JP2008030101A - Forging method and anvil used for forging method - Google Patents

Forging method and anvil used for forging method Download PDF

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JP2008030101A
JP2008030101A JP2006208289A JP2006208289A JP2008030101A JP 2008030101 A JP2008030101 A JP 2008030101A JP 2006208289 A JP2006208289 A JP 2006208289A JP 2006208289 A JP2006208289 A JP 2006208289A JP 2008030101 A JP2008030101 A JP 2008030101A
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pressing
anvil
forging
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width
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JP4843401B2 (en
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Hideki Kakimoto
英樹 柿本
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Kobe Steel Ltd
株式会社神戸製鋼所
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<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a forging method and an anvil used for the forging method with which not only the generation of a dead metal zone at the center part in the width direction of a blank, but also, the generation of flaw on the surface, such as overlap at the corner part, can be prevented and since only one kind of an anvil is used, the working time is not needed to much time. <P>SOLUTION: The forging method is composed of a first process, with which a first pressing part 1 in the anvil A is pressed to the surface of the blank B and recessed surfaces 4 are formed at both side parts in the width direction of this blank B, and a second process, with which a second pressing part 2 with the anvil A, is pressed to the projective surface 5 at the center part in the width direction of the blank B interposed with both recessed surfaces and the surface of the blank B is smoothly finished. Then, in the anvil, the first pressing part 1 and the second pressing part 2 are successively arranged in the conveying direction of the blank B. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2008,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、鋼塊や鋼材などの素材を鍛伸する際に素材の内部や表面に発生する欠陥をなくした鍛造方法とその鍛造方法に用いる金敷に関するものである。   The present invention relates to a forging method that eliminates defects generated in the inside and surface of a material when forging a material such as a steel ingot or steel material, and an anvil used in the forging method.
従来から、図7に示すように、鋼塊や鋼材などの素材bを鍛伸するには、押圧面11が平面となった金敷aで、素材bの上下を挟み込むようして加工を施す自由鍛造方法が一般的に行われていた。具体的にはこの従来の鍛造方法は、素材bを圧下する平面状の押圧面11を有する金敷aを用いて行われていた。つまり、素材Bに対するこの金敷aの押圧面11による圧下と、素材bの搬送を繰り返し行うことにより素材bの鍛伸は行われていた。   Conventionally, as shown in FIG. 7, in order to forge a material b such as a steel ingot or a steel material, the anvil a having a flat pressing surface 11 can be processed so as to sandwich the top and bottom of the material b. The forging method was generally performed. Specifically, this conventional forging method has been performed using an anvil a having a flat pressing surface 11 for rolling down the material b. That is, the material b has been forged by repeatedly reducing the material B by the pressing surface 11 of the anvil a and transporting the material b.
しかしながら、このような鍛伸作業により素材を加工すると、金敷の押圧面に接触する素材の表層は金敷によって塑性流動が拘束されるため、金敷と接触する範囲の中央部、即ち素材の幅方向中央部には殆ど歪みが加わらないデッドメタル域が発生することがあった。   However, when the material is processed by such forging work, since the plastic flow is constrained by the anvil on the surface layer of the material that contacts the pressing surface of the anvil, the central portion of the area in contact with the anvil, that is, the center in the width direction of the material In some cases, there was a dead metal region in which almost no distortion was applied.
一般に素材を加工すると、素材内部には塑性ひずみを受ける部位とほとんど受けないデッドメタル域が存在することとなる。塑性ひずみを受ける部位では組織の微細化による機械的性質の向上や内部欠陥の閉鎖により特性を均一化することができる。しかし、デッドメタル域では鋳込んだ際の粗い組織のまま残留するため、組織の微細化や内部欠陥の閉鎖が起こらず、特に感受性の高い難加工材を鍛造する際に鍛造割れ等の表面欠陥を生じることがある。   Generally, when a material is processed, there will be a portion that undergoes plastic strain and a dead metal region that is hardly subjected to plastic strain. In the part subjected to plastic strain, the characteristics can be made uniform by improving mechanical properties by refining the structure and closing internal defects. However, in the dead metal area, it remains in the rough structure when cast, so there is no refinement of the structure or closure of internal defects, and surface defects such as forging cracks when forging particularly difficult-to-work materials. May occur.
そこで、デッドメタル域の発生を解消するために発明された鍛造方法が、特許文献1に記載された発明である。   Then, the forging method invented in order to eliminate generation | occurrence | production of a dead metal area is an invention described in patent document 1. FIG.
特許文献1によると、図8に示すように、素材の鍛造は二つに工程に分けて行われていた。なお、二工程に分けて行われるが金敷の形状は多少異なるが二工程とも正面図は図7と略同じであるので特に図示はしない。まず、行われるのが図8(a)に示す第一工程で、素材bの幅より狭い幅の押圧面21を有する第一の金敷a1で、素材bの幅方向中央部のみを圧下して幅方向中央部に凹部22を形成する。次に行われるのが図8(b)に示す第二工程で、素材bの幅より広い幅の押圧面31を有する第二の金敷a2で、前記凹部22が形成された素材bの幅方向両端部を圧下することで素材bの表面を平滑に仕上げる。   According to Patent Document 1, as shown in FIG. 8, the forging of the material has been performed in two steps. Although the steps are divided into two steps, the shape of the anvil is somewhat different, but the front view is substantially the same as FIG. First, what is performed is a first step shown in FIG. 8A, in which a first anvil having a pressing surface 21 having a width narrower than that of the material b is pressed down only in the center in the width direction of the material b. A recess 22 is formed at the center in the width direction. Next, the second step shown in FIG. 8 (b) is a second anvil a2 having a pressing surface 31 having a width wider than the width of the material b, and the width direction of the material b in which the concave portion 22 is formed. The surface of the material b is finished smoothly by reducing both ends.
