a predetermined number of times (for example, 10,000 times) or more, the management area recording location on the information storage medium is automatically changed to a location where it is not repeatedly rewritten. Be changed. Therefore, for example, it is possible to overcome the problem of “reliability deterioration due to repeated overwrite” of the phase change recording film.

[1003] <How to secure continuous playback conditions>
Unlike conventional computer information, guaranteeing continuity during reproduction is an essential condition. No special flag or descriptive text need be present as information for guaranteeing this continuous reproduction. The information for guaranteeing the continuity at the time of reproduction is P shown in FIG.
It can be recorded in the GC control information PGCCI. Specifically, "information that guarantees continuity at the time of reproduction" is added by adding a predetermined condition to the PGC connection method that connects each cell.
Can be incorporated. The incorporation of this predetermined condition will be described below.

[1004] FIG. 72 is a conceptual diagram of a reproduction system system for explaining continuity during reproduction. The video information recorded in the information storage medium 10 is read by the optical head 202 and temporarily stored in the buffer memory (semiconductor memory) 219. The video information read from the buffer memory 219 is sent to the outside. Here, the transfer rate of the video information sent from the optical head 202 to the buffer memory 219 is a physical transfer rate (PTR) here.
e). Further, the average value of the transfer rates of the video information transferred from the buffer memory 219 to the outside is named the system transfer rate (STR). Generally, the physical transfer rate PTR and the system transfer rate STR have different values.

[1005] In order to sequentially reproduce the information recorded in different locations on the information storage medium 10, an access operation for moving the focused spot position of the optical head 202 is required.
Coarse access for moving the entire optical head 202 is performed for a large movement, and fine access for moving only a laser focusing objective lens (not shown) is performed for a minute distance movement.

[1006] FIG. 73 shows a temporal transition of the amount of video information temporarily stored in the buffer memory 219 when the video information is transferred to the outside while performing access control.

[1007] Generally, since the physical transfer rate PTR is faster than the system transfer rate STR, the amount of video information temporarily stored in the buffer memory 219 continues to increase during the video information reproduction time. When the amount of temporarily stored video information reaches the capacity of the buffer memory 219, the optical head 20
2, the reproduction process is intermittently performed, and the buffer memory 2
The amount of video information temporarily stored in 19 remains in the buffer memory capacity full state (the portion where the peak of the graph is horizontal within the video information reproduction time of FIG. 73).

When the video information recorded at another position on the information storage medium 10 is subsequently reproduced, the access process of the optical head 202 is executed.

[1009] As the access period of the optical head 202,
As shown in FIG. 73, three types of coarse access time, fine access time, and waiting time for rotation of the information storage medium 10 are required. Since reproduction from the information storage medium 10 is not performed during these periods, the physical transfer rate PTR during that period is substantially "0". On the other hand, since the average system transfer rate STR of the video information sent to the outside is kept unchanged, the temporary storage amount of the video information in the buffer memory 219 continues to decrease (in FIG. 73,
(Rough access time, fine access time, or a graph that descends to the right during rotation waiting time).

[1010] When the access of the optical head 202 is completed and the reproduction from the information storage medium 10 is resumed (the smaller one of the video information reproduction times filled with "dots" in FIG. 73), the buffer memory 219 The amount of temporary storage of video information inside will increase again.

[1010] This increase gradient is the difference between the physical transfer rate and the average system transfer rate, that is, (physical transfer rate PT
R)-(average system transfer rate STR).

[1012] After that, when the vicinity of the reproduction position on the information storage medium 10 is accessed again, only the fine access can be performed, and therefore only the fine access time and the rotation waiting time are required (the right end of FIG. 73 is lowered to the right). Graph).

[1013] The condition for enabling continuous reproduction in the reproducing operation as shown in Fig. 73 can be defined by "the upper limit of the number of times of access within a specific period". That is, the information content of the PGC control information PGCCI of FIG. 18, for example, the cell combination shown in FIG. 51 is set so that the number of times of access becomes equal to or less than the “upper limit of access times within a specific period”.

[1014] Here, the access count condition that makes continuous reproduction absolutely impossible will be described with reference to FIG.

[1015] In the case of the highest access frequency, as shown from the center to the right of the graph in Fig. 74, the video information reproduction time is very short, and only the fine access time and the rotation waiting time continue. In this case, the physical transfer rate PT
No matter how fast R is, it becomes impossible to secure playback continuity.

[1016] Now, the capacity of the buffer memory 219 is set to BM.
In the period of BM / STR (= BM ÷ STR) (3), the temporarily stored video information in the buffer memory 219 is exhausted and continuous reproduction becomes impossible.

[1017] Each fine access time in FIG. 74 is JATi (Jump Access Time of objective lens), and each rotation waiting time is MW.
Assuming Ti (Spindle Motor Wait Time), the relationship of BM / STR = Σ (JATi + MWTi) (4) holds in the example of FIG.

[1018] Using the approximation to the equation (4), the average fine access time is JATA and the average rotation waiting time is MWTa,
If the number of accesses within the period until the temporarily stored video information in the buffer memory 219 is exhausted is represented by n, the equation (4) can be rewritten as BM / STR = n. (JATa + MWTa) (5). .

[1019] In this case, n <BM / (STR · (JATa + MWTa)) ... (as the “access count n until the temporarily stored video information in the buffer memory 219 is exhausted”, which is an absolute condition for ensuring continuous reproduction 6) is an essential condition.

[1020] When the value of the expression (6) is rewritten to the number of times of access N per second, N = n / (BM / STR) <1 / (JATa + MWTa) (7).

[1021] The average system transfer rate STR when MPEG2 is used is around 4 Mbps (bits per second), and the capacity is 2.6 GB DVD-RAM.
Since the average rotation period of a single-sided single-layer disc is about 35 ms (milliseconds), the average rotation waiting time MWTa is M
WTa≈18 ms. Also, in a general information recording / reproducing apparatus, JATa≈5 ms.

[1022] As a practical example of the buffer memory 219 capacity BM, there is a large-sized drive equipped with 2 Mbytes = 16 Mbits, but the buffer memory capacity of many drives (information recording / reproducing apparatus) is currently (product 512 kbytes = about 4 Mbits (for cost reasons).

[1023] If the buffer memory capacity BM is calculated to be 4M bits, the shortest required time until the temporarily stored video information in the buffer memory 219 is exhausted is 4M bits / 4M.
bps≈1 second. Applying this to equation (6), n <BM / (STR · (JATa + MWTa)) = 1 second /
(18 ms + 5 ms) ≈43 times.

The calculation example in which the conditions are specified gives the above result (the upper limit of access times n≈43 times), but the calculation result changes depending on the buffer memory capacity of the device and the average system transfer rate. Is a necessary condition for ensuring continuous reproduction.

[1025] When the access frequency is slightly lower than the access frequency obtained by the equation (5), the physical transfer rate PTR is significantly higher than the average system transfer rate STR.
When is large, continuous reproduction is possible.

[1026] However, in order to enable continuous reproduction only by satisfying the condition of the expression (5), 1) the physical transfer rate PTR is extremely fast; 2) all the access target video information are arranged in the vicinity of each other. The precondition is that access is possible only by fine access without coarse access.

[1027] Therefore, the conditions under which continuous reproduction can be guaranteed even if the physical transfer rate PTR is relatively low will be examined below.

[1028] As shown in FIG. 75, when the video information reproduction time and the access time are balanced and the temporally stored video information in the buffer memory 219 is kept almost constant globally, the buffer memory 219 The continuity of video information reproduction seen from the external system is secured without exhaustion of the temporarily stored video information.

[1029] Now, let each coarse access time be SATi (Seek Access Time of the objective lens), let the average coarse access time after n times of access be SATa, and let the reproduction information read time for each access be DRTi (Data Read Time), n. The average playback information read time after the second access is DRTa.

[1030] Then, the amount of data transferred from the buffer memory 219 to the outside during the entire access period when accessed n times is STR × (Σ (SATi + JATi + MWTi)) ≈STR × n × (SATa + JATa + MWTa) (8) .

[1031] The value of this equation (8) and the amount of video information stored in the buffer memory 219 when the video information is reproduced by accessing n times, (PTR-STR) x ΣDRTi ≈ (PTR-STR) x nDRTa ... ( 9) and (PTR-STR) × n · DRTa ≧ STR
When there is a relation of × n × (SATa + JATa + MWTa), that is, (PTR-STR) · DRTa ≧ STR · (SATa + JATa + MWTa) (10), the continuity of the reproduced video seen from the external system side is secured.

