JP2011199355A - Satellite-mounted repeater - Google Patents

Satellite-mounted repeater Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2011199355A
JP2011199355A JP2010060733A JP2010060733A JP2011199355A JP 2011199355 A JP2011199355 A JP 2011199355A JP 2010060733 A JP2010060733 A JP 2010060733A JP 2010060733 A JP2010060733 A JP 2010060733A JP 2011199355 A JP2011199355 A JP 2011199355A
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frequency
signal
combiner
channelizer
repeater
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Terumi Sunaga
輝巳 須永
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Mitsubishi Electric Corp
三菱電機株式会社
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To configure a repeater for a satellite-mounted repeater that performs frequency rearrangement of communication signals transmitted from the ground, when multicast transmission is performed by arbitrarily connecting a channelizer and a combiner by a switch matrix. There was a problem that the scale of the circuit increased.
Since the lines on which multicast transmission is performed are limited, the circuit scale of the switch matrix of the repeater can be reduced by providing a dedicated switch matrix for multicast transmission dedicated to these lines.
[Selection] Figure 3

Description

  The present invention relates to a satellite-mounted repeater mounted on an artificial satellite (hereinafter referred to as satellite).

  A communication satellite receives a communication signal from an earth station installed on the ground, separates the spectrum of the communication signal from the received signal by a filter, converts the frequency of each separated spectrum, and performs frequency-converted communication. Send the signal to the terminal installed on the ground. Similarly, a communication satellite receives a communication signal from a terminal installed on the ground, separates the communication signal from the received signal by a filter, converts its frequency, and installs the frequency-converted communication signal on the ground. Send to earth station. Generally, a device that separates a communication signal from a received signal and performs frequency conversion is called a repeater. Conventionally, this repeater has been configured by an analog circuit such as an analog filter or a mixer, but in response to a request for higher functionality of the repeater, a part of these filters and frequency conversion processing functions are relayed by digital signal processing. A container is desired (see, for example, Patent Document 1).

JP-T-2006-516867

  FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing a partial configuration of a repeater configured by a digital circuit described in Patent Document 1. In FIG. In the following, an example in which an uplink signal from an earth station is received, the signal is transmitted as a downlink signal using a repeater mounted on a satellite, and relayed to a ground terminal is taken as an example. A configuration example and an operation example of the satellite payload will be described.

  The repeater shown in FIG. 5 is an example having three multi-port DSP (Digital Signal Processor) slices 112 (112A-112C). A repeater 213 mounted on a conventional satellite inputs a signal from a ground station constituting a feeder link (satellite-terrestrial communication line) to an input port 101 via an analog circuit such as an antenna or a frequency converter. Is done. In an actual satellite, the number of multi-port DSP (Digital Signal Processor) slices 112 is an arbitrary number.

  In the figure, an AD converter 102 (102A-102C) converts a received analog signal of the input port 101 into a digital signal. Channelizers 103 (103A-103C) have a filter bank function that divides a digital signal that is an output of AD converter 102 into a plurality of frequencies. The digital switching mechanism 104 (104A-104C) is a switch matrix for connecting a signal divided into a plurality of frequencies by the channelizer 103 to an arbitrary digital combiner 105 (105A-105C). Here, in order to connect (routing) the output of the channelizer 103 to the combiner 105 between a plurality of multiport DSP slices 112, the repeater has an interconnect line 110 and a return path 111 which are connection wirings (buses) between the slices. . By having the digital switching mechanism 104, the interconnection line 110, and the return path 111, the repeater can connect the output of any channelizer 103A-103C to any combiner 105A-105C. The combiner 105 rearranges the signal input from the digital switching mechanism 104 on the frequency axis. The communication signal rearranged on the frequency axis is converted into an analog signal by the DA converter 106. An analog signal that is an output of the DA converter 106 is output to a frequency converter, an amplifier, an antenna, and the like via an output port 107 (107A-107C) and transmitted to a terminal on the ground.

