JP2970933B2 - Dry cleaning cleaning agent - Google Patents

Dry cleaning cleaning agent


Publication number
JP2970933B2 JP26300290A JP26300290A JP2970933B2 JP 2970933 B2 JP2970933 B2 JP 2970933B2 JP 26300290 A JP26300290 A JP 26300290A JP 26300290 A JP26300290 A JP 26300290A JP 2970933 B2 JP2970933 B2 JP 2970933B2
Prior art keywords
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Other versions
JPH04142398A (en
健 風間
Original Assignee
健 風間
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 健 風間 filed Critical 健 風間
Priority to JP26300290A priority Critical patent/JP2970933B2/en
Publication of JPH04142398A publication Critical patent/JPH04142398A/en
Priority claimed from US08/004,522 external-priority patent/US5634947A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of JP2970933B2 publication Critical patent/JP2970933B2/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical



    • D06L1/00Dry-cleaning or washing fibres, filaments, threads, yarns, fabrics, feathers or made-up fibrous goods
    • D06L1/02Dry-cleaning or washing fibres, filaments, threads, yarns, fabrics, feathers or made-up fibrous goods using organic solvents


【発明の詳細な説明】 (産業上の利用分野) 本発明は、ドライクリーニングに適した洗浄剤に関する。 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (FIELD OF THE INVENTION) The present invention relates to cleaning agents suitable for dry cleaning.

(従来の技術) 従来、ドライクリーニング用溶剤として用いられている1,1,1−トリクロルエタン、パークロルエチレンは地下水汚染の問題があり、またフロンはオゾン層破壊の問題があるため、代替物質の検討が急がれている。 (Prior Art) Conventionally, it has 1,1,1-trichloroethane which is used as a solvent for dry cleaning, perchlorethylene has groundwater pollution, also CFC have a problem of ozone layer destruction, alternative materials study of is urgently needed.

本発明者は、先に81種類の溶剤についてドライクリーニング適性を検討したが(繊維製品消費科学27 、8(19 The present inventor has been examined dry cleaning suitability for the previous 81 kinds of solvents (textile consumption Science 27, 8 (19
86)352〜359)、あらゆる点で適性を有するものはなかった。 86) 352-359), there was no one having the aptitude in all respects.

(発明が解決しようとする課題) ドライクリーニング用洗浄剤は、洗浄性、取扱い性、 (Solved INVENTION An object) for dry cleaning detergent, detergency, handleability,
安全性などの種々の観点から適性を有しなければならない。 It must have the aptitude from various aspects, such as safety.

すなわち、皮脂、油脂、油煙などの油溶性の汚れ; That is, sebum, oils, oil-soluble, such as soot stains;
汗、水溶性食品などの水溶性の汚れ;汚泥、ほこりなどの塵あいなどの各種の汚れに対して「溶解性」及び「分散性」を有すること、衣料から洗い落された汚れがクリーニング液から再び衣料に移行する「逆汚染性」が少ないこと、洗浄剤が衣料内及び汚れ間に侵入する表面張力が小さいことなどが洗浄性に影響する。 Sweat, water-soluble stains such as water-soluble food; sludge, have a "soluble" and "dispersible" for various stains dust Ainado such as dust, cleaning washing dropped stains from clothing solution then control goes back to the clothing because "back contamination resistance" is small, detergents and surface tension entering between clothing inside and dirt is small affect detergency. また、被洗物の乾燥が容易であり、溶剤の寿命が長く、蒸留・回収が容易であること、金属を腐食することがなく、機械に適すること、臭いが低く作業・管理が容易で、被洗物に残臭がないことが「取扱い性」に影響する。 Further, it is easy to dry the object to be washed product, solvent long lifetime, it distillation and recovery is easy, without having to corrode metals, be suitable for the machine, easily smell the working and management low, that there is no Zanshu to the washing object is to affect the "ease of handling". また、被洗物の型くずれがなく、被洗物が黄変させるなどの変質がないこと、染料を脱落せず、ボタンなどの衣料付属品を溶解しないこと、発火点・引火点が高いこと、毒性が低いことなどが「安全性」に影響する。 In addition, there is no original shape of the object to be washed product, that there is no deterioration, such as the washing object is to yellowing, without falling off the dye, that does not dissolve the clothing accessories such as buttons, there is a high ignition point, flash point, toxicity is low, it is such as to affect the "safety".