[1032] Here, assuming that the average number of accesses per second is N, the relationship of 1≈N · (DRTa + SATa + JATa + MWTa) (11) is established.

From equation (10) and equation (11), 1 / {N · (SATa + JATa + MWTa)} ≧ 1 + S
Since TR / (PTR-STR) holds, solving for N yields N ≦ 1 / {[1 + STR / (PTR-STR)]. (SATa + JATa + MWTa)} (12).

[1034] N in the equation (12) is the upper limit value of the number of accesses per second that secures the continuity of the reproduced video.

[1035] Next, the relationship between the rough access distance and the rough access time required for it will be examined.

[1036] Fig. 76 is a diagram for explaining the relationship between the seek distance of the optical head and the seek time.

[1037] When the target position is reached by accelerating and decelerating with the uniform acceleration α, the distance moved by the time tmax until the moving speed of the optical head 202 reaches the maximum is α · tm from FIG.
It becomes ax · tmax / 2. Therefore, the total distance ρ moved by the rough access is given by ρ = α · tmax · tmax (13).

From equation (13), it can be seen that the time required for rough access is proportional to 1/2 the moving distance (that is, the square root).

[1039] Fig. 77 is a diagram for explaining a method for obtaining the average seek distance of the optical head.

[1040] Consider the average seek distance (average coarse access distance) when video information is recorded in the area of radius width L.
As shown in FIG. 77, the average seek distance from the Xo distance from the end (of the seek area) to the entire recording area is XoXo / 2L + (L-Xo). (L-Xo) / 2L ... (14).

[1041] Taking the average value when Xo is moved from 0 to L with respect to this expression (14), Xo is obtained under standardized conditions.
As a result of integration with respect to, the average seek distance is L / 3 (15).

Now, let us consider a case where, for example, half of the radial width on the optical disc 10 corresponding to the data area DA shown in FIG. 18 is used for recording in the AV data area DA2.

In this case, from the equation (15), the average seek distance (average coarse access distance) is 1/6 of the radius width on the optical disc 10 corresponding to the data area DA.

For example, when it takes 0.5 seconds for the optical head 202 to move (seek) from the innermost circumference to the outermost circumference of the recording area (data area DA in FIG. 18), the formula (1
From 3), the average seek time (average coarse access time) in the AV data area DA2 is 1/2 of 1/6 of 0.5 seconds.
SATa≈200 ms (16), which is a value proportional to the remainder.

[1045] Here, for example, as described above, MWTa
Approximately 18 ms, JATa ≈ 5 ms will be used for calculation. Then, for a DVD-RAM disc with a capacity of 2.6 Gbytes, PTR = 11.08 Mbps. When the average transfer rate of MPEG2 is STR≈4 Mbps, N ≦ 2.9 is obtained by substituting the above numerical values into the equation (12).

[1046] Fig. 78 is a conceptual diagram of a recording system for explaining the continuity of recording signals.

[1047] The record information is sent from the outside to the buffer memory 219 at the average system transfer rate STR (about 4 Mbps for MPEG2 video). The buffer memory 219 temporarily holds the information (MPEG video data, etc.) sent at the rate STR, and transfers the held information to the optical head 202 at the physical transfer rate PRT suitable for the type of the storage medium and its drive. .

[1048] In order to sequentially record the above information in different locations on the information storage medium 10, an access operation for moving the focus spot position of the optical head 202 is required. Coarse access for moving the entire optical head 202 is performed for a large movement, and fine access for moving only a laser focusing objective lens (not shown) is performed for a minute distance movement.

[1049] <Continuous recording condition securing method> FIG. 82 is a diagram for explaining an example (when the access frequency is the highest) of the relationship between the access operation and the like in the continuous recording of the video signal and the temporary storage amount in the buffer memory. Is.

[1050] FIG. 83 illustrates another example of the relationship between the access operation and the like during the continuous recording of the video signal and the temporary storage amount in the buffer memory (when the recording time and the access time are balanced). It is a figure.

[1051] Unlike the case of "continuous reproduction becomes impossible when the amount of temporarily stored video information on the buffer memory 219 is exhausted" described with reference to FIG.
As shown in, the amount of temporarily stored video information on the buffer memory 219 is saturated. That is, as can be seen by comparing FIGS. 82 and 74, the formula (5) can be applied to the access frequency that satisfies the continuous recording condition.

[1052] Similarly, as can be seen by comparing FIG. 83 and FIG. 75, the expression (10) can be applied to the access frequency satisfying the continuous recording condition.

By following the "conditional expression for ensuring continuity" described with reference to FIGS. 73 to 77 and 82 to 83, seamless (regardless of the characteristics of the information recording / reproducing apparatus (drive) used, Continuous playback or continuous recording can be guaranteed without interruption during playback or recording.

[1054] <Access frequency reduction method; rearrangement of cells by editing> FIG. 79 is a diagram exemplifying cells constituting a part of recorded AV data (video signal information) and a video object unit VOBU array of each cell. Is.

[1055] Also, FIG. 80 shows the arrangement of FIG.
Cell # 2 has been edited and is in the middle of cell # 2 (VOBU108
A diagram (VOBU) for explaining a case where data is cut off at (e)
108e is re-encoded).

Further, FIG. 81 is a diagram for explaining how the cell configuration, the VOBU array, and the position of the empty area illustrated in FIG. 79 change after the editing of FIG. 80 is completed.

[1057] In order to guarantee the seamless continuous reproduction or continuous recording, the PGC control information PGC of FIG.
Each cell arrangement in the PGC information (FIGS. 32 and 51) in the CI is set so as to satisfy the condition of Expression (5) or Expression (10). However, if the access frequency becomes higher than the seamless guaranteed value due to a user request during editing work, for example, the access frequency reduction processing is executed again so that the condition of Expression (5) or Expression (10) is satisfied. . Hereinafter, this reprocessing will be described.

[1058] As shown in FIG. 79, it is assumed that the reproduction is initially set in the order of cell # 1 → cell # 2 → cell # 3 (in this case, access during reproduction does not occur).

[1059] Next, the user edits the cell # 2 into two cells, cell # 2A and cell # 2B (Fig. 80), and reproduces them in the order of cell # 2A → cell # 1 → cell # 2B → cell # 3. Suppose that you have set to. In this case, cell #
Access from 2A rear end to cell # 1 front end; and cell #
The number of accesses increases by two times from the rear end to the front end of the cell # 2B.

[1060] As a result of the increase in the number of accesses in the PGC in this way, when the formula (5) or the formula (10) cannot be satisfied, the cell # 2A is set in the empty area 107 as shown in FIG.
Move to. As a result, the P that defines the playback order of “cell # 2A → cell # 1 → cell # 2B → cell # 3”.
The number of accesses in the GC is from the rear end of cell # 1 to cell # 2.
Access to the B tip is reduced once.

As in the above example, equation (5) or equation (1
When 0) becomes unsatisfactory, some cells are moved (that is, the recording position on the information storage medium 10 is changed) and the access frequency is reduced. As a result, equation (5) or equation (1
When 0) is satisfied, seamless continuous reproduction or continuous recording in the PGC can be guaranteed.

If expression (5) or expression (10) is still not satisfied even if the increase in the number of accesses due to editing is reduced by the above method, the user reviews and reconfigures the cell configuration of the PGC, and then the expression (5 ) Or the equation (10) is satisfied, the number of cells and the arrangement (arrangement) of the PGC are reconfigured.

[1063] Fig. 84 is a block diagram for explaining the structure of a DVD video recorder which can cope with the loss of synchronism between video and audio when the video information is rearranged (edited) in the video object.

The apparatus main body of the DVD video recorder shown in FIG. 84 is roughly the same as the DVD-RAM (DVD-R
W) A disk drive 32 that rotationally drives the disk 10 or the DVD-R disk 10 to read / write information from / to the disk 10, and a disk drive 32.
A disc changer (or disc pack) 100 capable of automatically supplying a predetermined number of discs 10 to a plurality of discs, an encoder unit 50 constituting a recording side, a decoder unit 60 constituting a reproducing side, and an apparatus body. And the main MPU unit 30 that controls the operation of the.

[1065] The data processor 36 is the main MPU unit 3
According to the control of 0, the DVD recording data from the encoder unit 50 is supplied to the disc drive 32, the DVD reproduction signal reproduced from the disc 10 is taken out from the drive 32, the management information recorded on the disc 10 is rewritten, It is possible to have a function of deleting data recorded on the disk 10.

