JP2012166647A - Image processing apparatus, and tractor - Google Patents

Image processing apparatus, and tractor Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2012166647A
JP2012166647A JP2011028202A JP2011028202A JP2012166647A JP 2012166647 A JP2012166647 A JP 2012166647A JP 2011028202 A JP2011028202 A JP 2011028202A JP 2011028202 A JP2011028202 A JP 2011028202A JP 2012166647 A JP2012166647 A JP 2012166647A
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Prior art keywords
trailer
means
image
index
superimposing
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Withdrawn
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JP2011028202A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Satoshi Asano
敏 浅野
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Panasonic Corp
パナソニック株式会社
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Priority to JP2011028202A priority Critical patent/JP2012166647A/en
Publication of JP2012166647A publication Critical patent/JP2012166647A/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an image processing apparatus, along with a tractor, capable of urging a driver to drive a trailer safely, while catching the tendency of pendulum motion of the trailer, even without mounting a system to automatically control the trailer on a vehicle body.SOLUTION: The image processing apparatus includes: an image acquisition means 4 for acquiring a captured image of the backward of the tractor 130 comprising the trailer 120 coupled with the tractor 130; and a superposing means 7 for superposing an indicator to guide the trailer 120 on the captured image acquired by the image acquisition means 4, and for output of the superposed image to a display means 3, wherein the superposing means 7 superposes a first indicator 141a, b indicating the rolling of the trailer 120 on a second indicator 142 indicating a continuation state of the rolling of the trailer 120.

Description

  The present invention relates to an apparatus for detecting a pendulum motion generated in a trailer when the trailer is towed by a tractor and transmitting a swing state of the pendulum to a driver.

  It is known that when the tractor travels while pulling the trailer, a periodic pendulum motion occurs in the trailer, which adversely affects the travel of the tractor. When the pendulum motion gradually reaches the limit vibration, dangerous phenomena such as a meandering state and a jackknife phenomenon occur in the tractor, and further, there is a problem that control becomes impossible. Conventionally, in order to prevent this problem, by installing a roll detection sensor on the tractor and setting it so that the brake can be controlled for each wheel, it is automatically detected when a roll over a certain threshold occurs. A system that stabilizes the vehicle body by controlling the brake is known (see, for example, Patent Document 1 to Patent Document 7). In addition, a system is known in which when a limit vibration value is set for the trailer roll and the limit vibration is exceeded, a warning is given to the driver and the brake system is monitored to check whether proper deceleration is being performed ( For example, see Patent Document 8).

JP-A-4-169366 Special table 2003-503276 gazette JP 2005-502526 A JP-T-2006-505442 JP 2006-21769 A JP 2009-12488 A JP 2010-30591 A Special table 2008-502527

  However, depending on the traveling state of the tractor that is pulling the trailer, a dangerous phenomenon such as a jackknife phenomenon may occur before the pendulum motion of the trailer reaches the limit vibration. In addition, the existing system is premised on controlling up to the brake system, which requires additional mounting of the control system to the vehicle body, which causes problems of mounting effort and system complexity. In particular, depending on the type of trailer, it may not be possible to mount and even use an existing system.

  The present invention provides an image processing apparatus and a tractor that can prompt a driver to drive safely by capturing the tendency of the pendulum movement of the trailer even if a system for automatically controlling the trailer is not mounted on the vehicle body. The purpose is to provide.

  In order to achieve the above object, the present invention is characterized in that the superimposing means superimposes a first index indicating the trailer roll and a second index indicating the continuation state of the trailer roll.

According to the present invention, even if a system for automatically controlling the trailer is not mounted on the vehicle body, the driver can promote safe driving that captures the tendency of the pendulum movement of the trailer. .

1 is a block diagram showing a configuration of an image processing apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. The figure explaining the marker pattern which the image recognition means which is the principal part of FIG. 1 recognizes with an image The flowchart figure explaining the process by the image processing apparatus of the same FIG. The figure explaining the roll state of the trailer which the calculation means which is the principal part of FIG. 1 calculates with an image FIG. 3 is a flowchart for explaining the image recognition processing in FIG. The figure which demonstrated the superimposition image by the superimposition means which is the principal part of the same FIG. 6 is a diagram for explaining the temporal change in the image of FIG.

  Hereinafter, an image processing apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.

  FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a configuration of an image processing apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.

