JP2007321486A - Armed pipe aseismatic structure and armed pipe aseismatic reinforcing method - Google Patents

Armed pipe aseismatic structure and armed pipe aseismatic reinforcing method Download PDF

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JP2007321486A
JP2007321486A JP2006154363A JP2006154363A JP2007321486A JP 2007321486 A JP2007321486 A JP 2007321486A JP 2006154363 A JP2006154363 A JP 2006154363A JP 2006154363 A JP2006154363 A JP 2006154363A JP 2007321486 A JP2007321486 A JP 2007321486A
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earthquake
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JP4274487B2 (en
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Mitsuru Tsunefuji
充 恒藤
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Mitsuru Tsunefuji
充 恒藤
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<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an armed pipe aseismatic structure and an armed pipe aseismatic reinforcing method, easily coping with an unexpected earthquake, reducing weight in a reinforcing material, inexpensively and easily constructible in a short period, performing a delicate adjustment corresponding to a degree of a load, and easily changing reinforcement after construction. <P>SOLUTION: This armed pipe aseismatic structure has a plurality of armed pipes 2 filling a filler 3 inside for improving compressive strength and performing aseismatic reinforcement by contacting with a side surface of a structure 1, and connecting belts 4a, 4b and 4c for bringing the plurality of armed pipes 2 into pressure contact with a side surface of the structure 1 for integrating the movement in an earthquake of the plurality of armed pipes 2 and the structure 1. The armed pipe aseismatic structure is mainly characterized by fastening connecting belts 4a, 4b and 4c to the structure 1 by fastening force, a fastening position and a fastening width corresponding to the size of stress acting in the earthquake. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2008,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、耐震補強のため複数の甲殻パイプを構造物の周辺に配置し、連結体で連結し、構造物に作用した地震の荷重を複数の甲殻パイプ間に分散して、構造物の耐震性を向上させる甲殻パイプ耐震構造体及び甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法に関する。   In the present invention, a plurality of crust pipes are arranged around a structure for seismic reinforcement, connected by a connecting body, and the seismic load acting on the structure is distributed among a plurality of crust pipes, so that The present invention relates to a shell-pipe seismic structure and a shell-pipe seismic reinforcement method for improving the performance.
近年、各地で巨大地震が頻発している。阪神淡路大震災の記憶も新しいが、最近では中越地震、福岡西方沖地震等が発生し、高速道路や鉄道の橋脚を破壊し、建造物を崩壊し、道路に沿ったL型の擁壁等を崩落させて、各地に大きな被害をもたらした。   In recent years, huge earthquakes have frequently occurred in various places. The memory of the Great Hanshin Awaji Earthquake is also new, but recently the Chuetsu Earthquake, the Fukuoka West Offshore Earthquake, etc. occurred, destroyed highways and railroad piers, collapsed buildings, and built L-shaped retaining walls along the road. It collapsed and caused great damage in various places.
これらの地震で報告された橋脚の被害は、地震の水平力が作用したときの柱下部におけるせん断力不足による脆性破壊が最も多かった。この被害に続いて、柱中央部または柱下部から長手方向に高さの1/3付近、さらに柱上部の順で破壊が起こっている。ラーメン構造の構造物の場合、多くは中央部が破壊されており、梁に関しては梁の中央部と端部で破壊されたことが報告されている。PC(プレストレストコンクリート)桁は左右に間隔があるラーメン構造のように中央部が破壊され、端部の破壊は桁が左右に動くことで脆性破壊が発生している。また、L型の擁壁に関しては、多くは垂直壁と支持部との境目が破壊されており、テールアルメ型に代表されるような垂直積み上げブロック式擁壁は腹膨れになって崩壊した旨報告されている。   The damage to the piers reported in these earthquakes was the most due to brittle fracture due to insufficient shear force at the bottom of the column when the horizontal force of the earthquake was applied. Following this damage, destruction occurred in the order of about 1/3 of the height in the longitudinal direction from the center of the column or the bottom of the column, and further to the top of the column. In the case of structures with a ramen structure, in many cases, the central part is destroyed, and it has been reported that the beam was destroyed at the central part and the end part of the beam. PC (prestressed concrete) girders are broken at the center, like a ramen structure with a gap between the left and right sides, and brittle fracture occurs when the girders move from side to side. As for the L-type retaining wall, many report that the boundary between the vertical wall and the support part has been destroyed, and that the vertical stacked block-type retaining wall, represented by the tail arme type, has collapsed due to abdominal swelling. Has been.
こうした地震被害の教訓は今後の新規の構造物の設計に活かされると思われるが、既に建設が終わった建造物、あるいは建設中の建造物でも十分な耐震強度を備えていない場合、今後大きな地震に見舞われたとき倒壊する可能性がある。そこで、既設の建造物に対してどのような補強を行えばよいのか、が問題となる。   These lessons learned from earthquake damage are expected to be used in the design of new structures in the future. However, if a building that has already been constructed or is under construction does not have sufficient seismic strength, it will be a major earthquake in the future. There is a possibility of collapse when hit by. Then, what kind of reinforcement should be performed with respect to the existing building becomes a problem.
現在、耐震改修には次の3つの方法がある。1つ目は耐震補強、2つ目は制震補強、3つ目は免震補強である。1つめの耐震補強は建造物の地震耐力を高めるか、靭性(変形性能)の向上を図るものである。このうちの前者は耐震壁、ブレースなどを新設することなどが該当し、後者は柱や梁を補強することなどが該当する。2つ目の制震補強は、高層建築物などで制震ダンパを設けて地震エネルギを吸収することで建造物の損傷軽減を図るものである。そして、3つ目の免震補強は、免震構造を基礎下や中間階に設けて、地盤から伝わる地震力を大幅に低減させることで建造物の損傷軽減を図るものである。   Currently, there are three methods for seismic retrofit. The first is seismic reinforcement, the second is seismic reinforcement, and the third is seismic isolation. The first seismic reinforcement is intended to increase the earthquake resistance of the building or to improve toughness (deformation performance). Of these, the former corresponds to the installation of seismic walls and braces, and the latter corresponds to the reinforcement of columns and beams. The second type of seismic retrofit is to reduce damage to buildings by installing seismic dampers in high-rise buildings to absorb seismic energy. The third seismic isolation reinforcement is intended to reduce damage to buildings by providing seismic isolation structures under the foundation and intermediate floors to greatly reduce the seismic force transmitted from the ground.
さて、この免震構造として、従来、パイプから構成されたものが提案されている(特許文献1参照)。この免震構造は、複数個の細長くて比較的柔軟でコンクリートを充填したパイプからなり、このパイプは構造物としっかり連結して下の基礎の方へ延長し、少なくともいくつかのパイプは、構造物が転倒しないように基礎と連結するものである。主荷重支承支柱は基礎に載置されてパイプ列を受け、支柱の上端部と構造物との間に支承装置を挿入してそれら相互間の横方向運動を可能ならしめる。また、支柱の荷重支承力から横方向剛性を吸収することによって、地面の加速力を保護構造物に移行させないようにするものである。この構成によって、地震時に建造物や他の構造物を保護することができる。   Now, as this seismic isolation structure, what was conventionally comprised from the pipe is proposed (refer patent document 1). The seismic isolation structure consists of a plurality of elongated, relatively flexible and concrete-filled pipes that are connected to the structure and extend towards the underlying foundation, at least some of which are structural It connects with the foundation so that things do not fall. The main load bearing column is placed on the foundation to receive the pipe row and a bearing device is inserted between the upper end of the column and the structure to allow lateral movement between them. Further, by absorbing the lateral rigidity from the load bearing force of the support column, the ground acceleration force is prevented from being transferred to the protective structure. With this configuration, buildings and other structures can be protected during an earthquake.
しかし、特許文献1の免震構造は、基礎工事が必要で、短い工期、低コストで既設の建造物を補強するには馴染まないものであった。また、従来の制震補強は高層建築物を補強するものがほとんどで、建造物がどのような建造物であっても常に補強が可能な方法とは言えない。例えば、制震補強で擁壁や梁などを補強することは構造上難しい。しかも、免震構造と同様に、短い工期、低コストで補強するのは困難である。   However, the seismic isolation structure of Patent Document 1 requires foundation work, and is unacceptable for reinforcing existing buildings with a short construction period and low cost. In addition, most conventional seismic retrofits reinforce high-rise buildings, and it cannot be said that reinforcement is always possible regardless of the type of building. For example, it is structurally difficult to reinforce retaining walls or beams with seismic reinforcement. Moreover, as with the seismic isolation structure, it is difficult to reinforce with a short construction period and low cost.
こうした難点に対しては耐震補強が有力で、次のような耐震補強方法が提案されている(特許文献2参照)。すなわち、特許文献2の耐震補強方法は、コンクリート柱状体の周面に樹脂を含浸させた補強繊維シートを貼着してこの柱を補強する方法であって、貼着される補強繊維シートの複数枚を重層してその中間部に樹脂を含浸硬化させた板状部と残余の未含浸部とを有する甲殻シートを形成しておき、この甲殻シートの板状部を柱の周面にスペーサーを介して当接させたのち各未含浸部に樹脂を含浸させて互いに重ね合わせて柱の周面に貼着し、このスペーサーによって形成される板状部と周面との隙間に樹脂モルタル等の充填材を注入するものである。   Seismic reinforcement is effective against these difficulties, and the following seismic reinforcement methods have been proposed (see Patent Document 2). That is, the seismic reinforcement method of Patent Document 2 is a method of sticking a reinforcing fiber sheet impregnated with a resin to the peripheral surface of a concrete columnar body to reinforce the pillar, and a plurality of reinforcing fiber sheets to be attached. A shell sheet having a plate-like portion obtained by impregnating and hardening a resin in the middle portion and a remaining non-impregnated portion and a remaining unimpregnated portion is formed, and a spacer is provided on the peripheral surface of the column. And then impregnating each unimpregnated portion with resin and sticking them to the peripheral surface of the column, and in the gap between the plate-like portion formed by this spacer and the peripheral surface, resin mortar etc. Filler is injected.
この構成によって、コンクリート柱状体に補強繊維シートを多層に巻き付ける補強作業を狭い場所で短時間に完了できる。また、この方法に好適な補強材を提供することが可能になる。しかし、特許文献2の耐震補強方法は、本来、塗装や耐火被覆等の仕上げを行う方法であり、地震の水平力による柱の曲げや直下型の巨大な引張/圧縮力に対しては、巻き付けられた補強繊維シート間の樹脂の強度が弱く、補強シート間の樹脂含浸が不十分で、補強シート同士が外力で引き裂かれる可能性があり、また、本来補強繊維シートは、一方向性の引張り力には、耐力を発揮するが、圧縮力には補強作用を奏さず、十分な補強方法と言えなかった。   With this configuration, the reinforcing work of winding the reinforcing fiber sheets around the concrete columnar body in multiple layers can be completed in a short time in a narrow place. In addition, a reinforcing material suitable for this method can be provided. However, the seismic reinforcement method of Patent Document 2 is originally a method of finishing such as painting or fireproof coating, and it is wrapped around the column bending due to the horizontal force of the earthquake or the enormous tension / compression force of the direct type. The strength of the resin between the reinforcing fiber sheets is weak, the resin impregnation between the reinforcing sheets is insufficient, the reinforcing sheets may be torn apart by external force, and originally the reinforcing fiber sheet is a unidirectional tensile The force exerts proof strength, but the compressive force does not have a reinforcing action, and cannot be said to be a sufficient reinforcing method.