The data processor 36 also collects the packs sent from the formatter 56 for every 16 packs into an ECC group, adds error correction information to the ECC group, and sends the ECC group to the disk drive 32. However, when the disk drive 32 is not ready to record on the disk 10, the error correction information is added to the E
The data of the CC group is transferred to the temporary storage unit 34 and temporarily stored until the data recording is ready. When the disk drive 32 is ready for recording, recording of the data stored in the temporary storage unit 34 on the disk 10 is started.

[1067] The main MPU unit 30 includes a ROM in which a control program and the like are written, a RAM that provides a work area necessary for executing the program, an audio information synchronization processing unit, a telephone I / F, an Internet I / F, and the like. There is.

[1068] This MPU 30 uses the RAM as a work area in accordance with the control program stored in the ROM, and performs an audio information synchronization process described later (see FIG. 8).
6) Other processing (FIG. 55, FIG. 56, FIG. 71, etc.)
To execute.

[1069] Of the execution results of the main MPU unit 30, D
The contents to be notified to the user of the VD video recorder are DV
It is displayed on the display unit (not shown) of the D-video recorder or is displayed on the monitor display (116 in FIG. 52) as an on-screen display (OSD).

[1070] The information recording / reproducing apparatus portion for reading / writing (recording and / or reproducing) information from / to the DVD disc 10 is a disc changer (disc pack) 1
00, a disk drive 32, a temporary storage unit 34,
A data processor 36 and a system time counter (or system time clock; STC) 38 are provided.

[1071] The temporary storage unit 34 is the disk drive 32.
Buffering a fixed amount of data (data output from the encoder unit 50) written to the disk 10 via the disk 10 or data reproduced from the disk 10 via the disk drive 32 (input to the decoder unit 60). Data) to be buffered. In that sense, the temporary storage unit 34 of FIG. 84 is the memory 219 of FIG.
Of the buffer memory 219.

For example, when the temporary storage unit 34 is composed of a semiconductor memory (DRAM) of 4 M to 8 M bytes, it is possible to buffer recording or reproducing data for about 8 to 16 seconds at a recording rate of 4 Mbps on average. . Further, when the temporary storage unit 34 is composed of a 16 Mbyte EEPROM (flash memory), the average is 4 Mbps.
It is possible to buffer recording or reproducing data for about 32 seconds at the recording rate of. Furthermore, the temporary storage unit 34
When it is composed of an ultra-small HDD (hard disk) of 100 Mbytes, it is possible to buffer record or reproduction data for 3 minutes or more at an average recording rate of 4 Mbps.

[1073] Although not shown in Fig. 84 (or Fig. 52), if the DVD video recorder (personal computer PC) is provided with an external card slot, the EEPROM can be sold separately as an optional IC card. Also, if the DVD video recorder is provided with an external drive slot or SCSI interface,
The above HDD can also be sold separately as an optional expansion drive.

[1075] Incidentally, in the embodiment of FIG. 54 (which converts the personal computer PC into a DVD video recorder by software), a part of the free space of the hard disk drive of the PC itself or a part of the main memory is
It can be used as the temporary storage unit 34 in FIG.

[1075] In addition to the purpose of guaranteeing "seamless continuous reproduction or seamless continuous recording" described above, the temporary storage unit 34 replaces the disk 10 with a new disk when the disk 10 is used up during recording. It can also be used to temporarily store the recording information until it is recorded.

[1076] Further, when the high speed drive (double speed or more) is adopted as the disk drive 32, the temporary storage unit 34 temporarily stores the data read extra than the normal drive within a fixed time. Is also available. If the read data at the time of reproduction is buffered in the temporary storage unit 34, the reproduction data buffered in the temporary storage unit 34 is switched and used even when an optical pickup (not shown) causes a reading error due to vibration shock or the like. This makes it possible to prevent playback video from being interrupted.

[1077] As the analog signal source of the raw signal recorded on the disk 10, VHS video or laser disk LD
Etc., and this analog video signal is input to the encoder section 50 via the AV input of FIG.

[1078] Another analog signal source is a normal analog TV broadcast (terrestrial broadcast or satellite broadcast), and this analog TV signal is input from the TV tuner of Fig. 84 to the encoder unit 50 (in the case of TV, closed caption or the like). Character information may be broadcast at the same time as the video information, and such character information is also input to the encoder unit 50).

[1079] As a digital signal source of the raw signal recorded on the disk 10, there is a digital output of a digital broadcasting tuner, etc., and this digital video signal is directly input to the encoder section 50.

[1080] This digital tuner is IEEE1394
When it has an interface or a SCSI interface, the signal line is the main MPU section 30.
Connected to.

[1081] Also, when the DVD video bit stream (including MPEG encoded video) is digitally broadcast as it is and the digital tuner has its digital output, this bit stream output has already been encoded, so the data processor does not change. 36.

[1082] For a digital device that does not have a digital video output but has a digital audio output, such as a digital video cassette DVC or a digital VHS video DVHS, its analog video output is connected to the AV input, and its digital audio output is connected. The output is supplied to the encoder unit 50 via the sample rate converter SRC. This SRC converts a digital audio signal having a sampling frequency of 44.1 kHz into a digital audio signal having a sampling frequency of 48 kHz, for example.

Also, although the signal line is omitted in FIG. 84, when the personal computer PC can output a digital video signal in the DVD video format, the digital video signal can be directly input to the encoder section 50.

[1086] All audio signal sources of digital input (digital tuner, DVC, DVHS, PC, etc.) are connected to the main MPU unit 30. This is for use in “audio synchronization processing” described later.

[1085] The timing at which the main MPU unit 30 controls the disc changer (disc pack) 100, the disc drive 32, the data processor 36, the encoder unit 50 and / or the decoder unit 60 is executed based on the time data from the STC 38. (Recording / playback operations are normally executed in synchronization with the time clock from the STC 38, but other processing is performed by the STC.
38 may be executed at a timing independent of 38).

[1086] Disk 1 via the disk drive 32
The DVD digital reproduction signal reproduced from 0 is input to the decoder unit 60 via the data processor 36. Although details will be described later with reference to FIG. 85, the decoder unit 60 includes a video decoder that decodes a main video signal from an input DVD digital reproduction signal, a sub-video decoder that reproduces a sub-video signal from the reproduction signal, An audio decoder that reproduces an audio signal from a reproduction signal, a video processor that synthesizes a decoded sub-picture with a decoded main picture, and a timing deviation between a video signal and an audio signal or between channels of a multi-channel audio signal are corrected. Means (reference clock generator) are included.

[1086] The video signal (main video + sub video) decoded by the decoder unit 60 is supplied to the video mixer 602. A reduced image / thumbnail picture (see FIG. 18 or FIG. 47) and text data are appropriately supplied from the main MPU unit 30 to the video mixer 602. This reduced image (and / or text) is stored in the frame memory 6
A video menu (user menu) that is synthesized with the video signal decoded on 04 and is used for searching recorded contents is generated.

[1088] When displaying the reduced image for the user menu on the monitor (not shown), the reduced image file saved as a separate file is sent as a stream pack and the display position (X, Y coordinates) is set in the frame memory 604. Value) and display it. At this time, if there is text data or the like, the text can be displayed below the reduced image by using a character ROM (or a kanji ROM).

[1086] A digital video signal including the visual menu (user menu) as appropriate is output to the outside of the apparatus in FIG. 84 via the digital video I / F. Also,
A digital video signal including the visual menu is converted into an analog video signal via the video DAC and sent to an external analog monitor (TV with AV input).

[1090] The user menu reduced image data may be inserted in the recorded data as another video pack data, instead of the above-mentioned separate file.
That is, in the DVD video format, the stream number is defined as 0 (stream ID = 0E0h) as the main video, but the stream number is further defined as 1 (stream ID = 0E1h) for the reduced image and multiplexed. It is also possible. The reduced image of the stream number “1” thus multiplexed becomes the original data used in the menu editing process.

[1091] Fig. 85 is a block diagram illustrating the internal structure of the encoder unit 50 and the decoder unit 60 in the structure of Fig. 84.

[1092] The encoder unit 50 includes an ADC (analog /
Digital converter) 52, video encoder 53, audio encoder 54, sub-picture encoder 55,
It includes a formatter 56, a buffer memory 57, a frame memory 51 for reduced images (thumbnail pictures), a reduced video encoder 58, and a memory 59 used when encoding reduced images.

