JP3001785B2 - Solar cell module, roofing material, air distribution device, roofing material construction method, and roofing material manufacturing method - Google Patents

Solar cell module, roofing material, air distribution device, roofing material construction method, and roofing material manufacturing method

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Publication number
JP3001785B2
JP3001785B2 JP6294190A JP29419094A JP3001785B2 JP 3001785 B2 JP3001785 B2 JP 3001785B2 JP 6294190 A JP6294190 A JP 6294190A JP 29419094 A JP29419094 A JP 29419094A JP 3001785 B2 JP3001785 B2 JP 3001785B2
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
solar cell
cell module
back surface
insulating material
material
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
JP6294190A
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Japanese (ja)
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JPH07211932A (en
Inventor
裕二 井上
崇志 大塚
昌宏 森
公俊 深江
誠紀 糸山
文隆 豊村
Original Assignee
キヤノン株式会社
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Priority to JP5-299819 priority Critical
Priority to JP29981993 priority
Application filed by キヤノン株式会社 filed Critical キヤノン株式会社
Priority to JP6294190A priority patent/JP3001785B2/en
Publication of JPH07211932A publication Critical patent/JPH07211932A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of JP3001785B2 publication Critical patent/JP3001785B2/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02SGENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER BY CONVERSION OF INFRA-RED RADIATION, VISIBLE LIGHT OR ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, e.g. USING PHOTOVOLTAIC [PV] MODULES
    • H02S20/00Supporting structures for PV modules
    • H02S20/20Supporting structures directly fixed to an immovable object
    • H02S20/22Supporting structures directly fixed to an immovable object specially adapted for buildings
    • H02S20/23Supporting structures directly fixed to an immovable object specially adapted for buildings specially adapted for roof structures
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/04Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices
    • H01L31/042PV modules or arrays of single PV cells
    • H01L31/048Encapsulation of modules
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/10Photovoltaic [PV]
    • Y02B10/12Roof systems for PV cells
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy

Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a solar cell module which can be easily installed, and more particularly to a solar cell module used in a passive solar system which converts solar heat energy into hot air using a heat medium such as air and uses it.

[0002]

2. Description of the Related Art In recent years, awareness of environmental problems has been increasing worldwide. Above all, there is a serious concern about the global warming phenomenon accompanying the emission of CO 2 , and the desire for safe and clean energy is increasing more and more. At present, a solar cell using a photoelectric conversion element can be said to be one of the promising ones as a clean energy source due to its safety and ease of handling.

[0003] There are various types of solar cells. Representative examples include (1) crystalline silicon solar cells, (2) polycrystalline silicon solar cells, (3) amorphous silicon-based solar cells, (4) copper indium selenide solar cells, and (5) compound semiconductor solar cells. Among these, thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells, compound semiconductor solar cells, and non-single-crystal amorphous silicon solar cells can be made relatively large in area at relatively low cost. Is underway.

On the other hand, as a method of using clean energy, Japanese Patent Publication No. 3-48299 discloses a passive solar system in which the roof surface itself is used for collecting solar heat and the heat is used for floor heating and hot water supply. Have been.
FIG. 8 shows an example of an air-heated passive solar system. 8, reference numeral 801 denotes an outside air intake, 802 denotes a roof heat collecting surface metal plate, 803 denotes a roof base material, 804 denotes a ventilation layer, 804 denotes a heat insulating material, 805 denotes a fan, and 806 denotes a fan duct.

[0005] First, fresh air entering from the outside air intake 801 at the eave receives solar thermal energy flowing into the roof surface through the metal plate 802 on the heat collecting surface of the roof, and slowly rises naturally to the ridge side of the roof while warming. I will do it. The heated air is sent under the floor by the fan 806 and used to warm the entire room. Further, the ventilation layer 804 and the ventilation duct 807 are surrounded by a heat insulating material 805 so that hot air cannot escape.

[0006] However, the air-heated passive solar system as described above uses clean energy in terms of utilization of solar heat. However, a fan for blowing air, control during heat collection and non-heat collection, and the like use a system power supply. Must be used, not a complete clean energy use. Therefore, a method of using a solar cell, which is one of clean energy sources, as a power supply for a fan of the above-described system was considered.

However, when such a solar cell is installed in a place different from the roof panel, a large area is required.
Similarly, if the roof area is small, there is a problem that only the solar cell must be installed in another place,
In this case, in consideration of the problem that a stand for installing a solar cell is required separately, the present applicant uses a resin-sealed solar cell module shown in FIG. And

FIG. 9 shows a solar cell module for comparison by the applicant of the present invention, which is directly nailed and fixed to a roof material or the like. FIG. 9A is an upper perspective view, and FIG. 9B is an XY cross-sectional view of FIG. 9A. 901 is a solar cell, 9
02 is a surface covering material, 903 is a back surface insulating material, 904 is a back surface reinforcing material as a heat collecting surface, 905 is a filler, 906 is a core tree which is a roof material also serving as a spacer, and 907 is a nail. When the solar cell module is installed on the roof as shown in the figure, the solar cell module can be easily fixed to the non-power generation area with a nail or steeple without largely changing the conventional construction method.

However, the comparative example of the applicant of the present invention has a problem that the solar cell module does not always maintain the initial characteristics for a long period of 20 years.

On the other hand, it is known that the conversion efficiency of a solar cell generally decreases as the environmental temperature increases. When a solar cell is installed on a roof, the conversion efficiency is reduced by being exposed to a high temperature. Therefore, there is a problem in that the solar cell must be cooled to suppress the reduction in the conversion efficiency.