この特許文献1に記載された鍛造方法によると、確かに、素材の幅方向中央部のデッドメタル域の発生を低減する効果はあるが、第一工程終了後に、段差が出来た箇所で温度分布がつき、変形抵抗に差が生じ、第二工程で、表面疵が発生してしまうという問題を新たに発生していた。更には、鍛錬では、素材を軸方向に回転させ、図8(a)及び(b)に記載された上下方向、左右方向からの圧下を順次行うために角部での折れ込み疵の発生を助長してしまうという問題もあった。また、二種の金敷を使うため作業時間も余分にかかるという新たな問題も発生していた。
特開2002−160036号公報
According to the forging method described in Patent Document 1, there is certainly an effect of reducing the occurrence of a dead metal region in the center in the width direction of the material. As a result, a problem arises in that a difference in deformation resistance occurs and surface flaws occur in the second step. Furthermore, in the training, the material is rotated in the axial direction, and the crease at the corner is generated in order to perform the rolling down in the vertical and horizontal directions described in FIGS. 8A and 8B in order. There was also the problem of promoting. In addition, the use of two types of anvils has caused a new problem that it takes extra work time.
JP 2002-160036 A
本発明は上記従来の問題点に鑑みて発明したものであって、素材の幅方向中央部のデッドメタル域の発生を低減することができるばかりか、角部での折れ込み疵の発生等表面に疵が発生することの防止と内部欠陥の閉鎖も達成でき、なおかつ、一種の金敷しか使わないため作業時間も多くかかることがない鍛造方法とその鍛造方法に用いる金敷を提供することを課題とするものである。   The present invention was invented in view of the above-mentioned conventional problems, and not only can reduce the occurrence of a dead metal region at the center in the width direction of the material, but also the surface such as the occurrence of folding wrinkles at the corners. It is an object of the present invention to provide a forging method that can prevent wrinkles from occurring and close internal defects, and that does not take much work time because only one kind of anvil is used, and an anvil used for the forging method. To do.
請求項1記載の発明は、金敷の第一の押圧部を素材の表面に圧下して、その素材の幅方向両側部に凹面を形成する第一工程と、金敷の第二の押圧部を、前記凹面で挟まれた素材の幅方向中央部の凸面に圧下して、素材の表面を平滑に仕上げる第二工程とより成り、金敷には、幅方向中央部に非押圧部が設けられた第一の押圧部と、第二の押圧部が、素材の搬送方向に連続して設けられていることを特徴とする鍛造方法である。   The invention according to claim 1 includes a first step of reducing the first pressing portion of the anvil to the surface of the material and forming concave surfaces on both sides in the width direction of the material, and a second pressing portion of the anvil. It consists of a second step of rolling down the convex surface of the material in the width direction of the material sandwiched between the concave surfaces to finish the surface of the material smoothly, and the anvil is provided with a non-pressing portion in the width direction center portion. The forging method is characterized in that the first pressing portion and the second pressing portion are provided continuously in the material transport direction.
請求項2記載の発明は、素材の搬送と圧下が繰り返し行われ、一回毎の素材の搬送寸法は、金敷の、素材搬送方向寸法の1/2以下であると共に、第一の押圧部、第二の押圧部夫々の、素材搬送方向寸法以下であることを特徴とする請求項1記載の鍛造方法である。   In the invention according to claim 2, the conveyance and reduction of the material are repeatedly performed, and the conveyance dimension of each material is 1/2 or less of the dimension of the anvil in the material conveyance direction, and the first pressing portion, The forging method according to claim 1, wherein each of the second pressing portions has a dimension equal to or smaller than a dimension in a material conveyance direction.
請求項3記載の発明は、第一の押圧部の幅方向中央部に設けられた非押圧部は、素材側に開放した凹状であり、その非押圧部の高さ寸法は素材の厚み寸法の30%より大きく、第一工程及び第二工程の金敷の圧下率は素材の厚み寸法に対して5〜30%であることを特徴とする請求項1または2記載の鍛造方法である。   In the invention according to claim 3, the non-pressing portion provided in the central portion in the width direction of the first pressing portion is a concave shape opened to the material side, and the height dimension of the non-pressing portion is the thickness dimension of the material. 3. The forging method according to claim 1, wherein the reduction ratio of the anvil in the first step and the second step is greater than 30% and is 5 to 30% with respect to the thickness dimension of the material.
請求項4記載の発明は、第一の押圧部と第二の押圧部が素材の搬送方向に連続して設けられており、第一の押圧部の幅方向中央部には、少なくとも素材側に開放した非押圧部が設けられていることを特徴とする請求項1乃至3のいずれかに記載の鍛造方法に用いる金敷である。   In the invention according to claim 4, the first pressing portion and the second pressing portion are continuously provided in the material conveyance direction, and at least at the material side in the center portion in the width direction of the first pressing portion. The anvil used in the forging method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein an open non-pressing portion is provided.