プロピレングリコールモノメチルエーテル(以下、PM Propylene glycol monomethyl ether (hereinafter, PM
という)は、従来、住居用洗浄剤(特開昭63−2040 ) Is that, conventional, residential cleaning agent (JP-A-63-2040
0)、床用洗浄剤(特開昭63−112699、168498)、インキ洗浄剤(特開平2−73899)として知られているが、 0), floor cleaners (JP 63-112699,168498), known as an ink cleaning agent (JP-A 2-73899),
ドライクリーニング用洗浄剤としては知られていない。 As the dry cleaning for the cleaning agent is not known.
本発明者はPMが上記のような諸観点からドライクリーニング用洗浄剤として適性を有することを見い出し、本発明をなした。 The present inventor has found that PM has suitability as a detergent for dry cleaning from the various viewpoints as described above, it made a present invention.

(課題を解決するための手段) 本発明は、PMを含有するドライクリーニング用洗浄剤であり、以下に述べるような各種試験からPMが画期的な長所を有することがわかる。 (SUMMARY for a) the present invention is a dry cleaning detergent containing PM, found to have a PM breakthrough advantages from various tests as described below.

試験例1(溶解性) 溶剤として、水、パークロルエチレン、1,1,1−トリクロルエタン、フロン113、PMを用い、溶質には、油溶性汚れとしてドライクリーニング工場の蒸留残渣、水溶性汚れとしてインスタントコーヒー粉末を用いた。 Test Example 1 (solubility) solvent, water, using perchlorethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, Freon 113, PM, the solute, distillation residue of dry-cleaning plant oil-soluble stains, a water-soluble stains with instant coffee powder as. 試験は、試験管中の上記溶質0.5gに上記溶剤5mlを加え、30 Test, the solvent 5ml addition to the solute 0.5g in the test tube, 30
℃で72時間静置した後の溶解静を肉眼判定した。 The dissolution static after standing 72 hours at ℃ was macroscopically determined.

第1表から、PMは油溶性と水溶性の両方を兼ね備えているので、油溶性の汚れに対して従来の溶剤と同様に良好であり、水溶性の汚れに対しても水より劣るが比較的良い溶解性を示した。 From Table 1, since the PM combines both an oil-soluble and water-soluble, is similar to the conventional solvent well for contamination of the oil-soluble, but less than water against contamination of the water-soluble comparison It showed the target good solubility. つまり従来の塩素系溶剤では水溶性の汚れに対する溶解性能を持たせるためにソープが助剤として用いられているが、PMはソープを用いなくても水溶性の汚れに対し良好な洗浄性を示した。 That is, in the conventional chlorinated solvents are used as Thorpe aid in order to provide a dissolution performance against fouling of the water-soluble but, PM exhibited good detergency with respect to water-soluble stains without using soap It was. また、PMの表面張力は27.7であり、石油(18〜19)、フロン113(1 In addition, the surface tension of the PM is 27.7, petroleum (18-19), Freon 113 (1
7.3)より大きいが、パークロルエチレン(32.3)、トリクロルエタン(25.6)と同程度である。 7.3) is greater than, perchlorethylene (32.3), which is comparable with trichloroethane (25.6).

試験例2(逆汚染性) 逆汚染性が少ない溶剤は、ドライクリーニングの仕上がりが良く、汚れを多く含む液でも洗浄でき、蒸留の回数が少なくてよいので経済性がよい。 Test Example 2 (reverse fouling) Solvent reverse contaminating small may finish dry cleaning, dirt can be cleaned with a number containing liquid, a good economical efficiency because it with a small number of distillation.

