JP2007271766A - Nonmagnetic monocomponent electrophotographic toner - Google Patents

Nonmagnetic monocomponent electrophotographic toner Download PDF

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JP2007271766A
JP2007271766A JP2006095265A JP2006095265A JP2007271766A JP 2007271766 A JP2007271766 A JP 2007271766A JP 2006095265 A JP2006095265 A JP 2006095265A JP 2006095265 A JP2006095265 A JP 2006095265A JP 2007271766 A JP2007271766 A JP 2007271766A
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toner
particle size
inorganic substance
substance particles
average particle
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Tadahiro Tsubaki
忠洋 椿
Tomofumi Sano
智文 佐野
Masahiro Maeda
正博 前田
Akira Fujisawa
亮 藤澤
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Casio Computer Co Ltd
Casio Electronics Co Ltd
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Casio Computer Co Ltd
Casio Electronics Co Ltd
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<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide nonmagnetic monocomponent electrophotographic toner which prevents the occurrence of white streaks due to aggregation of external additives, deterioration of a photoreceptor and contamination of a charging roll. <P>SOLUTION: Three kinds of inorganic substance particles different in particle size have been added to the toner, wherein the three kinds of inorganic substance particles are first inorganic substance particles having an average particle size of 1-20 nm, second inorganic substance particles having an average particle size of 20-50 nm which is larger than the average particle size of the first inorganic substance particles, and third inorganic substance particles having an average particle size of ≥50 nm which is larger than the average particle size of the second inorganic substance particles, and these inorganic substance particles are characterized in that primary aggregates have a particle size of ≤1.2 μm measured with a laser diffraction/scattering system particle size distribution measuring device. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2008,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、非磁性一成分電子写真用トナーに係り、特に、複数種の無機物質粒子を外添した非磁性一成分電子写真用トナーに関する。   The present invention relates to a non-magnetic one-component electrophotographic toner, and more particularly to a non-magnetic one-component electrophotographic toner to which a plurality of types of inorganic substance particles are externally added.

電子写真方式による画像形成は、一般に光導電性材料よりなる感光層を有するドラムに均一な静電荷を与えた後、画像露光を行うことにより、静電潜像を形成し、これを帯電したトナーで現像して可視化し、得られたトナー像を用紙に転写することにより行われる。   In electrophotographic image formation, an electrostatic latent image is generally formed by applying a uniform electrostatic charge to a drum having a photosensitive layer made of a photoconductive material, and then exposing the image to a charged toner. The toner image is developed and visualized, and the obtained toner image is transferred to a sheet.

現像剤としては、主にキャリアとトナーで構成される二成分現像剤と、キャリアを必要としない一成分現像剤がある。トナーの帯電は、二成分現像剤では、キャリアとトナーとの混合による摩擦で行い、一成分現像剤では、トナー同士の摩擦もしくは、現像ロールに圧接されているドクターブレードとの摩擦により行われる。   As the developer, there are a two-component developer mainly composed of a carrier and a toner, and a one-component developer which does not require a carrier. In the case of a two-component developer, the toner is charged by friction due to mixing of the carrier and the toner. In the case of a one-component developer, the toner is frictioned between the toners or by friction with a doctor blade pressed against the developing roll.

現像剤の種類によらず、主にトナーの流動性、帯電性を調整する目的で、トナー粒子の表面に外添剤を添加する方法が広く知られている。   Regardless of the type of developer, a method of adding an external additive to the surface of toner particles is widely known mainly for the purpose of adjusting the fluidity and chargeability of the toner.

近年のトナーに対する高度な要求に対して、トナーの外添技術もめざましい発展を遂げている。粒径の異なる外添剤(無機微粒子、樹脂微粒子等)を複数種類、さらに各々異なる表面処理を施して各々機能を担持させている。   In response to the recent high demands on toner, toner external addition technology has also made remarkable progress. A plurality of types of external additives (inorganic fine particles, resin fine particles, etc.) having different particle diameters, and different surface treatments are applied to carry the respective functions.

例えば、流動性を付与する小粒径シリカとトナー同士の接着を防止する大粒径シリカとを外添剤として添加したトナーが提案されている(例えば、特許文献1参照)。また、それぞれ疎水化処理された3種類の粒径の外添剤を添加したトナーも提案されている(例えば、特許文献2参照)。   For example, a toner is proposed in which a small particle size silica that imparts fluidity and a large particle size silica that prevents adhesion between the toners are added as external additives (see, for example, Patent Document 1). In addition, a toner having three types of external additives each having a hydrophobized treatment added has been proposed (see, for example, Patent Document 2).