[1093] To the ADC 52, the external analog video signal + external analog audio signal from the AV input of FIG. 84 or the analog TV signal + analog audio signal from the TV tuner is input. The ADC 52 digitizes the input analog video signal with, for example, a sampling frequency of 13.5 MHz and a quantization bit number of 8 bits. (That is, each of the luminance component Y, the color difference component Cr (or Y−R) and the color difference component Cb (or Y−B) is quantized with 8 bits.) Similarly, the ADC 52 inputs the analog audio signal. Is digitized with a sampling frequency of 48 kHz and a quantization bit number of 16 bits.

[1094] When an analog video signal and a digital audio signal are input to the ADC 52, AD
C52 allows only digital audio signals to pass through. (The contents of the digital audio signal may not be modified, and only the jitter associated with the digital signal may be reduced, or the sampling rate or the number of quantization bits may be changed).

[1095] On the other hand, when a digital video signal and a digital audio signal are input to the ADC 52, AD
The C52 allows both the digital video signal and the digital audio signal to pass through (these digital signals may be subjected to the jitter reduction processing, the sampling rate change processing, etc. without changing the contents).

[1096] The digital video signal component from the ADC 52 is sent to the formatter 56 via the video encoder 53. Further, the digital audio signal component from the ADC 52 is sent to the formatter 56 via the audio encoder 54.

The video encoder 53 has a function of converting the input digital video signal into a digital signal compressed at a variable bit rate based on the MPEG2 or MPEG1 standard.

[1098] The audio encoder 54 converts the input digital audio signal into MPEG or AC.
Based on the -3 standard, it has a function of converting into a digital signal (or linear PCM digital signal) compressed at a fixed bit rate.

[1099] When the DVD video signal is input from the AV input, or when the DVD video signal (digital bit stream) is broadcast and received by the digital tuner, the sub video signal component (sub video) in the DVD video signal is received. Pack) is sent to the sub-picture encoder 55. Alternatively, if there is a DVD video player with an independent output terminal for the sub-picture signal, the sub-picture signal component can be extracted from the sub-picture output terminal. The sub-picture data input to the sub-picture encoder 55 is arranged in a predetermined signal form and sent to the formatter 56.

[1100] Then, the formatter 56 uses the buffer memory 57 as a work area, performs predetermined signal processing on the input video signal, audio signal, sub-picture signal, etc., and outputs a predetermined format (file structure). The recording data matching the above is output to the data processor 36.

[1101] That is, each encoder (53 to 55)
Are input signals (video, audio,
(Sub-picture) is compressed and packetized. (However, each packet is divided into packets so that each pack has 2048 bytes when packed.) These compressed signals are input to the formatter 56. Here, the formatter 56, if necessary,
The presentation time stamp PTS and the decode time stamp DTS of each packet are determined and recorded according to the timer value from C38.

[1102] However, the reduced image packet used for the user menu is transferred to the reduced image storage memory 59 and temporarily stored therein. The packet data of the reduced image is recorded as a separate file after the recording is completed. The size of the reduced image in the user menu is
For example, about 144 pixels × 96 pixels are selected.

[1103] As the compression format of the reduced image, the same MPEG2 compression as that of the main video can be used, but another compression method may be used. For example, compression methods such as JPEG compression, run length compression (256 colors in palette: 256 colors need to be reduced), TIFF format, and PICT format can be used.

The formatter 56 has a buffer memory 57.
Packet data is temporarily stored, and then, each input packet data is packed, mixed for each MPEG GOP, and transferred to the data processor 36.

[1105] Here, the contents of the standard encoding process for creating the recording data transferred to the data processor 36 will be briefly described.

[1106] When the encoding process is started in the encoder section 50, parameters necessary for encoding the video (main image) data and the audio data are set. Next, the main video data is pre-encoded using the set parameters, and the distribution of the optimum code amount for the set average transfer rate (recording rate) is calculated. In this way, the main video is encoded based on the code amount distribution obtained by the pre-encoding. At this time, audio data encoding is also executed at the same time.

[1107] As a result of pre-encoding, if the amount of data compression is insufficient (if the desired video program does not fit on the DVD-RAM disc or DVD-R disc to be recorded), if you have the opportunity to pre-encode again If the source of the recording is a repeatable source, such as a videotape or video disc, then a partial re-encoding of the main video data is performed, and the re-encoded part of the main video data is pre-encoded earlier. The replaced main video data portion is replaced. By such a series of processing, the main video data and the audio data are encoded, and the value of the average bit rate required for recording is significantly reduced.

[1108] Similarly, the parameters necessary for encoding the sub-picture data are set, and the encoded sub-picture data is created.

[1109] The main video data, audio data, and sub video data encoded as described above are combined and converted into a data structure for recording. That is, the configuration of the cells forming the program chain PGC as shown in FIG. 19 or 51, the attributes of the main video, the sub-video, and the audio are set (some of these attribute information are set when each data is encoded. The obtained information is used), and information management table information including various information is created.

[1110] The encoded main video data, audio data, and sub video data are subdivided into packs of a fixed size (2048 bytes) as shown in FIG.
Dummy packs (FIG. 25) are appropriately inserted into these packs so that the above-mentioned "32 kbyte alignment" is realized.

[1111] In packs other than the dummy pack,
Time stamps such as PTS (presentation time stamp; see FIG. 24) and DTS (decode time stamp) are described. For the PTS of the sub-picture, a time arbitrarily delayed from the PTS of the main picture data or audio data in the same reproduction time zone can be described.

[1112] Then, each data cell is arranged in VOBU units so that the data can be reproduced in order of the time code of each data, and a VOBS composed of a plurality of cells as shown in FIG.
Is formatted as a video object DA22.

When the DVD reproduction signal is digitally copied from the DVD video player, the contents of the cell, the program chain, the management table, the time stamp, and the like are determined from the beginning, and it is not necessary to create them again. (However, to configure the DVD video recorder so that the DVD playback signal can be digitally copied,
Electronic watermarks and other copyright protection measures must be taken. ) The decoder unit 60 of FIG. 85 corresponds to the main MPU unit 3 of FIG.
A reference clock generator 61 for generating a reference clock sync-locked by an audio synchronization signal A-SYNC sent from 0, and a separator for separating and extracting each pack from the reproduction data having the structure shown in FIG. 62, a memory 63 used when executing signal processing such as pack separation, a video decoder 64 for decoding main video data (contents of a video pack) separated by the separator 62, and sub-picture data separated by the separator 62 ( A sub-picture decoder 65 for decoding (contents of sub-picture packs) and sub-picture data from the sub-picture decoder 65 are appropriately combined with video data from the video decoder 64, and a main picture includes menus, highlight buttons, subtitles and other sub-pictures. A video processor 66 that outputs images in an overlapping manner and a separator 6
An audio decoder 68 that decodes the audio data (contents of the audio pack) separated by 2 at the timing of the reference clock from the reference clock generation unit 61;
It is composed of a digital audio I / F which outputs the digital audio signal from the audio decoder 68 to the outside and a DAC which converts the digital audio signal from the audio decoder 68 into an analog audio signal and outputs the analog audio signal to the outside.

[1114] The analog audio signal from this DAC is supplied to an external component (2 to 6-channel multi-channel stereo device) not shown.

[1115] Here, the audio synchronization signal A-SY
NC is for synchronizing the audio signals in units of VOBU in FIG. Main MPU unit 30 of FIG. 84
In the case where the digital audio signal sent from the digital input device includes the configuration of FIG. 24, each VOB is
A pack for audio synchronization (SNV_PC) at the beginning of U
(K; not shown) is provided, the audio sync signal A- is detected by detecting the audio sync pack.
SYNC can be generated.

[1116] Alternatively, the main MPU unit 30 of FIG.
Detects the presentation time stamp PTS (Fig. 24) included in the audio pack and detects the detected PTS.
The audio synchronization signal A-SYN using the information of TS
It is also possible to generate C.

[1117] In the configurations of FIGS. 84 and 85, the data processing during reproduction is as follows.

[1118] First, when a reproduction start command (reproduction key on, etc.) is received by a user operation, the main MPU unit 30
Through the data processor 36, the disk drive 3
The management area of the disk 10 is read from 2 and the address to be reproduced (corresponding to the address using the integrated logical sector number LSN) is determined.