逆汚染性は、汚れ(溶質)、溶剤、衣料の種類の組合わせで定まるので、水溶性溶質として醤油(0.5ml)及びコーヒー(0.5g);分散性の溶質としてカーボンブラック(0.04g);油溶性の溶質としてギアオイルの長期使用後の廃油(2g);混合性の溶質としてクリーニングの蒸留残渣(0.04g)を用いた。 Back contamination resistance, stain (solute), the solvent, so determined by the clothing type of combination, soy sauce as a water-soluble solute (0.5 ml) and coffee (0.5 g); carbon black (0.04 g) as a dispersion of the solute; waste oil after gear oil of long-term use as a solute of the oil-soluble (2 g); using a cleaning distillation residue (0.04 g) as a mixture of solutes. 試験は、各溶質を溶解した溶剤75ml中に、2.5×2.5cmの布片を投入撹拌して5 Test, in a solvent 75ml obtained by dissolving each solute, the cloth pieces 2.5 × 2.5 cm was charged stirred 5
分間浸漬した。 Soaked minutes. 風乾燥後、各布片の反射率をUV−200で測定し、次式で逆汚染率を求めた。 After wind dried, the reflectance of each cloth was measured by UV-200, was determined inverse contamination rate by the following equation.

この結果を第2表に示す。 The results are shown in Table 2.

第2表から次のことがわかる。 The following can be deduced from the second table.

醤油:塩素系溶剤では醤油は折出してゾル状となって浮遊する。 Soy sauce: In chlorinated solvents soy sauce floats become a sol out folding. このゾルは親水性であるので、親水性表面をもつ木綿には強固に付着した。 The sol because it is hydrophilic, and firmly adhere to the cotton with a hydrophilic surface. 疎水性表面をもつウール、ポリエステルには付着しなかった。 Wool having a hydrophobic surface, the polyester did not adhere. 一方水とPMには醤油は完全に溶解するので、染着、逆汚染性を示さなかった。 On the other hand since the water and PM soy sauce completely dissolved, it showed no dyeing, the reverse contaminating.

コーヒー:塩素系溶剤とPMでは、溶質は固体微粒子となって浮遊する。 Coffee: In a chlorine-based solvent and PM, the solute floats become a solid fine particles. この粒子はウールに対してパークロルエチレンとフロン113では選択的に付着した。 The particles adhered perchlorethylene and CFC 113 in selectively against wool. トリクロルエタンとPMでは付着しなかった。 In trichloroethane and PM was not deposited. 一方水では染着性が大きかった。 On the one hand the water was the greater dyeing properties.

カーボンブラック:いずれの溶剤でも、溶解せずに分散しており、溶剤による有意な差はなかった。 Carbon black: in any solvent, is dispersed without being dissolved, there was no significant difference with a solvent.

廃油:塩素系溶剤では完全に溶解し、逆汚染がなかった。 Waste oil: completely dissolved in chlorinated solvents, there is no back contamination. 一方水とPMでは、油がゾル状になって溶液中に浮遊し、このゾルは親油性であるので、親油性表面をもつウールとポリエステルには付着した。 On the other hand the water and PM, oil suspended in the solution turned sol, the sol because it is lipophilic, adhering to the wool and polyester which have lipophilic surfaces.

蒸留残渣:水溶性、分散性、油溶性の3者の混合物であり、さらにチャージ用ソープを含むので、実際のドライクリーニングに近い条件と考えられる。 The distillation residue: water-soluble, dispersible, is a mixture of 3's oil-soluble, since further comprising a soap for charge believed to conditions close to the actual dry cleaning. 塩素系溶剤ではウール、木綿に対する逆汚染が著しく、水では良好であった。 Wool is a chlorinated solvent, significantly reverse contamination to the cotton had good water. PMでは水と塩素系溶剤との中間であった。 It was intermediate between the PM water and chlorinated solvents.

以上の結果から、PMはすべての種類の汚れと衣料に対して低い逆汚染性を示すので、仕上りの優れたドライクリーニング用洗浄剤として評価できる。 These results, PM is exhibits a low reverse contaminating against all kinds of dirt and clothing, can be evaluated as an excellent dry cleaning detergent finish.

試験例3(収縮性) ドライクリーニングの特徴は、吸水性の繊維が水洗いで膨潤して、洗濯物の型崩れや収縮するのを防止することにある。 Test Example 3 (contractility) of the dry-cleaning feature is swollen by water absorption of the fiber washing is to prevent losing shape or shrinkage of the laundry. PMで洗濯したときの衣料の収縮率を試験した。 It was tested the clothing of the contraction ratio when you wash in the PM.