[0011]

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention improves the long-term reliability of a fixed solar cell module provided with a penetrating portion, and enables more comprehensive use of clean energy in an air-heated passive solar system. It is another object of the present invention to provide a solar cell module for a passive solar system that can use a solar cell without requiring a separate stand and can further suppress a decrease in conversion efficiency of the solar cell due to heat.

[0012] The solar cell module of the present invention can be mounted on a reinforcing plate.
Amorphous semiconductor with backside insulating material in some areas
The solar cell having the back surface insulating material and the solar cell
The batteries are wider than the area on the stiffener where they are placed.
Area covered with a filler that covers the
Edges without insulation and covered with filler
The reinforcing plate is bent at the portion .
The roofing material of the present invention has a back surface insulating material in a partial area on the reinforcing plate.
Solar cell with amorphous semiconductor is placed
And the back surface insulating material and the solar cell
Filler that covers a wider area than the area where
Therefore, it is sealed, there is no backside insulating material, and
The reinforcing plate is bent at the end covered by the filler.
It is characterized by having been done. The air circulation device of the present invention,
A ventilation layer is provided between the roof material and the roof base material, and outside air flows through the ventilation layer to be taken indoors or discharged outdoors. According to the method for constructing a roofing material of the present invention, the roofing material may be fixed by providing a space between the roofing material and a roof base material to form a ventilation layer, and the outside air may flow through the ventilation layer and be taken indoors. Or discharged outside. The method for manufacturing a roofing material according to the present invention includes the steps of:
Amorphous semiconductor with backside insulating material in some areas
Mounting a solar cell having
And the solar cells in the area where they are placed on the reinforcing plate.
Sealing with a filler that covers a wide area
And no backside insulation material, and covered with filler
Bending the reinforcing plate at the set end .

[0013]

According to the solar cell module of the present invention, the following effects can be expected. (1) Long-term reliability of the solar cell module is improved because deterioration of the lamination material in the penetrating portion is suppressed. (2) With a fan operated by solar cell power generation, temperature-converted air can be circulated, and larger clean energy can be used. (3) When the solar cell generates more power than the driving power of the fan or the like, it can be used for other power applications via the power converter. (4) The solar cell can be used without requiring a separate stand. (5) A decrease in the conversion efficiency of the solar cell due to heat can be suppressed.

Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.

The present applicant examined the appearance and cross section of a solar cell module shown in FIG. 9 which was fixed directly by nailing to a roof material or the like after an experiment of light irradiation + rainfall cycle was performed. A crack-shaped pattern is generated around the nail 907 on the back surface insulating material 903, or the back surface insulating material 903 and the filler 90 are formed.
It was found that peeling occurred at the interface with No. 5. In other words, when used outdoors, the nailed part of the laminated material will be exposed outdoors under the stress of the nail, and among them, the backside insulating material will be exposed to the external environment and the stress such as the stress caused by the nail. It was found that cracks and film peeling were caused by stress generated in the filler 905 and the back surface insulating material 903 by nails, and that external water easily entered. This is because the solar cell module itself is exposed to high temperature and high humidity through the ventilation layer 105 when the roof plate 107 also serves as a heat collecting surface metal as in the present invention shown in FIG. It seems that the conversion efficiency and the withstand voltage of the semiconductor become low. This problem also occurred in a case other than nailing and fixing, for example, when bolts and nuts were fixed by providing through holes.

An experiment shown in FIG. 10 was conducted to examine the relationship between the nail 907 and the opening where the penetrating portion penetrating the back surface insulating material 903 was gradually opened.

FIG. 10 shows the solar cell 101 shown in FIG.
It shows the relationship between the distance between the end and the end of the back surface insulating material 109 (hereinafter referred to as distance from the solar cell) and the insulation leak of the solar cell module. In the test, three samples were prepared for each point, and the results are average values.

[0018] The test sample was roof plate 107, filler 1
10, back surface insulating material 109, filler 110, solar cell 10
1, a filler 110, and a surface coating 109 were laminated in this order, and EVA was melted at 150 ° C. for 30 minutes by a vacuum laminator (not shown) to laminate.
The roof panel 107 is made of a zinc-coated steel sheet (manufactured by Daido Steel Co., Ltd., trade name:
Timer color GL) was used. Filler 110 is EVA
(Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer weatherproof grade), back surface insulating material 109 is nylon (manufactured by DuPont, trade name: Dartec), and surface coating material 108 is a fluororesin film (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene, manufactured by Asahi Glass Co., Ltd.)
(Product name: Aflex) was used. A test was performed by forming a solar cell module having a ventilation layer having the structure shown in FIG.

The distance between the end of the solar cell 101 and the end of the back surface insulating material 109 is positive in the direction in which the back surface insulating material 109 is larger than in the solar cell 101, and is negative in the direction in which the back surface insulating material 109 is larger than the solar cell 101. It is in the direction of becoming smaller. The four sides of the solar cell 101 were stacked under the same conditions.

The insulation leak test was performed in an environment of 85 ° C. and 85% RH for 500 hours.
The maximum leak current when a voltage of 2200 V was applied to the solar cell module for one minute was measured. The terminals were connected between a portion of the solar cell module where the plus and minus were short-circuited and a portion of the roof panel (zinc-coated steel plate) of the solar cell module where the paint was removed. Then, the measurement was performed even when the voltage application was reversed.
0.

From the results shown in FIG. 10, when the distance from the solar cell 101 becomes negative, the leak current suddenly increases. That is, it can be understood that the insulation resistance of the solar cell module is insufficient unless the back surface insulating material 109 is provided between the solar cell 101 and the roof plate 107. Conversely, it is considered that the insulation resistance is sufficiently secured if it is 1 mm or more.