Next, the main MPU unit 30 sends to the disc drive 32 the address of the reproduction data determined previously and the read command.

[1120] MP (not shown) in the disk drive 32
The U (corresponding to the control unit 220 in FIG. 54) reads the sector data from the disk 10 according to the sent command, corrects the error in the data processor 36, and outputs it in the form of pack data to the decoder unit 60. .

[1121] Inside the decoder unit 60, the read pack data is packetized. Then, depending on the purpose of the data, the video packet data (MPEG video data) is transferred to the video decoder 64, the audio packet data is transferred to the audio decoder 68, and the sub-picture packet data is transferred to the sub-picture decoder 65.

[1122] The presentation time stamp PTS is loaded into the STC 38 when the transfer of each packet data is started. Then, each decoder in the decoder unit 60 synchronizes with the value of PTS in the packet data (PTS
(While comparing the STC value with the STC value), a reproduction process is performed to output a moving image with audio / subtitles to a monitor TV (not shown).

[1123] By setting the AV address described above, the video information in the plurality of DVD-ROMs and / or DVD-RAM discs inserted in the multiple disc pack (disc changer 100 in FIG. 84) is converted into an AV file. It becomes possible to take in as a part of.

On the DVD video (DVD-ROM) disc, the recording position of the video object is set as a logical block number as a file entry. By using the address conversion table ACT shown in FIG. 18, this logical block number is set. It can be converted into an AV address. In this address conversion table ACT, individual logical block numbers and AV addresses are described as a set on the table.

[1125] FIG. 86 is a flowchart for explaining the video-audio synchronization processing in the hardware (DVD video recorder) of FIGS. 84 and 86.

[1126] A video signal from an AV input such as a TV tuner, a VTR or a camera recorder is converted into a digital signal by the ADC 52 (step ST200).

[1127] The converted digital signal is video information,
Divided into audio information, video encoder 53,
It is encoded separately by the audio encode 54.
The closed caption information and the information transmitted in the multiplex character portion of the multiplex character broadcast are encoded as a sub-picture by the sub-picture encoder 55. The encoded information is incorporated in the video pack, audio pack, and sub-picture pack of 2048 bytes unit by the formatter 56, and is arranged in units of VOBU having an integral multiple size of 32 kbytes as shown in FIG. Step ST2
02).

[1128] At this time, in the formatter 56,
"How many sample positions in the audio pack the audio information sample position at the start time of the I picture display of the VOBU is based on the position of the video pack and in the audio pack that is behind (or before what position) the audio pack?" Information is extracted (step ST204A).

[1129] The audio information sample position information thus extracted is sent to the main MPU unit 30 in FIG.

[1130] The audio information synchronization processing unit in the main MPU unit 30 is responsive to the audio information sample position information that has been sent, to output the audio synchronization signal A-SYNC.
A signal for generating the presentation time stamp PTS or the synchronization navigation pack SNV_PCK (not shown) that is the source of the above is returned to the formatter 56.

[1131] The formatter 56, along with the encoded video information, sub-picture information, and audio information,
The VOBU information as shown in FIG. 24 is sent to the data processor 36 including the information (PTS or SNV_PCK) that is the source of the audio sync signal A-SYNC. In parallel with the “audio information sample position information extraction step ST204A” which is continuously executed thereafter, the data processor 36 stores the video object DA22 composed of VOBU information as shown in FIG.
It is recorded in the designated address (AV address) (step ST204B).

[1132] As the recording progresses, the address information (logical sector number LSN) used for recording is returned from the disk drive 32 to the main MPU unit 30. Based on the returned address information and the address-sector correspondence relationship of FIG. 29, the main MPU unit 30 records the recording position on the disk 10 (for example, a certain recorded VOB).
Which physical sector number PSN on the disk 10 is the audio information sample at the I picture display start time of the head of U
It corresponds to the position). The calculation result is used in the subsequent step ST208.

[1133] Recording position on the disc 10 (VOBU
27. Which physical sector number PSN position on the disk 10 the audio information sample at the start I picture display start time of the) corresponds to “I picture audio positions # 1, # 2” included in the audio synchronization information of FIG. , ... ”. That is, the differential address value from the beginning of VOBU of the ECC block including the audio pack at the same time as the I picture audio position I picture start time of FIG. 27 is recorded in 1 byte. The most significant 1 bit of this 1 byte identifies whether the audio sample position is behind or from the beginning of the VOBU. Specifically, it is assumed that the highest 1 bit = 0: behind, and the highest 1 bit = 1: ahead.

[1134] Recording of the video object DA22 on the disc 10 is continued (e.g., until the user gives an instruction to stop recording, or until the free space of the disc 10 is used up). Step ST206 No; ST200 to ST204A
/ ST204B).

[1135] If there is a recording end input (step ST20
6) The recording end address (physical sector number PSN on the disc 10), recording date and other recording information are written in the management area (control information DA21) of the disc 10 (step ST208). At that time, the control information rewriting count CIRWNs of FIG.
Is incremented by 1.

[1136] The value obtained by counting the sample numbers in the ECC block at the audio sample position at the same time as the I picture start time with the serial numbers of all the audio packs is "I picture start audio sample" included in the audio synchronization information of FIG. Nos. # 1, # 2, ... ”Are written in the management area (control information DA21) (step ST20).
8).

[1137] The expression of the recording position on the disc 10 is as follows.
It is not limited to the AV address. Using the logical block number, logical sector number or physical sector number
It is also possible to express a “recording position of 0”.

<1138: Editing process of cell including audio synchronization information in FIG. 27> Now, as shown in FIG. 79, it is assumed that the recording information is arranged in the order of cell # 1, cell # 2 and cell # 3 on the disk 10. On the other hand, as shown in FIG. 80, in the middle of cell # 2, cell #
2A and cell # 2B, and cell # 2A is divided as shown in FIG.
Now, let us consider a case where the data is moved to the empty area 91 and reproduction is possible in the order of cell # 2A → cell # 1 → cell # 2B → cell # 3.

In this case, the VOBU 108e is re-encoded and divided into the VOBU 108p and the VOBU 108q. At this time, the audio information synchronization processing unit in the main MPU unit 30 moves from the disc 10 to the moved cell # 2A from the I picture audio position (FIG. 27) and the I picture start audio sample number (FIG. 27). Locate the included audio pack.

[1140] If the audio pack included in cell # 2A is in VOBU 108c or VOBU 108q, the corresponding audio pack is taken from it and embedded in VOBU 108d * or VOBU 108p.

[1141] This embedding is performed for an extra dummy pack (having no meaningful recording data) in the VOBU, if any. If there is no such dummy pack, the format is rearranged and, if necessary, re-encoded.

[1142] On the other hand, when the audio pack used by the VOBU 108c or VOBU 108f is included in the cell # 2A, the corresponding audio pack is copied from the cell # 2A and the VOBU 108c or VOBU1 is copied.
Insert (embed) in 08f. At this time, the insertion (embedding) processing result is recorded again at the I picture audio position and the I picture start audio sample number (FIG. 27). This series of operation control is performed by the main MPU of FIG.
The audio information synchronization processing unit of the unit 30 is mainly executed.

[1143] Next, a case will be described in which existing audio information is overwritten and recorded as background music from a digital audio information storage medium such as a CD or MD on the video information after reproduction and editing as described above.

[1144] As a method of recording audio information in a superposed manner,
There are a method of replacing the dummy pack of FIGS. 24 and 25 with an audio pack, and a method of re-encoding the audio information to be overwritten.

[1145] By the way, the sampling frequency (32 kHz or 44.1 kHz) of the audio information is the audio information sampling frequency (48 kHz in the recorded video information).
z and 96 kHz). Further, even if the nominal frequency is the same, the frequency fluctuation (frequency fluctuation) of the crystal oscillator that generates the reference frequency is usually about ± 0.1%. Therefore, when digitally dubbing digital audio information, recording is performed at different reference frequencies. For this reason, if reproduction is performed at the frequency of the originally recorded audio information, a synchronization shift will occur.

[1146] In order to prevent the adverse effect, in the present invention, the number of audio samples for each VOBU with respect to the audio information digitally dubbed as an option is set in the management area (see FIG.
Control information DA21).

[1147] That is, as shown by audio synchronization information flags # 1, # 2, ... In FIG. 27, a flag is set to indicate whether audio synchronization data is recorded for each audio stream number, and the flag is set (the flag is set. ), The number of audio samples for each VOBU is represented by 2 bytes by the audio synchronization information of FIG.