しかし、外添剤の添加量が増えると、外添剤が凝集することにより生ずる様々な問題が生ずる。外添剤の凝集とは、外添工程でのトナーへの均一な付着及び外添剤の分散が悪化し、外添剤が凝集し、トナー中に混在してしまうことであり、多くの不具合を発生させる。例えば、外添剤の凝集により画像に白スジが発生してしまう。また、凝集物が感光体を傷つけたり、フィルミングを発生させてしまう。更に、転写後の感光体にクリーニングブレードを接触させ、転写残トナーをクリーニングする場合、外添剤の凝集物はトナー粒子に比べ小さいために、クリーニングされずにブレードを通過してしまい、帯電ロールを汚染させ、感光体への均一な帯電を阻害し、画像欠陥を招いてしまう。また、最適な帯電を付与することができなくなるという問題もある。   However, when the amount of the external additive is increased, various problems caused by the aggregation of the external additive occur. Aggregation of the external additive means that the uniform adhesion to the toner and the dispersion of the external additive deteriorate in the external addition process, and the external additive aggregates and mixes in the toner. Is generated. For example, white streaks occur in the image due to aggregation of external additives. Further, the aggregates damage the photoconductor or cause filming. Further, when cleaning the transfer residual toner by bringing a cleaning blade into contact with the photoconductor after transfer, the aggregate of the external additive is smaller than the toner particles, so that it passes through the blade without being cleaned, and the charging roll , The uniform charging of the photoreceptor is inhibited, and image defects are caused. There is also a problem that optimum charging cannot be applied.

このような外添剤の凝集物により生ずる問題は、従来からあったが、外添剤の添加量が増えることでより顕著に現れている。特に、複数の異なる外添剤を同時に添加する場合に顕著である。
特開平6−47157号公報 特開2004−258265号公報
The problem caused by such an agglomerate of the external additive has been conventionally present, but becomes more prominent as the amount of the external additive added increases. This is particularly noticeable when a plurality of different external additives are added simultaneously.
JP-A-6-47157 JP 2004-258265 A

本発明は、このような事情の下になされ、外添剤の凝集による生ずる白スジ、感光体の劣化、及び帯電ロール汚染を防止した非磁性一成分電子写真用トナーを提供することを目的とする。   An object of the present invention is to provide a non-magnetic one-component electrophotographic toner which is made under such circumstances and prevents white streaks caused by aggregation of external additives, deterioration of a photoreceptor and contamination of a charging roll. To do.

本発明者らは、上記問題を改善するため、検討を行った結果、粒径の異なる複数種類の外添剤を同時に添加する場合、外添剤の1次凝集体の粒径が、非磁性一成分現像方式に使用されるトナーの外添剤の凝集により生ずる問題に大きな影響を与えることを見出した。一般に、外添剤の粒径は1次粒径が問題とされてきたが、実際の外添剤の挙動は1次粒径粒子としてではなく、1次凝集体として挙動しており、その機能を発揮している。例えば、カタログ値:粒径100nmのチタニアを乾式粒度分布計で測定すると1μmである。このチタニアの凝集を解砕しようとしてミキサーにかけても、乾式粒度分布計により測定される粒径は殆ど変わらない。このことからチタニアはトナーに外添担持された後も1次凝集体として機能することが容易に推察できる。   As a result of studies conducted by the present inventors to improve the above problems, when a plurality of types of external additives having different particle sizes are added simultaneously, the particle size of the primary aggregate of the external additive is nonmagnetic. It has been found that the problem caused by aggregation of the external additives of the toner used in the one-component development system is greatly affected. In general, the primary particle size of the external additive has been regarded as a problem, but the actual behavior of the external additive is not the primary particle size, but the primary aggregate. Is demonstrating. For example, catalog value: 1 μm when titania having a particle size of 100 nm is measured with a dry particle size distribution meter. Even if it is applied to a mixer to break up the titania agglomeration, the particle size measured by a dry particle size distribution meter is hardly changed. From this, it can be easily inferred that titania functions as a primary aggregate even after being externally supported on the toner.

しかし、1次凝集体の粒径については、これまで何ら議論されてこなかった。本発明者らは、この外添剤の1次凝集体の粒径を、所定の値以下にすることにより、上述のトナーの外添剤の凝集により生ずる問題を解消し得ることを見出した。   However, the particle size of the primary aggregate has never been discussed. The present inventors have found that the problem caused by the aggregation of the external additive of the toner can be solved by setting the particle size of the primary aggregate of the external additive to a predetermined value or less.