本発明の鍛造方法によると、素材の幅方向中央部のデッドメタル域の発生を低減することができるばかりか、角部での折れ込み疵の発生等表面疵の発生を防止でき、なおかつ、効率よく内部欠陥を均質化することができる。更には、一種の金敷しか使わないため作業時間も多くかかることはない。   According to the forging method of the present invention, it is possible not only to reduce the occurrence of a dead metal region at the center in the width direction of the material, but also to prevent the occurrence of surface flaws such as the occurrence of folding flaws at the corners, and the efficiency. Internal defects can be homogenized well. Furthermore, since only a kind of anvil is used, it does not take much work time.
本発明の金敷によると、素材の幅方向中央部のデッドメタル域の発生を低減することができるばかりか、角部での折れ込み疵の発生等表面疵の発生を防止でき、なおかつ、効率よく内部欠陥を均質化することができる。更には、この一種の金敷のみで鍛造作業を行うことができる。   According to the anvil of the present invention, it is possible not only to reduce the occurrence of a dead metal region at the center in the width direction of the material, but also to prevent the occurrence of surface flaws such as the occurrence of folding flaws at the corners, and efficiently. Internal defects can be homogenized. Furthermore, a forging operation can be performed only with this kind of anvil.
以下、本発明を添付図面に示す実施形態に基づいてさらに詳細に説明する。   Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in more detail based on embodiments shown in the accompanying drawings.
図3及び図4において、Aは金敷、1は金敷Aに形成された第一の押圧部、2は金敷Aに形成された第二の押圧部、3は第一の押圧部の幅方向中央部に設けられた非押圧部である。また、図1に示すBは金敷Aによって加工される素材であり、例えば、その材質は炭素鋼(S55C)や低合金鋼(SCM440)等の金属材料である。4は第一工程で素材Bの幅方向両側部に形成される凹面、5は凹面4,4に挟まれた凸面である。   3 and 4, A is an anvil, 1 is a first pressing portion formed on the anvil A, 2 is a second pressing portion formed on the anvil A, and 3 is a center in the width direction of the first pressing portion. It is the non-pressing part provided in the part. Further, B shown in FIG. 1 is a material processed by the anvil A. For example, the material is a metal material such as carbon steel (S55C) or low alloy steel (SCM440). 4 is a concave surface formed on both sides in the width direction of the material B in the first step, and 5 is a convex surface sandwiched between the concave surfaces 4 and 4.
図3及び図4に示すように、金敷Aには、素材Bの表面に圧下する面として第一の押圧部1と第二の押圧部2が素材Bの搬送方向に連続して形成されている。第一の押圧部1と第二の押圧部2は、後記する素材Bの搬送方向の、長さ寸法が同じである。第一の押圧部1の幅方向中央部には、凹状の非押圧部3が設けられている。押圧面を下にして金敷Aを正面から見た場合、非押圧部3は下方が広がった等脚台形状をなしており、素材B側に開放している。その非押圧部3の高さ寸法は、素材Bの厚み寸法との関係で決まっている。即ち、非押圧部3の高さ寸法は、素材Bの厚み寸法の30%より大きな寸法である。なお、その寸法の上限は金敷Aの高さ寸法の範囲内であれば良い。また、非押圧部3の幅寸法は、上部に向かうほど狭まるよう上下で異なる寸法となっているが、その最大寸法(下部の寸法)が素材Bの幅寸法より小さいことが条件である。第一の押圧部1はこの非押圧部3を挟む両側が素材Bの表面を圧下する平坦な面となっている。第二の押圧部2は全て平坦な面となっている。   As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the anvil A is formed with a first pressing portion 1 and a second pressing portion 2 that are continuously formed in the conveying direction of the material B as surfaces that are pressed down on the surface of the material B. Yes. The first pressing portion 1 and the second pressing portion 2 have the same length dimension in the conveyance direction of the material B described later. A concave non-pressing portion 3 is provided at the center in the width direction of the first pressing portion 1. When the anvil A is viewed from the front side with the pressing surface down, the non-pressing portion 3 has an isosceles trapezoidal shape with the lower portion widened and is open to the material B side. The height dimension of the non-pressing portion 3 is determined in relation to the thickness dimension of the material B. That is, the height dimension of the non-pressing portion 3 is larger than 30% of the thickness dimension of the material B. In addition, the upper limit of the dimension should just be in the range of the height dimension of the anvil A. In addition, the width dimension of the non-pressing part 3 is different in the upper and lower sides so as to narrow toward the upper part, but the maximum dimension (lower dimension) is smaller than the width dimension of the material B. The first pressing portion 1 has flat surfaces on both sides of the non-pressing portion 3 that press down the surface of the material B. The second pressing portions 2 are all flat surfaces.
なお、非押圧部3は正面視で必ずしも下方が広がった等脚台形状でなくても良く、その幅寸法が上部に向かうほど狭まるか、同じであれば良い。即ち、正面視で図5に示すような半円形や、更には長方形とすることも可能である。   In addition, the non-pressing part 3 does not necessarily have an isosceles trapezoidal shape in which the lower part is widened in a front view, and the width dimension may be narrowed toward the upper part or may be the same. That is, it can be a semicircular shape as shown in FIG.