[1148] This audio synchronization information can be recorded as follows, for example.

[1149] First, the audio information to be overwritten is shown in FIG.
The formatter 56 of 5 converts the audio pack into 2048-byte audio packs. At this time, the required time for each VOBU of the corresponding video information is notified from the audio information synchronization processing unit in the main MPU unit 30 of FIG. Based on the time information, the formatter 56 returns the number of audio samples for each VOBU to the audio information synchronization processing section.

[1150] Then, the audio pack containing the audio information to be overwritten is replaced with the dummy pack to complete the video object DA22.

[1151] Then, from the formatter 56 to the main MPU
Based on the number of audio samples for each VOBU returned to the unit 30, the audio information synchronization processing unit
Information necessary for the audio synchronization information on 0 is recorded.

[1152] At the time of reproduction, the audio information synchronization processing unit of the main MPU unit 30 reads the audio synchronization information on the disc 10, and the number of audio samples for each VOBU is represented by the reference clock generation unit in the form of "audio synchronization signal A-SYNC". Send to 61. A reference clock having a frequency (sync-locked) matched with the information (A-SYNC) is generated by the reference clock generation unit 61, and the audio decoder 68 is synchronized with the video information according to the frequency of the reference clock. The audio information that is inserted afterwards (audio information to be overwritten) is reproduced.

[1153] As described above, it is possible to perform audio reproduction without synchronization deviation with video information.

[1154] In the above description, the number of audio samples is recorded in VOBU units. However, the number of audio samples may be recorded in cell units or video frame units.

[1155] According to the above-described embodiments, the following effects can be obtained: A) Video information can be rearranged while guaranteeing synchronization of audio signals; B) What is the original by digital dubbing processing after video recording Synchronized audio information can be reproduced even when digital audio information generated at different sample frequencies is recorded in a dummy pack or the like; c) Rearrangement of multi-channel audio information such as AC-3 or different sampling frequency Even when mixdown editing is performed from a digital source, synchronization between channels can be guaranteed.

[1156] In the above description, the information storage medium is DV
Although the D-RAM disk has been described as an example, the system of the present invention (particularly, a system for performing address management and replacement processing in 32 kbyte ECC block units)
It can also be applied to a system using a magneto-optical disk (MO disk) as an information storage medium and a file allocation table (FAT) for a personal computer as a file system.

[1157] As system software (or operating system), in addition to MS Windows, NTFS (New Technology File System), UNIX
Etc. can also be used. Specifically, ROM / RA
In the M2 layer disc, system software (one or more kinds of operating system OS) and application software necessary for the ROM layer 17A are embossed and recorded, and the OS and directory information of the ROM layer 17A are recorded during the recording / reproducing process. The application software stored in the ROM layer 17A can be used as it is by copying it to the main memory of the personal computer. In that case, the space of the main memory can be expanded because the application software need not be expanded in the main memory. In such a personal computer system, the ROM layer 17
The RAM layer 17B of the same disk 10 can be used as a mass storage medium for storing the work result (edited video etc.) by the application software of A.

[1158] Further, although the AV address in units of ECC blocks has been described as the address of the AV data structure, the address management of the AV data is performed by, for example, 204
It is also possible to use an address in units of 8 bytes.

[1159]

As described above in detail, according to the present invention.
For example, an optical disc that can speed up the recording and deletion processing in ECC units.
How to record or delete disc and video information and playback method
Law and playback equipment can be provided.

[Brief description of drawings]

FIG. 1 is a recordable / reproducible optical disc (DVD-RAM /
FIG. 3 is a perspective view illustrating the structure of a DVD-RW disc or the like).

FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating a correspondence relationship between a data recording area of the dual-layer optical disc of FIG. 1 and a recording track of data recorded therein.

3 is a ROM layer and RAM of the dual-layer optical disc of FIG.
Sectional drawing which illustrates the structure of a layer.

FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating an example of a data track configuration of a RAM layer of the dual-layer optical disc of FIG. 1 (a configuration in which a spare area for replacement processing is arranged outside each user area).

5 is a diagram illustrating a layout of a RAM layer of the dual-layer optical disc shown in FIG.

FIG. 6 is a view for explaining details of a lead-in portion and a lead-out portion in the layout of FIG.

FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating details of a data area portion in the layout of FIG.

FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating a structure of a sector included in a data area portion of FIG.

9 is a diagram illustrating a recording unit (ECC unit) of information included in the data area portion of FIG.

10 is a diagram for explaining the relationship between zones and groups (see FIG. 7) in the data area of FIG.

11 is a diagram illustrating a method of setting a logical sector in the data area of FIG.

12 is a diagram for explaining a replacement process (slipping replacement method) within the data area of FIG.

13 is a diagram illustrating another replacement process (skipping replacement method) in the data area of FIG.

FIG. 14 is a diagram illustrating still another replacement process (linear replacement method) within the data area of FIG. 5;

15 is a diagram illustrating a method of setting a logical sector of a ROM layer in the dual-layer optical disc of FIG.

16 is a ROM layer / R in the two-layer optical disc of FIG.
The figure explaining the setting method of the logical sector of an AM layer.

17 is a ROM layer / R in the two-layer optical disc of FIG.
The figure explaining the other setting method of the logical sector of an AM layer.

18 is a diagram illustrating an example of a hierarchical structure of information recorded on the optical disc of FIG.

19 is a diagram illustrating an example of correspondence between a cell structure of a video object and a program chain PGC in the information hierarchical structure of FIG.

20 is a view for explaining the logical structure of information recorded in the lead-in area of the optical disc of FIG. 2 (corresponding to the lead-in data portion of FIG. 6 although the expression method is different).

FIG. 21 is a view for explaining an example of the contents of control data recorded in the lead-in area of FIG.

22 is a diagram illustrating an example of the contents of physical format information (corresponding to the control data zone portion of FIG. 6 although the expression method is different, included in the control data of FIG. 21.

23 is a diagram illustrating an example of a directory structure of information (data file) recorded on the optical disc of FIG.

24 is a diagram exemplifying a hierarchical structure of information included in the video object DA22 of FIG.

FIG. 25 is a view for explaining the contents of the dummy pack shown in FIG.

FIG. 26 is a diagram illustrating an internal structure of cell time information CTI of FIG. 18;

27 is a diagram for explaining the internal structure of the VOBU information of FIG.

FIG. 28 is a diagram illustrating types of defects (congenital defects and acquired defects) in relation to the defect information of FIG. 26.

29] A included in the video RAM file of FIG.
FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating a correspondence relationship between an address of a V file and a logical block number / logical sector number / physical sector number of the optical disc of FIG. 2.

FIG. 30 is a diagram when a defect occurs in the optical disc of FIG.
The figure explaining the setting method of V address and the description method of extent (aggregation of ECC data) descriptor.

FIG. 31 is a diagram illustrating a correspondence relationship between various extent descriptors (aggregate descriptors).

32 is a diagram exemplifying a hierarchical structure of information included in the control information DA21 of FIG.

FIG. 33 is a diagram illustrating a method of expressing the cell data extent descriptor (cell data aggregate descriptor) of FIG. 26.

34 is a diagram for explaining a case where the boundary position of the video object unit VOBU in the cell of FIG. 24 and the boundary position of the ECC block (16 sectors 32 kbytes) forming the data in this cell are misaligned.

FIG. 35 is a diagram illustrating a case where the boundary position of the video object unit VOBU in the cell of FIG. 24 and the boundary position of the ECC block (16 sectors 32 kbytes) forming the data in this cell match.

36 is a diagram for explaining the relationship between the system hierarchy and individual management target information in an information processing device (for example, a personal computer) that handles information recorded on the optical disc of FIG.

FIG. 37 is a view for explaining the basic relationship between the hierarchical file system structure of FIG. 23 and the information content recorded on the information storage medium.

FIG. 38 is a diagram for explaining the description content of a long allocation descriptor that displays the recording position of a continuous sector aggregate (extent) on the information storage medium.

FIG. 39 is a diagram for explaining the description content of a short allocation descriptor that displays the recording position of a continuous sector aggregate (extent) on the information storage medium.

FIG. 40 is a diagram for explaining the contents of a descriptive sentence used as a space entry for searching an unrecorded continuous sector aggregate (unrecorded extent) on the information storage medium.