  FIG. 6 is a diagram showing a configuration example of a satellite payload using the repeater shown in FIG. 5, and the operation of the satellite payload will be described below with reference to FIG. 6, reference numeral 102 in FIG. 5 corresponds to reference numeral 203 in FIG. 6, reference numeral 103 in FIG. 5 corresponds to reference numeral 204 in FIG. 6, and reference numerals 104, 110, and 111 in FIG. Equivalent to. Further, reference numeral 105 in FIG. 5 corresponds to reference numeral 208 in FIG. 6, and reference numeral 106 in FIG. 5 corresponds to reference numeral 209 in FIG.

  The uplink signal obtained by multiplexing the signals of a plurality of channels on the frequency axis is received by the antenna 201 and then frequency-converted (down-converted) by the frequency converter 202 into a frequency band that can be processed by the repeater 213. The The down-converted signal is input to the repeater 213. Here, any number of antennas 201 and frequency converters 202 are connected to the repeater 213.

  FIG. 6 shows an example in which three antennas 201 and a frequency converter 202 are connected. In the repeater 213, the received signal is sampled and quantized by the AD converter 203 (203A-203C) to obtain a digital signal. This digitized signal is divided into arbitrary frequencies (subbands) in units of channels by a channelizer. A bold line indicated by reference numeral 205 in FIG. 6 schematically shows a state where the frequency is divided. The signal divided into subbands passes through an arbitrary path selected by the switch matrix 206 and is input to the combiner 208. Here, a bold line denoted by reference numeral 207 schematically shows a state in which a signal that has passed through the matrix 206 is input to the combiner 208. Here, the combiner 208 (208A-208C) converts the signals input to the input port 207 into different frequencies and combines them to generate signals transmitted from the respective antennas 211 (211A-211C).

  In FIG. 6, the output 205A of the channelizer 204A is connected to the input 207A of the combiner 208A, and the output 205B of the channelizer 204A is connected to a plurality of ports of the combiner 208 so that multicast transmission is performed at a plurality of different frequencies. An example of (broadcast transmission) is shown. The output 205C of the channelizer 204A is connected to the combiners 208A and 208B, and shows an example of multicast transmission between different antennas (beams). The combiner 208 sends the result of combining the input signals on the frequency axis to the DA converter 209 (209A-209C) as an output. The DA converter 209 converts the digital signal output from the combiner 208 into an analog signal. The converted analog signal is converted into a downlink frequency by the frequency converter 210 (210A-210C) and then transmitted as a transmission radio wave from the downlink antenna 211 (211A-211C).

  In the conventional repeater configured as described above, since the arbitrary output 205 of the channelizer 204 is connected to the arbitrary input 207 of the combiner 208 by digital signal processing, the digital circuit configuration of the switch matrix 206 becomes complicated. There are challenges.

For example, when configuring a switch matrix of input M ports (M is a positive integer) and output N ports (N is a positive integer), M × N switches are required, resulting in an increase in circuit scale.
As described with reference to FIG. 5, the switch matrix includes a digital switching mechanism 104, an interconnection line 110, and a return path 111, and the digital switching mechanism 104 includes a plurality of ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits). It has a complicated structure such as being composed.

  For this reason, an increase in circuit scale increases a manufacturing cost and a circuit mounting area, and a complicated circuit configuration leads to a decrease in system reliability of the repeater.

  The present invention has been made to solve such a problem, and an object of the present invention is to obtain a satellite-mounted repeater that reduces the circuit scale of the switch matrix by limiting the degree of freedom of route selection in the switch matrix. And

  The satellite-borne repeater according to the present invention converts an analog signal received into digital data and outputs the digital signal, and frequency-divides the digital data output from the AD converter and outputs the frequency-divided signal. A channelizer, a combiner that synthesizes signals having different frequencies input to the respective input ports, and a plurality of output signals that have been frequency-divided by the channelizer with a plurality of switches. A switch matrix that is switched and input to a plurality of input ports that are part of the combiner, a DA converter that converts the signal synthesized by the combiner into an analog signal, and another frequency-divided by the channelizer Direct connection that connects the output signal directly to the other input port of the combiner. It is obtained by a path.

  The present invention can reduce the circuit scale of the switch matrix of the repeater by providing a connection path that directly connects the channelizer and the combiner.