FIG. 11 shows that the end of the back surface insulating material in the solar cell module has a nail, a screw, a steeper or the like 111 that is driven to fix the solar cell module.
The distance that indicates how far away from the end of the solar cell is (hereinafter referred to as the opening distance and that part is referred to as the opening) the rate of decrease in the conversion efficiency of the solar cell module before and after the weather resistance test It shows the relationship. Three test samples having different opening distances were prepared and tested in the same manner as described above. FIG. 11 shows FIG.
From the result of 0, even if an opening was provided, the distance from the solar cell was formed to be 1 mm or more.

The weather resistance test was performed with a sunshine weather meter. The conditions of the sunshine weather meter are as follows.
5%, xenon lamp output 1.5 kW, wavelength range 3
The irradiation intensity was 1425 W / m 2 , and the light / dark cycle was 50/50. The test was performed after 1000 hours.

The rate of decrease in the conversion efficiency of the solar cell module before and after the weather resistance test is (average conversion efficiency after the weather resistance test).
/ (Initial average conversion efficiency) was calculated, and 1 was used as a reference without any decrease.

From the results shown in FIG. 11, it can be seen that there is no significant change when the opening distance is 5 mm or more. When the thickness is 5 mm or less, since the nail 111 is close, cracks and cracks are generated in the backside insulating material due to the stress of the nailing fixing portion after the weather resistance test, so that external water easily penetrates, and the conversion efficiency of the solar cell module decreases. It is thought that it was done.

From the above test, it was found that there is a certain relationship between the distance from the solar cell and the opening distance.

[0027]

Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.

FIG. 1 (a) is a schematic structural view showing the use of the solar cell module of the present invention as a passive solar cell.
1B is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line XY of FIG. 1A, FIG. 1C is a structural cross-sectional view of the solar cell module of the present invention, and FIG.
(D) shows a diagram in which the solar cell module is bent. In FIG. 1, reference numeral 101 denotes a solar cell as a photoelectric conversion element;
02 is a spacer, 103 is a core tree, 104 is a roof base material, 105 is a ventilation layer, 106 is a cap, 107 is a roof plate, 108 is an uneven surface-treated material, 109 is a back surface insulating material, 110 is a filler, Reference numeral 111 denotes a nail, reference numeral 112 denotes an opening of a back surface insulating material through which the nail or the like passes, and reference numeral 113 denotes a power connection cord of the solar cell.

As shown in FIG. 1 (c), the entire surface of the solar cell module is laminated with resin so as to sandwich the solar cell, and lamination processing is performed. Thereafter, as shown in FIG. 1 (d), bending is performed so that both end portions are vertically suspended. Next, the roof plate 107 integrated with the folded solar cell module is placed and fixed on the step formed by the spacer 102 and the core tree 103, so that the roof base material 104 and the roof plate 107 A ventilation layer 105 is formed therebetween. Further, a cap 106 is placed so as to sandwich the head portion of the core tree 103 and the bent vertical portions of the roof plate 107 on both sides thereof. Finally, the vertically bent portion of the solar cell module and the cap are fixed to the core 10 with screws, nails, steeples, or the like 111.
Fix to 3.

The power from the solar cell 111 is connected to the connection cord 1
13 is connected to a load (not shown).

Solar Cell 111 The solar cell which is the photoelectric conversion element of the present invention is not particularly limited, but is preferably a flexible solar cell.
For example, there is one in which a semiconductor photoactive layer as a light conversion member is formed on a conductive substrate. FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing one example of the structure. In FIG. 2, reference numeral 201 denotes a conductive substrate, 202 denotes a reflection layer that reflects light that has not been absorbed by the semiconductor photoactive layer at one time, and 203 denotes a semiconductor photoactive layer. ,
Reference numeral 204 denotes a transparent conductive layer for increasing the current collection efficiency of the semiconductor photoactive layer, and 205 denotes a current collection electrode.

The conductive substrate 201 may serve as a lower electrode while serving as a substrate for the photovoltaic element. Materials include silicon, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, titanium, carbon sheets, lead-plated steel sheets, resin films and ceramics with a conductive layer formed, and light incident from the conductive substrate side. In this case, a light-transmitting material is used.

On the conductive substrate 201, a reflective layer 202 is formed.
Alternatively, a metal layer, a metal oxide layer, or a laminate of a metal layer and a metal oxide layer may be formed. The metal layer includes, for example, Ti, Cr, Mo, W, Al, Ag, Ni
And alloys thereof, and the like. The metal oxide layer is made of, for example, ZnO, TiO 2 , SnO 2 or In 2 O 3 —SnO 2.
2 (ITO) or the like is used. As a method for forming the metal layer and the metal layer and the metal oxide layer, a resistance heating overcoating method,
There are an electron beam evaporation method and a sputtering method.

The semiconductor photoactive layer 203 is a portion that performs photoelectric conversion, and specific materials include pn junction type single crystal silicon, pn junction type polycrystalline silicon, pin junction type amorphous silicon, CuInSe 2 , and CuIn.
S 2 , GaAs, CdS / Cu 2 S, CdS / CdTe,
Compound semiconductors such as CdS / InP and CdTe / Cu 2 Te, and those obtained by laminating a plurality of them are mentioned. As a method of forming the semiconductor photoactive layer, in the case of polycrystalline silicon, a sheet of molten silicon or heat treatment of amorphous silicon is used. In the case of a non-single-crystal amorphous silicon, silane gas such as SiH 4 or SiF 4 is used. And the like as a raw material, and in the case of a compound semiconductor, an ion plating method, an ion beam deposition method, a vacuum deposition method, a sputtering method, an electric deposition method, and the like.