また、地震の破壊力から橋脚の倒壊を防ぐため、鋼板をコンクリート製の脚の外部に取り付け、脚と鋼板の間にセメントを充填する方法や、エポキシ樹脂によってコンクリートと鋼板を接着する鋼板巻きたて工法(鋼板接着工法)が行われている。この鋼板巻きたて工法は、鋼板の材料特性値にばらつきが少なく、また弾性係数も大きいので、補強効果が大きい。また、エポキシ樹脂が硬化収縮しない性質があるため、流動性、接着性、高強度、耐久性に優れており、橋脚と鋼板とを十分に接着させることができ、橋脚と鋼板とを一体化して応力の伝達ができるので、既設橋脚の耐力を向上することができるものであった。   In addition, in order to prevent the collapse of the bridge pier from the destructive force of the earthquake, a steel plate was attached to the outside of the concrete leg and cement was filled between the leg and the steel plate, or the steel plate was wound with epoxy resin to bond the concrete and the steel plate The construction method (steel plate bonding method) is performed. This steel sheet winding method has a large reinforcing effect because there is little variation in the material characteristic values of the steel sheet and the elastic modulus is large. In addition, since epoxy resin has the property that it does not cure and shrink, it is excellent in fluidity, adhesiveness, high strength, and durability, and can sufficiently bond the pier and the steel plate. Since stress can be transmitted, the strength of existing piers can be improved.
特開平6−81514号公報JP-A-6-81514 特開平11−343744号公報JP 11-343744 A
以上説明した特許文献1の免震構造は、地震が作用すると、まずパイプ内部の充填物が塑性変形することで地震の水平力を吸収し、地震に対処するものである。そして、この免震構造は、基礎として建築物を直列に支えるもので、概ね建築物を建築する段階で基礎部分に組み込んで設置する必要があり、既設の建造物を短工期、低コストで補強するのは困難であった。また、基礎部分に配設される免震構造であるが故に、充填物が一回の地震で使用不可状態になる可能性が高く、改修には費用がかかり、繰り返して地震力を吸収するためには、制震のためのダンパを別に設置する必要性もあり、高コスト化は免れない。   The seismic isolation structure described in Patent Document 1 described above copes with an earthquake by absorbing the horizontal force of the earthquake by first causing plastic deformation of the filler inside the pipe when an earthquake acts. And this seismic isolation structure supports the building in series as the foundation, and it is necessary to install it in the foundation part at the stage of building the building, and to reinforce the existing building with short construction period and low cost. It was difficult to do. In addition, because it is a seismic isolation structure installed in the foundation part, it is highly likely that the filling will be unusable after a single earthquake, and repair will be costly and will absorb seismic forces repeatedly. However, there is a need to install a damper for seismic control.
また、特許文献2の耐震補強方法は、補強作業を狭い場所で短時間に完了でき、安価に補強することが可能になるが、塗装や耐火被覆等の仕上げが必要で、想定外の力で発生する地震の破壊力に十分対処するものにはなりえなかった。補強繊維シートは、一方向性の引張り力には、耐力を発揮するが、圧縮力には補強作用を奏さない。しかも、補強繊維シート間の樹脂含浸の確認は経験的になされており、個人差が大きく、樹脂含浸の確認を容易にするため透明部分が形成された特殊なシートが必要な場合も生じた。また、紫外線や火災、車輌の衝突等により補強繊維シートが傷んで、繊維が切断されると所定強度を発揮できないため、モルタル等で保護しなければならないという問題を有していた。   Moreover, although the earthquake-proof reinforcement method of patent document 2 can complete reinforcement work in a short place in a short time and it becomes possible to reinforce at low cost, finishing such as painting and fireproof coating is necessary, and an unexpected force is required. It could not cope with the destructive power of the earthquake that occurred. The reinforcing fiber sheet exhibits a proof strength against a unidirectional tensile force, but does not exert a reinforcing action on a compressive force. In addition, the resin impregnation between the reinforcing fiber sheets has been confirmed empirically, and there are cases where a special sheet with a transparent portion formed is necessary in order to facilitate confirmation of resin impregnation because of large individual differences. In addition, the reinforcing fiber sheet is damaged due to ultraviolet rays, fire, vehicle collisions, and the like, and when the fiber is cut, the predetermined strength cannot be exerted, and thus there is a problem that it must be protected with mortar or the like.
そして、直下型の地震の場合には特許文献1,2のような補強方法はいずれもコンクリートの柱に地震力が直接作用し、一挙に破壊してしまう。さらに、水平方向の地震力は構造物特性によりねじりや曲げモーメント、せん断力となって建造物に加わるが、特許文献2の補強方法はこれらに対して十分な補強となっていなかった。この点、鋼板巻きたて工法は、高強度で耐久性に優れており、建造物と鋼板とが一体化して応力の伝達ができるので、地震に対する既設建造物の耐力を大幅に向上させることができる。しかし、使用する鋼板が重く人力のみによる施工は困難であり、鋼板の量が膨大で、簡易、短工期、且つ低コストで補強するのは難しい工法であった。重量が嵩むため、補強のための重量で本体に過剰な荷重がかかるような場合は無理であり、その性質上、擁壁やレンガ積み構造、石積み構造で使用するのは困難である。   In the case of a direct type earthquake, the reinforcing methods such as Patent Documents 1 and 2 cause the earthquake force to directly act on the concrete pillars, and they are destroyed at once. Furthermore, the horizontal seismic force is applied to the building as a torsion, bending moment, and shearing force due to the characteristics of the structure, but the reinforcement method of Patent Document 2 is not sufficient for these. In this respect, the steel sheet winding method has high strength and excellent durability, and the building and the steel plate can be integrated to transmit stress, so that the strength of existing buildings against earthquakes can be greatly improved. it can. However, the steel plates used are heavy and difficult to construct by human power alone, and the amount of steel plates is enormous, making it difficult to reinforce at a simple, short construction period and low cost. Since the weight increases, it is impossible to apply an excessive load to the main body due to the weight for reinforcement. Due to its nature, it is difficult to use it in a retaining wall, a brick masonry structure, or a masonry structure.
さらに、建造物には時間の経過に伴って環境変化、劣化等があり、また法令による耐震基準や設計方法の変更等で、更なる補強が必要になる場合がある。しかし、特許文献1,2の免震構造は、一度行った補強の程度を変更したり、力のかかる度合いに応じた補強をきめ細かく簡単に調整したりすることができないものであった。そして、耐震改修は、橋脚、橋桁、柱、梁、擁壁や、その他のコンクリート建造物だけでなく、レンガ積み構造、石積み構造にも適用可能な方法が望まれる。   In addition, buildings have environmental changes and deterioration over time, and further reinforcement may be required due to changes in seismic standards and design methods according to laws and regulations. However, the seismic isolation structures disclosed in Patent Documents 1 and 2 cannot change the degree of reinforcement once performed or finely and easily adjust the reinforcement according to the degree of application of force. In addition, the earthquake-resistant repair is desired to be applicable not only to bridge piers, bridge girders, columns, beams, retaining walls, and other concrete structures, but also to brick masonry structures and masonry structures.
さらに、補強のための部材は建造物と比べて場所をとらず、軽量であることが望ましく、施工に当っては大型の機械を必要としないことが望ましい。また、上述したとおり各地を巨大地震が襲っており、今後既存の建造物を低コスト、短工期で改修することが緊急の課題となっている。   Furthermore, it is desirable that the member for reinforcement does not take a place compared with a building, is lightweight, and does not require a large-sized machine for construction. In addition, as described above, huge earthquakes have hit the various places, and it is an urgent issue to repair existing buildings at a low cost and in a short construction period.
そこで、このような課題を解決するために本発明は、予想外の地震に対応することが容易で、補強材が軽量であり、安価且つ簡単、短期間に施工でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更が容易に行える甲殻パイプ耐震構造体及び甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法を提供することを目的とする。   Therefore, in order to solve such a problem, the present invention is easy to cope with an unexpected earthquake, the reinforcing material is lightweight, inexpensive and simple, can be constructed in a short time, and according to the degree of load It is an object of the present invention to provide a shell pipe earthquake-resistant structure and a shell pipe earthquake-proof reinforcement method which can be finely adjusted and can easily change the reinforcement after construction.
本発明の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体は、圧縮強度を向上させるための充填材が内部に充填されると共に構造物の側面に接触して耐震補強を行う複数の甲殻パイプと、複数の甲殻パイプと構造物の地震時の動きを一体化するため複数の甲殻パイプを構造物の側面に圧接させる連結体と、を備えた甲殻パイプ耐震構造体であって、連結体が地震時に作用する応力の大きさに応じた緊締力と緊締位置及び緊締幅で構造物に緊締されることを主要な特徴とする。   The shell pipe earthquake-resistant structure of the present invention includes a plurality of shell pipes that are filled with a filler for improving compressive strength, and that are in contact with the side surface of the structure for earthquake resistance reinforcement, and a plurality of shell pipes and a structure. In order to unify the movement of an object during an earthquake, a shell-pipe seismic structure with a plurality of shell pipes pressed against the side of the structure, and the magnitude of the stress acting on the joint during an earthquake The main feature is that it is tightened to the structure with the tightening force, tightening position and tightening width according to the condition.
本発明の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体及び甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法によれば、予想外の地震に対応することが容易で、補強材が軽量であり、大型の機械を必要とせず、安価且つ簡単、短期間に施工でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更が容易に行える。   According to the shell-pipe seismic structure and the shell-pipe seismic reinforcement method of the present invention, it is easy to cope with unexpected earthquakes, the reinforcing material is lightweight, does not require a large machine, is inexpensive and simple, and is short-term. It can be installed in between, and fine adjustment according to the degree of load can be performed, and the reinforcement after construction can be easily changed.
本発明の第1の形態は、圧縮強度を向上させるための充填材が内部に充填されると共に構造物の側面に接触して耐震補強を行う複数の甲殻パイプと、複数の甲殻パイプと構造物の地震時の動きを一体化するため複数の甲殻パイプを構造物の側面に圧接させる連結体とを備えた甲殻パイプ耐震構造体であって、連結体が地震時に作用する応力の大きさに応じた緊締力と緊締位置及び緊締幅で構造物に緊締されることを特徴とする甲殻パイプ耐震構造体であり、予想外の地震に対応することが容易で、補強材が軽量であり、大型の機械を必要とせず、安価且つ簡単、短期間に施工でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更が容易に行える。   According to a first aspect of the present invention, there are provided a plurality of shell pipes that are filled with a filler for improving compressive strength and that are in contact with a side surface of the structure to perform seismic reinforcement, a plurality of shell pipes, and a structure In order to integrate the movement at the time of an earthquake, a shell-pipe seismic structure with a connection body that presses a plurality of shell pipes against the side of the structure, and the connection body depends on the magnitude of the stress acting during the earthquake This is a shell-pipe seismic structure characterized in that it is fastened to the structure with the tightening force, tightening position and tightening width.It is easy to cope with unexpected earthquakes, the reinforcing material is lightweight, It requires no machine, can be constructed inexpensively and easily in a short period of time, can be finely adjusted according to the degree of load, and can easily change the reinforcement after construction.