鋼球10ケと溶剤100mlを入れたラウンダメーター用のカップに、綿、麻、ウールの12×12cmの布片の中心に10 A cup for round da meter containing the steel balls 10 Quai and solvent 100 ml, cotton, hemp, in the center of the piece of cloth 12 × 12cm wool 10
×10cmの糸印をつけた試料布を1枚づつを投入し、常温で45分間浸漬後、平干して乾燥後、糸印間の長さを測定した。 × Sample cloth with a thread mark of 10cm was charged one by one, after immersion for 45 minutes at room temperature, after drying to dry flat, length was measured between the thread marks. その結果を第3表に示す。 The results are shown in Table 3.

第3表からわかるように、ヨコ糸が2%以内収縮したが、注目すべきことは水を50%添加しても大きく収縮することがなかった。 As can be seen from Table 3, have been contracted weft yarn is within 2%, it should be noted that had never shrinks greater by the addition of water 50%. これはPMの抱水性のよさによるものである。 This is due to the water-holding property of the goodness of PM. 1,1,1−トリクロルエタン、パークロルエチレンでは被洗物の水分が溶剤中に移行すると、この水分は溶剤に抱水されないために被洗物の収縮の原因となるが、PMはこのような場合でも収縮を起こさないことを第3表が示している。 1,1,1-trichloroethane, in perchlorethylene the moisture of the washing object moves in the solvent, this water causes shrinkage of Hiarai product to not hydrate in a solvent, PM is thus and table 3 indicates that no cause shrinkage even when.

試験例4(燃焼性) PMの引火点は36〜38℃であり、燃焼のし易さは石油用とほぼ等しい。 Test Example 4 (Flammability) flash point of PM is 36 to 38 ° C., combustion easiness is substantially equal to petroleum for. しかし水を50%添加したものの引火点は However flash point despite the addition of water 50%
62〜64℃であり、水と混合することにより引火点の上昇をはかることができる。 It is 62 to 64 ° C., can be achieved an increase in the flash point by mixing with water.

試験例5(乾燥のし易さ) ドライクリーニング工程で被洗物の乾燥に時間を要すると、作業効率が著しく低下する。 If Test Example 5 required (dry easiness) time to dry in the washing was a dry cleaning process, the working efficiency is remarkably lowered. 試験は綿布5×5cm The test cotton cloth 5 × 5cm
を4枚重ね、各溶剤を0.125g滴下し、溶剤の蒸発速度を測定した。 Piled four and each solvent was 0.125g dropped, it was measured the rate of evaporation of the solvent. パークロルエチレンを1としたときの各溶剤の蒸発速度を比較した結果を第4表に示す。 The results of comparing the rate of evaporation of the solvent when the perchlorethylene and 1 are shown in Table 4.

PMは蒸発速度は遅いが、綿布などの被洗物を伴うと差は縮小する。 PM evaporation rate is slow, but the difference when accompanied by the washing object such as cotton cloth is reduced. なお、溶剤のみの場合に蒸発速度が遅いのは、溶剤の貯蔵時の自然損失が少なく望ましい。 Incidentally, the evaporation rate is slow when the solvent only, natural loss during storage of the solvent less desirable.

試験例5(腐食性) 鉄、アルミニウム、ステンレスのそれぞれ1×2cmの試片を、溶剤中に常温で1週間浸漬した後、取り出して空気中に3ケ月放置して酸化の度合を判定した。 Test Example 5 (corrosive) steel, aluminum, a specimen of each 1 × 2 cm stainless steel was dipped for 1 week at room temperature in a solvent, to determine the degree of three months was allowed to oxidize in air removed. PMではいずれの試片も変化が見られなかった。 In the PM any of the specimen even change was observed.

(発明の効果) 本発明のPMはドライクリーニング用洗浄剤として次のような長所を有する。 PM of the present invention (the effect of the invention) has the following advantages as a cleaning agent for dry cleaning.

油溶性と水溶性の両方の汚れの洗浄に有効である。 It is effective for cleaning of both oil-soluble and water-soluble stains.

逆汚染性が少ない。 Reverse contamination is small.

ソープが不要である。 Soap is not required.

溶剤の寿命が長い。 The life of the solvent is long.

クリーニング機械などの腐食性がない。 There is no corrosive, such as cleaning machine.