It is a block diagram which shows the structure of the satellite payload for satellite communications using the satellite-mounted repeater by Embodiment 1 which concerns on this invention. It is a block diagram which shows the signal transmission path | route of the satellite-mounted repeater by Embodiment 1 which concerns on this invention. It is a block diagram which shows the structure of the satellite payload for satellite communications using the satellite mounting repeater by Embodiment 2 which concerns on this invention. It is a block diagram which shows the signal transmission path | route of the satellite-mounted repeater by Embodiment 2 which concerns on this invention. It is a block diagram which shows the digital circuit structure of the conventional satellite-mounted repeater. It is a block diagram which shows the structure of the satellite payload for satellite communications using the conventional satellite mounting repeater.

Embodiment 1 FIG.
A satellite-mounted repeater (hereinafter referred to as a repeater) according to the first embodiment of the present invention will be described below.
A mobile satellite communication system receives an uplink communication signal from an earth station, separates the spectrum of the communication signal by a filter using a repeater mounted on the communication satellite, and separates each spectrum. The frequency is converted, and the frequency-converted communication signal is transmitted as a downlink signal and relayed to a terminal installed on the ground.
Similarly, a communication satellite receives a communication signal from a terminal installed on the ground, uses a repeater mounted on the communication satellite to separate the communication signal from the received signal by a filter, and converts its frequency. The frequency-converted communication signal is sent to the earth station installed on the ground.

  In a general mobile satellite communication system, a signal transmitted from an earth station to a terminal via a satellite repeater is not limited to a communication channel signal for transmitting communication data directed to an individual terminal. There is a control channel signal for notifying all terminals of control information such as system status.

The signal of this control channel is generally the same for each beam or for a plurality of beams. In addition, when the power is turned on, the terminal first receives the control channel and obtains information from the system. Therefore, the configuration and frequency of the control channel are not frequently changed, and the route is set in the repeater. There is almost no change.
On the other hand, as for the communication channel, a new channel is assigned each time communication is performed between the earth station and the terminal, or when the terminal moves to a different antenna beam area, the channel is assigned with a new beam. It is a channel that is highly likely to undergo a route change.

  As described above, the channel signal transmitted by the repeater includes a channel signal that requires a route change in the repeater and a channel signal that does not require a route change. By utilizing this fact, the repeater according to the first embodiment uses a dedicated direct connection route (wiring) between the channelizer and the combiner for the channel that does not change the route in the repeater without going through the switch matrix. To reduce the circuit scale of the switch matrix.

FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a configuration of a satellite payload for satellite communication using the repeater 313 according to the first embodiment. FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrating a signal transmission path of the repeater according to the first embodiment.
1 and 2, the satellite payload includes an antenna 301 (301A-301C) for uplink from a ground station to a satellite, a frequency converter 302 (302A-302C), a repeater 313, and a frequency converter 310 ( 310A-310C) and a downlink antenna 311. A plurality of antennas 301, frequency converters 302, frequency converters 310, and antennas 311 are provided, and in the example shown in the figure, an example is shown in which three systems are provided, each having three.

  The antenna 301 receives an uplink transmission signal, which is transmitted from the ground station and multiplexed on the frequency axis, and outputs the uplink transmission signal to the frequency converter 302. The frequency converter 302 converts (down-converts) the uplink reception signal received by the antenna 301 into a frequency that can be processed by the repeater 313 and inputs the converted signal to the repeater 313. The repeater 313 frequency-separates the communication signal from the down-converted uplink signal using a filter, distributes the separated signal corresponding to each antenna 311, rearranges it on the frequency axis, and then synthesizes it The transmission signal is output to the frequency converter 310. The frequency converter 310 converts (up-converts) the output from the repeater 313 to the downlink transmission frequency, and sends it to the antenna 311. The antenna 311 transmits a downlink transmission signal to a terminal on the ground.

  The repeater 313 includes an AD converter 303, a channelizer 304, a switch matrix 306, a combiner 308, a DA converter 309, and a direct connection path (wiring) 314. A channelizer 304 is connected to the subsequent stage of the AD converter 303, and an output port of the channelizer 304 is connected to an input port of the switch matrix 306. An output port of the switch matrix 306 is connected to an input port of the combiner 308, and a DA converter 309 is connected to the subsequent stage of the combiner 308. The channelizer 304 and the combiner 308 are connected to the switch matrix 306 by a direct connection path 314.