本発明の第2の形態は、第1の形態に従属する形態であって、構造物が橋脚の場合、連結体が脚下部、脚上部、脚中央部、脚高さの1/3の高さ付近のうち少なくとも1部位以上の緊締位置で緊締されたことを特徴とする甲殻パイプ耐震構造体であり、第1の形態の作用に加えて、橋脚を安価且つ簡単、短期間に耐震補強でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更が容易に行える。   The second form of the present invention is a form subordinate to the first form, and when the structure is a bridge pier, the connecting body is a lower leg part, an upper leg part, a middle leg part, and a height that is 1/3 of the leg height. It is a shell-pipe seismic structure characterized in that it is tightened at at least one tightening position in the vicinity. In addition to the action of the first form, the pier can be seismically reinforced at low cost and in a short time. Fine adjustments can be made according to the degree of load, and reinforcement after construction can be easily changed.
本発明の第3の形態は、第1の形態に従属する形態であって、構造物が梁、桁またはプレストレストコンクリート構造物の場合、連結体が構造物の中央部、両端部のうち端部の一方を含む少なくとも2部位以上の緊締位置で緊締されたことを特徴とする請求項1記載の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体であり、第1の形態の作用に加えて、梁、桁またはプレストレストコンクリート構造物を安価且つ簡単、短期間に耐震補強でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更が容易に行える。   The third form of the present invention is a form subordinate to the first form, and when the structure is a beam, a girder or a prestressed concrete structure, the connecting body is the center part of the structure, and the end part of both ends. 2. The crust pipe earthquake-proof structure according to claim 1, wherein the structure is tightened at at least two tightening positions including one of the first, the beam, the girder, or the prestressed concrete structure. The object can be seismically reinforced in a short period of time at a low cost, making it possible to make fine adjustments according to the degree of load, and to easily change the reinforcement after construction.
本発明の第4の形態は、第1の形態に従属する形態であって、構造物が擁壁の場合、連結体が立設壁下部、立設壁中央部のうち少なくとも1部位以上を含む緊締位置で緊締されたことを特徴とする甲殻パイプ耐震構造体であり、第1の形態の作用に加えて、擁壁を安価且つ簡単、短期間に耐震補強でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更が容易に行える。   4th form of this invention is a form subordinate to 1st form, Comprising: When a structure is a retaining wall, a connection body contains at least 1 site | part or more among a standing wall lower part and a standing wall center part. A shell-pipe seismic structure characterized by being tightened at a tightening position. In addition to the action of the first form, the retaining wall can be seismically reinforced at a low cost and in a short period of time. Fine adjustments can be made, and the reinforcement after construction can be changed easily.
本発明の第5の形態は、第1または第2の形態に従属する形態であって、構造物が橋脚の場合、複数の甲殻パイプが橋脚の周囲のフーチング若しくはフーチングに設けられた基礎または支持地盤で支持され、垂直方向に向けて立設されたことを特徴とする甲殻パイプ耐震構造体であり、第1または第2の形態の作用に加えて、橋脚を一様に耐震補強でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更が容易に行える。   A fifth form of the present invention is a form subordinate to the first or second form, and when the structure is a bridge pier, a plurality of shell pipes are provided on a footing or a footing around the pier, or a foundation or support It is a shell-pipe seismic structure that is supported by the ground and is erected in the vertical direction. In addition to the action of the first or second form, the pier can be uniformly seismically reinforced and loaded. Fine adjustments can be made according to the degree of reinforcement, and reinforcement after construction can be easily changed.
本発明の第6の形態は、第1〜第5の形態に従属する形態であって、充填材が、砂,スラグ,モルタル,コンクリート,樹脂の1種または2種以上から構成されたことを特徴とする甲殻パイプ耐震構造体であり、第1〜第5の形態の作用に加えて、充填材が甲殻パイプの圧縮強度を向上させることができ、安価且つ簡単、短期間に施工でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更が容易に行える。   6th form of this invention is a form subordinate to 1st-5th form, Comprising: The filler was comprised from 1 type, or 2 or more types of sand, slag, mortar, concrete, resin. It is a characteristic shell-pipe seismic structure, and in addition to the effects of the first to fifth forms, the filler can improve the compressive strength of the shell pipe, can be constructed inexpensively and easily, in a short period of time, Fine adjustments can be made according to the degree of reinforcement, and reinforcement after construction can be easily changed.
本発明の第7の形態は、圧縮強度を向上させるための充填材が充填された複数の甲殻パイプを構造物の側面に接触させて配置し、複数の甲殻パイプと構造物の地震時の動きを一体化するため連結体によって複数の甲殻パイプを構造物の側面に圧接させる甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法であって、地震時に作用する応力の大きさに応じた緊締力と緊締位置及び緊締幅で連結体を構造物に緊締することを特徴とする甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法であり、予想外の地震に対応することが容易で、補強材が軽量であり、大型の機械を必要とせず、安価且つ簡単、短期間に施工でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更が容易に行える。   According to a seventh aspect of the present invention, a plurality of shell pipes filled with a filler for improving compressive strength are arranged in contact with the side surface of the structure, and the movement of the plurality of shell pipes and the structure during an earthquake occurs. This is a method for seismic reinforcement of a shell pipe, in which a plurality of shell pipes are pressed against the side of the structure by a connecting body to integrate them, and connected with a tightening force, a tightening position and a tightening width according to the magnitude of stress acting during an earthquake. It is a shell-pipe seismic reinforcement method characterized by tightening the body to the structure, it is easy to cope with unexpected earthquakes, the reinforcing material is lightweight, no large machine is required, inexpensive and simple It can be constructed in a short period of time, can be finely adjusted according to the degree of load, and can easily change the reinforcement after construction.
(実施例1)
本発明の実施例1における構造物として橋脚の場合の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体及び甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法について図面に基づいて説明する。図1は本発明の実施例1における構造物に対する甲殻パイプ耐震構造体の全体図、図2は図1の構造物のX−X断面図、図3(a)は本発明の実施例1における構造物を補強する甲殻パイプを固定する方法の説明図、図3(b)は本発明の実施例1における構造物を補強する甲殻パイプをフーチングに固定する説明図、図4は本発明の実施例1における構造物に対する甲殻パイプ耐震構造体の直下型地震による応答の説明図である。
Example 1
A crust pipe seismic structure and a crust pipe seismic reinforcement method in the case of a bridge pier as a structure in Embodiment 1 of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 is an overall view of a crust pipe earthquake-proof structure for a structure according to a first embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 2 is an XX cross-sectional view of the structure of FIG. 1, and FIG. FIG. 3B is an explanatory view of a method for fixing a shell pipe that reinforces a structure, FIG. 3B is an explanatory view for fixing a shell pipe that reinforces a structure to a footing in Embodiment 1 of the present invention, and FIG. 4 is an embodiment of the present invention. It is explanatory drawing of the response by the direct type | mold earthquake of a crust pipe earthquake proof structure with respect to the structure in Example 1. FIG.
図1〜図3(a)(b)において、1はコンクリート製または鉄筋コンクリート製の構造物であり、実施例1の構造物1は鉄筋コンクリート製の橋脚である。しかし、構造物1は橋脚には限られず、少なくとも柱部分(本発明の脚)を備えた構造のものが含まれる。2は充填材3(後述)が充填され耐震補強を行うため構造物1の周りに多数に配置された鉄等の金属あるいはFRP,グラスファイバー等の繊維質補強合成樹脂等の甲殻パイプ、3は甲殻パイプ2の中に充填される砂、モルタル、コンクリート、樹脂等の充填材(図2参照)である。充填材2は甲殻パイプ2の圧縮強度を増す材料であればよい。   1 to 3 (a) and 3 (b), 1 is a structure made of concrete or reinforced concrete, and the structure 1 of Example 1 is a pier made of reinforced concrete. However, the structure 1 is not limited to a bridge pier, and includes a structure having at least a pillar portion (a leg of the present invention). 2 is filled with a filler 3 (described later), and a shell pipe 3 made of a metal such as iron or a fiber reinforced synthetic resin such as FRP or glass fiber is arranged around the structure 1 for seismic reinforcement. It is a filler (see FIG. 2) such as sand, mortar, concrete, and resin that is filled in the shell pipe 2. The filler 2 may be any material that increases the compressive strength of the shell pipe 2.
なお、甲殻パイプ2のパイプの材質は強度、汎用性、コストの面から鋼鉄であることが望ましいが、強度的に十分であれば他の金属、繊維質補強合成樹脂等でもかまわない。風雨に曝されても赤錆などが発生するなど、腐食が進行しないように表面を樹脂コーティングなどしておくのもよい。そして、小径のパイプや、とくに樹脂類パイプを使用した場合、非常に軽量になり、人力あるいは小型機械による施工が可能であり、狭隘な場所での補強作業に有効である。   In addition, the material of the pipe of the shell pipe 2 is desirably steel from the viewpoint of strength, versatility, and cost, but other metals, fiber-reinforced synthetic resins, or the like may be used as long as the strength is sufficient. The surface may be coated with a resin so that corrosion does not proceed, such as red rust generated even when exposed to wind and rain. When a small-diameter pipe, particularly a resin pipe, is used, it is very lightweight and can be constructed by human power or a small machine, and is effective for reinforcement work in a narrow place.
甲殻パイプ2の断面形状は円形パイプが汎用され、入手容易で望ましいが、円形に限らずあらゆるパイプ、例えば4角形、6角形等の多角形(筒状)のパイプ等でよく、肉厚を有し、少なくとも内部に中空部分が形成されたパイプであればよい。組み合わせによりパイプ構造となるものでも所要の組み合わせ強度を有するものは使用可能である。なお、多角形のパイプは構造物1に圧接したとき摩擦力が大きくなり有効である。また、パイプの外形、中空部分の形状が長手方向の途中で変化するものであってもよい。すなわち、長手方向に一様な断面形状のパイプも素材として適当であるが、竹のように途中で節(凸凹)が形成されたパイプ、あるいは長手方向に巻き付けなどがなされたパイプ、例えば螺旋状に断面が変化する断面形状をもつパイプなども好適である。これによりコンクリートとの付着力(摩擦、圧接、食い込みによる力)を増大させることが可能となる。巻き付けなどは、鋼管に合成樹脂を巻き付けて節(凸凹)を設けるような2種類以上の材料を使ったものでもよい。   The cross-sectional shape of the shell pipe 2 is a circular pipe, which is easy to obtain and desirable. However, it is not limited to a circular shape, and may be any pipe, for example, a polygonal (cylindrical) pipe such as a quadrangular or hexagonal shape, and has a thick wall. However, it may be a pipe having a hollow portion formed at least inside. A pipe structure that has a required combination strength can be used even if it has a pipe structure. The polygonal pipe is effective because the frictional force is increased when it is pressed against the structure 1. Moreover, the external shape of a pipe and the shape of a hollow part may change in the middle of a longitudinal direction. That is, a pipe having a uniform cross-sectional shape in the longitudinal direction is also suitable as a material, but a pipe in which nodes (irregularities) are formed in the middle like bamboo, or a pipe wound in the longitudinal direction, for example, a spiral shape A pipe having a cross-sectional shape whose cross section changes is also suitable. Thereby, it becomes possible to increase the adhesive force (friction, pressure welding, force by biting) with concrete. Winding or the like may be performed using two or more kinds of materials in which a synthetic resin is wound around a steel pipe to provide a node (unevenness).