水との混合が可能である。 It is possible to mix with water.

Claims (1)

    (57)【特許請求の範囲】 (57) [the claims]
  1. 【請求項1】水を25〜50%含むプロピレングリコールモノメチルエーテルからなり、漂白剤を含まないドライクリーニング用洗浄剤。 1. A water consists of propylene glycol monomethyl ether containing 25-50%, detergent for dry cleaning which does not contain bleach.
JP26300290A 1990-10-02 1990-10-02 Dry cleaning cleaning agent Expired - Fee Related JP2970933B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP26300290A JP2970933B2 (en) 1990-10-02 1990-10-02 Dry cleaning cleaning agent

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP26300290A JP2970933B2 (en) 1990-10-02 1990-10-02 Dry cleaning cleaning agent
ES91116518T ES2097173T3 (en) 1990-10-02 1991-09-27 Uses of propylene glycol monomethyl ether for dry cleaning.
DE1991623683 DE69123683D1 (en) 1990-10-02 1991-09-27 Use of propylene glycol monomethyl ether for dry cleaning
DE1991623683 DE69123683T2 (en) 1990-10-02 1991-09-27 Use of propylene glycol monomethyl ether for dry cleaning
EP19910116518 EP0479146B1 (en) 1990-10-02 1991-09-27 Use of propylene glycol monomethyl ether for dry cleaning
US08/004,522 US5634947A (en) 1990-10-02 1993-01-14 Method for cleaning clothes with propylene glycol monomethyl ether

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
JPH04142398A JPH04142398A (en) 1992-05-15
JP2970933B2 true JP2970933B2 (en) 1999-11-02



Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP26300290A Expired - Fee Related JP2970933B2 (en) 1990-10-02 1990-10-02 Dry cleaning cleaning agent

Country Status (4)

Country Link
EP (1) EP0479146B1 (en)
JP (1) JP2970933B2 (en)
DE (2) DE69123683T2 (en)
ES (1) ES2097173T3 (en)

Families Citing this family (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6036727A (en) * 1995-06-05 2000-03-14 Creative Products Resource, Inc. Anhydrous dry-cleaning compositions containing polysulfonic acid, and dry-cleaning kits for delicate fabrics
US5712237A (en) * 1995-11-27 1998-01-27 Stevens; Edwin B. Composition for cleaning textiles
US7008458B2 (en) 1997-04-04 2006-03-07 Hayday William A Biodegradable ether dry cleaning solvent
US5888250A (en) * 1997-04-04 1999-03-30 Rynex Holdings Ltd. Biodegradable dry cleaning solvent
US6273919B1 (en) 1997-04-04 2001-08-14 Rynex Holdings Ltd. Biodegradable ether dry cleaning solvent
US6855172B2 (en) 1998-10-13 2005-02-15 Dry, Inc. Dry-cleaning article, composition and methods
AU3713800A (en) 1999-02-26 2000-09-14 Rynex Holdings, Ltd. Solvent purifying system
AU4026800A (en) * 1999-04-16 2000-11-02 Dow Chemical Company, The Method and composition for reduced water damage laundry care
US6670317B2 (en) 2000-06-05 2003-12-30 Procter & Gamble Company Fabric care compositions and systems for delivering clean, fresh scent in a lipophilic fluid treatment process
US6691536B2 (en) 2000-06-05 2004-02-17 The Procter & Gamble Company Washing apparatus
US6840069B2 (en) 2000-06-05 2005-01-11 Procter & Gamble Company Systems for controlling a drying cycle in a drying apparatus
US6706677B2 (en) 2000-06-05 2004-03-16 Procter & Gamble Company Bleaching in conjunction with a lipophilic fluid cleaning regimen
US6840963B2 (en) 2000-06-05 2005-01-11 Procter & Gamble Home laundry method
US6855173B2 (en) 2000-06-05 2005-02-15 Procter & Gamble Company Use of absorbent materials to separate water from lipophilic fluid
US6828292B2 (en) 2000-06-05 2004-12-07 Procter & Gamble Company Domestic fabric article refreshment in integrated cleaning and treatment processes
US6673764B2 (en) 2000-06-05 2004-01-06 The Procter & Gamble Company Visual properties for a wash process using a lipophilic fluid based composition containing a colorant
US6939837B2 (en) 2000-06-05 2005-09-06 Procter & Gamble Company Non-immersive method for treating or cleaning fabrics using a siloxane lipophilic fluid
US6930079B2 (en) 2000-06-05 2005-08-16 Procter & Gamble Company Process for treating a lipophilic fluid
US6706076B2 (en) 2000-06-05 2004-03-16 Procter & Gamble Company Process for separating lipophilic fluid containing emulsions with electric coalescence
US6564591B2 (en) 2000-07-21 2003-05-20 Procter & Gamble Company Methods and apparatus for particulate removal from fabrics
US7345016B2 (en) 2003-06-27 2008-03-18 The Procter & Gamble Company Photo bleach lipophilic fluid cleaning compositions