即ち、本発明は、粒径の異なる3種類の無機物質粒子を外添したトナーであって、前記3種類の無機物質粒子は、平均粒径1〜20nmの第1の無機物質粒子、平均粒径20〜50nmであってかつ第1の無機物質粒子より大きい平均粒径の第2の無機物質粒子、及び平均粒径が50nm以上であってかつ第2の無機物質粒子より大きい平均粒径の第3の無機物質粒子であり、これら無機物質粒子は、レーザ回折/散乱式粒子径分布測定装置により測定された1次凝集体の粒径が1.2μm以下であることを特徴とする非磁性一成分電子写真用トナーを提供する。   That is, the present invention is a toner obtained by externally adding three kinds of inorganic substance particles having different particle diameters, and the three kinds of inorganic substance particles are first inorganic substance particles having an average particle diameter of 1 to 20 nm and average particles. A second inorganic material particle having a diameter of 20 to 50 nm and an average particle size larger than the first inorganic material particle; and an average particle size of 50 nm or more and an average particle size larger than the second inorganic material particle Non-magnetic particles characterized in that they are third inorganic material particles, and these inorganic material particles have a primary aggregate particle size of 1.2 μm or less measured by a laser diffraction / scattering particle size distribution measuring device. A one-component electrophotographic toner is provided.

かかる本発明の電子写真用トナーにおいて、第1の無機物質粒子と第2の無機物質粒子をシリカとし、第3の無機物質粒子をチタニアとすることができる。   In the electrophotographic toner of the present invention, the first inorganic substance particles and the second inorganic substance particles can be silica, and the third inorganic substance particles can be titania.

本発明の電子写真用トナーは、5〜7μmの平均粒径を有することが好ましい。   The electrophotographic toner of the present invention preferably has an average particle diameter of 5 to 7 μm.

本発明はまた、上述したトナーであって、トナーを担持搬送するための弾性現像ロールと、この弾性現像ロール上に前記トナーを薄層状に形成するように前記トナーの厚さを規制するためのトナー層規制部材とを備え、前記弾性現像ロールの搬送速度が100mm/秒以上である現像装置に用いられる電子写真用トナーを提供する。   The present invention is also the above-described toner, and an elastic developing roll for carrying and transporting the toner, and the thickness of the toner so as to form the toner in a thin layer on the elastic developing roll. An electrophotographic toner for use in a developing device comprising a toner layer regulating member and having a conveying speed of the elastic developing roll of 100 mm / second or more.

本発明によると、レーザ回折/散乱式粒子径分布測定装置により測定された1次凝集体の粒径がいずれも1.2μm以下である、小粒径外添剤、中粒径外添剤及び大粒径外添剤の3種の外添剤を外添することにより、外添剤の凝集が防止され、外添剤の凝集により生ずるかぶり、白スジ、感光体の劣化、帯電ロール汚染を防止することが可能な電子写真用トナーが提供される。   According to the present invention, the primary aggregates measured by a laser diffraction / scattering particle size distribution measuring device each have a particle size of 1.2 μm or less, a small particle size external additive, a medium particle size external additive, and By externally adding three types of external additives, large particle size external additives, aggregation of the external additives is prevented, and fogging, white stripes, deterioration of the photoreceptor, and charging roll contamination caused by the aggregation of the external additives are prevented. An electrophotographic toner that can be prevented is provided.

以下、発明を実施するための最良の形態について説明する。   The best mode for carrying out the invention will be described below.

本発明の一実施形態に係る電子写真用トナーは、粒径の異なる3種類の無機物質粒子を外添したトナーであって、これら無機物質粒子は、レーザ回折/散乱式粒子径分布測定装置により測定された1次凝集体の粒径が1.2μm以下であることを特徴とする。   An electrophotographic toner according to an embodiment of the present invention is a toner obtained by externally adding three types of inorganic substance particles having different particle diameters. These inorganic substance particles are obtained by a laser diffraction / scattering particle size distribution measuring apparatus. The measured primary aggregate particle size is 1.2 μm or less.

前記3種類の無機物質粒子は、平均粒径1〜20nmの第1の無機物質粒子、平均粒径20〜50nmであってかつ第1の無機物質粒子より大きい平均粒径の第2の無機物質粒子、及び平均粒径が50nm以上であってかつ第2の無機物質粒子より大きい平均粒径の第3の無機物質粒子である。   The three types of inorganic substance particles are a first inorganic substance particle having an average particle diameter of 1 to 20 nm, a second inorganic substance having an average particle diameter of 20 to 50 nm and an average particle diameter larger than that of the first inorganic substance particle. And third inorganic substance particles having an average particle diameter of 50 nm or more and an average particle diameter larger than that of the second inorganic substance particles.

これらの無機物質粒子のうち、第1の無機物質粒子はトナーに流動性を付与して、トナー補給性を改善し、第2の無機物質粒子はトナーのベタ追従性を改善し、第3の無機物質粒子は転写性を向上させる機能を有する。   Among these inorganic substance particles, the first inorganic substance particles impart fluidity to the toner to improve the toner replenishment property, the second inorganic substance particles improve the solid followability of the toner, and the third The inorganic substance particles have a function of improving transferability.