このような甲殻パイプ2は、直下型地震のように構造物1に上下方向にインパルス状の地震の入力があったときなどにも、この付着力の作用によって衝撃を緩和することができる。また、上述したような巻き付けや、螺旋形状などにすることにより、甲殻パイプ2は断面二次モーメントを大きくすることができ、構造物1に地震による曲げモーメントが加わったときにも、構造物1に作用するせん断力を軽減することができる。なお、甲殻パイプ2は構造物1の補強をするための従たる構成にすぎないから、場所をあまり占有しない長尺状のパイプが望ましい。すなわち、断面形状において直交2方向の代表2辺の平均値より長手方向の長さが長いパイプが望ましい。   Such a shell pipe 2 can relieve an impact by the action of this adhesive force even when an impulse-like earthquake is input to the structure 1 in the vertical direction like a direct earthquake. In addition, the shell pipe 2 can increase the cross-sectional secondary moment by wrapping or spiraling as described above, and even when a bending moment due to an earthquake is applied to the structure 1, the structure 1. The shearing force acting on can be reduced. In addition, since the shell pipe 2 is only a subordinate structure for reinforcing the structure 1, a long pipe that does not occupy much space is desirable. That is, a pipe having a longer length in the longitudinal direction than the average value of two representative sides in two orthogonal directions in the cross-sectional shape is desirable.
次に、甲殻パイプ2の中空部分に充填する充填材3としては、外部からの圧縮に対して耐力が大きな材料を充填する。一般的に耐力は鋼材>モルタル・コンクリートであり、樹脂には様々のものがあるから、甲殻パイプ2の材料に何を使うかにより充填材3を選択する。但し、高価な材料では充填材3を充填する意味がないから、砂、セメント水和物反応を利用するモルタルやコンクリート、樹脂等のように安価な材料が望ましい。丸棒のような一体物は一般的にコストが高くなり、重量がかさばるため運搬等の課題が残り、コンクリート製パイプの中に低強度コンクリートを満たしたような甲殻パイプ2は、強度の面で課題が残る。   Next, as the filler 3 that fills the hollow portion of the shell pipe 2, a material having a high proof strength against external compression is filled. Generally, the proof stress is steel> mortar / concrete, and there are various types of resins. Therefore, the filler 3 is selected depending on what is used for the material of the shell pipe 2. However, since an expensive material does not make sense to fill the filler 3, an inexpensive material such as sand, mortar using a cement hydrate reaction, concrete, or resin is desirable. The monolithic object such as a round bar is generally high in cost and is heavy, so the problem of transportation and the like remains, and the shell pipe 2 filled with low-strength concrete in the concrete pipe is in terms of strength. Issues remain.
甲殻パイプ2は、骨格部分(パイプ)が充填材3の外周に形成されているため、圧縮等の塑性変形を起こすような力に対しては、内部の充填材3がこの外力を引き受けて変形を回避し、引張などは骨格部分のパイプが外力を引き受けて支持する。これにより、パイプに外力が加わったとき、パイプ形状が変形するのを充填材が抑制し、2つの材料が機能を分担することで外力に対して大きな耐力を持った構造となる。パイプと充填材3が物理的な強度の弱点をカバーし合い、全体として中実の棒材と同等かこれに近い強度を示すものとなる。   The shell pipe 2 has a skeleton part (pipe) formed on the outer periphery of the filler 3, so that the inner filler 3 takes on this external force and deforms against a force that causes plastic deformation such as compression. The pipe of the skeleton part takes over the external force and supports it. As a result, when an external force is applied to the pipe, the filler suppresses the deformation of the pipe shape, and the two materials share the function, thereby providing a structure having a large proof strength against the external force. The pipe and the filler 3 cover the weak points of physical strength, and as a whole, the strength is equal to or close to that of a solid bar.
これは身近な次のような事例からも理解することができる。人間やほ乳類、鳥類等の骨格構造は、骨の周りに筋肉が形成された構造となっている。しかし、昆虫類は外側に甲殻を持ち、内部に筋肉を有する構造を有している。スケール換算すると人間の数倍から数十倍の強度を持つ昆虫類の秘密は、この甲殻構造にある。通常の鉄筋コンクリート構造においてはコンクリートが筋肉に相当し、鉄筋が骨格に相当するが、実施例1の甲殻パイプ2は外側が鋼鉄等のパイプで、内部がコンクリートやモルタル等の甲殻構造となっており、外力に対して鉄筋コンクリートより強靱な構造となっている。   This can be understood from the following familiar cases. Skeletal structures such as humans, mammals and birds have a structure in which muscles are formed around bones. However, insects have a structure with a shell on the outside and a muscle on the inside. The secret of insects, which are several to tens of times stronger than humans when converted to scale, lies in this shell structure. In a normal reinforced concrete structure, concrete corresponds to muscles, and reinforcing bars correspond to skeletons. However, the shell pipe 2 of Example 1 is a steel pipe on the outside, and the inside is a shell structure such as concrete or mortar. The structure is stronger than reinforced concrete against external forces.
従って、地震のような想定外の力が急激に加わって、ねじりや過度の繰り返し力が作用するとき、甲殻パイプ2は鉄筋コンクリート構造より高い耐震性を示す。すなわち、構造物1の靭性(変形性能)を向上させることが可能となる。なお、甲殻パイプ2は、パイプに後から充填材3を流入させることによって製造するのが容易であるが、長尺状の充填材3を製造し、その後に外側に肉厚部分(パイプ部分)を巻き付けること等で製造するのでもよい。例えば、充填材3としての鉄棒を製造し、これに高強度鋼板を巻いたパイプであっても、リサイクル樹脂の充填材3にカーボンファイバー等の補強繊維シートを巻き付けたパイプもでもよい。   Therefore, when an unexpected force such as an earthquake is applied suddenly and a torsion or excessive repetitive force is applied, the shell pipe 2 exhibits higher earthquake resistance than the reinforced concrete structure. That is, the toughness (deformation performance) of the structure 1 can be improved. The shell pipe 2 is easy to manufacture by allowing the filler 3 to flow into the pipe later, but the elongated filler 3 is manufactured, and then a thick portion (pipe portion) is formed on the outside. It may be manufactured by wrapping around. For example, a pipe in which a steel rod as the filler 3 is manufactured and a high-strength steel plate is wound around the steel rod or a reinforcing fiber sheet such as carbon fiber around the filler 3 made of recycled resin may be used.
また、耐震補強といっても、既設の建造物に対して事後的に耐震補強するだけでなく、新規建築において柱等の構造物1に実施例1の甲殻パイプ構造体を設置して、構造物1の鉄骨、鉄筋の負担を軽減する代替材料とすることもでき、この場合工期を短縮でき、安価且つ容易に耐震補強構造物をつくることができる。   In addition, seismic reinforcement is not only retroactively retrofitted to existing buildings, but the structure of the shell pipe structure of Example 1 is installed in a structure 1 such as a pillar in a new building. It can also be used as an alternative material that reduces the burden on the steel frame and reinforcing bar of the object 1, and in this case, the construction period can be shortened, and a seismic reinforcement structure can be easily produced at low cost.
さて、図1,2において、4a,4b,4cは構造物1の周囲に密着して立設された複数の甲殻パイプ2の更にその周囲を巻回され、複数の甲殻パイプ2を緊締して構造物1の甲殻パイプ2の動きを一体化(連動)させる連結帯(本発明の連結体)である。連結帯4a,4b,4cの両端は、一重または多重で巻回された後、接着、溶接、ボルト締め、クリップ、ロープ結びなどで固定される。   In FIGS. 1 and 2, 4 a, 4 b, and 4 c are wound around a plurality of crust pipes 2 installed in close contact with the periphery of the structure 1, and the plurality of crust pipes 2 are tightened. It is a connection band (the connection body of the present invention) for integrating (interlocking) the movement of the shell pipe 2 of the structure 1. Both ends of the connecting bands 4a, 4b, 4c are wound in a single or multiple manner, and then fixed by adhesion, welding, bolting, clips, rope knots, or the like.
実施例1の構造物1は橋脚であるが、地震の水平力が作用したとき脆性破壊が最も頻繁に発生する橋脚の柱下部(本発明の脚下部)に連結帯4aが設けられ、これによって甲殻パイプ2を構造物1に緊締している。また、次の頻度で破壊が起こる柱中央部(本発明の脚中央部)または脚高さの1/3の高さ付近には結帯4bが設けられて甲殻パイプ2を構造物1に緊締し、さらに柱上部(本発明の脚上部)には連結帯4bが設けられて甲殻パイプ2を構造物1に緊締している。そして、これらの緊締位置は地震時に作用する応力が許容値を越えると予測される位置である。   Although the structure 1 of Example 1 is a pier, the connection belt | band | zone 4a is provided in the pillar lower part (lower leg of this invention) of a bridge pier in which a brittle fracture occurs most frequently when the horizontal force of an earthquake acts, and thereby The shell pipe 2 is fastened to the structure 1. In addition, a bandage 4b is provided in the central part of the column (the central part of the leg of the present invention) where destruction occurs at the following frequency or in the vicinity of 1/3 of the leg height, and the shell pipe 2 is fastened to the structure 1. Further, a connecting band 4b is provided at the upper part of the column (the upper part of the leg of the present invention) to fasten the shell pipe 2 to the structure 1. These tightening positions are positions where the stress acting during an earthquake is predicted to exceed an allowable value.
ところで、地震の力が加わるとき、構造物1の構造特性によって破壊される位置は異なる。橋脚と同様に柱部分を備えた構造物1の場合、質量の大きな部分に水平力が作用すると、慣性力で柱下部に最も大きな曲げモーメントが加わって柱下部から破壊される。柱下部に向って徐徐に増加する分布荷重が作用するような構造物1の場合は、柱下部から1/3程度の高さの位置に最大の曲げモーメントが加わって破壊される。また、上下動の力が作用する場合は、柱中央部、次に柱下部、柱上部に大きな応力が加わることが多い。   By the way, when an earthquake force is applied, the position where the structure 1 is broken differs depending on the structural characteristics of the structure 1. In the case of the structure 1 having the column portion as in the case of the pier, when a horizontal force acts on a portion having a large mass, the inertial force causes the largest bending moment to be applied to the column lower portion and the column 1 is destroyed from the column lower portion. In the case of the structure 1 in which a distributed load that gradually increases toward the lower part of the column acts, the structure 1 is destroyed by applying a maximum bending moment to a position about 1/3 of the height from the lower part of the column. In addition, when a vertical movement force is applied, a large stress is often applied to the central portion of the column, then the lower portion of the column, and the upper portion of the column.