  As shown in FIG. 1, the image processing apparatus 1 is configured by an ECU (Electric Control Unit) and is mounted in a tractor that is the host vehicle. The image processing apparatus 1 is connected to the rear imaging means 2 and the display means 3. The image processing apparatus 1 performs image processing on information indicating the tendency of the pendulum movement of the trailer based on an input signal from the rear imaging unit 2, and outputs the processed image to the display unit 3.

  The rear imaging means 2 is constituted by a wide angle CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera, for example, and is connected to the image processing apparatus 1. The rear imaging means 2 is installed at the rear part of the vehicle body of the tractor. Auxiliary illumination and a brightness adjusting device may be provided for the night at the rear of the vehicle body in the vicinity of the rear imaging means 2. The rear imaging means 2 images the rear including a trailer connected to a pin at the rear of the vehicle body. Then, the rear imaging means 2 outputs this captured image to the image processing device 1.

  The display means 3 is composed of a display device such as a display, and is provided inside the vehicle body that is visible to the driver. The display means 3 is preferably composed of a monitor of a navigation device provided in the center console. The display unit 3 is connected to the image processing apparatus 1. The display means 3 displays the image output from the image processing apparatus 1 to show the driver the tendency of the pendulum movement of the trailer.

  Next, the internal configuration of the image processing apparatus 1 will be described in detail.

  The image processing apparatus 1 includes an image acquisition unit 4, a control unit 5, a first storage unit 6, a superimposing unit 7, and a display output unit 8.

  The image acquisition means 4 is constituted by a connector, for example. The image acquisition means 4 may further include an image signal distributor. The image acquisition unit 4 is connected to the rear imaging unit 2, the control unit 5, and the superimposing unit 7. The image picked up by the rear image pickup means 2 is output to the control means 5 and the superimposing means 7 as they are. Note that the image acquisition unit 4 may be any hardware or software configuration other than the connector as long as it captures the captured image of the rear imaging unit 2 in the ECU.

The control means 5 is connected to the image acquisition means 4 and the first storage means 6. The control unit 5 extracts information that needs to be stored as past information from the image acquired from the image acquisition unit 4, performs calculation as necessary, and outputs the information to the first storage unit 6. For example, the control means 5 outputs data indicating the continuation state of the trailer roll and time-series data of the trailer roll to the first storage means 6.

  The first storage means 6 is composed of a memory element. The first storage unit 6 is connected to the control unit 5 and the superimposing unit 7. The first storage means 6 stores the data input from the control means 5 and outputs data for a predetermined period from the present to the superposition means 7. For example, the first storage unit 6 outputs data indicating the continuation state of the trailer roll and time series data of the trailer roll to the superimposing unit 7.

  The superimposing means 7 includes a CPU, a memory element, a nonvolatile memory element, and an image signal generation circuit. The superimposing unit 7 is connected to the image obtaining unit 4, the first storage unit 6, and the display output unit 8. The superimposing unit 7 superimposes an index for guiding the trailer, and outputs the superimposed image to the display unit 3 via the display output unit 8. For example, the superimposing unit 7 superimposes the first index indicating the roll of the trailer stored in its own nonvolatile memory element on the surrounding captured image behind the host vehicle acquired from the image acquiring unit 4. Further, the superimposing means 7 uses a second index indicating the continuation state of the trailer roll based on the data input from the first storage means 6 and a third index indicating the trailer roll condition in time series. Further superimpose.

  The display output means 8 is composed of a connector. The display output unit 8 is connected to the superimposing unit 7 and the display unit 3. The superimposed image superimposed by the superimposing means 7 is output to the display means 3. Note that the display output means 8 may be any hardware or software configuration other than the connector as long as the display output means 8 outputs the superimposed image from the superimposing means 7 to the display means 3 from within the ECU.

  Next, the internal configuration of the control means 5 will be described in detail.

  The control unit 5 includes a second storage unit 9, an image recognition unit 10, and a calculation unit 11.

  The second storage means 9 is composed of a nonvolatile memory element. The second storage means 9 is connected to the image recognition means 10. The second storage unit 9 stores the pattern recognition data of the image recognition unit 10 and outputs the pattern recognition data to the image recognition unit 10 in response to a request from the image recognition unit 10.