第1〜第3の無機物質粒子の材質としては、シリカ、チタニア、アルミナ、ジルコニア等を挙げることができるが、シリカ、チタニアが好ましい。   Examples of the material of the first to third inorganic substance particles include silica, titania, alumina, zirconia, and the like, and silica and titania are preferable.

第1〜第3の無機物質粒子は、すべて同一の材質でも、異なる材質であってもよい。しかし、シリカは、大粒径のものが得にくいため、第1の無機物質粒子と第2の無機物質粒子がシリカであり、第3の無機物質粒子がチタニアであることが望ましい。   The first to third inorganic substance particles may all be the same material or different materials. However, since it is difficult to obtain a silica having a large particle diameter, it is desirable that the first inorganic substance particles and the second inorganic substance particles are silica, and the third inorganic substance particles are titania.

本発明において、外添剤の1次凝集体の平均粒径を1.2μm以下に限定したのは、外添剤は、1次粒子としてではなく凝集体として存在し、挙動するため、1次粒子の粒径だけでなく1次凝集体の粒径が、トナーの特性に大きな影響を与えるからである。1次凝集体とは、凝集体を乾式で粉砕、解砕してもそれ以上には分割できない凝集体をいう。   In the present invention, the average particle size of the primary aggregate of the external additive is limited to 1.2 μm or less because the external additive exists as an aggregate rather than as primary particles and behaves. This is because not only the particle size of the particles but also the particle size of the primary aggregate has a great influence on the properties of the toner. The primary aggregate refers to an aggregate that cannot be further divided even when the aggregate is pulverized and pulverized by a dry process.

外添剤の1次凝集体の平均粒径が1.2μmを超えると、外添剤の凝集によるかぶり、白スジ、感光体の劣化、帯電ロール汚染が生じてしまう。   If the average particle size of the primary aggregate of the external additive exceeds 1.2 μm, fogging due to the aggregation of the external additive, white stripes, deterioration of the photoreceptor, and charging roll contamination may occur.

なお、外添剤の1次凝集体の平均粒径の測定に用いられるレーザ回折/散乱式粒子径分布測定方法とは、粒子に照射したレーザ光の散乱光強度と角度の関係を検出し、Mie散乱理論に基づいて算出する方法をいう。   The laser diffraction / scattering particle size distribution measuring method used for measuring the average particle size of the primary aggregate of the external additive is to detect the relationship between the scattered light intensity and angle of the laser light irradiated to the particles, A calculation method based on the Mie scattering theory.

図1は、以上説明した本発明の電子写真用トナーを用いて画像形成をするための画像形成装置を示す。   FIG. 1 shows an image forming apparatus for forming an image using the electrophotographic toner of the present invention described above.

図1に示す画像形成装置は、現像装置1と感光体ドラム2とを備えている。現像装置1は、内部にトナーを収容するトナーホッパー3、トナーを現像ロールに供給する供給ロール4、供給ロール4から供給されたトナーを感光体ドラム2に付与し、感光体ドラム2の表面の静電潜像を現像する弾性体からなる現像ロール5、この現像ロール5に摺接して、現像ロール5表面のトナー層の厚さを規制するドクターブレード6を具備している。感光体ドラム2の周囲には、感光体ドラム2の表面を一様に帯電する帯電ロール7、帯電した感光体ドラム2の表面に原稿像を露光して、静電潜像を形成するLED8が配置されている。   The image forming apparatus shown in FIG. 1 includes a developing device 1 and a photosensitive drum 2. The developing device 1 includes a toner hopper 3 that contains toner therein, a supply roll 4 that supplies toner to the developing roll, and a toner supplied from the supply roll 4 to the photosensitive drum 2, so that the surface of the photosensitive drum 2 A developing roll 5 made of an elastic body that develops the electrostatic latent image, and a doctor blade 6 that is in sliding contact with the developing roll 5 and regulates the thickness of the toner layer on the surface of the developing roll 5 are provided. Around the photosensitive drum 2, there are a charging roll 7 for uniformly charging the surface of the photosensitive drum 2, and an LED 8 for exposing a document image to the surface of the charged photosensitive drum 2 to form an electrostatic latent image. Has been placed.

感光体ドラム2の下部には、転写ベルト9が感光体ドラム2の回転とともに走行しており、転写シート10により感光体ドラム2と接触して、現像されたトナー像は、用紙11に転写される。   Under the photosensitive drum 2, a transfer belt 9 runs along with the rotation of the photosensitive drum 2, and contacts the photosensitive drum 2 by the transfer sheet 10, and the developed toner image is transferred to the paper 11. The

なお、転写後も感光体ドラム2の表面に残留する、転写されなかったトナーは、クリーニングブレード12により除去される。   The toner that has not been transferred and remains on the surface of the photosensitive drum 2 even after the transfer is removed by the cleaning blade 12.