The transparent conductive layer 204 functions as an upper electrode of a solar cell. As a material to be used, for example, I
n 2 O 3, SnO 2, In 2 O 3 -SnO 2 (ITO), Zn
O, TiO 2 , Cd 2 SnO 4 , a high-concentration impurity-doped crystalline semiconductor layer, or a metal that transmits light absorbed by the semiconductor photoactive layer 203. Examples of the formation method include a resistance heating evaporation method, a sputtering method, a spray method, a CVD method, and an impurity diffusion method.

On the transparent conductive layer 204, in order to efficiently collect current, a grid-like current collecting electrode 205 (grid)
May be provided. As a specific material of the current collecting electrode 205, for example, Ti, Cr, Mo, W, Al, Ag, N
i, Cu, Sn and their alloys, or silver paste,
Conductive pastes, such as carbon paste, and the like can be given. As a method for forming the collecting electrode 205, sputtering using a mask pattern, resistance heating, CVD
Method, a method of removing unnecessary portions by etching after depositing a metal film on the entire surface and patterning, a method of directly forming a grid electrode pattern by photo-CVD, and plating after forming a mask of a negative pattern of the grid electrode pattern There are a method, a method of printing a conductive paste, and a method of fixing a metal wire with a conductive paste.

The conductive paste is usually silver in the form of fine powder,
A material in which gold, copper, nickel, an alloy thereof, carbon, or the like is dispersed in a binder polymer is used. Examples of the binder polymer include resins such as polyester, epoxy, acrylic, alkyd, polyvinyl acetate, rubber, urethane, and phenol.

Although an example of a method for manufacturing a solar cell has been described above, since the solar cell of the present invention is used at a high ambient temperature, the conversion efficiency of a crystalline silicon solar cell is likely to decrease due to heat. . Generally, it is known that amorphous silicon solar cells have less influence on conversion efficiency due to heat at high temperatures than crystalline silicon solar cells.

Since the amorphous silicon solar cell is thinner than the crystalline silicon solar cell, the heat transfer efficiency when used as a roofing plate in the present invention is compared.
Amorphous silicon solar cells are superior.

On the other hand, an amorphous silicon-based solar cell formed on a stainless steel substrate can be thinned to a thickness of about 0.1 mm, so that the amount of filler for filling the solar cell can be reduced. . as a result,
The thickness of the roof panel integrated with the solar cell module can be reduced, and the heat transfer efficiency can be further improved. That is, since the solar cell used in the present invention is formed on a stainless steel substrate, it has flexibility and does not require more rigidity than necessary, so that the thickness of the roof sheet can be reduced, and the heat dissipation can be reduced. It can be seen that an amorphous silicon solar cell formed on a stainless steel substrate is most preferable because the transmission efficiency can be improved.

Further, since both ends of the roof plate can be folded in a hanging shape and a cap can be placed on the portion to perform a rain fight, it is preferable that both ends are bent in a hanging shape.

The roof base material 104 is used as a base for finishing the roofing material. The required quality is that it can withstand a local load with respect to human walking during construction, water resistance, and heat resistance. There are generally used materials such as wood, mortar and cement.

The cap 111 is used for fixing the roof plate 107 on the core tree 103 and for performing rain-closing, and examples of the material include insulated metal such as painted zinc steel plate.

The spacer 102 is fixed on the roof base material 104 and is used for securing a ventilation layer of the passive solar system by mounting the roof plate 107 thereon. Wood is suitably used as the material.

The core 103 is fixed on the spacer 102, and the roof plate 107 is fixed to the core with nails 111, steeples, bolts or the like. Wood is suitably used as the material. Next, a laminate material forming the solar cell module of the present invention will be described.

Surface Coating Material 108 The surface coating material 108 is required to have a light transmitting property and a light resistance and to be hardly adhered to dirt. When glass is used as the material, the thickness of the roof panel 107, which is a solar cell module, is increased, and the heat transfer efficiency is reduced. In addition, the glass may be broken by an external impact. A transparent film is preferably used. In addition, by performing the unevenness treatment on the surface, it is possible to suppress the surface reflection of the incident light, and to improve the light use efficiency to the solar cell. As the material, there is a fluororesin film such as polyethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), poly (trifluoroethylene), and polyvinyl fluoride. Corona discharge treatment may be applied to the surface of the adhesive with the filler 110 so that the filler 110 is easily adhered.

Further, an antioxidant may be added to improve the heat resistance of the fluororesin used for the surface coating material.

Filler 110 The properties required for the filler 110 include light resistance, thermoplasticity, thermal adhesion, and light transmission. As a material, a transparent resin such as EVA (vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymer), butyral resin, silicone resin, epoxy resin, fluorinated polyimide resin, and acrylic resin can be used. Crosslinking is also possible by adding a crosslinking agent to the filler 110. Further, in order to suppress light deterioration, it is desirable that an ultraviolet absorber is contained.

The back surface insulating material 112 of the back surface insulating material the invention, the roof plate 1 is between solar cell 101 and the external or the solar cell 101 and the back reinforcing member,
07 to maintain electrical insulation between the two.

When the roof panel 107 is also used as a heat collecting surface metal as in the present invention, the solar cell module itself is exposed to high temperature and high humidity through the ventilation layer 105, so that the solar cell module is compared with a normal solar cell module. Therefore, further electrical insulation is required.