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR1544834A (en) * 1967-09-29 1968-11-08 Geigy Ag J R cleaning compositions
DE2004232C3 (en) * 1970-01-30 1978-10-05 Henkel Kgaa, 4000 Duesseldorf
JPH0689281B2 (en) * 1985-04-02 1994-11-09 三愛石油株式会社 Printing machine ink cleaning agent
JPS62201977A (en) * 1986-02-28 1987-09-05 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Print erasing liquid

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JPH04142398A (en) 1992-05-15
DE69123683D1 (en) 1997-01-30
EP0479146A2 (en) 1992-04-08
EP0479146B1 (en) 1996-12-18
ES2097173T3 (en) 1997-04-01
EP0479146A3 (en) 1992-11-19
DE69123683T2 (en) 1997-05-28

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN100540645C (en) Cleaning compositions containing dichloroethylene and six carbon alkoxy substituted perfluoro compounds
US6098430A (en) Cleaning apparatus
JP5881619B2 (en) Improved washing machine and a washing method
EP0958068B1 (en) Novel cleaning process using carbon dioxide as a solvent and employing molecularly engineered surfactants
US6402857B2 (en) Solvent mixture for use in a vapor degreaser and method of cleaning an article in a vapor degreaser utilizing said solvent
US6770285B2 (en) Hydrophobic oil absorbing polymers and process
US3956162A (en) Thixotropic cleaning composition containing particulate resins and fumed silica
EP1141468B1 (en) Dry cleaning compositions containing hydrofluoroether
US4336024A (en) Process for cleaning clothes at home
US20060059632A1 (en) System and method for improved solvent recovery in a dry cleaning device
US5112358A (en) Method of cleaning heavily soiled textiles
DE60108383T2 (en) Budgetary process for washing laundry
US3509061A (en) Method and compositions for displacing organic liquids from solid surfaces
WO1994001227A1 (en) Liquid/supercritical cleaning with decreased polymer damage
KR900003468B1 (en) Paint stripper compositions
DE69034057T2 (en) Detergent compositions
US2806001A (en) Polyethyleneglycols as laundering aids
GB2033408A (en) Water and oil repellant polymer having a high resistance to laundering and dry cleaning
JP2003522285A (en) Method of removing hydrophobic soil from microemulsion cleaning compositions and articles
Adam Detergent action and its relation to wetting and emulsification
CN1461366A (en) Textile substrate having durable water repellency and soil release and method for producing same
JP3210336B2 (en) Fluorochemical water and oil repellency treatment composition
US3872021A (en) Cleaning composition
JPH08206393A (en) Dry-cleaning of garments using gas-jet agitation and apparatus therefor
GB2086410A (en) Fabric washing compositions

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
R250 Receipt of annual fees


R250 Receipt of annual fees


R250 Receipt of annual fees


FPAY Renewal fee payment (prs date is renewal date of database)

Year of fee payment: 9

Free format text: PAYMENT UNTIL: 20080827

FPAY Renewal fee payment (prs date is renewal date of database)

Year of fee payment: 10

Free format text: PAYMENT UNTIL: 20090827

FPAY Renewal fee payment (prs date is renewal date of database)

Free format text: PAYMENT UNTIL: 20090827

Year of fee payment: 10

FPAY Renewal fee payment (prs date is renewal date of database)

Year of fee payment: 11

Free format text: PAYMENT UNTIL: 20100827

LAPS Cancellation because of no payment of annual fees