以上のように構成される画像形成装置に上述した本発明のトナーを実装し、弾性現像ロールの搬送速度を100mm/秒以上の高速にして動作させても、外添剤の凝集による生ずる白スジ、感光体の劣化、及び帯電ロール汚染が発生することはない。   Even when the above-described toner of the present invention is mounted on the image forming apparatus configured as described above and the elastic developing roll is transported at a high speed of 100 mm / second or more, white streaks caused by aggregation of the external additive are generated. Further, deterioration of the photoreceptor and charging roll contamination do not occur.

実施例
ポリエステル樹脂とマゼンタ顔料(C.I.ピグメントレッド57:1)を樹脂:顔料が7:3の重量比になるように加圧ニーダーに仕込み混練し、得られた混練物をフェザーミル(2mmパス)で粉砕し、顔料マスターバッチを得た。次いで、結着樹脂としてポリエステル樹脂(軟化点147℃、ガラス転移点75℃)83重量部、着色剤として、マゼンタ顔料マスターバッチ10重量部、離型剤として、「カルナバワックス1号粉末」(加藤洋行輸入品)6重量部、帯電制御剤として、「LR−147」(日本カーリット社製:有機ホウ素化合物)1重量部を、合計で50kgになるよう計量し、150Lのヘンシェルミキサーに投入し、1000rpmで3分間混合した。混合物をテーブルフィーダーで、連続式2本ロール型混練機へ供給し、混練物を得た。原料供給量は25kg/hで行った。
Example A polyester resin and a magenta pigment (CI Pigment Red 57: 1) were charged and kneaded in a pressure kneader so that the weight ratio of resin: pigment was 7: 3, and the resulting kneaded product was blended with a feather mill ( (2 mm pass) to obtain a pigment master batch. Next, 83 parts by weight of a polyester resin (softening point 147 ° C., glass transition point 75 ° C.) as a binder resin, 10 parts by weight of a magenta pigment master batch as a colorant, and “Carnauba wax No. 1 powder” (Kato) as a release agent. Western imports) 6 parts by weight, 1 part by weight of “LR-147” (manufactured by Nippon Carlit Co., Ltd .: organoboron compound) as a charge control agent is weighed to a total of 50 kg, and put into a 150 L Henschel mixer, Mix for 3 minutes at 1000 rpm. The mixture was supplied to a continuous two-roll kneader with a table feeder to obtain a kneaded product. The raw material supply amount was 25 kg / h.

得られた混練物を冷却ベルトにて冷却した後、ロートプレックス(ホソカワミクロン社製、2mm径スクリーン)で粗粉砕し、粗粉砕物を衝突式粉砕機・風力分級機にて、トナー平均粒径が6.0μmになるように粉砕分級を行い、着色微粒子を得た。   The obtained kneaded product is cooled with a cooling belt, and then coarsely pulverized with a Rotoplex (manufactured by Hosokawa Micron Co., Ltd., 2 mm diameter screen). Grinding and classification were performed so as to obtain 6.0 μm, and colored fine particles were obtained.

以上のようにして得た着色微粒子に、下記表に示す種類・割合で外添剤を添加混合し、12種のトナー試料を得た。   External additives were added and mixed with the colored fine particles obtained as described above in the types and ratios shown in the following table to obtain 12 types of toner samples.

顔料マスターバッチ及び、結着樹脂として使用したポリエステル樹脂は、アルコール単量体として、ポリオキシエチレン化ビスフェノールAとポリオキシプロピレン化ビスフェノールAを用い、カルボン酸単量体としてテレフタル酸、ドデセニルコハク酸を主成分として用いたものを使用した。   The polyester masterbatch and the polyester resin used as the binder resin use polyoxyethylenated bisphenol A and polyoxypropylenated bisphenol A as alcohol monomers, and terephthalic acid and dodecenyl succinic acid as carboxylic acid monomers. What was used as an ingredient was used.

混練機の条件、各特性値の測定方法、混合条件を以下に示す。   The conditions of the kneader, the measuring method of each characteristic value, and the mixing conditions are shown below.

1.混練機の条件
連続式2本ロール型混練機は、ロール径0.16m、有効ロール長さ0.7mのものを使用し、下記表1に示す条件とした。

Figure 2007271766
1. Kneading machine conditions A continuous two-roll type kneading machine having a roll diameter of 0.16 m and an effective roll length of 0.7 m was used under the conditions shown in Table 1 below.
Figure 2007271766

2.軟化点の測定
試料1gについて、装置としてフローテスター(島津製作所製、CFT−500D)を用いて、1/2法により試料の半分が流出した温度を軟化点とした。測定条件は、下記の通りである。
2. Measurement of softening point For 1 g of sample, a flow tester (manufactured by Shimadzu Corporation, CFT-500D) was used as the apparatus, and the temperature at which half of the sample flowed out by the 1/2 method was defined as the softening point. The measurement conditions are as follows.