Therefore, although the filler 110 alone has insulation properties, the thickness variation or the pinhole portion where the thickness is small or the pinhole portion does not pose a problem in the past.
A short circuit may occur between the solar cell 101 and the outside or between the solar cell 101 and the back surface reinforcing member 107. The back surface insulating material 112 is used to prevent this.

Further, the back surface insulating material 112 is
In the configuration that exists just under the solar cell 101, if the filling material 110 at the end of the solar cell 101 has poor degassing, or if there is a part where the thickness of the filling material 110 is extremely small, the withstand voltage at that part is extremely high. It is more preferable that the back surface insulating material 112 is stacked on the entire surface of the solar cell module because the size of the back surface insulating material 112 is reduced.

However, when the back surface insulating material 112 is laminated on the entire surface of the solar cell module, when a through hole for fixing the solar cell module to the spacer 102 or the core tree 103 is provided, the back surface insulating material at the penetrating portion is provided. Is the stress caused by drilling holes, screws, nails, steeples, etc. 11
Since the stress of 1 remains, if the device is installed outdoors for a long period of time, the back surface insulating material 112 is liable to crack or peel off at the interface with the filler. As a result, the sheet into which moisture or the like has invaded through the portion has caused a decrease in the conversion efficiency of the solar cell module.

Therefore, it is necessary that the back surface insulating material 112 has an opening at a portion through which screws, nails or steeples for fixing the solar cell module penetrate.

As the material, a material that can secure sufficient electric insulation with the solar cell, has excellent long-term durability, and has flexibility that can withstand thermal expansion and thermal contraction is preferable. Suitable materials include nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polycarbonate, polyester, polyarylate, polyacid and the like.

Back reinforcing member 107 The back reinforcing member 107 is used as a roof plate 107 also serving as a heat collecting plate in the passive solar system of the present invention. The required quality is heat resistance, weather resistance, and rigidity, but since the filler 110 covering the solar cell needs to be bonded, adhesiveness is also required. As a material, for example,
Insulated metal such as a painted zinc steel sheet may be used. Further, the surface color is important as long as it is used as a solar heat collecting plate, and a color having a higher solar heat collecting efficiency, such as black, navy blue, or brown, is preferable.

Further, since both ends can be bent in a hanging shape and a cap can be placed on the portion to perform a rain fight, both ends are preferably bent in a hanging shape.

The method of bending the solar cell module is not particularly limited, but when the surface covering material 108 is a weather-resistant film such as a fluororesin film, the surface is easily damaged. Therefore, it is preferable to use a mold of a “bending machine” that bends the solar cell module with a material that does not easily damage the surface covering material 108 that is the surface of the shingle. The weather-resistant film surface of the solar cell module is placed on a soft mold such as urethane resin, and the solar cell module can be bent by applying a force to a roof plate 107, which is a building material on the back surface, with a blade.

[0059]

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The present invention will be described below in detail based on embodiments.

Example 1 First, a solar cell as a non-single-crystal amorphous silicon (a-Si) -based photoelectric conversion element was manufactured. This manufacturing procedure will be described with reference to FIG.

On a cleaned stainless steel substrate 201, an Al layer (film thickness: 5000) was formed as a back reflection layer 202 by sputtering.
Å) and a ZnO layer (thickness 5000 Å) are sequentially formed. Next, SiH 4 , PH 3, and H 2 were formed by plasma CVD.
A-Si layer having n-type conductivity from a mixed gas of
The a-Si layer from a mixed gas of H 4 and H 2 having i-type conductivity, in sequence SiH 4 and BF 3 and the microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si) layer having a p-type conductivity of a mixed gas of H 2 It is repeatedly formed, and the thickness of the n-layer is 150Å / the thickness of the i-layer 4000Å / the thickness of the p-layer 100Å / the thickness of the n-layer 100Å / The thickness of the i-layer 800Å
A tandem a-Si-based photoelectric conversion semiconductor layer 203 having a p-layer thickness of 100 ° was formed. Next, the transparent conductive layer 20
As No. 4, an In 2 O 3 thin film (thickness: 700 °) was formed by depositing In by a resistance heating method in an O 2 atmosphere.

On this, the current collecting electrode 205 was formed by pattern-printing a silver paste with a screen printer and drying.

Next, a process of applying a coating to the solar cell manufactured as described above to form a solar cell module integrated with the roof panel (back surface reinforcing material) of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG.

FIG. 3A is a top view, and FIG.
FIG. 3A is a cross-sectional view along α-β. 3 (a) and 3
In (b), 301 is a solar cell, 302 is a surface covering material, 303 is a back surface insulating material, 304 is a roof plate, 305 is a filler, and 306 is a bend.

As shown in FIG. 3B, the back surface insulating material 303 is
The size of the four sides was made larger than the size of the solar cell. As a manufacturing procedure, a roof plate 304, a filler 305, an insulating film 303, a filler 305, a solar cell 301, a filler 305, and a surface coating agent 302 manufactured by the above method are laminated in this order, and EVA is vacuumed at 150 ° C. for 30 minutes. It was laminated by melting. At the time of lamination, the back surface insulating material was aligned so that the four sides were larger by 10 mm than the solar cell. A 0.3 mm thick zinc-coated steel sheet (manufactured by Daido Steel Co., Ltd., trade name: Timer Color GL) having a black surface color was used as the roof sheet. The filler is EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer) with a thickness of 460 μm, and the back insulation is 50 μm
Thick nylon (manufactured by DuPont, trade name: Dartec), and a 50 μm-thick fluororesin film (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene, manufactured by Asahi Glass Co., trade name: Aflex) was used as the surface coating material.

FIGS. 4 and 5 are views showing a state where the solar cell module manufactured by the above method is bent.