しかし、実施例1の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体は、連結帯4a,4b,4cの緊締力(締め付け力)と、連結帯4a,4b,4cを設置する緊締位置及び緊締幅を構造物1の特性に応じて調整することが可能であり、その構造物1にとって最大の応力が加わる部分を中心に、所定の応力以上の部位(幅)を連結帯4a,4b,4cで締め付けるから、構造物1の構造特性に従って補強の程度を簡単に調整することができる。   However, the shell-pipe seismic structure of Example 1 is characterized in that the tightening force (tightening force) of the connection bands 4a, 4b, 4c, the tightening position and the tightening width where the connection bands 4a, 4b, 4c are installed are the characteristics of the structure 1. Since the portion (width) greater than or equal to the predetermined stress is tightened by the connecting bands 4a, 4b, and 4c, with the center where the maximum stress is applied to the structure 1, the structure 1 The degree of reinforcement can be easily adjusted according to the structural characteristics.
このように、実施例1においては連結帯4a,4b,4cが3箇所の緊締位置に所定幅、所定の緊締力で設けたが、柱下部、柱上部、柱中央部、脚高さの1/3の高さ付近のうち少なくとも1部位以上の緊締位置で緊締すればよい。設置箇所をさらに増加してもよいし、構造によっては最も負荷のかかる柱下部の連結帯4aだけとするのでも、あるいは柱下部、柱中央部の連結帯4a,4bだけを緊締するのでもよい。また、連結帯4a,4b,4cを甲殻パイプ2と同様の構成の甲殻パイプを使って構成することも可能である。   As described above, in the first embodiment, the connecting bands 4a, 4b, and 4c are provided at the three tightening positions with the predetermined width and the predetermined tightening force, but the column lower part, the column upper part, the column central part, and the leg height 1 The tightening may be performed at the tightening position of at least one part in the vicinity of the height of / 3. The number of installation locations may be further increased, or depending on the structure, only the connection band 4a at the lower part of the column, which is the most loaded, or only the connection bands 4a and 4b at the lower part of the column and the center of the column may be tightened. . In addition, the connecting bands 4a, 4b, and 4c can be configured using a shell pipe having the same configuration as the shell pipe 2.
連結帯4a,4b,4cはワイヤー(金属あるいは繊維質補強樹脂を主材料としたもの)、カーボン板等の繊維質補強樹脂を主材料としたクロス、鉄板ボルト締めによる帯鉄、ロープなどが好適で、連結帯4a,4b,4cによる構造物1と複数の甲殻パイプ2の緊締力は、地震時に甲殻パイプ2が構造物1を拘束し(摩擦、圧接、食い込みによって抵抗力となる)、両者が一体となった運動ができればよい。実施例1においては、連結帯4aはワイヤー巻、連結帯4bはクロス巻、連結帯4cは帯鉄巻にしている。勿論これに限られるものではない。連結帯4a,4b,4cの横幅は構造物1と連動できるだけの十分な付着力(摩擦、圧接、食い込みによる力)が得られればよく、図1に示す柱下部、柱中央部に設けられる連結帯4a,4bは柱上部より幅広になっている。   The connecting bands 4a, 4b, and 4c are preferably wires (made of metal or fiber reinforced resin as a main material), cloths made of fiber reinforced resin such as carbon plate as a main material, band iron by tightening iron plate bolts, ropes, etc. Thus, the tightening force of the structure 1 and the plurality of shell pipes 2 by the connecting bands 4a, 4b, 4c is that the shell pipe 2 restrains the structure 1 at the time of an earthquake (resisting force is generated by friction, pressure welding, and biting). Should be able to exercise together. In the first embodiment, the connection band 4a is wire wound, the connection band 4b is cross-winding, and the connection band 4c is band-wound. Of course, it is not limited to this. The connection bands 4a, 4b, and 4c need only have a sufficient adhesive force (friction, pressure contact, and force due to biting) that can be interlocked with the structure 1, and are provided at the lower part of the column and the central part of the column shown in FIG. The bands 4a and 4b are wider than the column top.
甲殻パイプ2の長さは、実施例1の橋脚の場合、脚部分の高さ分だけあるのが望ましいが、構造物1の状況で、例えば柱中央部までの高さでも、場合によっては柱下部だけの高さでもよい。ただこの場合、地震の水平力が作用したとき橋脚の重量で脚部分が揺れ、甲殻パイプ2を座屈させる可能性が生じるので、できれば橋脚の脚半分以上の高さにするのが好適である。   In the case of the pier of the first embodiment, the length of the crust pipe 2 is preferably equal to the height of the leg portion. However, in the situation of the structure 1, for example, even the height to the center of the column may be a column. It may be the height only at the bottom. However, in this case, when the horizontal force of the earthquake acts, the leg part will sway due to the weight of the pier, and the shell pipe 2 may be buckled, so it is preferable to make it higher than half the pier leg if possible. .
次に、図1,図3(a)(b)に示すように、5は構造物1のフーチングであり、6は地表面である。さらに、図3(a)において、7は構造物1の周囲でフーチング5上に複数の甲殻パイプ2を並べてその脚元の型枠にコンクリートを打設して形成した支持部であり、また、図3(b)に示す8はフーチング5上に形成された複数の挿入孔である。挿入孔8には甲殻パイプ2の下端がそれぞれ差し込まれ、ポリマーコンクリート、ポリマーモルタル、コンクリート、モルタル、樹脂等でしっかりと固定される。これにより、複数の甲殻パイプ2が、構造物1のフーチング若しくはフーチングに設けられた基礎または支持地盤で確実に支持されることになる。   Next, as shown in FIGS. 1, 3 (a) and 3 (b), 5 is a footing of the structure 1, and 6 is the ground surface. Further, in FIG. 3 (a), reference numeral 7 denotes a support portion formed by arranging a plurality of shell pipes 2 on the footing 5 around the structure 1 and placing concrete on the form of the leg, Reference numeral 8 shown in FIG. 3B denotes a plurality of insertion holes formed on the footing 5. The lower end of the shell pipe 2 is inserted into the insertion hole 8 and is firmly fixed with polymer concrete, polymer mortar, concrete, mortar, resin or the like. As a result, the plurality of shell pipes 2 are reliably supported by the footing of the structure 1 or the foundation or support ground provided in the footing.
ここで、実施例1の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体の作用についてさらに詳しく説明する。図2に示すように、構造物1の脚の周囲に複数の甲殻パイプ2が接触して立設され、連結帯4a,4b,4cで連結されている。まず、水平力の地震力が作用した場合について説明する。   Here, the effect | action of the crust pipe earthquake-proof structure of Example 1 is demonstrated in detail. As shown in FIG. 2, a plurality of shell pipes 2 are erected in contact with the periphery of the legs of the structure 1 and are connected by connecting bands 4a, 4b, and 4c. First, a case where horizontal seismic force is applied will be described.
構造物1の重量の大きな部分には、地盤が地震で水平に動くと慣性力が働き、脚部分は大きく撓む。図2のように脚部分が幅b、高さhの矩形状の断面を有する場合、幅bの面に対してこの慣性力、すなわちせん断力Fが作用したとすると、脚と甲殻パイプ2は組み合わせ梁のように撓むことになる。   When the ground moves horizontally due to an earthquake, an inertial force acts on the heavy portion of the structure 1 and the leg portion is greatly bent. When the leg portion has a rectangular cross section with a width b and a height h as shown in FIG. 2, if this inertial force, that is, a shearing force F acts on the surface with the width b, the leg and the shell pipe 2 are It will bend like a combination beam.
ここで、甲殻パイプ2の縦弾性係数をEp、橋脚の縦弾性係数をEcとし、甲殻パイプ2の断面二次モーメントをIp、橋脚の脚の断面二次モーメントをIc、さらに甲殻パイプ2の本数をn本、甲殻パイプ2一本の断面積Apとすると、橋脚の脚に作用する最大せん断応力τは柱下部の中央付近で生じ、組み合わせ梁で近似できると考えた場合、おおよそ(F/b)(Ec・b・h/8+Ep・n・Ap・h/2・h/(b+h))/(Ec・Ic+n・Ep・Ip)程度になる。曲げに伴う歪みは中立軸からの距離に比例し、全断面に作用する圧縮応力と引張応力の総和を0、せん断応力τは幅b方向にほぼ一様に分布しているものとする。橋脚の縦弾性係数Ecは鉄筋コンクリートとしたときの見掛けの値である。そして、せん断力Fの方向と平行な方向に並んだ甲殻パイプ2はn本のうちh・n/(b+h)本であり、残りのb・n/(b+h)本が橋脚の曲げに対して主たる抵抗を示すものとする。 Here, the longitudinal elastic modulus of the shell pipe 2 is Ep, the longitudinal elastic modulus of the pier is Ec, the secondary moment of section of the shell pipe 2 is Ip, the secondary moment of inertia of the pier leg is Ic, and the number of shell pipes 2 Where n is the cross-sectional area Ap of one shell pipe 2 and the maximum shear stress τ acting on the pier leg is generated near the center of the lower part of the column. ) (Ec · b · h 2 /8 + Ep · n · Ap · h / 2 · h / (b + h)) / (Ec · Ic + n · Ep · Ip) becomes extent. The strain accompanying bending is proportional to the distance from the neutral axis, the sum of the compressive stress and tensile stress acting on the entire cross section is 0, and the shear stress τ is distributed almost uniformly in the width b direction. The longitudinal elastic modulus Ec of the pier is an apparent value when reinforced concrete is used. The crust pipes 2 arranged in a direction parallel to the direction of the shearing force F are h · n / (b + h) out of n, and the remaining b · n / (b + h) are against bending of the pier. The main resistance shall be indicated.
これに対して、補強がない場合の最大せん断応力τcは概ねF・h/8・Icであるから、τ=τc・(1+α・4n・γ・h/(b+h))/(1+α・β・n)となる。ここで、α=Ep/Ec、β=Ip/Ic、γ=Ap/Ac、Ac=b・hであり、通常αはα=15程度、βは甲殻パイプ2と建造物の形状と大きさによる。 In contrast, since the maximum shear stress .tau.c when no reinforcement is approximately F · h 2/8 · Ic , τ = τc · (1 + α · 4n · γ · h / (b + h)) / (1 + α · β N) Where α = Ep / Ec, β = Ip / Ic, γ = Ap / Ac, Ac = b · h, where α is usually about α = 15 and β is the shape and size of the shell pipe 2 and the building. by.
甲殻パイプ2は充填材3の作用で直径dの丸棒に近似できる断面二次モーメントを有しているとすると、最大せん断応力τをτ<τcにするには4γ・h/(b+h)<β程度にすればよい。例えば、上記橋脚の場合、h/32(b+h)<dであればよい。橋脚の脚がb=hの形状で正方形の場合には、上記目安値はd>h/8程度となる。しかし、この値は、本発明が新たな補強方法のため、従来の繊維シートや炭素繊維などの補強方法、鋼板まきたて工法のように補強設計の方法が確立されておらず、近似に基づく目安にすぎない。 Assuming that the shell pipe 2 has a second moment of section that can be approximated to a round bar having a diameter d by the action of the filler 3, in order to set the maximum shear stress τ to τ <τc, 4γ · h / (b + h) < It may be about β. For example, in the case of the pier, h 3/32 (b + h) < may be a d 2. When the pier leg is a square with b = h, the reference value is about d> h / 8. However, this value is based on an approximation because the present invention is a new reinforcing method, and a reinforcing method such as a conventional fiber sheet or carbon fiber, or a reinforcing steel design method is not established as in the steel sheet turning method. It is only a guide.