昇温速度:6℃/分
荷重:20kg
ノズル:直径1mm、長さ1mm
3.ガラス転移点(Tg)の測定
装置として示差走査熱量計(島津製作所社製:DSC−60)を用い、試料8mgを10℃/分で160℃まで昇温し、降温速度10℃/分で35℃まで冷却した後、再度10℃/分で160℃まで昇温し、2回目の昇温時において、転移により得られる曲線部分の2つの接線の交点をガラス転移点とした。
Temperature increase rate: 6 ° C / min Load: 20kg
Nozzle: 1mm diameter, 1mm length
3. Measurement of glass transition point (Tg) A differential scanning calorimeter (manufactured by Shimadzu Corporation: DSC-60) was used as a device, and 8 mg of a sample was heated to 160 ° C. at 10 ° C./min, and 35 at a temperature decreasing rate of 10 ° C./min. After cooling to 10 ° C., the temperature was raised again to 160 ° C. at 10 ° C./min, and the intersection of two tangents of the curve portion obtained by the transition was used as the glass transition point at the second temperature rise.

4.トナー粒径の測定
ビーカーにトナー少量と精製水、界面活性剤を入れ、超音波洗浄器にて分散したものを試料として用い、マルチサイザーII(コールター社製)により測定した。アパーチャーは100μmで行い、カウントは50,000個で行い、体積平均粒径を得た。
4). Measurement of toner particle size A small amount of toner, purified water, and a surfactant were placed in a beaker and dispersed with an ultrasonic cleaner. The sample was measured with Multisizer II (Coulter). The aperture was 100 μm, the count was 50,000, and the volume average particle size was obtained.

5.外添剤1次凝集粒径の測定
レーザ回折/散乱式粒子径分布測定装置としてLA−950(商品名:(株)堀場製作所製)乾式ユニットを使用し、0.3MPaの圧縮空気にて分散を行い、外添剤の屈折率を2.5として、体積平均粒径を測定した。測定試料は、水30〜50mlに各外添剤をスパチュラで1〜2杯程度採って加え、超音波洗浄機にて1分程度分散させ、その約1gを採取して試料とした。
5). Measurement of primary agglomerated particle size of external additive Use LA-950 (trade name: manufactured by HORIBA, Ltd.) dry unit as a laser diffraction / scattering particle size distribution measuring device, and disperse with compressed air of 0.3 MPa. The volume average particle size was measured with the refractive index of the external additive being 2.5. A sample for measurement was prepared by adding about 1 to 2 cups of each external additive to 30 to 50 ml of water with a spatula, and dispersing for about 1 minute with an ultrasonic cleaner, and collecting about 1 g of the sample as a sample.

6.外添剤混合条件
容積20Lのヘンシェルミキサーに着色微粒子を3.0kg投入した。着色剤微粒子100重量部に対し、下記表に示す条件で外添剤を添加し、混合した。撹拌羽としては強撹拌羽を装着し、風速40m/secで回転させた。
6). External additive mixing conditions 3.0 kg of colored fine particles were charged into a 20 L Henschel mixer. An external additive was added and mixed with 100 parts by weight of the colorant fine particles under the conditions shown in the following table. As the stirring blade, a strong stirring blade was attached and rotated at a wind speed of 40 m / sec.

以下に、特性試験の方法と評価基準について説明する。   The characteristic test method and evaluation criteria will be described below.

試験1−流動性
装置としてホソカワミクロン社製パウダーテスターを用い、セットする篩としては、上から目開き250,150,75μmのものを使用した。トナー2gを秤量し、3段積み重ねた一番上の篩上に静かに載置し、振幅1mmで15秒間振動させた後、以下のように凝集度を求めた。
Test 1-Flowability A powder tester manufactured by Hosokawa Micron Corporation was used as the device, and a sieve having a mesh size of 250, 150, 75 µm from the top was used. 2 g of toner was weighed, placed gently on the top sieve stacked in three stages, vibrated for 15 seconds with an amplitude of 1 mm, and the degree of aggregation was determined as follows.