  The image recognition means 10 includes a CPU (Central Processing Unit), a memory element, and a nonvolatile memory element. The image recognition unit 10 is connected to the image acquisition unit 4, the second storage unit 9, and the calculation unit 11. The image recognition means 10 performs pattern matching of the captured image acquired from the image acquisition means 4 based on the pattern recognition data read from the second storage means 9, recognizes the trailer and the marker provided on the trailer, This recognition result is output to the calculation means 11. For example, the image recognition unit 10 outputs the coordinate value of the recognized trailer marker or the coordinate value of the center of the trailer to the calculation unit 11.

  Here, an example of the marker attached to the trailer will be described. FIG. 6 is a diagram for explaining the marker pattern recognized by the image recognition means 10 as an image. The image shown in FIG. 6 is input to the image recognition unit 10 from the image acquisition unit 4. This image includes a trailer 120, a protrusion 121 protruding from the trailer 120 in the tractor direction, and a coupler 122 connected to the tractor at the tip of the protrusion 121. The image recognition means 10 recognizes the trailer marker 123 attached to the upper surface of the protrusion 121 and the coupler marker 124 attached to the upper surface of the tip of the coupler 122.

The calculation means 11 includes a CPU, a memory element, and a nonvolatile memory element. The calculation means 11 is connected to the image recognition means 10 and the first storage means 6. Based on the recognition result input from the image recognition means 10, the calculation means 11 outputs a third index indicating the trailer roll state in time series to the first storage means 6. For example, the calculating means 11 converts these into graph-like time-series data based on the coordinate values of the trailer marker and the center of the trailer, and the first storage means 6 together with the calculated maximum amplitude value data. Output to.

  Next, processing by the image processing apparatus 1 will be described in detail.

  FIG. 3 is a flowchart for explaining processing by the image processing apparatus.

  First, when the engine is started, the processing is started, and the image acquisition means 4 captures an image from the rear imaging means 2 as shown in step S10.

  Next, as shown in step S11, the image recognition means 10 performs image recognition processing based on the image captured in step S10. For example, the image recognition unit 10 recognizes and extracts the trailer marker 123 and the coupler marker 124 shown in FIG. 2 from the image captured in step S10.

  Next, as shown in step S12, the image recognition means 10 recognizes the trailer in the image captured in step S10 based on the trailer marker 123 and the coupler marker 124 recognized in step S11. If YES in step S12, as shown in step S13, the calculation unit 11 calculates the trailer roll state based on the positions of the trailer marker 123 and the coupler marker 124 recognized in step S11. Specifically, the calculation unit 11 calculates the angle between the tractor and the trailer.

  Here, the trailer roll state calculated by the calculation means 11 will be described. FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating the trailer roll state calculated by the calculation unit 11 as an image. As shown in FIG. 4, a coupler 122 is connected to a hitch 131 provided at the rear of the vehicle body of a tractor 130 that is the host vehicle. At this time, the trailer 120 rolls to the right by the angle θ from the position of the trailer 126 in a state where it does not roll (to the left in the paper of FIG. 4). That is, the center line 132 of the trailer 120 is deviated by an angle θ from the center line 133 of the trailer 126 that is not rolled. The calculation unit 11 can calculate the angle θ between the center line 132 and the center line 133 based on the positions of the trailer marker 123 and the coupler marker 124 input from the image recognition unit 10.

  Next, as shown in step S14, the first storage means 6 stores the trailer roll state calculated in step S13 until the engine is stopped or overwritten by data update.

  Next, as shown in step S <b> 15, the superimposing unit 7 generates an index image indicating these states based on the continuation state of the trailer roll and the time series state of the roll stored in the first storage unit 6. Superimposed on the captured image acquired from the image acquisition means 4. Then, the display unit 3 displays this superimposed image. When the calculation unit 11 calculates that the lateral roll of the trailer has exceeded a predetermined threshold at a predetermined number of times or at a predetermined cycle within a predetermined time, the superimposing unit 7 further superimposes a warning display. . This warning display superimposing command may be issued from the control means 5 to the superimposing means 7. If step S15 is completed or if NO in step S12, step S10 is repeated.

  Next, the image recognition process in step S11 of FIG. 3 will be described in detail. FIG. 5 is a flowchart for explaining the image recognition processing.

  First, as shown in step S20, the image recognition means 10 performs an edge enhancement process for the image captured in step S10.

  Next, as shown in step S <b> 21, the image recognition unit 10 performs pattern recognition of the coupler marker 124 on the lower central area of the image captured in step S <b> 10.