実際には精度の高い計算は複雑で、連結帯4a,4b,4cの締め付け程度で甲殻パイプ2の橋脚への付着力が異なるし、上記計算では無視したせん断力Fと平行な面方向に配置されたh・n/(b+h)本の甲殻パイプ2が抵抗として機能し、これらが橋脚に作用するせん断力F、曲げモーメントを分担するから、また、パイプの形状と材質、充填材3の材料の選択によってこれらの値は変化し、個々の場合で異なった値となる。従って、実際には高さh若しくは幅bの1/30〜1/15以上、本体強度に余裕が見込まれる場合は1/40以上の大きさにすればτ<τcを十分実現することができる。   Actually, the calculation with high accuracy is complicated, and the adhesion force to the pier of the crust pipe 2 differs depending on the tightening of the connection bands 4a, 4b, 4c, and it is arranged in the plane direction parallel to the shearing force F ignored in the above calculation. The h · n / (b + h) shell pipes 2 function as resistance, and these share the shearing force F and bending moment acting on the pier, and the shape and material of the pipe and the material of the filler 3 Depending on the choice, these values will vary and will differ in each case. Therefore, in practice, τ <τc can be sufficiently realized by setting the height h or width b to 1/30 to 1/15 or more, and if the body strength is expected to be 1/40 or more. .
続いて、直下型の地震で橋脚に上下方向のインパルス状の振動が入力されたときの説明を行う。橋脚の質量をM、甲殻パイプの付着力(パイプが連結帯4a,4b,4cが締め付けられたことによる摩擦、圧接、食い込みによる力)による減衰係数をc、橋脚のバネ係数をkとすると、地震による入力があったときの橋脚の応答は(1/Mq)・e−ξωtなる振幅を有するsin(qt)の振動と考えることができる。ここに、ω=(k/M)1/2、ξ=c/2・(Mk)1/2、q=ω(1−ξ1/2である。図4において、Mω・h(t)が橋脚の上下方向の変化量を示す。甲殻パイプ2が橋脚へ強く密着し、食い込むと、ξ、すなわち減衰係数cが大きくなり、図4に示すように過渡的な応答の振幅が小さくなって抵抗が大きくなる。 Next, an explanation will be given of when an impulse-like vibration in the vertical direction is input to the pier in a direct earthquake. If the mass of the pier is M, the damping coefficient due to the adhesion force of the shell pipe (the friction, pressure, and biting force due to the pipes being fastened to the connecting bands 4a, 4b, 4c) is c, and the spring coefficient of the pier is k, The response of the pier when there is an input due to an earthquake can be considered as a vibration of sin (qt) having an amplitude of (1 / Mq) · e− ξωt . Here, ω = (k / M) 1/2 , ξ = c / 2 · (Mk) 1/2 , and q = ω (1-ξ 2 ) 1/2 . In FIG. 4, Mω · h (t) indicates the amount of change in the vertical direction of the pier. When the crust pipe 2 comes into close contact with the pier and bites in, the ξ, that is, the damping coefficient c increases, and the amplitude of the transient response decreases as shown in FIG. 4 and the resistance increases.
すなわち、地震の上下動が入力され、橋脚が慣性で遅れて運動しようとすると、甲殻パイプ2が付着力でこの運動に抵抗する。このとき甲殻パイプ2は橋脚から大きな圧縮力を受けるが、連結帯4a,4b,4cで甲殻パイプ2全体に力を均等に分散する。パイプには充填材3が充填されているから、単純なパイプより圧縮に耐え、座屈を回避することができる。また、仮に座屈が起きても、橋脚自体の破壊が免れれば、甲殻パイプ耐震構造体は役目を十分に果たしたことになるし、甲殻パイプ耐震構造体を補修するのは橋脚本体が損壊した場合に比べてきわめて容易であり、無視できる程度に安価である。   That is, when the vertical motion of the earthquake is inputted and the pier tries to move with inertia, the crust pipe 2 resists this movement with adhesive force. At this time, the shell pipe 2 receives a large compressive force from the pier, but the force is evenly distributed over the entire shell pipe 2 by the connection bands 4a, 4b, and 4c. Since the pipe is filled with the filler 3, it can withstand compression and avoid buckling than a simple pipe. In addition, even if buckling occurs, if the pier itself is not destroyed, the crust pipe seismic structure has fully fulfilled its role, and repairing the crust pipe seismic structure will damage the pier body. Compared to the case, it is extremely easy and inexpensive enough to be ignored.
実際の地震は、上述したインパルス状の地盤の上下動による力だけが作用する場合は稀であり、上下方向と水平方向の力が前後して作用する場合、若しくは主として水平方向の力が作用する場合か、のどちらかになることが多いが、実施例1の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体は、上述したような2方向の作用を奏することにより、橋脚の破壊を免れさせることができる。   An actual earthquake is rare when only the force due to the vertical movement of the impulse-shaped ground described above is applied, and when the vertical and horizontal forces are applied back and forth, or mainly the horizontal force is applied. In many cases, the crust pipe earthquake-proof structure according to the first embodiment can avoid the destruction of the pier by exerting the action in the two directions as described above.
このように実施例1の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体及び甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法は、予想外の地震に対応することが容易で、補強材が軽量であり、大型の機械を必要とせず、安価且つ簡単、短期間に施工でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更、短工期の耐震改修が容易に行える。ねじりや過度の繰り返し力に対して従来の鉄筋コンクリート構造より対応できる幅が大きくなる。そして、橋脚のようなコンクリート構造だけでなく、レンガ積み構造、石積み構造にも適用可能である。   As described above, the crust pipe seismic structure and the crust pipe seismic reinforcement method of the first embodiment are easy to cope with unexpected earthquakes, the reinforcing material is lightweight, does not require a large machine, and is inexpensive and simple. It can be constructed in a short period of time, can be finely adjusted according to the degree of load, can easily change the reinforcement after construction, and can make earthquake-resistant repairs in a short construction period. The width which can respond to torsion and excessive repetitive force than the conventional reinforced concrete structure becomes large. And it is applicable not only to a concrete structure like a pier but also to a brick structure and a masonry structure.
そして、橋脚の場合、連結帯が柱下部、柱上部、柱中央部、脚高さの1/3の高さ付近のうち少なくとも1部位以上の緊締位置で緊締されるため、橋脚を安価且つ簡単、短期間に耐震補強でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更が容易に行える。   And in the case of a pier, the connection ties are tightened at a tightening position of at least one part among the column lower part, the column upper part, the column central part, and the vicinity of the height of 1/3 of the leg height. Can be seismically reinforced in a short period of time, can be finely adjusted according to the degree of load, and can easily change the reinforcement after construction.
(実施例2)
本発明の実施例2における構造物は梁、桁、プレストレストコンクリート構造体等であり、これらの耐震補強を行う甲殻パイプ耐震構造体及び甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法である。図5は本発明の実施例2における構造物に対する甲殻パイプ耐震構造体の全体斜視図、図6はプレストレストコンクリート構造物の一部破断した構成図である。実施例1と実施例2とで、同一符号は同様の構成を示すものであり、説明は省略する。
(Example 2)
The structure in Example 2 of this invention is a beam, a girder, a prestressed concrete structure, etc., and is a crust pipe seismic structure and a crust pipe seismic reinforcement method for performing such seismic reinforcement. FIG. 5 is an overall perspective view of a shell-pipe seismic structure for a structure according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention, and FIG. 6 is a partially broken structural view of a prestressed concrete structure. In the first embodiment and the second embodiment, the same reference numerals indicate the same configuration and the description thereof is omitted.
図5において、4d,4e,4fは甲殻パイプ2を緊締するための連結帯(本発明の連結体)、10はコンクリート建築物の柱、11はそのコンクリート建築物の梁である。図5は梁11の場合を示しているが、橋桁等の桁においても同様である。なお、甲殻パイプ2は実施例1と同様に、鉄等の金属あるいはFRP,グラスファイバー等の繊維質補強合成樹脂等から構成される。   In FIG. 5, 4d, 4e, 4f are connecting bands (connecting body of the present invention) for tightening the shell pipe 2, 10 is a pillar of the concrete building, and 11 is a beam of the concrete building. Although FIG. 5 shows the case of the beam 11, the same applies to a girder such as a bridge girder. The shell pipe 2 is made of a metal such as iron or a fiber-reinforced synthetic resin such as FRP or glass fiber as in the first embodiment.
実施例2においては、コンクリート建築物の梁11を耐震補強するために、連結帯4d,4e,4fが梁11の両端部と中央の3箇所で梁11に巻き付けられ、樹脂接着されて、梁11の下面に配設された複数の甲殻パイプ2を固定されている。両端部と中央の3箇所で固定した理由は、梁11にほぼ一様な分布荷重がかかっている場合には、梁11の中央に最大の曲げモーメントが作用しており、地震発生時にはこれに地震によるモーメントが加わるからである。そして、柱10と接合されている両端部も、梁11が左右に動くことにより、大きなせん断力を受けて破壊されるため、実施例2においては梁11の両端部を連結帯4d,4fで補強している。なお、梁11の中央部、両端部のうち端部の一方を含む少なくとも2部位以上の緊締位置で緊締すれば最小限の作用を奏す。   In Example 2, in order to seismically reinforce the beam 11 of the concrete building, the connecting bands 4d, 4e, and 4f are wound around the beam 11 at the three ends of the beam 11 and the center, and are bonded with resin. A plurality of shell pipes 2 disposed on the lower surface of 11 are fixed. The reason for fixing at both ends and the center is that when the beam 11 is almost uniformly distributed, the maximum bending moment acts on the center of the beam 11, and this is the case when an earthquake occurs. This is because a moment from an earthquake is added. Also, both ends joined to the column 10 are also broken by receiving a large shearing force when the beam 11 moves left and right, so in the second embodiment, both ends of the beam 11 are connected by the connection bands 4d and 4f. It is reinforced. In addition, if it tightens in the tightening position of the at least 2 site | part or more including one of the center part of the beam 11 and both ends, there exists a minimum effect | action.
実施例2の梁11は、梁11にかかるモーメントの大きさを反映して、中央の連結帯4eは最も緊締力のあるクロス二重張りとし、両端部の連結帯4d,4fにはクロス一重張りを採用している。これらの緊締幅は所定の応力以上になる範囲を緊締すればよい。なお、甲殻パイプ2は、長手方向の長さが梁11の長さと同一程度であればよく、梁11の下面に沿って配置され、連結帯4d,4e,4fにより梁11に緊締されていればよい。そして、甲殻パイプ2の両端は柱10に当接させるのが好適であるが、座屈等を考慮して両端に若干の間隙を設けて配置するのでもよい。   The beam 11 of the second embodiment reflects the magnitude of the moment applied to the beam 11, and the central connecting band 4e is cross-stretched with the most tightening force, and the connecting bands 4d and 4f at both ends have a single cross. Adopts tension. These tightening widths may be tightened within a range that is equal to or greater than a predetermined stress. It should be noted that the shell pipe 2 only needs to have the same length in the longitudinal direction as the length of the beam 11, and is disposed along the lower surface of the beam 11, and is fastened to the beam 11 by the connection bands 4 d, 4 e, 4 f. That's fine. It is preferable that both ends of the shell pipe 2 are brought into contact with the column 10, but it may be arranged with a slight gap at both ends in consideration of buckling or the like.