First, the end of the solar cell module is bent 120 ° toward the incident light side as shown in FIG. 4, and then the solar cell module shown in FIG. 4 is incident on an area other than the power generation area as shown in FIG. It was bent 90 ° to the light side.
That is, it was bent in a hanging shape. In addition, the above bending is 120 m from the end of the solar cell module.
m. The 90 ° bend is shown in FIG.
It is desirable that the rising height (a) of the vertically bent portion is shorter than the length (b) from the rising portion to the end of the solar cell.

That is, a <b, because when the height of the rising portion is large, the shadow due to that portion affects the power generation of the solar cell. In the vertical bending, the bending was performed outside the back surface insulating material.

Next, a method of installing a folded solar cell module on a roof base material will be described with reference to FIG. 601 is a spacer, 602 is a core tree, 603 is a solar cell module, 604 is a cap, 605 is a roof base material, 606 is a ventilation layer, and 607 is a nail.

First, the spacer 60 is placed on the roof base material 605.
1 is fixed, and the core tree 602 is fixed thereon. These are fixed using nails or the like. Next, the bent solar cell module prepared above is placed on the stepped portion between the spacer 601 and the core tree 602. At this time, bending is performed so that the rising height (a) of the vertically bent portion of the solar cell module is equal to the height (c) of the core tree. Then, a cap is placed so as to sandwich the head portion of the core tree and the vertical portions of the solar cell modules on both sides thereof. The cap is previously bent so as to cover the bent end portion of the solar cell module as shown in FIG.

Finally, the hanging part of the solar cell module and the cap 604 are fixed to the core tree 602 with nails 607. As described above, the back surface insulating material is nailed at the hanging portion of the solar cell module not reaching the nailing fixing portion.

As described above, a solar cell module having a distance from the solar cell of plus (+) 10 mm and an opening distance of 80 mm was obtained. The opening here is a nail 307
Is the closest A to the end of the back surface insulating material 303.

(Example 2) A solar cell module was manufactured by laminating a back surface insulating material in a circular shape having a radius of 10 mm from the center of the penetrating portion on the entire surface, and the solar cell module was not bent. Was manufactured in the same manner as in Example 1.

FIG. 7A is a top perspective view of this embodiment, and FIG.
7B is an XY cross-sectional view of FIG. 7A, and FIG. 7C is a top view. In the figure, 701 is a solar cell, 702 is a back surface insulating material, 703 is a roof plate, 704 is a surface covering material, 705 is a cutout portion of a back surface insulating material, 706 is a filler, 707 is a core tree (spacer), and 708 is a roof base material , 709 are nails. The lamination of the solar cell 701 was performed in the same manner as the solar cell manufactured in Example 1.

As shown in FIG.
The solar cell module was fixed by hitting a nail 709 on the core tree 707 at the center of. In addition, the distance from the solar cell of this example is +80 mm, and the opening distance is 10 m.
m.

Example 3 The size of the back surface insulating material was set to be 1 mm larger than the solar cell on all four sides so that the back surface insulating material became larger by 1 mm than the solar cell at the time of lamination.
A solar cell module was manufactured in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the solar cell module was manufactured by laminating as in (a). The distance from the solar cell of this example is +1 mm, and the opening distance is 89
mm.

Example 4 A solar cell module was produced in the same manner as in Example 2 except that a back surface insulating material was cut out in a circle having a radius of 3 mm from the center of the penetrating portion and laminated on the entire surface to produce a solar cell module. . In addition, the distance from the solar cell of this example was +87 mm, and the opening distance was 3 mm.

(Comparative Example 1) A solar cell module was produced in exactly the same manner as in Example 1, except that the back surface insulating material was laminated on the entire surface of the solar cell module when the laminate was laminated. In this comparative example, the distance from the solar cell is +110 mm, and the opening distance is 0 mm.

(Comparative Example 2) In Example 1, when laminating materials were laminated, the back insulating material was made smaller by 5 mm on all four sides than the solar cell (photovoltaic element). A solar cell module was produced in exactly the same manner. The distance from the solar cell of this comparative example was -5 m.
m, opening distance is 95 mm.

(Evaluation) The following items were evaluated for the solar cell modules of each of the examples and the comparative examples produced by the above method. (1) Initial insulation leak test (2) Initial conversion efficiency (3) Conversion efficiency after light irradiation + rain cycle (sunshine weather meter) (4) Reduction rate of conversion efficiency after light irradiation + rain cycle to initial conversion efficiency ( 5) Appearance after light irradiation + rain cycle (sunshine weather meter) The insulation leak test was performed by leaving the solar cell module at a voltage of 2200 V for 1 minute within 2 minutes immediately after taking out for 500 hours in an environment of 85 ° C. and 85% RH for 500 hours. The maximum leakage current when given was measured. The terminals were connected between a portion of the solar cell module where the plus and minus were short-circuited and a portion of the roof panel (zinc-coated steel plate) of the solar cell module where the paint was removed. And it measured also in the state where voltage application was reversed, and displayed the one with the largest maximum leak current.

The conditions of the sunshine weather meter are as follows:
The temperature is 40-50 ° C on a black panel and the humidity is 65
%, Xenon lamp output is 1.5 kW, wavelength range is 30
0 to 800 nm, the irradiation intensity was 1425 W / m 2 , and the light / dark cycle was 50/50. The test was performed after 700 hours.

(Results and Discussion) (1) and (4),
Table 1 shows the result of (5).