また、例えば、図4(c)に示すように、金敷Aの各角部分(出隅部のほか入隅部も含む)にはRを設けることが望ましい(R=1/10W程度:Wは金敷Aの搬送方向の寸法)。全ての図面には図示はしていないが、金敷Aが素材Bに圧下される際に、素材B表面に接触する金敷Aの角部分にRを設けることは特に重要である。このRを設けることにより素材Bの表面に疵が付くことを防止できる。また、第一の押圧部1の非押圧部3と第二の押圧部2の境目にもRが付けられている。このRにより折れ込み疵の発生を防止できる。他の角部分にもRを設けることで作業の安全性が向上できる。なお、Rの大きさは1/10Wでなくても良く、また、素材B表面に接触する部位を除き必ずしも設ける必要はない。   Also, for example, as shown in FIG. 4C, it is desirable to provide R at each corner portion of the anvil A (including the corner portion in addition to the protruding corner portion) (R = 1/10 W: W is The dimension of the anvil A in the conveyance direction). Although not shown in all drawings, it is particularly important to provide R at the corner portion of the anvil A that contacts the surface of the material B when the anvil A is crushed by the material B. By providing this R, it is possible to prevent the surface of the material B from wrinkling. An R is also attached to the boundary between the non-pressing portion 3 of the first pressing portion 1 and the second pressing portion 2. This R can prevent the occurrence of folding wrinkles. The safety of the work can be improved by providing R at other corner portions. In addition, the magnitude | size of R may not be 1 / 10W, and it is not necessarily required except the site | part which contacts the raw material B surface.
素材Bは円柱状、角柱状、帯状等の長尺状の鋼塊や鋼材などである。図面には素材Bとして四角柱状の鋼材を例示しているが、円柱状等他の形状の素材Bでも鋳造方法は同じである。前記したように、素材Bは、金敷Aの非押圧部3の高さ寸法の30%より小さな厚み寸法であり、金敷Aの非押圧部3の最大幅寸法より大きな幅寸法である。また、素材Bの幅寸法は金敷A自体の幅寸法よりは小さい寸法である。   The material B is a long steel ingot such as a columnar shape, a prismatic shape, a belt shape, or a steel material. In the drawing, a square columnar steel material is illustrated as the material B, but the casting method is the same for the material B having other shapes such as a columnar shape. As described above, the material B has a thickness dimension smaller than 30% of the height dimension of the non-pressing portion 3 of the anvil A and a width dimension larger than the maximum width dimension of the non-pressing portion 3 of the anvil A. Further, the width dimension of the material B is smaller than the width dimension of the anvil A itself.
次に素材Bの鍛造方法を図1及び図2に基づいて説明する。素材Bの鍛造は、図1(a)に示す第一工程と、図1(b)に示す第二工程に分けて行われる。なお、図1(b)に示す破線は、第二工程で圧下する前の素材Bの形状を示す。   Next, a method for forging the material B will be described with reference to FIGS. The forging of the material B is performed by being divided into a first step shown in FIG. 1 (a) and a second step shown in FIG. 1 (b). In addition, the broken line shown in FIG.1 (b) shows the shape of the raw material B before rolling down by a 2nd process.
まず、図1(a)に示すように、第一工程は、金敷Aの第一の押圧部1を素材Bの表面に圧下することにより行われる。第一の押圧部1を素材Bの表面に圧下すると、非押圧部3を挟む両側の面が素材Bの表面を押圧して素材Bの幅方向両側部に凹面4,4を形成する。その圧下の際、凹面4,4に挟まれた素材Bの幅方向中央部には凸面5が形成される。この第一工程での圧下率は、素材Bの厚み寸法の5〜30%である。圧下率が素材Bの厚み寸法の5%未満であると、素材Bの内部に形成された空隙を閉鎖する効果がない。また、圧下率が30%を超えると、素材B内部に割れが発生することがある。さらには、前記したように非押圧部3の高さ寸法以上となってしまい素材Bの幅方向中央部に形成された凸面5が非押圧部3に当たってしまうことにもなる。なお、圧下率とは、金敷Aの圧下量(寸法)/素材Bの厚み寸法である。   First, as shown to Fig.1 (a), a 1st process is performed by pressing down the 1st press part 1 of the anvil A on the surface of the raw material B. As shown in FIG. When the first pressing portion 1 is pressed down onto the surface of the material B, the surfaces on both sides sandwiching the non-pressing portion 3 press the surface of the material B to form concave surfaces 4 and 4 on both sides in the width direction of the material B. During the reduction, a convex surface 5 is formed at the center in the width direction of the material B sandwiched between the concave surfaces 4 and 4. The rolling reduction in this first step is 5 to 30% of the thickness dimension of the material B. When the rolling reduction is less than 5% of the thickness dimension of the material B, there is no effect of closing the void formed inside the material B. If the rolling reduction exceeds 30%, cracks may occur in the material B. Furthermore, as described above, the height of the non-pressing portion 3 is not less than the height, and the convex surface 5 formed at the central portion in the width direction of the material B also hits the non-pressing portion 3. The rolling reduction is the rolling amount (dimension) of the anvil A / the thickness dimension of the material B.