目開き250μmの篩に残ったトナーの重量%=W1
目開き150μmの篩に残ったトナーの重量%×0.6=W2
目開き75μmの篩に残ったトナーの重量%×0.2=W3
凝集度(%)=W+W2+W3
流動性=100−凝集度(%)
流動性の評価基準
流動性80以上:◎
流動性70以上80未満:○
流動性70未満:×
試験2−外添剤凝集による白スジ
非磁性一成分現像装置「カシオページプレストN−5」(カシオ計算機社製:カラープリンタ毎分29枚(A4横)機、プロセススピード129mm/sec)にトナーを実装し、通常環境(25℃、50%RH)において、5%印字画像を16,000枚連続印字した。途中、2,000枚おきにベタ画像、ハーフトーン画像を印字し、ブレード融着による白スジの発生枚数により下記の基準で評価した。
Weight% of toner remaining on sieve having aperture of 250 μm = W1
Weight% of toner remaining on sieve with 150 μm openings × 0.6 = W2
Weight% of toner remaining on a sieve having an opening of 75 μm × 0.2 = W3
Aggregation degree (%) = W + W2 + W3
Fluidity = 100−degree of aggregation (%)
Evaluation criteria of fluidity Fluidity 80 or more: ◎
Fluidity 70 or more and less than 80: ○
Less than 70 fluidity: x
Test 2-White streaks due to external additive aggregation Non-magnetic one-component developing device "Casio Page Presto N-5" (Casio Computer Co., Ltd .: 29 color printers per minute (A4 horizontal), process speed 129 mm / sec) And 16,000 sheets of 5% print images were continuously printed in a normal environment (25 ° C., 50% RH). In the middle, solid images and halftone images were printed every 2,000 sheets, and evaluated according to the following criteria based on the number of white lines generated by blade fusion.

◎:16,000枚まで発生しない
○:14,000枚以降に発生(実用上問題ないレベル)
×:14,000枚未満で発生
試験3−感光体劣化
試験1で使用した装置を用い、通常環境(25℃、50%RH)において、普通紙(XEROX−P紙A4サイズ)を用いて5%印字画像を30,000枚連続印字した後、ハーフトーン画像、ベタ画像を印字し、感光体フィルミング、及び感光体キズが原因となって画像劣化がないかどうか確認すると共に、目視にて感光体表面を観察し、下記の基準で評価した。
◎: Not generated up to 16,000 sheets ○: Generated after 14,000 sheets (a level that does not cause any practical problems)
X: Generation test with less than 14,000 sheets 3-Photoconductor degradation 5 using normal paper (XEROX-P paper A4 size) in the normal environment (25 ° C, 50% RH) using the apparatus used in Test 1. After 30,000 sheets of% printed images are printed continuously, halftone images and solid images are printed, and it is checked whether there is any image deterioration due to photoconductor filming and photoconductor scratches. The surface of the photoreceptor was observed and evaluated according to the following criteria.

◎:感光体の劣化はみられない
○:画像には出ないが感光体の劣化がある
×:画像に出るほどの感光体の劣化がある
試験4−帯電ロール汚染
試験3の評価の際に、帯電ロール汚れによる画像劣化を確認するとともに、帯電ロール上の汚れを確認した。下記の基準で評価した。
◎: Photoconductor deterioration is not observed ○: Image does not appear, but photoconductor is deteriorated ×: Photoconductor deterioration enough to appear in image 4-Charging roll contamination In evaluation of test 3 In addition to confirming image deterioration due to contamination of the charging roll, contamination on the charging roll was also confirmed. Evaluation was made according to the following criteria.

◎:帯電ロールの汚染はみられない
○:画像には出ないが帯電ロールの汚染がある
×:画像に出るほどの帯電ロールの汚染がある
12種のトナー試料について、上記試験を行い、評価した結果を下記表2及び3に示す。

Figure 2007271766
◎: No charging roll contamination ○: Image does not appear but charging roll contamination ×: Charging roll contamination enough to appear in image 12 types of toner samples were tested and evaluated. The results are shown in Tables 2 and 3 below.
Figure 2007271766

Figure 2007271766
Figure 2007271766

表面処理の略語は以下の通りである。   Abbreviations for surface treatment are as follows.

PDMS:ポリジメチルシロキサン
RS:アルキルシラン
なお、第1の外添剤及び第2の外添剤として用いた、種々の粒径の、種々の表面処理がされた無機物質は、日本アエロジル社より入手した。
PDMS: Polydimethylsiloxane RS: Alkylsilane In addition, inorganic materials with various particle sizes and various surface treatments used as the first external additive and the second external additive are obtained from Nippon Aerosil Co., Ltd. did.

第3の外添剤に使用したチタニアは、アナターゼ型の酸化チタン(富士チタン工業社製)に各表面処理を行ったものである。   The titania used for the third external additive is obtained by subjecting each surface treatment to anatase-type titanium oxide (Fuji Titanium Industry Co., Ltd.).

上記表から、次のことがわかる。即ち、1次凝集粒径がいずれも1.2μm以下である、粒径の異なる3種類の無機微粒子を外添した実施例1〜4に係るトナーでは、外添剤の凝集に起因する白スジが発生せず、感光体の劣化がなく、また帯電ロールの汚染もなかった。   From the above table, the following can be understood. That is, in the toners according to Examples 1 to 4 in which three kinds of inorganic fine particles having different primary particle diameters each having a primary aggregate particle diameter of 1.2 μm or less are externally added, white streaks caused by aggregation of the external additive Was not generated, the photoreceptor was not deteriorated, and the charging roll was not contaminated.