FIG. 41 is a diagram illustrating a part of the description content of a file entry for displaying the recording position of a designated file in a file structure having a hierarchical structure as shown in FIG. 23 or FIG.

42 is a diagram showing a file (root directory, in the file structure having a hierarchical structure as shown in FIG. 23 or FIG. 37).
The figure which extracts and demonstrates a part of file ID descriptor which describes the information of a subdirectory, file data, etc.).

43 is a diagram illustrating an example of the structure of a file system having a hierarchical structure as shown in FIG. 23 or FIG.

FIG. 44: Universal disc format (UD
FIG. 16 is a first partial diagram illustrating an example in which a file system is constructed on an information storage medium according to F).

FIG. 45 is a second partial view for explaining an example in the case where a file system is constructed on an information storage medium according to UDF together with FIG. 21.

FIG. 46 is a third partial diagram for explaining an example of a case where a file system is constructed on an information storage medium according to UDF, with reference to FIGS. 21 and 22.

47 is a diagram conceptually explaining an example of a file structure of a menu created by the user among the video contents recorded on the disc of FIG. 1. FIG.

48 is a diagram (part 1) explaining a specific example of the file structure of the menu created by the user among the video contents recorded on the disc of FIG. 1. FIG.

49 is a diagram (part 2) explaining a specific example of the file structure of the menu created by the user among the video contents recorded on the disc of FIG. 1. FIG.

50 is a diagram illustrating a case where cell data recorded on the disc of FIG. 2 is reproduced. FIG.

51 is a view for explaining an example of the relationship between each cell constituting the reproduction data of FIG. 50 and program chain information (FIG. 1
9).

52 is an information storage medium (D having the configuration of FIG. 1 to FIG.
FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example of a personal computer PC configured to record and reproduce digital video information using a VD-RAM disc or the like).

53 is a diagram for explaining the physical system block and the application system block separately in the digital video recording / playback personal computer PC of FIG. 52.

54 is a DVD-ROM / RAM drive 1 of FIG.
FIG. 54 is a block diagram illustrating an example of the configuration of 40 (a physical block in FIG. 53).

FIG. 55 is a flowchart showing an example of a logical block number setting operation for a medium (DVD-RAM disk or the like) used in the digital video recording / playback PC shown in FIG. 52.

FIG. 56 is a flowchart illustrating an example of a defect processing operation (drive-side processing) on a medium used (DVD-RAM disk or the like) in the digital video recording / playback PC shown in FIG. 52, for example.

57 is a diagram for explaining the configuration of signals recorded on the information storage medium (DVD-RAM disc or the like) of FIG. 2.

FIG. 58 is a diagram illustrating a configuration of an ECC block generated by scrambling the recording signal of FIG. 57.

FIG. 59 is a diagram illustrating a case where the ECC blocks in FIG. 58 are interleaved.

FIG. 60 is a diagram showing an information storage medium (D) in which a raw signal for recording is subjected to predetermined signal processing (ECC interleaving / signal modulation, etc.);
FIG. 6 is a flowchart illustrating a procedure for recording on a VD-RAM disk or the like).

FIG. 61 is a ROM layer / R in the two-layer optical disc of FIG.
FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a method of logically rearranging a RAM layer portion having a large physical sector number to a position having a small logical sector number in setting a logical sector of the AM layer.

62 is a ROM layer / R in the two-layer optical disc of FIG.
FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a method of rearranging the RAM layer portion so as to logically interrupt the ROM layer portion when setting the logical sector of the AM layer.

FIG. 63 is a view for explaining another example of the directory structure of information (data file) recorded on the optical disc of FIG.

64 is a diagram for explaining still another example of the directory structure of information (data file) recorded on the optical disc of FIG.

65 is another example of the hierarchical structure of information recorded on the optical disc of FIG. 2 (allocation map table A of FIG. 18);
Allocation map table AM with contents different from MT
The figure explaining the example which has T).

66 is a diagram illustrating a method of describing a congenital defect allocation descriptor and a space descriptor that is not allocated when the optical disc of FIG. 2 has a congenital defect.

67 is a ROM / RAM obtained by rearranging the arrangement of FIG. 61;
FIG. 3 is a diagram (part 1) explaining a recording location of information and a state before and after initialization of a RAM layer in a two-layer disc.

68 is a ROM / RAM obtained by rearranging the arrangement of FIG. 61;
FIG. 6 is a diagram (part 2) explaining a recording location of information and a state before and after initialization of a RAM layer in a two-layer disc.

69 is a ROM / RAM obtained by rearranging the arrangement of FIG. 16;
FIG. 3 is a diagram (part 1) explaining a recording location of information and a state before and after initialization of a RAM layer in a two-layer disc.

70 is a ROM / RAM obtained by rearranging the arrangement of FIG. 16;
FIG. 6 is a diagram (part 2) explaining a recording location of information and a state before and after initialization of a RAM layer in a two-layer disc.

71 is a flow chart diagram for explaining a method of rewriting video information and its management area. FIG.

FIG. 72 is a conceptual diagram of a reproduction system system for explaining the continuity of reproduction signals.

FIG. 73 is a diagram illustrating an example of a relationship between an access operation and the like and a temporary storage amount in the buffer memory during continuous reproduction of a video signal.

[Fig. 74] Fig. 74 is a diagram for explaining another example (when the access frequency is the highest) between the access operation and the like during the continuous reproduction of the video signal and the temporary storage amount in the buffer memory.

FIG. 75 is a diagram for explaining another example of the relationship between the access operation and the like during the continuous reproduction of the video signal and the temporary storage amount in the buffer memory (when the reproduction time and the access time are balanced).

FIG. 76 is a diagram for explaining the relationship between seek distance and seek time of the optical head.

FIG. 77 is a diagram for explaining a method for obtaining the average seek distance of the optical head.

FIG. 78 is a recording system system conceptual diagram for explaining the continuity of recording signals.

[Fig. 79] Fig. 79 is a diagram exemplifying cells constituting a part of recorded AV data (video signal information) and a video object unit VOBU array of each cell.

FIG. 80 is a view for explaining a case where cell # 2 is edited in the array of FIG. 79 and data is cut off in the middle of cell # 2 (at VOBU 108e) (VOBU 108e is re-encoded).

FIG. 81 is a diagram for explaining a cell rearrangement method by editing. FIGS. 79 to 80 show how the cell configuration, the VOBU array, and the positions of empty areas illustrated in FIG. FIG.

FIG. 82 is a view for explaining an example (when access frequency is highest) of a relationship between an access operation and the like and a temporary storage amount in the buffer memory during continuous recording of video signals.

FIG. 83 is a view for explaining another example (when the recording time and the access time are balanced) of the relationship between the access operation and the like and the temporary storage amount in the buffer memory during continuous recording of the video signal.

[Fig. 84] Fig. 84 is a block diagram illustrating the configuration of a DVD video recorder that copes with out-of-sync between video and audio when video information is rearranged (edited or the like) within a video object.

85 is a block diagram illustrating an internal configuration of an encoder unit and a decoder unit in the configuration of FIG. 84.

86 is a flow chart diagram for explaining a synchronizing process between video and audio in the DVD video recorder of FIG. 84. FIG.

[Explanation of symbols]