次に、図2に示すように、金敷Aを元の待機位置に戻した後、図2の矢印に示す方向に、素材Bを所定寸法(第一の押圧部1の搬送方向の寸法と同じ寸法分)だけ搬送し、図1(b)に示すように、第二工程で、金敷Aの第二の押圧部2を素材Bの表面に圧下する。金敷Aの第二の押圧部2は前記したように平坦な面であるため、第一工程で形成された素材Bの幅方向中央部の凸面5を圧下することになる。第二工程での圧下は、第一工程での圧下と同じ金敷Aで行うため圧下率は同じである。そのため素材Bの表面は平滑に仕上がることとなる。なお、第二工程での圧下率は第一工程での圧下率より大きくても良い。その場合、第一工程での圧下率を超えた時点で第二の押圧部2は素材Bの表面全体を圧下することとなる。   Next, as shown in FIG. 2, after returning the anvil A to the original standby position, the material B is placed in a direction indicated by the arrow in FIG. 1), and the second pressing portion 2 of the anvil A is pressed down to the surface of the material B in the second step as shown in FIG. Since the second pressing portion 2 of the anvil A is a flat surface as described above, the convex surface 5 at the center in the width direction of the material B formed in the first step is pressed down. Since the reduction in the second step is performed with the same anvil A as the reduction in the first step, the reduction rate is the same. Therefore, the surface of the material B is finished smoothly. Note that the rolling reduction in the second step may be larger than the rolling reduction in the first step. In that case, the 2nd press part 2 will reduce the whole surface of the raw material B at the time of exceeding the reduction rate in a 1st process.
この第二工程での圧下では、まず、素材Bの幅方向中央部の凸面5のみを圧下することになるので、素材Bの幅方向中央部も確実に圧下できることとなり、素材Bの幅方向中央部の組織も微細化することができ、所謂デッドメタル域の発生の防止と、内部欠陥の閉鎖が可能となる。   In the reduction in the second step, first, only the convex surface 5 at the center portion in the width direction of the material B is pressed down, so that the center portion in the width direction of the material B can be surely reduced. The structure of the part can also be made finer, so that the so-called dead metal region can be prevented and internal defects can be closed.
また、前記説明では、素材Bを所定寸法(第一の押圧部1の搬送方向の寸法と同じ寸法分)だけ搬送すると説明したが、必ずしも第一の押圧部1の搬送方向の寸法と同じ寸法分だけ搬送する必要はない。搬送寸法が第一の押圧部1の搬送方向の寸法以下であった場合、第二の押圧部2で圧下する際に未圧下部位ができるが、第一工程、第二工程は素材Bの搬送、圧下が繰り返して行われるため、未圧下部位も次の第二工程で圧下でき問題は生じない。   In the above description, it has been described that the material B is conveyed by a predetermined dimension (the same dimension as the dimension in the conveyance direction of the first pressing part 1), but it is not necessarily the same dimension as the dimension in the conveyance direction of the first pressing part 1. It is not necessary to transport only the minute. When the conveyance dimension is equal to or smaller than the dimension in the conveyance direction of the first pressing unit 1, an uncompressed part is formed when the second pressing unit 2 performs the reduction, but the first process and the second process convey the material B. Since the reduction is repeatedly performed, the unreduced portion can be reduced in the next second step without causing a problem.
次に、本発明を実際の鍛造方法に基づき更に具体的に説明する。   Next, the present invention will be described more specifically based on an actual forging method.
まず、所定温度に加熱した素材Bの上下面を、上下一対の金敷A,Aの第一の押圧部1,1で圧下する。その圧下により素材Bの上下面の幅方向両側部には夫々凹面4,4が形成される。また、凹面4,4で挟まれた素材Bの幅方向中央部は凸面5となる。これが所謂第一工程である。次いで、素材Bをその搬送方向を軸に90°回転し、先程加工を施した面とは別の面(先程の加工面を上下面とすると両側面)に金敷A,Aの第一の押圧部1,1を圧下する。この圧下により素材Bの両側面の幅方向両側部には夫々凹面4,4と凸面5が形成される。これも第一工程である。   First, the upper and lower surfaces of the material B heated to a predetermined temperature are pressed down by the first pressing portions 1 and 1 of the pair of upper and lower anvils A and A. Due to the reduction, concave surfaces 4 and 4 are formed on both sides in the width direction of the upper and lower surfaces of the material B, respectively. Further, the central portion in the width direction of the material B sandwiched between the concave surfaces 4 and 4 becomes the convex surface 5. This is the so-called first step. Next, the material B is rotated by 90 ° about the conveying direction, and the first press of the anvils A and A on the surface different from the surface processed previously (on both sides when the previous processing surface is the upper and lower surfaces) The parts 1 and 1 are pressed down. Due to this reduction, concave surfaces 4 and 4 and a convex surface 5 are formed on both sides in the width direction of both sides of the material B, respectively. This is also the first step.
次に、素材Bを所定寸法分だけ搬送する。その搬送寸法は、第一の押圧部1の搬送方向の寸法と同じ寸法分だけである。停止後、上下一対の金敷A,Aを素材Bの表面に圧下すると、第二の押圧部2,2で、前記第一工程で素材Bの前記両側面に形成された凸面5は圧下され、その表面全体は平坦に仕上がる。これが所謂第二工程である。次いで、素材Bをその搬送方向を軸に90°回転し、先程加工を施した面とは別の面(先程の加工面を両側面とすると上下面)に金敷A,Aの第二の押圧部2,2を圧下する。この圧下により素材Bの上下面も平坦に仕上がる。これも第二工程である。以上で搬送方向所定寸法分の鍛伸作業は完了する。   Next, the material B is conveyed by a predetermined dimension. The conveyance dimension is only the same dimension as the dimension of the first pressing unit 1 in the conveyance direction. After stopping, when the pair of upper and lower anvils A and A are crushed to the surface of the material B, the convex surfaces 5 formed on the both side surfaces of the material B in the first step are crushed by the second pressing portions 2 and 2, The entire surface is finished flat. This is the so-called second step. Next, the material B is rotated by 90 ° about the conveying direction, and the second press of the anvils A and A on the surface different from the surface processed previously (upper and lower surfaces when the previous processed surfaces are both sides) The parts 2 and 2 are pressed down. By this reduction, the upper and lower surfaces of the material B are also finished flat. This is also the second step. This completes the forging work for a predetermined dimension in the conveying direction.