  The channelizer 304, the switch matrix 306, and the combiner 308 are each configured by an ASIC, and are configured by a plurality of multi-port DSP slices as described with reference to FIG. In FIG. 1, it is composed of three multi-port DSP slices of A system (303A, 304A, 308A, 309A), B system (303B, 304B, 308B, 309B), and C system (303C, 304C, 308C, 309C). An example is shown.

The AD converter 303 samples and quantizes the uplink signal frequency-converted by the frequency converter 302, and converts the analog signal into a digital signal.
The channelizer 304 functions as a filter bank that divides the digitized uplink signal into signals of arbitrary plural frequencies (subbands) and cuts them out. The frequency (subband) divided by the channelizer is a bandwidth of a single channel or a bandwidth of any number of channels. The channelizers 304 output signals divided by frequency (subband) from the corresponding output ports. Reference numeral 305 schematically shows the output subband of the channelizer.

  When the output signal of each output port of the channelizer 304 is input to the input port, the switch matrix 306 distributes the input signal to each input port of the combiner 308 and outputs it from the output port, and outputs the output signal to each input port of the combiner 308. It is for input. The switch matrix 306 includes switches composed of a plurality of logic circuits that switch connection paths (wiring) between input ports and output ports.

When an output signal from each output port of the switch matrix 306 is input to the input port, the combiner 308 combines the input signal after frequency conversion, and outputs a combined signal corresponding to each downlink beam. . Reference numeral 307 schematically shows an input subband of each combiner. The DA converter 309 converts the digital signal that is the output of each combiner 308 into an analog signal.
The direct connection path (wiring) 314 is a direct connection path (wiring) for directly connecting the output of the channelizer 304 to the combiner 308 without going through the digital matrix 306. The direct connection path (wiring) 314 forms a dedicated line different from the switch matrix 306.

  The switch matrix 306 is similar to the one described with reference to FIG. 5, in order to connect (routing) the output of the channelizer 304 to the combiner 308, a plurality of digital switching mechanisms and a plurality of interconnection lines which are connection wirings (buses) between slices And a plurality of return paths. This allows the output of any channelizer 304A-304C to be connected to any combiner 308A-308C. The combiner 308 rearranges the signal input from the digital switching mechanism of the switch matrix 306 on the frequency axis, converts the frequency, and synthesizes the signal.

  In FIG. 1, the uplink antenna 301, the frequency converter 302, the AD converter 303, and the channelizer 304 are three systems, and the downlink combiner 308, the DA converter 309, the frequency converter 310, and the antenna 311 are three systems. Although the case is shown, the number of systems other than this is also possible. In addition, FIG. 1 shows an example in which the number of systems is the same between the uplink and the downlink, but a configuration in which the number of systems is different between the uplink and the downlink is also possible.

Next, the operation of the repeater 313 according to the first embodiment will be described with reference to FIG. In FIG. 2, in the repeater 313 of FIG. 1, the example of the signal path | route used for convenience of explanation is added.
In FIG. 2, an output 305A of the channelizer 304A is a channel signal without path switching, and is connected to an input 307A of the combiner 308A. On the other hand, outputs 305B to 305E of channelizer 304A are signals that cause path switching, and are connected to inputs 307B to 307E of combiners 308A to 308C, respectively.

  In such a configuration, when communication of a signal connected from 305B to 307B is completed in a signal that needs to be switched, and communication from 305B to 307F newly occurs, the digital switching mechanism of the switch matrix 306 Is driven by a switch control signal (not shown) supplied from a control device in the satellite, the connection configuration matrix of the switch input / output is changed, and the signal connection path (wiring) is changed.

  Here, the outputs of channelizers 304A to 304C are a total of M (M is a positive integer), and the inputs of combiners 308A to 308C are a total of N (N is a positive integer). It is assumed that there are a routes (a is a positive integer) that are fixedly assigned to. At this time, the switch matrix 306 requires (M−a) × (N−a) switches. Therefore, in the conventional repeater shown in FIG. 6, M × N switches are required, but in the repeater 313 according to the first embodiment, the number of switches constituting the switch matrix 306 is expressed as (a It can be reduced by (M) + (a × N) − (a × a). For this reason, the circuit scale can be reduced.