10 ... Information storage medium / information storage medium (DVD-RAM /
Optical disc such as DVD-RW or DVD-R); 100 ... Disc changer (disc pack); 11 ... Cartridge (for storing DVD-RAM disc); 14 ... Transparent substrate (polycarbonate substrate); 17 ... Recording layer; 17A ... ROM layer (semi-transparent light reflecting layer); 17B ... RAM layer (phase change recording layer); 19 ... Information reading surface (laser light incident surface); 20 ... Adhesive layer; 22 ... Disk center hole; 24 ... Clamp area; 25 ... Information area; 26 ... Lead-out area (rewritable); 27 ... Lead-in area (rewritable); 28 ... Data recording area (volume space; rewritable); 30 ... Main MPU section; 32 ... Disc Drive (DVD-ROM / DVD-R
AM compatible); 34 ... Temporary storage section; 36 ... Data processor; 38 ... System time counter (system time clock); 50 ... Encoder section; 51 ... Reduced image frame memory; 52 ... Video analog / digital converter; 53 ... Video encoder; 54 ... Audio encoder; 55 ... Sub-picture encoder; 56 ... Formatter; 57 ... Buffer memory; 58 ... Reduced video encoder; 59 ... Memory; 60 ... Decoder section; 61 ... Reference clock generating section; 62 ... Separator; ... memory; 64 ... video decoder; 65 ... sub-picture decoder; 66 ... video processor; 68 ... audio decoder; 602 ... video mixer; 604 ... frame memory; 70 ... volume / file management information area (rewritable); Other notes Recording area (optional); 90 ... Phase change recording material layer 90 (Ge2Sb2Te5); 92, 94 ... Zinc sulfide / silicon oxide mixture (ZnS.
SiO2); 101 ... Information reproducing unit / information recording / reproducing unit (physical block); 102 ... Applied configuration unit (application block); 103 ... Information reproducing apparatus (DVD player function) / Information recording / reproducing apparatus (DVD recorder function); 111 ... Main CPU; 112 ... Main memory; 113 ... Memory address line; 114 ... Memory data line; 115 ... Display controller; 116 ... Bitmap display (TV monitor); 117 ... Video RAM; 118 ... Keyboard controller; 119 ... Keyboard 120 ... IDE controller; 122 ... CD-ROM drive; 123 ... Parallel I / F controller; 124 ... Printer; 125 ... Image scanner; 126 ... EISA bus; 127 ... Sound board; 128 ... Microphone; ... speaker; 130 ... serial I / F controller; 131 ... modem; 132 ... IEEE1392 board; 133 ... PCI bus; 134 ... MPEG board; 135 ... JPEG board; 136 ... audio encoder / decoder board; 137 ... dedicated DSP (digital signal) 138 ... SCSI board; 139 ... LAN board; 140 ... DVD-ROM / DVD-RAM compatible drive; 143 ... PCI bus controller; 144 ... EISA bus controller; 145 ... I / O address line; 146 ... I / O Data line; 202 ... Optical head; 203 ... Optical head moving mechanism (feed motor); 204 ... Spindle motor; 205 ... Semiconductor laser drive circuit; 206 ... Recording / reproducing / erasing control waveform generating circuit; 207 ... Adjustment circuit; 208 ... ECC encoder; 209 ... Error correction circuit; 210 ... Demodulation circuit; 211 ... PLL circuit; 212 ... Binarization circuit; 213 ... Amplifier; 214 ... Medium (optical disk) rotation speed detection circuit; 215 ... Spindle motor Drive circuit; 216 ... Feed motor drive circuit; 217 ... Focus / tracking error detection circuit; 218 ... Objective lens actuator drive circuit; 219 ... Semiconductor memory; 220 ... Control unit; 221 ... Turntable (rotary table); 222 ... Data I / O interface; A-SYNC ... Audio synchronization signal obtained from audio information synchronization processing unit in MPU 30; DVC ... Digital video cassette; DVHS ... Digital VHS cassette; PC ... Personal computer; SRC ... Sample rate converter Data.

─────────────────────────────────────────────────── ─── Continuation of the front page (58) Fields surveyed (Int.Cl. 7 , DB name) G11B 20/12 G11B 27/00 H04N 5/85 H04N 5/92

Claims (6)

(57) [Claims]
1. An optical disc for recording video information and management information for managing the video information, wherein a physical sector number of 2 kbyte unit is given to an area of the optical disc for recording the video information. , 2 for the area to which the physical sector number is assigned
Either a logical sector number or a logical block number in units of k bytes is associated , and a 32 kbyte unit is associated with the area in which the physical sector number is associated with the logical sector number or the logical block number. The address of 32
An address in units of k bytes is in units of ECC blocks, the video information is recorded as a video object, the area in which the video object is recorded on the optical disc is guaranteed to be continuous during reproduction, and the video object is recorded. The optical disk is characterized in that the area to be formed is composed of ECC blocks.
2. A reproducing device for reproducing video information recorded on an optical disc, wherein an optical head for reading the video information from the optical disc and a buffer memory for temporarily storing the video information read by the optical head are provided in a reproducing device. At the time of reproduction by setting the video object area recorded on the optical disc so as to prevent the exhaustion of the video information temporarily stored in the buffer memory at the time of reproduction of the video information. The optical disc according to claim 1, wherein the continuity of the optical disc is guaranteed.
3. A method of recording video information and management information for managing the video information on an optical disc, wherein a physical sector number of 2 kbyte unit is given to an area of the optical disc for recording the video information. , 2 for the area to which the physical sector number is assigned
Either a logical sector number or a logical block number in units of k bytes is associated , and a 32 kbyte unit is associated with the area in which the physical sector number is associated with the logical sector number or the logical block number. The address of 32
An address of a k-byte unit is an ECC block unit, the video information is recorded as a video object, and the video object is recorded on the optical disc so as to ensure continuity at the time of reproduction. A recording method characterized by recording a video object.
4. A reproducing apparatus for reproducing video information recorded on an optical disc, an optical head for reading the video information from the optical disc, and a buffer memory for temporarily storing the video information read by the optical head. Assuming that the video information is recorded, a video object is recorded on the optical disk so as to prevent the video information temporarily stored in the buffer memory from being exhausted when the video information is reproduced, thereby ensuring continuity at the time of reproduction. The recording method according to claim 3.
5. A reproducing method for reproducing the video information from an optical disk on which video information and management information for managing the video information are recorded, the optical disk according to claim 1 or the recording method according to claim 3. A reproducing method, wherein the image information is reproduced from an optical disc on which the image information is recorded.
6. A reproducing apparatus for reproducing the video information from an optical disk recording video information and management information for managing the video information, wherein the optical disk according to claim 1 or the recording according to claim 3. A reproducing apparatus comprising reproducing means for reproducing the video information from the optical disc on which the video information is recorded by the method.
JP04087798A 1998-02-23 1998-02-23 Optical disc, recording method, reproducing method, and reproducing apparatus Expired - Lifetime JP3389087B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP04087798A JP3389087B2 (en) 1998-02-23 1998-02-23 Optical disc, recording method, reproducing method, and reproducing apparatus

Applications Claiming Priority (209)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP04087798A JP3389087B2 (en) 1998-02-23 1998-02-23 Optical disc, recording method, reproducing method, and reproducing apparatus
EP10173635A EP2267720A3 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium, information playback method and apparatus and information recording method
EP10173629A EP2261917A3 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium, information playback method and apparatus and information recording method
EP10173625A EP2261914A3 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium, information playback method and apparatus and information recording method
EP10173627A EP2261915A3 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium, information playback method and apparatus and information recording method
EP10173632A EP2280398A3 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium, information playback method and apparatus and information recording method
EP10173630A EP2261918A3 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium, information playback method and apparatus and information recording method
EP10173634A EP2261921A3 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium, information playback method and apparatus and information recording method
EP99905279A EP1065665A4 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium and information recording/reproducing system
EP10173631A EP2261919A3 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium, information playback method and apparatus and information recording method
EP10173633A EP2261920A3 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium, information playback method and apparatus and information recording method
PCT/JP1999/000795 WO1999043000A1 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium and information recording/reproducing system
EP10173626A EP2267719A3 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium, information playback method and apparatus and information recording method
EP10173628A EP2261916A3 (en) 1998-02-23 1999-02-23 Information storage medium, information playback method and apparatus and information recording method
US09/643,985 US6549721B1 (en) 1998-02-23 2000-08-23 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
US09/658,577 US6556772B1 (en) 1998-02-23 2000-09-08 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
US09/658,575 US6505964B1 (en) 1998-02-23 2000-09-08 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
US09/658,578 US6522833B1 (en) 1998-02-23 2000-09-08 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
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US10/801,835 US7092617B2 (en) 1998-02-23 2004-03-17 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
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US12/943,099 US7974512B2 (en) 1998-02-23 2010-11-10 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
US12/943,147 US7936980B2 (en) 1998-02-23 2010-11-10 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
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US12/943,994 US7962013B2 (en) 1998-02-23 2010-11-11 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
US12/944,075 US7933500B2 (en) 1998-02-23 2010-11-11 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
US12/944,012 US7970258B2 (en) 1998-02-23 2010-11-11 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
US12/944,157 US7983538B2 (en) 1998-02-23 2010-11-11 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
US12/944,101 US7983537B2 (en) 1998-02-23 2010-11-11 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
US12/944,048 US7925140B2 (en) 1998-02-23 2010-11-11 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system
US12/943,984 US7936971B2 (en) 1998-02-23 2010-11-11 Information storage medium and information recording/playback system

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US7054888B2 (en) 2002-10-16 2006-05-30 Microsoft Corporation Optimizing media player memory during rendering
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