なお、前記した第二工程の際に、素材Bの続く部位が、金敷Aの第一の押圧部1で同時に圧下されるので、この第二工程と同時に次の第一工程が行われる。即ち、所定寸法分の鍛伸作業の第二工程と、次の所定寸法分の鍛伸作業の第一工程が一つの金敷Aを圧下することにより同時に行われるため、作業時間を半減することができる。以上の鍛伸作業を順次繰り返すことにより素材Bを目標の形状に仕上げることができる。   In addition, since the site | part which the raw material B continues in the above-mentioned 2nd process is simultaneously crushed by the 1st press part 1 of anvil A, the following 1st process is performed simultaneously with this 2nd process. That is, since the second step of the forging work for a predetermined dimension and the first step of the forging work for the next predetermined dimension are performed simultaneously by reducing one anvil A, the work time can be halved. it can. The material B can be finished in a target shape by sequentially repeating the forging work described above.
なお、以上の説明では、素材Bを90°回転させ、四角柱状に仕上げる事例を説明したが、素材Bの回転角度を変えれば、六角柱状、八角柱状等に仕上げることも可能である。また、第一工程、第二工程を上下面のみに行っても良い。更には、金敷Aを上下一対ではなく例えば上方一体のみとし、金敷Aに対向する側を単に平面とすれば一面毎に金敷Aを圧下して素材Bを鍛伸することも可能である。   In the above description, the example of rotating the material B by 90 ° to finish it into a quadrangular prism shape has been described. However, if the rotation angle of the material B is changed, it can be finished into a hexagonal column shape, an octagonal column shape, or the like. Moreover, you may perform a 1st process and a 2nd process only on an upper and lower surface. Furthermore, if the anvil A is not a pair of upper and lower parts but only an upper unit, for example, and the side facing the anvil A is simply a flat surface, the anvil A can be crushed and the material B can be forged.
また、以上の説明では、金敷Aとして第一の押圧部1の幅方向中央部に凹状の非押圧部3が設けられたもの、即ち天井面があるものを示したが、必ずしも非押圧部3は、凹状でなくても良く、図6に示すように、天井面がない上方向に吹き抜けの空間であっても良い。   In the above description, the anvil A is provided with the concave non-pressing portion 3 at the center in the width direction of the first pressing portion 1, that is, the one having a ceiling surface. May not be concave, and may be a space in the upward direction without a ceiling surface as shown in FIG.
更にはまた、金敷Aには、第一の押圧部1と第二の押圧部2が、素材Bの搬送方向に一つずつ設けられたものを示したが、第一の押圧部1と第二の押圧部2が交互に複数個ずつ設けられたものであっても良い。このように構成すれば圧下の回数が減り作業効率は更に向上する。   Furthermore, the anvil A is shown with the first pressing portion 1 and the second pressing portion 2 provided one by one in the conveying direction of the material B. A plurality of the second pressing portions 2 may be alternately provided. If comprised in this way, the frequency | count of reduction will reduce and work efficiency will further improve.
また、以上の説明では、第一工程の後、所定寸法だけ素材Bを搬送し、その後第二工程を行う方法を説明したが、第一の押圧部1を素材B表面に圧下する第一工程終了後、金敷Aを前記所定寸法と同じ寸法分動かし、第二の押圧部2を、前記第一の押圧部1で圧下した素材Bの表面に圧下して第二工程を行うことも可能である。その場合、第二工程終了後、金敷Aを原点に戻すこととなる。その後、素材Bは金敷Aの寸法分搬送される。   Moreover, although the above description demonstrated the method of conveying the raw material B only by the predetermined dimension after a 1st process and performing a 2nd process after that, the 1st process of rolling down the 1st press part 1 on the surface of a raw material B is demonstrated. After the completion, the anvil A can be moved by the same dimension as the predetermined dimension, and the second step can be performed by pressing the second pressing portion 2 onto the surface of the material B pressed by the first pressing portion 1. is there. In that case, after completion of the second step, the anvil A is returned to the origin. Thereafter, the material B is conveyed by the size of the anvil A.
鍛造前の初期形状が、直径1000mmの円柱状の素材Bを準備し、金敷Aの第一の押圧部1、第二の押圧部2を、順にその素材Bの表面に圧下することにより本発明の効果を確認した。この金敷Aの、素材B搬送方向の長さ寸法は500mmであり、発明例、比較例では、第一の押圧部1、第二の押圧部2の前記搬送方向の長さ寸法が夫々250mmである。表1において搬送寸法とは、素材Bを第一の押圧部1で圧下した後、第二の押圧部2で圧下する位置に進めるため、素材Bを搬送する寸法である。なお、この素材Bの材質は、炭素鋼(S55C)である。   By preparing a columnar material B having an initial shape before forging of 1000 mm in diameter, and pressing down the first pressing portion 1 and the second pressing portion 2 of the anvil A on the surface of the material B in this order. The effect of was confirmed. The length dimension of the anvil A in the material B conveyance direction is 500 mm. In the invention example and the comparative example, the length dimension in the conveyance direction of the first pressing portion 1 and the second pressing portion 2 is 250 mm, respectively. is there. In Table 1, the conveyance dimension is a dimension for conveying the material B in order to advance the material B to a position where it is crushed by the second pressing unit 2 after the material B is crushed by the first pressing unit 1. The material B is carbon steel (S55C).