  As described above, the satellite-borne repeater according to the first embodiment converts the received analog signal into digital data and outputs it, and frequency-divides the digital data output from the AD converter. , A channelizer that outputs frequency-divided signals, a combiner that synthesizes signals having different frequencies input to the input ports by frequency conversion, and a plurality of output signals that are frequency-divided by the channelizer. A switch matrix that switches connection destinations by a plurality of switches and distributes and inputs to a plurality of input ports of a part of the combiner, a DA converter that converts a signal synthesized by the combiner into an analog signal, and the above The other output signal frequency-divided by the channelizer is connected to the other input of the above combiner. Direct connection path directly connected to the port and (wiring), characterized by comprising a. Accordingly, by providing a connection path that directly connects the channelizer and the combiner, the circuit scale of the switch matrix of the repeater can be reduced.

Embodiment 2. FIG.
FIG. 3 is a block diagram showing a configuration of a satellite payload for satellite communication using the repeater according to the second embodiment. FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating a signal transmission path of the repeater according to the first embodiment. In the repeater according to the second embodiment, the control channel (subband) is configured to support multicast transmission between beams.
3 and 4, the configurations denoted by reference numerals 301 to 311 are the same as those in the first embodiment, and a description thereof will be omitted.

In FIG. 3, the repeater 313 is provided with a multicast switch matrix 315 (315 </ b> A to 315 </ b> C) for multicast transmission at the subsequent stage of the switch matrix 306. The channelizer 304 (304A-304C) and the multicast switch matrix 315 (315A) are connected by a direct connection path (wiring) 312 (312A-312C).
The multicast switch matrix 315A and the multicast switch matrix 315B are connected by connection paths (wirings) 350 (350A-350C) corresponding to the respective direct connection paths (wirings) 312 (312A-312C). .
Similarly, the multicast switch matrix 315B and the multicast switch matrix 315C are connected by connection paths (wirings) 351 (351A-351C) corresponding to the direct connection paths (wirings) 312 (312A-312C), respectively. Yes.
Further, each multicast switch matrix 315 (315A-315C) is connected to each combiner 308 (308A-308C) by an individual connection path (wiring) 352 (350A-350C).
That is, the channelizer 304 (304A-304C) and the combiner 308 (308A-308C) are connected via the direct connection path (wiring) 312 (312A-312C) and the multicast switch matrix 315 (315A).

  Here, a is the number of channels (subbands) connected from the channelizer 304 to the multicast switch matrix 315 without passing through the switch matrix 306. In this case, a total of (a × a) switches are required in the multicast switch matrices 315A to 315C.

  FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram in which signal paths are added to the block diagram of FIG. 3 to explain the operation of the second embodiment. Further, since the signal flow through the switch matrix 306 is the same as that of the first embodiment of the present invention, the description thereof is omitted.

In FIG. 4, an output 305G of channelizer 304A is a channel (subband) transmitted by multicast between the respective antenna beams. The multicast channels are simultaneously connected to the input ports 307G of the combiners 308A to 308C by multicast switch matrices 315A to 315C, respectively.
The outputs of the channelizers 304B and 304C are disconnected from any input port of the combiners 308A to 308C by the multicast switch matrices 315A to 315C.
Note that the outputs of the channelizers 304B and 304C can be simultaneously connected to the input ports 307G of the combiners 308A to 308C in the same manner as the channelizer 304A by switching the connection of the switch matrices 315A to 315C for multicast transmission. .

  Thereby, multicast transmission between different antenna beams (antennas 311A to 311C) can be performed. For example, multicast transmission signals (for example, broadcast information, broadcast distribution information, and broadcast control information) received by the antenna 301A can be broadcast from all the antennas 311A to 311C.

  In the repeater 313 configured as described above, the number of switches necessary for configuring the switch matrix 306 and the multicast switch matrix 315 is (M−a) × (N−a) + (a × a). ) Therefore, as compared with the conventional repeater shown in FIG. 6, in the repeater 313 according to the second embodiment, the number of switches constituting the switch matrix 306 and the multicast transmission switch matrix 315 is set to a × (M + N−2a). Since it is possible to reduce the number of circuits, the circuit scale can be reduced.