  Next, as shown in step S22, the image recognition means 10 performs pattern recognition of the trailer marker 123 on the region above the coupler marker 124 recognized in step S21 in the image captured in step S10. In this pattern recognition, the position of the trailer marker 123 is shifted to the left and right from the center of the image captured in step S10 as the trailer swings left and right.

  Next, as shown in step S23, the image recognition means 10 recognizes the center coordinates of the trailer 120 and the coupler 122 based on the positions of the trailer marker 123 and the coupler marker 124 in the image.

  Next, an example of display data output from the image processing apparatus 1 to the display unit 3 will be described in detail. FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating the superimposed image by the superimposing means 7 as an image. The trailer 120 is connected to the tractor 130 by connecting the hitch 124 and the coupler 122. The rear imaging means 2 is attached to the rear part of the tractor 130.

  The screen display 140 means a display example of the display means 3 and also means an example in which the superimposed image data of the superimposing means 7 is represented by an image. A trailer 120 is displayed at the top of the screen display 140. In the upper part of the screen display 140, a first indicator 141a positioned outside the right end 120a in the vehicle width direction of the trailer 120 (leftward in the plane of FIG. 6) and a left end 120b in the vehicle width direction of the trailer 120 (in the plane of FIG. 6). Is superimposed on the first index 141b located outside the right direction. The first indicators 141a and 141b are indicators that indicate the roll of the trailer 120. The position at which the first indicators 141a and 141b are superimposed is preferably determined according to the vehicle width distance of the trailer 120 recognized by the image recognition means 10, but may be a predetermined fixed position. As shown in FIG. 6, the first indicators 141a and 141b are preferably configured by straight lines parallel to the end of the trailer 120, but may be marks having other shapes.

  The driver can recognize from the first indicators 141a and 141b that the trailer 120 has a risk of pendulum movement and needs to perform safe driving. That is, since the driver intuitively knows that there is a risk of pendulum movement when the trailer 120 is located outside the first indicators 141a and 141b, the trailer 120 is within the range of the first indicators 141a and 141b. You can drive to keep

  A second indicator 142 indicating the continuation state of the roll of the trailer 120 is superimposed on the lower part of the screen display 140. In addition, at the bottom of the screen display 140, a third index 143 indicating the rolling state of the trailer 120 in time series, a center line 144 indicating the zero angle of the rolling of the trailer 120, and the rolling of the trailer 120 in the danger area. The first and second dangerous area indicators 145 and 146 indicating that they have been reached are superimposed. As shown in FIG. 6, the third index 143 means a graph showing a trailer's roll state in a time series in the past for a certain period from the present.

  Here, the vertical direction at the bottom of the screen display 140 indicates the degree of roll of the trailer 120. On the other hand, the horizontal direction at the bottom of the screen display 140 shows the time axis. The time axis shown in the left-right direction at the bottom of the screen display 140 is set so that the right end of the page in FIG. 6 is current and becomes the past as it goes to the left.

  When the trailer 120 moves to the first index 141a side, the third index 143 moves in the upward direction in FIG. 6, and when the trailer 120 moves to the first index 141b side, the third index 143 is changed to FIG. Move down the page. When the roll of the trailer 120 is zero, the third indicator 143 is located at the center line 144. When the roll of the trailer 120 reaches the first index 141a, the third index 143 reaches the boundary line 145a of the first dangerous area index 145. When the roll of the trailer 120 reaches the first index 141b, the third index 143 reaches the boundary line 146a of the second dangerous area index 146. Then, when the third index 143 reaches the first dangerous area index 145 or the second dangerous area index 146 due to the roll of the trailer 120, the superimposing means 7 causes the trailer 120 to exceed the first indices 141a and 141b. The fourth indices 147a to 147e indicating that the roll has occurred are further superimposed.

  The superimposing means 7 superimposes the second index from the time when the first index 141a, 141b is first reached to the range when it is finally reached. For example, the second index 142 is superimposed on the lower part of the screen display 140 in a range (time t) from when the fourth index 147a is first superimposed until when the fourth index 147e is finally superimposed. The superimposing means 7 superimposes the second index 142 from the time when the first index 141a, 141b is first reached, and finishes superimposing the second index when a predetermined time has elapsed since the last arrival. May be.

  Note that the superimposing means 7 may superimpose the colors of the first and second dangerous area indicators 145 and 146 in distinction from the colors of the other areas below the screen display 140. This makes it easier for the driver to grasp the meaning of the rolling limit of the trailer 120 in the first and second dangerous area indicators 145 and 146.