合否判定は、鍛造後の素材Bの表面に疵が発生しないこと(表面性状)、鍛造前から素材Bの内部にある空隙(φ5mm以上)が、金敷Aの圧下により閉鎖されることで確認した。表面性状では目視で疵が認められなければ○で合格、疵が認められれば×で不合格とした。また、圧下前の素材Bの空隙は、その直径がφ5mm以上のものを複数個含み、圧下後に全ての空隙の直径がφ2.5mm未満になれば◎、全てがφ5mm未満になれば○で合格、一部でもφ5mm未満にならなければ×で不合格とする。
The pass / fail judgment was confirmed by the fact that no flaws were generated on the surface of the material B after forging (surface properties) and that the gap (φ5 mm or more) inside the material B was closed by the pressure of the anvil A before forging. . In the surface texture, if no wrinkle was visually observed, it was accepted as “good”, and if wrinkle was found, it was judged as “poor”. In addition, the material B before reduction includes a plurality of voids having a diameter of φ5 mm or more, and after reduction, all voids have a diameter of less than φ2.5 mm, and if all have a diameter of less than φ5 mm, pass. If even a part does not become less than 5 mm, it is rejected with x.
発明例1では、素材Bの搬送寸法を、第一の押圧部1の素材B搬送方向の長さ寸法と同じ250mm、圧下率を20%とした。鍛造後の素材Bの表面には疵が全く確認されなかった。また、空隙も最大でφ0.5mmとなっており、確実に内部欠陥は閉鎖されており、均質化されていた。   In Invention Example 1, the conveyance dimension of the material B was set to 250 mm, which is the same as the length dimension of the first pressing portion 1 in the conveyance direction of the material B, and the reduction ratio was 20%. No flaws were observed on the surface of the material B after forging. Further, the maximum gap was φ0.5 mm, and the internal defects were reliably closed and homogenized.
発明例2では、素材Bの搬送寸法を、第一の押圧部1の素材B搬送方向の長さ寸法と同じ250mm、圧下率を発明例1とは変え10%とした。この発明例2でも鍛造後の素材Bの表面には疵が全く確認されなかった。また、空隙は最大でφ4.5mmとなっており、空隙を閉鎖する効果が確認できた。   In Invention Example 2, the conveyance dimension of the material B is 250 mm, which is the same as the length dimension of the first pressing portion 1 in the material B conveyance direction, and the rolling reduction is 10%, which is different from the Invention Example 1. Even in Invention Example 2, no flaws were observed on the surface of the material B after forging. Further, the maximum gap was 4.5 mm, and the effect of closing the gap was confirmed.
比較例では、圧下率は20%と発明例1とは変えず、素材Bの搬送寸法を、第一の押圧部1の素材B搬送方向の長さ寸法より大きい300mmとした。第二の押圧部2で圧下する位置がずれ未圧下部ができるため、鍛造後の素材Bの表面に疵が発生した。   In the comparative example, the rolling reduction is 20%, which is the same as that of Invention Example 1, and the conveyance dimension of the material B is set to 300 mm, which is larger than the length dimension of the first pressing portion 1 in the material B conveyance direction. Since the position where the second pressing part 2 is rolled down is shifted and an unpressed lower part is formed, wrinkles occurred on the surface of the material B after forging.
以上の実験結果から、搬送寸法は第一の押圧部1の素材B搬送方向の長さ寸法と同じ250mmとした場合、鍛造後の素材Bの表面には疵が発生しないことが確認できた。即ち、搬送寸法は250mm以下であれば、鍛造後の素材Bの表面には疵が発生しないということができる。   From the above experimental results, it was confirmed that no flaws were generated on the surface of the material B after forging when the conveyance dimension was 250 mm, which is the same as the length dimension of the first pressing portion 1 in the material B conveyance direction. That is, if the conveyance dimension is 250 mm or less, it can be said that no flaws are generated on the surface of the material B after forging.
また、圧下率は10%とした場合でも空隙を閉鎖する効果があることを確認できた。5%とした場合でも10%の際以下ではあるが空隙閉鎖効果があることが推定できる。なお、20%とした場合は、空隙もφ0.5mmとなり確実に閉鎖されており、より好ましい圧下率ということができる。   Further, it was confirmed that there was an effect of closing the gap even when the rolling reduction was 10%. Even in the case of 5%, it can be estimated that there is an air gap closing effect when it is 10%. In addition, when it is set to 20%, the gap is also φ0.5 mm and is reliably closed, which can be said to be a more preferable reduction ratio.