  3 and 4, the uplink antenna 301, the frequency converter 302, the AD converter 303, and the channelizer 304 are three systems, and the downlink combiner 308, the DA converter 309, and the frequency converter. Although the case where 310 and the antenna 311 are three systems is illustrated, the number of systems other than this is also possible.

  3 and 4 show an example in which the number of systems is the same between the uplink and the downlink, it is also possible to adopt a configuration in which the number of systems is different between the uplink and the downlink. 3 and 4, the multicast matrix 315 as a whole has been described with respect to the case where the number of input channels is a and the number of output channels is a. However, the multicast matrix may have a configuration in which the number of input channels is different from the number of output channels. is there.

  As described above, the satellite-borne repeater according to the second embodiment converts the received analog signal into digital data and outputs it, and frequency-divides the digital data output from the AD converter. , A channelizer that outputs each frequency-divided signal, a plurality of combiners that synthesize signals of different frequencies input to the input ports by frequency conversion, and a plurality of some outputs that are frequency-divided by the channelizer A switch matrix for switching the connection destination by a plurality of switches and distributing and inputting the signals to a plurality of input ports of a part of the combiner; a DA converter for converting the signal synthesized by the combiner into an analog signal; The other output signals frequency-divided by the channelizer are converted to the plurality of converters. A multicast switch matrix for simultaneous multicast transmission to other input ports, a channel and a combiner, and a connection path (wiring) for connecting the multicast switch matrix. . Accordingly, by providing a dedicated switch matrix for multicast transmission dedicated to a channel (line) in which multicast transmission is performed, the circuit scale of the switch matrix of the repeater can be reduced.

  301 uplink receiving antenna, 302 uplink frequency converter (down converter), 303 AD converter, 304 channelizer, 305 channelizer output, 306 switch matrix, 307 combiner input, 308 combiner, 309 DA converter, 310 downlink Frequency converter (upconverter), 311 downlink antenna, 313 repeater, 315 multicast switch matrix.

Claims (2)

  1. An AD converter that converts the received analog signal into digital data and outputs the digital data;
    A channelizer for frequency-dividing the digital data output from the AD converter and outputting the frequency-divided signals respectively;
    A combiner for frequency-converting and synthesizing signals having different frequencies input to the input ports;
    A switch matrix for switching a part of the plurality of output signals frequency-divided by the channelizer, switching the connection destinations by a plurality of switches, and distributing and inputting the signals to a plurality of input ports of a part of the combiner,
    A DA converter that converts the signal synthesized by the combiner into an analog signal;
    A direct connection path for directly connecting another output signal frequency-divided by the channelizer to another input port of the combiner;
    A repeater with
  2. An AD converter that converts the received analog signal into digital data and outputs the digital data;
    A channelizer for frequency-dividing the digital data output from the AD converter and outputting the frequency-divided signals respectively;
    A plurality of combiners for frequency-converting and synthesizing signals having different frequencies input to the input ports;
    A switch matrix for switching a part of the plurality of output signals frequency-divided by the channelizer, switching the connection destinations by a plurality of switches, and distributing and inputting the signals to a plurality of input ports of a part of the combiner,
    A DA converter that converts the signal synthesized by the combiner into an analog signal;
    A multicast switch matrix that multicasts the other output signals frequency-divided by the channelizer and simultaneously connects to the other input ports of the plurality of combiners;
    A connection path connecting between the channelizer and combiner and the multicast switch matrix;
    A repeater with
JP2010060733A 2010-03-17 2010-03-17 Satellite-mounted repeater Pending JP2011199355A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2013219571A (en) * 2012-04-10 2013-10-24 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Relay device and relay system
JP2014096795A (en) * 2012-11-01 2014-05-22 Boeing Co Satellite communications data processing
US10454567B2 (en) 2016-03-02 2019-10-22 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Multi-beam satellite communication system

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2013219571A (en) * 2012-04-10 2013-10-24 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Relay device and relay system
JP2014096795A (en) * 2012-11-01 2014-05-22 Boeing Co Satellite communications data processing
US10454567B2 (en) 2016-03-02 2019-10-22 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Multi-beam satellite communication system

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