According to Table 1, the appearance of the solar cell module of Comparative Example 1 changed significantly after the test. It is considered that the crack-like pattern is generated by nylon, which is an insulating material on the back surface, and water penetrates through the cracked portion and adversely affects the conversion efficiency of the solar cell. On the other hand, the solar cell module of Comparative Example 2 has a particularly large insulation leak current and insufficient insulation resistance.

Further, the solar cell module of Example 3 has a relatively large insulation leak current, which is considered to be because the size of the back surface insulating material and the size of the solar cell are relatively close. The solar cell module of Example 4 had no adverse effect on the conversion efficiency after the test, but had cracks around the nail in appearance. This is probably because the back surface insulating material is close to the solar cell module penetration portion.

[0085]

[Table 1]

[0086]

According to the solar cell module of the present invention,
The following effects can be obtained. (1) Long-term reliability of the solar cell module is improved because deterioration of the lamination material in the penetrating portion is suppressed. (2) With a fan operated by solar cell power generation, temperature-converted air can be circulated, and larger clean energy can be used. (3) If the solar cell generates more power than the power of the fan, it can be used for other power applications. (4) The solar cell can be used without requiring a separate stand. (5) Since the heat of the solar cell heated by the sunlight is converted into heat in the ventilation layer and the solar cell is cooled, a decrease in the conversion efficiency of the solar cell can be suppressed. (6) Since the resin covering the solar cell is flexible, rain noise can be reduced by covering the entire surface of the roof panel with the resin. (7) Since the resin covering the solar cell is flexible, the entire roof can be covered with the resin, and the sealing can be made more airtight with a cap.

[Detailed description of drawings]

FIG. 1A is a schematic configuration diagram using a solar cell module of the present invention as a passive solar system;
(B) is an XY schematic sectional view of the solar cell module of (a), (c) is a structural sectional view of the solar cell module of the present invention, and (d) is used for the passive solar system of the present invention. It is the figure which bent the solar cell module as a roof material to be performed.

FIG. 2 is a schematic sectional view of a solar cell suitably used in the solar cell module of the present invention.

FIG. 3A is a plan view showing an example of the solar cell module of the present invention, and FIG. 3B is a schematic cross-sectional view of the solar cell module of FIG.

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view showing one step of processing the solar cell module of the present invention.

FIG. 5 is a schematic sectional view of a preferred solar cell module of the present invention.

FIG. 6 is a schematic sectional view showing an example of a passive solar using the solar cell module of the present invention.

FIG. 7A is a schematic view showing an example of a solar cell module of the present invention and a passive solar using the same,
(B) is an XY cross-sectional view of (a), and (c) is (a).
FIG.

FIG. 8 is an example of an air-heated passive solar system.

9A is a schematic configuration diagram illustrating an example of a solar cell module used by the applicant of the present invention for comparison, and FIG. 9B is an XY cross-sectional view of FIG. 9A.

FIG. 10 is a graph showing an insulation leak and a distance from a solar cell used in an experiment of the present invention.

FIG. 11 is a graph showing the average conversion efficiency / initial average conversion efficiency and the opening distance after the weather resistance test used in the experiment of the present invention.

[Explanation of symbols]

 101 solar cell which is a photoelectric conversion element, 102, 601 spacer, 103, 602 core tree, 104, 605, 708 roof base material, 105, 606 ventilation layer, 106, 604 cap, 107, 304, 703 roof plate, 108 unevenness Treated surface coating material, 109, 303, 702 Back surface insulating material, 110, 305, 706 Filling material, 111, 607, 709 Nail, 112 Opening of back surface insulating material through nails, etc. 113 For power connection of solar cell Cord, 201 conductive substrate, 202 reflective layer, 203 semiconductor photoactive layer, 204 transparent conductive layer, 205 current collecting electrode, 301, 701 solar cell, 302, 704 surface coating material, 306 bent, 707 core tree (spacer), 603 solar cell module, 705 cutout of insulating material on the back.

Continuation of the front page (72) Inventor Fumitaka Toyomura 3-30-2 Shimomaruko, Ota-ku, Tokyo Canon Inc. (72) Inventor Takashi Otsuka 3-30-2 Shimomaruko, Ota-ku, Tokyo Canon Inc. (72) Inventor Kimitoshi Fukae 3-30-2 Shimomaruko, Ota-ku, Tokyo Within Canon Inc. (56) References Japanese Utility Model Application Sho 60-135572 (JP, U) Japanese Utility Model Application Hei 2-77552 (JP, U) Japanese Utility Model Laid-Open No. 1-17952 (JP, U) U.S. Pat. No. 4,189,881 (US, A) International Publication No. 92/9768 (WO, A1) (58) Fields investigated (Int. Cl. 7 , DB name) H01L 31/04- 31/078 F24J 2/04-2/34 E04D 13/18

Claims (22)