本発明の一実施形態を示すもので、(a)は第一工程の縦断面図、(b)は第二工程の縦断面図である。1 shows an embodiment of the present invention, in which (a) is a longitudinal sectional view of a first step, and (b) is a longitudinal sectional view of a second step. 同実施形態の第一工程を終えた後、金敷を元の待機位置に戻した状態を示すもので、図1(a)のC−C線断面に対応する縦断面図である。FIG. 2 shows a state in which the anvil is returned to the original standby position after the first step of the embodiment is completed, and is a longitudinal sectional view corresponding to the section taken along the line CC in FIG. 本発明の一実施形態で使用する金敷を示す斜視図である。It is a perspective view which shows the anvil used in one Embodiment of this invention. 図2と同じ金敷を示すもので、(a)は平面図(破線は底面の形状を示す。)、(b)は正面図、(c)は図4(b)のC−C線断面図である。2 shows the same anvil as in FIG. 2, (a) is a plan view (broken line indicates the shape of the bottom surface), (b) is a front view, and (c) is a cross-sectional view taken along line CC in FIG. 4 (b). It is. 図3の金敷とは異なる金敷を示す斜視図である。It is a perspective view which shows the anvil different from the anvil of FIG. 図3、図5の金敷とは異なる金敷を示す斜視図である。It is a perspective view which shows the anvil different from the anvil of FIG. 3, FIG. 従来例を示す側面図である。It is a side view which shows a prior art example. 図5とは異なる従来例を示すもので、(a)は第一工程の縦断面図、(b)は第二工程の縦断面図である。5A and 5B show a conventional example different from FIG. 5, in which FIG. 5A is a longitudinal sectional view of a first step, and FIG. 5B is a longitudinal sectional view of a second step.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
A…金敷
B…素材
1…第一の押圧部
2…第二の押圧部
3…非押圧部
4…凹面
5…凸面
A ... Anvil B ... Material 1 ... First pressing part 2 ... Second pressing part 3 ... Non-pressing part 4 ... Concave surface 5 ... Convex surface

Claims (4)

  1. 金敷の第一の押圧部を素材の表面に圧下して、その素材の幅方向両側部に凹面を形成する第一工程と、
    金敷の第二の押圧部を、前記凹面で挟まれた素材の幅方向中央部の凸面に圧下して、素材の表面を平滑に仕上げる第二工程とより成り、
    金敷には、幅方向中央部に非押圧部が設けられた第一の押圧部と、第二の押圧部が、素材の搬送方向に連続して設けられていることを特徴とする鍛造方法。
    A first step of rolling down the first pressing part of the anvil to the surface of the material and forming concave surfaces on both sides in the width direction of the material;
    The second pressing portion of the anvil is crushed down to the convex surface in the center in the width direction of the material sandwiched between the concave surfaces, and consists of a second step of finishing the surface of the material smoothly,
    A forging method characterized in that the anvil is provided with a first pressing portion provided with a non-pressing portion at a central portion in the width direction and a second pressing portion continuously in the material conveying direction.
  2. 素材の搬送と圧下が繰り返し行われ、一回毎の素材の搬送寸法は、金敷の、素材搬送方向寸法の1/2以下であると共に、第一の押圧部、第二の押圧部夫々の、素材搬送方向寸法以下であることを特徴とする請求項1記載の鍛造方法。   The conveyance and reduction of the material are repeatedly performed, and the conveyance dimension of the material for each time is 1/2 or less of the dimension of the anvil and the conveyance direction of the material, and each of the first pressing part and the second pressing part, The forging method according to claim 1, wherein the forging method is equal to or less than a dimension in a material conveyance direction.
  3. 第一の押圧部の幅方向中央部に設けられた非押圧部は、素材側に開放した凹状であり、その非押圧部の高さ寸法は素材の厚み寸法の30%より大きく、第一工程及び第二工程の金敷の圧下率は素材の厚み寸法に対して5〜30%であることを特徴とする請求項1または2記載の鍛造方法。   The non-pressing part provided in the central part in the width direction of the first pressing part is a concave shape opened to the material side, and the height dimension of the non-pressing part is larger than 30% of the thickness dimension of the material. The forging method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the reduction ratio of the anvil in the second step is 5 to 30% with respect to the thickness dimension of the material.
  4. 第一の押圧部と第二の押圧部が素材の搬送方向に連続して設けられており、第一の押圧部の幅方向中央部には、少なくとも素材側に開放した非押圧部が設けられていることを特徴とする請求項1乃至3のいずれかに記載の鍛造方法に用いる金敷。   The first pressing portion and the second pressing portion are continuously provided in the material conveyance direction, and at least the non-pressing portion opened to the material side is provided in the center portion in the width direction of the first pressing portion. An anvil used for the forging method according to any one of claims 1 to 3.
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Cited By (1)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102814443A (en) * 2012-07-30 2012-12-12 江阴南工锻造有限公司 Limit forging method of rectangular blank

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JP6353753B2 (en) * 2013-11-11 2018-07-04 善治 堀田 Equivalent strain applying method and equivalent strain applying device

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JPS62286640A (en) * 1986-06-03 1987-12-12 Nippon Steel Corp Forging method for titanium alloy
JPH07223034A (en) * 1994-02-10 1995-08-22 Kobe Steel Ltd Production of titanium alloy ring
JP2002153937A (en) * 2000-11-17 2002-05-28 Sumitomo Metal Ind Ltd Anvil for free forging

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JPS62286640A (en) * 1986-06-03 1987-12-12 Nippon Steel Corp Forging method for titanium alloy
JPH07223034A (en) * 1994-02-10 1995-08-22 Kobe Steel Ltd Production of titanium alloy ring
JP2002153937A (en) * 2000-11-17 2002-05-28 Sumitomo Metal Ind Ltd Anvil for free forging

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102814443A (en) * 2012-07-30 2012-12-12 江阴南工锻造有限公司 Limit forging method of rectangular blank

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