  The driver can intuitively know that the trailer 120 continues to roll and the duration of the duration by using the second index 142. Therefore, the driver can intuitively understand the degree of danger of the pendulum movement in the trailer 120, and can recognize the degree of necessity of the safe driving operation.

  Next, a change in the screen display 140 according to the operation of the trailer 120 will be described. FIG. 7 is a diagram for explaining temporal changes in the image of FIG. As shown in FIG. 7, the tractor 130 is traveling in the downward direction of the paper drawing the trailer 120.

  When the trailer 120 begins to gradually swing and rolls more than a predetermined angle in the left direction on the paper, the superimposing means 7 displays the first index 141a, the second index 142, the third index 143, and the fourth index on the screen display 140a. 147a is superimposed. Similarly, when the trailer 120 rolls again by a predetermined angle or more in the left direction on the paper surface, the superimposing unit 7 superimposes the fourth index 147b on the screen display 140a. Further, the display screen of the display means 3 is switched from the display of other functions such as navigation to the screen display 140a by the command of the control means 5.

  Eventually, when the trailer 120 rolls over a predetermined angle to the right in the drawing, the superimposing unit 7 superimposes the first index 141b and the fourth index 147c on the screen display 140b. When the trailer 120 repeats rolling over a predetermined angle, the superimposing means 7 continues superimposing the second index 142. When the trailer 120 does not continue to roll over a predetermined angle, the display of the display unit 3 may be switched to the display of another function originally by the command of the control unit 5.

  As described above, according to the present invention, even if a system for automatically controlling the trailer is not mounted on the vehicle body, the driver can promote safe driving that captures the tendency of the pendulum movement of the trailer. An image processing apparatus and a tractor that can be provided can be provided.

  INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY The present invention can confirm the pendulum motion state of the trailer during towing operation of the trailer without looking back toward the rear of the vehicle, and is useful for simultaneously confirming the past state and the current state.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Image processing apparatus 2 Back imaging means 3 Display means 4 Image acquisition means 7 Superimposition means 10 Image recognition means 11 Calculation means

Claims (9)

  1. An image acquisition means for acquiring a captured image behind the tractor including a trailer coupled to the tractor;
    Superimposing means for superimposing an indicator for guiding the trailer on the captured image acquired by the image acquisition means, and outputting the superimposed image to the display means,
    The superimposing means superimposes a first index indicating the trailer roll and a second index indicating the trailer roll continuation state.
  2.   2. The superimposing unit superimposes the first index as a fixed index on a position outside the left and right vehicle width ends of the trailer when the trailer is facing the tractor. An image processing apparatus according to 1.
  3. Recognizing means for recognizing the roll state of the trailer from the captured image obtained by the image obtaining means;
    The image processing apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the superimposing unit superimposes the second index based on a recognition result of the recognizing unit.
  4.   The image processing apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the superimposing unit starts superimposing the second index when the trailer reaches the first index.
  5.   The image processing apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the superimposing unit ends the superimposition of the second index when the trailer does not reach the first index for a predetermined time.
  6.   6. The superimposing unit further superimposes a third index indicating the roll state of the trailer in time series based on the recognition result of the recognizing unit. The image processing apparatus described.
  7. A storage means for storing a recognition result of the recognition means;
    The third indicator is composed of a graph in which the trailer roll state is a time series showing the trailer roll state in the past for a certain period from the present based on the recognition result stored in the storage means. The image processing apparatus according to claim 6.
  8. Imaging means for imaging a trailer connected to a tractor and inputting the captured image to the image acquisition means;
    The image processing apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising a display unit that displays a superimposed image superimposed by the superimposing unit.
  9. An imaging means attached to the rear part of the vehicle body for imaging the rear including a trailer connected to a pin at the rear of the vehicle body;
    A superimposing unit that is provided in a vehicle and superimposes an index for guiding the trailer on a captured image of the imaging unit;
    Provided in a vehicle visible from the driver's seat, and displaying means for displaying a superimposed image superimposed by the superimposing means,
    The superimposing means superimposes a first index indicating a roll of the trailer and a second index indicating a continuation state of the roll of the trailer.
JP2011028202A 2011-02-14 2011-02-14 Image processing apparatus, and tractor Withdrawn JP2012166647A (en)

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