(57) [Claims]
1. A back surface insulating material is sandwiched in a partial area on a reinforcing plate.
A solar cell having an amorphous semiconductor is mounted on the
The back surface insulating material and the solar cell, these on the reinforcing plate
Filler that covers a larger area than the
With no backside insulating material and filled
The reinforcing plate is bent at the end covered by the material
Solar cell module, characterized in that there.
2. The solar cell module according to claim 1, wherein said reinforcing plate is a steel plate.
3. The solar cell module according to claim 1, wherein the surface of the filler is covered with a surface covering material.
4. The method according to claim 3, wherein the surface coating material is one selected from polyethylene tetrafluoroethylene, polytrifluoroethylene, and polyvinyl fluoride.
The solar cell module as described.
5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the back surface insulating material is nylon, polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, polyester,
2. The solar cell module according to claim 1, wherein the solar cell module is one selected from polyarylate and polyamide.
6. The filler is EVA, butyral resin,
The solar cell module according to claim 1, wherein the solar cell module is one selected from a silicone resin, an epoxy resin, a fluorinated polyimide resin, and an acrylic resin.
7. The method according to claim 7, wherein the bending is a vertical bending toward the light receiving surface, and a height of the vertical bending portion is shorter than a length from the vertical bending portion to an end of the solar cell. The solar cell module according to claim 1, wherein
8. The solar cell module according to claim 1, wherein the area of the back surface insulating material is larger than the area of the solar cell.
9. The solar cell module according to claim 8, wherein an opening for penetrating a fixing member is provided in a back surface insulating portion in a region where the solar cell is not provided.
10. The solar cell module according to claim 8, wherein a portion of the back surface insulating material in a region where the solar cell is not provided and a portion of the back surface insulating material penetrating the fixing member are removed.
11. The solar cell module according to claim 9, wherein a distance between an end of the back surface insulating material and the fixing member is 5 mm or more.
12. A back surface insulating material is provided in a partial area on a reinforcing plate.
A solar cell with an amorphous semiconductor is placed between
And the back surface insulating material and the solar cell
Filler that covers a wider area than the area where
Therefore, it is sealed, there is no backside insulating material, and
The reinforcing plate is bent at the end covered by the filler.
Roofing material characterized by being done .
13. The roofing material according to claim 12, wherein the reinforcing plate is a steel plate.
14. The roofing material according to claim 12, wherein the surface of the filler is covered with a surface covering material.
15. The roofing material according to claim 14, wherein said surface covering material is one kind selected from polyethylene tetrafluoroethylene, polytrifluoroethylene, and polyvinyl fluoride.
16. The roofing material according to claim 12, wherein the back surface insulating material is one selected from nylon, polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, polyester polyarylate, and polyamide.
17. The roofing material according to claim 12, wherein the filler is one selected from EVA, butyral resin, silicone resin, epoxy resin, fluorinated polyimide resin, and acrylic resin.
18. The method according to claim 18, wherein the bending is a vertical bending to a light receiving surface measurement, and a height of the vertical bending portion is shorter than a length from the vertical bending portion to an end of the solar cell. The roofing material according to claim 12, wherein
19. The roofing material according to claim 12, wherein the area of the back surface insulating material is larger than the area of the solar cell.
20. A ventilation layer is provided between the roofing material according to claim 12 and a roof base material, and outside air flows through the ventilation layer to be taken indoors or discharged outdoors. An air circulation device characterized by being performed.
21. The roofing material according to claim 12, wherein a space is provided between the roofing material and the roof base material to form a ventilation layer, and outside air flows through the ventilation layer to be taken indoors. A method for constructing a roofing material, wherein the roofing material is discharged or discharged outside.
22. A back surface insulating material is provided in a partial area on the reinforcing plate.
A solar cell with an amorphous semiconductor is placed between them
Step, the back surface insulating material and the solar cell, on the reinforcing plate
Filling that covers a wider area than the area where they are placed
The step of sealing with a material, and the absence of a back surface insulating material;
The reinforcing plate is bent at the end covered by the filler
A method of manufacturing a roofing material.
JP6294190A 1993-11-30 1994-11-29 Solar cell module, roofing material, air distribution device, roofing material construction method, and roofing material manufacturing method Expired - Fee Related JP3001785B2 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP5-299819 1993-11-30
JP29981993 1993-11-30
JP6294190A JP3001785B2 (en) 1993-11-30 1994-11-29 Solar cell module, roofing material, air distribution device, roofing material construction method, and roofing material manufacturing method

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

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JP6294190A JP3001785B2 (en) 1993-11-30 1994-11-29 Solar cell module, roofing material, air distribution device, roofing material construction method, and roofing material manufacturing method

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JP3001785B2 true JP3001785B2 (en) 2000-01-24

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JPH1054118A (en) * 1996-08-08 1998-02-24 Canon Inc Solar cell module
US6182403B1 (en) 1996-08-30 2001-02-06 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Combination solar battery and roof unit and mounting method thereof
JP3825843B2 (en) * 1996-09-12 2006-09-27 キヤノン株式会社 Solar cell module
JP3397637B2 (en) 1997-06-11 2003-04-21 キヤノン株式会社 Solar cell integrated roofing sheet, method for manufacturing the same, and method for constructing the same
JPH11150287A (en) 1997-09-10 1999-06-02 Canon Inc Solar cell module, solar cell with enclosure, method for fitting enclosure with the solar cell, and solar power generating system
JPH11193613A (en) * 1998-01-06 1999-07-21 Canon Inc Solar battery module and surrounding body with solar battery
JP3937654B2 (en) 1998-06-30 2007-06-27 キヤノン株式会社 Solar cell module, its installation method, and solar power generator and roof using the same
JP4638103B2 (en) * 1999-09-09 2011-02-23 アクゾ ノーベル ナムローゼ フェンノートシャップAkzo Nobel N.V. Composite roof covering
US8168880B2 (en) 2006-04-26 2012-05-01 Certainteed Corporation Shingle with photovoltaic element(s) and array of same laid up on a roof
JP2008047721A (en) * 2006-08-17 2008-02-28 Toppan Printing Co Ltd Solar cell substrate, its manufacturing method, solar cell using the same and its manufacturing method
JP4622976B2 (en) * 2006-09-25 2011-02-02 富士電機システムズ株式会社 Fixing method of solar cell module
KR101142166B1 (en) * 2010-04-19 2012-05-07 (주)에이비엠그린텍 Solar cell installing structure

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JPH01173952U (en) * 1988-05-27 1989-12-11
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