続いて、図6はプレストレストコンクリート(ポストテンション方式)構造体(以下、PC構造体)に対する甲殻パイプ耐震構造体及び甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法を示している。4g,4h,4iはワイヤー、カーボン板等の繊維質補強樹脂を主材料としたクロス、鉄板ボルト締めによる帯鉄、ロープなどの連結帯、13はPC構造体、14はPC構造体13に設けられたシース、15は緊張鋼材、16は圧力を受ける支持板、17はグリップ、18はキャップ、19はコンクリート支持体である。PC構造体13は、シース14が埋め込まれた型枠を準備し、シース14の周囲に生コンクリートを供給し、これが硬化した後に型枠を取り除く。その後、シース14に緊張鋼材15を挿入し、ジャッキ等で引張応力を与え、この状態で緊張鋼材15の端部を支持板16、グリップ17で固定し、シース14と緊張鋼材15との間に固定剤を充填して硬化させたものである。   Next, FIG. 6 shows a crust pipe seismic structure and a crust pipe seismic reinforcement method for a prestressed concrete (post-tension method) structure (hereinafter, PC structure). 4g, 4h, and 4i are crosses made of fiber reinforced resin such as wires and carbon plates, main bands by iron plate bolting, connecting bands such as ropes, 13 is a PC structure, and 14 is provided in the PC structure 13. 15 is a tension steel material, 16 is a support plate that receives pressure, 17 is a grip, 18 is a cap, and 19 is a concrete support. The PC structure 13 prepares a mold in which the sheath 14 is embedded, supplies ready concrete around the sheath 14, and removes the mold after it is cured. Thereafter, the tension steel material 15 is inserted into the sheath 14 and a tensile stress is applied with a jack or the like. In this state, the end of the tension steel material 15 is fixed with the support plate 16 and the grip 17, and the sheath 14 and the tension steel material 15 are interposed. It is one that is filled with a fixing agent and cured.
さて、PC構造体13に対する実施例2の耐震補強は、PC構造体13の底面に、上記梁11の場合と同様、金属あるいはFRP,グラスファイバー等の繊維質補強合成樹脂等からなる甲殻パイプ2を配置し、連結帯4g,4h,4iによってPC構造体13と甲殻パイプ2を周囲から緊締して構成する。地震時にはPC構造体13の両端部と中央部で曲げが抑えられ、甲殻パイプ2と連結帯4g,4h,4iが一体となって補強するものである。   Now, the seismic reinforcement of Example 2 for the PC structure 13 is similar to the case of the beam 11 on the bottom surface of the PC structure 13 and the shell pipe 2 made of metal, fiber reinforced synthetic resin such as FRP, glass fiber or the like. The PC structure 13 and the shell pipe 2 are tightened from the surroundings by the connecting bands 4g, 4h and 4i. During an earthquake, bending is suppressed at both ends and the center of the PC structure 13, and the shell pipe 2 and the connection bands 4g, 4h, 4i are integrally reinforced.
上述の梁11で説明したとおり、連結帯4hは最も緊締力を増すためクロス二重張りとして樹脂接着し、両端部の連結帯4g,4iにはクロス一重張りとして樹脂接着する。甲殻パイプ2の長手方向の長さはPC構造体13の長さと同一でよく、PC構造体13の底面に沿って連結帯連結帯4g,4h,4iが張り付き、支持するものであればよい。また、甲殻パイプ2の両端は柱10に当接させるのが好適であるが、両端に間隙を設けて配置するのでもよい。なお、連結帯4g,4h,4iはクロス巻のほか、ワイヤー巻、帯鉄巻などでもよい。   As described above with reference to the beam 11, the connection band 4h is resin-bonded as a cross double tension to increase the tightening force most, and the connection bands 4g and 4i at both ends are resin-bonded as a cross single tension. The length of the crustaceal pipe 2 in the longitudinal direction may be the same as the length of the PC structure 13 as long as the connection band connecting bands 4g, 4h, 4i stick to and support the bottom surface of the PC structure 13. Moreover, although it is suitable for the both ends of the crustacean pipe 2 to contact | abut the pillar 10, you may arrange | position by providing a gap | interval in both ends. The connecting bands 4g, 4h, 4i may be wire winding, band iron winding, etc. in addition to cross winding.
このように実施例2の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体及び甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法は、梁、桁やPC構造物などを耐震補強することが容易で、補強材が軽量であり、大型の機械を必要とせず、安価且つ簡単、短期間に施工できる。構造物に対する負荷に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更、短工期の耐震改修が容易に行える。   Thus, the crust pipe seismic structure and the crust pipe seismic reinforcement method of Example 2 are easy to seismically reinforce beams, girders, PC structures, etc., the reinforcing material is lightweight, and a large machine is required. It is inexpensive, simple and can be constructed in a short time. Fine adjustments can be made according to the load on the structure, making it possible to easily change the reinforcement after construction and make earthquake-resistant repairs in a short construction period.
そして、梁、桁またはPC構造物において、連結帯が構造物の中央部、両端部のうち端部の一方を含む少なくとも2部位以上の緊締位置で緊締されるため、梁、桁またはPC構造物を安価且つ簡単、短期間に耐震補強でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更が容易に行える。   In the beam, girder, or PC structure, the connecting band is tightened at a tightening position of at least two sites including one of the end portions of the center portion and both ends of the structure. Can be easily seismically reinforced in a short period of time, and can be finely adjusted according to the degree of load, making it easy to change the reinforcement after construction.
(実施例3)
本発明の実施例3における構造物は擁壁であり、地震時に擁壁が崩落することが多いので、これを耐震補強する甲殻パイプ耐震構造体及び甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法である。図7(a)は本発明の実施例3における構造物に対する甲殻パイプ耐震構造体の一部破砕斜視図、図7(b)は(a)の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体のY−Y断面図である。実施例3と実施例1とで、同一符号は同様の構成を示すものであり、説明は省略する。
(Example 3)
The structure in the third embodiment of the present invention is a retaining wall, and the retaining wall often collapses at the time of an earthquake. FIG. 7A is a partially broken perspective view of a crust pipe earthquake proof structure for a structure in Example 3 of the present invention, and FIG. 7B is a YY cross-sectional view of the crust pipe earthquake proof structure of FIG. is there. In the third embodiment and the first embodiment, the same reference numerals indicate the same configuration, and the description thereof is omitted.
図7(a)(b)において、4jは甲殻パイプ2と交差してこれを固定するための連結体、20は一方側に堆積された土砂を支えるL字型の擁壁、21はその擁壁20に支えられる土砂である。擁壁21は垂直壁(本発明の立設壁)とこれを支えるフーチング(支持部)から構成されている。   7 (a) and 7 (b), 4j is a connecting body for crossing and fixing the shell pipe 2, 20 is an L-shaped retaining wall for supporting the sediment deposited on one side, and 21 is its retaining wall. It is earth and sand supported by the wall 20. The retaining wall 21 includes a vertical wall (standing wall according to the present invention) and a footing (supporting portion) that supports the vertical wall.
ここで、連結体4jは実施例1,2と同様、ワイヤー(金属あるいは繊維質補強樹脂を主材料としたもの)、カーボン板等の繊維質補強樹脂を主材料としたクロス、鉄板ボルト締めによる帯鉄、ロープなども使用可能であるが、構成を簡単にするため金属や樹脂の棒材、またはパイプが好適である。中でも、連結体4jをパイプにすると軽量となり、強度上甲殻パイプ2と同様の甲殻パイプにするのが安価であり、構成も最も簡単で最適である。擁壁20はレンガ積み構造、石積み構造、テールアルメでもよい。   Here, the connection body 4j is the same as in the first and second embodiments, such as a wire (made of metal or fiber reinforced resin as a main material), a cloth mainly made of fiber reinforced resin such as a carbon plate, or by fastening an iron plate bolt. Bands, ropes, and the like can be used, but metal or resin rods or pipes are suitable for simplifying the configuration. Among these, when the connecting body 4j is made into a pipe, the weight is reduced, and it is inexpensive to make a shell pipe similar to the strength upper shell pipe 2, and the structure is the simplest and most suitable. The retaining wall 20 may be a brick masonry structure, a masonry structure, or a tail arme.
次に、22は受圧板であり、連結体4jと甲殻パイプ2を垂直壁面に押圧して固定するためのものである。23は固定板22、連結体4j、甲殻パイプ2を垂直壁面に押圧するため地中に固定されるアースアンカー、24はアースアンカー24の緊張部材(ワイヤー)を受圧板22に固定するための固定具である。なお、連結体4jとしてワイヤー、クロス、帯鉄、ロープなどを使用した場合は、受圧板22だけでなく、連結体4jの端部をアースアンカー24に固定して牽引する必要がある。   Next, 22 is a pressure receiving plate for pressing the connecting body 4j and the shell pipe 2 against the vertical wall surface and fixing them. Reference numeral 23 denotes a fixing plate 22, a connecting body 4 j, and an earth anchor that is fixed in the ground in order to press the shell pipe 2 against a vertical wall surface, and 24 is a fixing that fixes a tension member (wire) of the earth anchor 24 to the pressure receiving plate 22. It is a tool. In addition, when a wire, a cross, a band iron, a rope, etc. are used as the connection body 4j, it is necessary to fix not only the pressure receiving plate 22 but the edge part of the connection body 4j to the earth anchor 24, and tow.
擁壁20にかかる負荷はフーチングに近づくにつれて次第に増加するので、連結体4jを設置する本数を擁壁20の垂直壁高さに応じて変化させるのがよい。擁壁20の下位置では密に設置し、上方に向うにつれて疎に設置する。そして、フーチング前面(図7の土砂と反対側)の土が非常に柔らかく地震によって擁壁全体が前側に移動しない限り、地震による最大のせん断力が加わるのは垂直壁とフーチングの境目であるから、直壁とフーチングの境目となる位置に連結体4jを最も密になるように設置する。ワイヤー、クロス、帯鉄、ロープなどの場合も、フーチングに近いほど強度の高いもの、幅広のものを使用する。なお、テールアルメ型の垂直積み上げブロック式擁壁は腹膨れになることが多いから、垂直壁高さの中央で連結体4jが最も密になるように設置するのがよい。すなわち、擁壁20においては、連結体4jは垂直壁下部、垂直壁中央部のうち少なくともどちらか、さらには垂直壁に配置される他の本数を含めた複数の緊締位置で緊締されればよい。   Since the load applied to the retaining wall 20 gradually increases as it approaches the footing, it is preferable to change the number of the connecting bodies 4j to be installed according to the vertical wall height of the retaining wall 20. It installs densely under the retaining wall 20 and sparsely installs upward. And since the soil on the front of the footing (opposite to the earth and sand in Fig. 7) is very soft and the entire retaining wall does not move forward due to the earthquake, the maximum shearing force from the earthquake is at the boundary between the vertical wall and the footing The connecting body 4j is installed at the position that becomes the boundary between the straight wall and the footing so as to be the most dense. For wires, cloths, straps, ropes, etc., the closer to the footing, the stronger and wider. In addition, since the tail pile type vertical stacked block type retaining wall is often bulging, it is preferable to install the connecting body 4j so that it is the densest in the center of the vertical wall height. That is, in the retaining wall 20, the connecting body 4j may be tightened at a plurality of tightening positions including at least one of the lower part of the vertical wall and the central part of the vertical wall, and other numbers arranged on the vertical wall. .
このように実施例3の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体及び甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法は、擁壁等を耐震補強することが容易で、補強材が軽量であり、大型の機械を必要とせず、安価且つ簡単、短期間に施工できる。擁壁に対する負荷に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更、短工期の耐震改修が容易に行える。   Thus, the crust pipe seismic structure and the crust pipe seismic reinforcement method of Example 3 are easy to seismically reinforce the retaining wall, etc., the reinforcing material is lightweight, does not require a large machine, and is inexpensive and simple. Can be constructed in a short time. Fine adjustments can be made according to the load on the retaining wall, and it is easy to change the reinforcement after construction and to make earthquake-resistant repairs in the short construction period.
そして、連結体が垂直壁下部、垂直壁中央部のうち少なくとも1部位以上を含む緊締位置で緊締されるため、擁壁を安価且つ簡単、短期間に耐震補強でき、負荷の程度に応じたきめ細やかな調整が行え、施工後の補強の変更が容易に行える。   Since the connecting body is tightened at the tightening position including at least one part of the vertical wall lower part and the vertical wall central part, the retaining wall can be seismically reinforced at a low cost and in a short period of time, and it is determined according to the degree of load. Fine adjustments can be made, and the reinforcement after construction can be changed easily.
本発明は、構造物の耐震性を向上させる甲殻パイプ耐震構造体と甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法に適用することができる。   INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY The present invention can be applied to a shell pipe earthquake-resistant structure that improves the earthquake resistance of a structure and a shell pipe earthquake-proof reinforcement method.
本発明の実施例1における構造物に対する甲殻パイプ耐震構造体の全体図Overall view of the shell-pipe seismic structure for the structure in Example 1 of the present invention 図1の構造物のX−X断面図XX sectional view of the structure of FIG. (a)本発明の実施例1における構造物を補強する甲殻パイプを固定する方法の説明図、(b)本発明の実施例1における構造物を補強する甲殻パイプをフーチングに固定する説明図(A) Explanatory drawing of the method of fixing the shell pipe which reinforces the structure in Example 1 of this invention, (b) Explanatory drawing which fixes the crust pipe which reinforces the structure in Example 1 of this invention to a footing. 本発明の実施例1における構造物に対する甲殻パイプ耐震構造体の直下型地震による応答の説明図Explanatory drawing of the response by the direct type earthquake of a crust pipe earthquake proof structure to a structure in Example 1 of the present invention 本発明の実施例2における構造物に対する甲殻パイプ耐震構造体の全体斜視図Whole perspective view of a shell pipe seismic structure for a structure in Example 2 of the present invention プレストレストコンクリート構造物の一部破断した構成図Partially broken configuration diagram of prestressed concrete structure (a)本発明の実施例3における構造物に対する甲殻パイプ耐震構造体の一部破砕斜視図、(b)(a)の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体のY−Y断面図(A) Partially fragmented perspective view of the crust pipe earthquake proof structure for the structure in Example 3 of the present invention, (b) YY sectional view of the crust pipe earthquake proof structure of (a)
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
1 鉄筋コンクリート製の構造物
2 甲殻パイプ
3 充填材
4a,4b,4c,4d,4e,4f,4g,4h,4i 連結帯
4j 連結体
5 フーチング
6 地表面
7 支持部
8 挿入孔
10 柱
11 梁
13 PC構造体
14 シース
15 緊張鋼材
16 支持板
17 グリップ
18 キャップ
19 コンクリート支持体
20 擁壁
21 土砂
22 受圧板
23 アースアンカー
24 固定具
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Reinforced concrete structure 2 Shell pipe 3 Filler 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4f, 4g, 4h, 4i Connection band 4j Connection body 5 Footing 6 Ground surface 7 Support part 8 Insertion hole 10 Column 11 Beam 13 PC structure 14 Sheath 15 Tensile steel 16 Support plate 17 Grip 18 Cap 19 Concrete support 20 Retaining wall 21 Earth and sand 22 Pressure receiving plate 23 Earth anchor 24 Fixture

Claims (7)

  1. 圧縮強度を向上させるための充填材が内部に充填されると共に構造物の側面に接触して耐震補強を行う複数の甲殻パイプと、前記複数の甲殻パイプと前記構造物の地震時の動きを一体化するため前記複数の甲殻パイプを前記構造物の側面に圧接させる連結体とを備えた甲殻パイプ耐震構造体であって、前記連結体が地震時に作用する応力の大きさに応じた緊締力と緊締位置及び緊締幅で前記構造物に緊締されることを特徴とする甲殻パイプ耐震構造体。 A plurality of crust pipes that are filled with a filler for improving compressive strength and that are in contact with the side of the structure to provide seismic reinforcement, and the crust pipes and the movement of the structure during an earthquake are integrated. A crust pipe earthquake-resistant structure comprising a connecting body that presses the plurality of crust pipes against the side surface of the structure, wherein the connecting body has a tightening force according to the magnitude of stress acting during an earthquake, A shell-pipe seismic-resistant structure characterized by being tightened to the structure at a tightening position and a tightening width.
  2. 前記構造物が橋脚の場合、前記連結体が脚下部、脚上部、脚中央部、脚高さの1/3の高さ付近のうち少なくとも1部位以上の緊締位置で緊締されたことを特徴とする請求項1記載の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体。 When the structure is a bridge pier, the coupling body is tightened at a tightening position of at least one part among a lower leg portion, an upper leg portion, a middle leg portion, and a height of 1/3 of the leg height. The shell pipe earthquake-proof structure according to claim 1.
  3. 前記構造物が梁、桁またはプレストレストコンクリート構造物の場合、前記連結体が前記構造物の中央部、両端部のうち前記端部の一方を含む少なくとも2部位以上の緊締位置で緊締されたことを特徴とする請求項1記載の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体。 When the structure is a beam, a girder, or a prestressed concrete structure, the connecting body is tightened at a tightening position of at least two sites including one of the end portions of the center portion and both end portions of the structure. The shell pipe earthquake-proof structure according to claim 1, wherein
  4. 前記構造物が擁壁の場合、前記連結体が立設壁下部、立設壁中央部のうち少なくとも1部位以上を含む緊締位置で緊締されたことを特徴とする請求項1記載の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体。 2. The shell pipe seismic resistance according to claim 1, wherein, when the structure is a retaining wall, the coupling body is tightened at a tightening position including at least one portion of the standing wall lower part and the standing wall center part. Structure.
  5. 前記構造物が橋脚の場合、前記複数の甲殻パイプが前記橋脚の周囲のフーチング若しくはフーチングに設けられた基礎または支持地盤で支持され、垂直方向に向けて立設されたことを特徴とする請求項1または2記載の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体。 When the structure is a pier, the plurality of crust pipes are supported by a footing or a foundation provided on a footing around the pier, or are erected in a vertical direction. The shell pipe earthquake-resistant structure according to 1 or 2.
  6. 前記充填材が、砂,スラグ,モルタル,コンクリート,樹脂の1種または2種以上から構成されたことを特徴とする請求項1〜5のいずれかに記載の甲殻パイプ耐震構造体。 The shell pipe earthquake-resistant structure according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the filler is composed of one or more of sand, slag, mortar, concrete, and resin.
  7. 圧縮強度を向上させるための充填材が充填された複数の甲殻パイプを構造物の側面に接触させて配置し、前記複数の甲殻パイプと前記構造物の地震時の動きを一体化するため連結体によって前記複数の甲殻パイプを前記構造物の側面に圧接させる甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法であって、地震時に作用する応力の大きさに応じた緊締力と緊締位置及び緊締幅で前記連結体を前記構造物に緊締することを特徴とする甲殻パイプ耐震補強方法。 A plurality of shell pipes filled with a filler for improving the compressive strength are arranged in contact with the side surface of the structure, and a connecting body for integrating the movement of the plurality of shell pipes and the structure during an earthquake. A method for seismic reinforcement of a crust pipe by pressing the plurality of crust pipes against the side surface of the structure, wherein the coupling body is structured with a tightening force, a tightening position and a tightening width according to the magnitude of stress acting during an earthquake. Seismic reinforcement method for shell pipes, characterized by tightening to objects.
JP2006154363A 2006-06-02 2006-06-02 Pipe seismic structure and pipe seismic reinforcement method Expired - Fee Related JP4274487B2 (en)

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JP2014218822A (en) * 2013-05-08 2014-11-20 公益財団法人鉄道総合技術研究所 Reinforcement structure and reinforcement construction method for concrete member
JP2015094184A (en) * 2013-11-14 2015-05-18 三菱重工業株式会社 Seismic retrofitting construction method
JP2015196981A (en) * 2014-04-01 2015-11-09 株式会社国土再生研究所 Reinforcing structure of existing earth retaining wall
JP2016108922A (en) * 2014-11-28 2016-06-20 株式会社奥村組 Existing column reinforcement structure and reinforcement method
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JP2006118161A (en) * 2004-10-20 2006-05-11 East Japan Railway Co Aseismic reinforcing structure of pier and its construction method

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JP2005200928A (en) * 2004-01-15 2005-07-28 East Japan Railway Co Reinforcing structure of columnar construction
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JP2010077656A (en) * 2008-09-25 2010-04-08 Ohbayashi Corp Structure and method for seismically strengthening column
JP2011153452A (en) * 2010-01-27 2011-08-11 Jfe Steel Corp Method of reinforcing tower-like structure
CN102251481A (en) * 2011-05-06 2011-11-23 中铁七局集团第一工程有限公司 Railway pier layered construction method and construction device
CN102251481B (en) * 2011-05-06 2013-11-06 中铁七局集团第一工程有限公司 Railway pier layered construction method and construction device
CN102493341A (en) * 2011-11-14 2012-06-13 中交一航局第四工程有限公司 Construction method for hollow thin-walled high pier non-bracket formwork turnover of railway
JP2014066017A (en) * 2012-09-25 2014-04-17 East Japan Railway Co Structure and method for seismically strengthening concrete column
JP2014205989A (en) * 2013-04-12 2014-10-30 東日本旅客鉄道株式会社 Bridge pier reinforcing structure and bridge pier reinforcing method
JP2014218822A (en) * 2013-05-08 2014-11-20 公益財団法人鉄道総合技術研究所 Reinforcement structure and reinforcement construction method for concrete member
JP2015094184A (en) * 2013-11-14 2015-05-18 三菱重工業株式会社 Seismic retrofitting construction method
JP2015196981A (en) * 2014-04-01 2015-11-09 株式会社国土再生研究所 Reinforcing structure of existing earth retaining wall
JP2016108922A (en) * 2014-11-28 2016-06-20 株式会社奥村組 Existing column reinforcement structure and reinforcement method
WO2017194986A1 (en) * 2016-05-10 2017-11-16 Soletanche Freyssinet An improved reinforcement apparatus for reinforcing a structure comprising a pier and a cross- beam
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