これに対し、第1の無機微粒子が添加されない比較例1のトナーは、流動性が悪く、評価ができなかった。また、第2の無機微粒子が添加されない比較例2のトナーは、外添剤の凝集に起因する白スジが発生し、感光体の劣化がみられた。更に、第3の無機微粒子が添加されない比較例3のトナーは、感光体の劣化及び帯電ロールの汚染がみられた。   In contrast, the toner of Comparative Example 1 to which the first inorganic fine particles were not added was poor in fluidity and could not be evaluated. Further, in the toner of Comparative Example 2 in which the second inorganic fine particles were not added, white streaks due to aggregation of the external additive were generated, and the photoreceptor was deteriorated. Further, in the toner of Comparative Example 3 to which the third inorganic fine particles were not added, the photoreceptor was deteriorated and the charging roll was contaminated.

また、第1の無機微粒子としてシリカに代えてアルミナを添加した比較例5は、流動性がやや悪く、上記表では×評価とした。   Further, Comparative Example 5 in which alumina was added instead of silica as the first inorganic fine particles had slightly poor fluidity, and was evaluated as x in the above table.

また、第3の無機微粒子の1次凝集粒径が1.2μmを超える比較例4及び6のトナーでは、いずれも外添剤の凝集に起因する白スジが発生し、感光体の劣化がみられた。更に、第2の無機微粒子の1次凝集粒径が1.2μmを超える比較例7のトナーでは、外添剤の凝集に起因する白スジが発生した。   In the toners of Comparative Examples 4 and 6 in which the primary aggregate particle size of the third inorganic fine particles exceeds 1.2 μm, white streaks due to the aggregation of the external additive are generated, and the photoreceptor is deteriorated. It was. Furthermore, in the toner of Comparative Example 7 in which the primary aggregate particle size of the second inorganic fine particles exceeded 1.2 μm, white streaks due to the aggregation of the external additive occurred.

なお、比較例7で用いたアルミナは凝集しないため、1次凝集粒径は測定できず、この場合でも外添剤の凝集に起因する白スジが発生した。   In addition, since the alumina used in Comparative Example 7 did not aggregate, the primary aggregate particle size could not be measured, and even in this case, white streaks due to the aggregation of the external additive occurred.

本発明の一実施形態に係るトナーを用いて画像形成を行う画像形成装置の概略を示す図。1 is a diagram schematically illustrating an image forming apparatus that performs image formation using toner according to an embodiment of the present invention.

符号の説明Explanation of symbols

1…現像装置、2…感光体ドラム、3…トナーホッパー、4…供給ロール、5…現像ロール、6…ドクターブレード、7…帯電ロール、8…LED、9…転写ベルト、10…転写シート、11…用紙、12…クリーニングブレード。   DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Developing device, 2 ... Photosensitive drum, 3 ... Toner hopper, 4 ... Supply roll, 5 ... Developing roll, 6 ... Doctor blade, 7 ... Charging roll, 8 ... LED, 9 ... Transfer belt, 10 ... Transfer sheet, 11 ... paper, 12 ... cleaning blade.

Claims (4)

粒径の異なる3種類の無機物質粒子を外添したトナーであって、前記3種類の無機物質粒子は、平均粒径1〜20nmの第1の無機物質粒子、平均粒径20〜50nmであってかつ第1の無機物質粒子より大きい平均粒径の第2の無機物質粒子、及び平均粒径が50nm以上であってかつ第2の無機物質粒子より大きい平均粒径の第3の無機物質粒子であり、これら無機物質粒子は、レーザ回折/散乱式粒子径分布測定装置により測定された1次凝集体の粒径が1.2μm以下であることを特徴とする非磁性一成分電子写真用トナー。   A toner externally added with three kinds of inorganic substance particles having different particle diameters, wherein the three kinds of inorganic substance particles are first inorganic substance particles having an average particle diameter of 1 to 20 nm and an average particle diameter of 20 to 50 nm. Second inorganic material particles having an average particle size larger than the first inorganic material particles, and third inorganic material particles having an average particle size of 50 nm or more and an average particle size larger than the second inorganic material particles These inorganic substance particles have a primary aggregate particle size of 1.2 μm or less as measured by a laser diffraction / scattering particle size distribution measuring apparatus, and the toner is a non-magnetic one-component electrophotographic toner . 前記第1の無機物質粒子と第2の無機物質粒子がシリカであり、前記第3の無機物質粒子がチタニアであることを特徴とする請求項1に記載の非磁性一成分電子写真用トナー。   2. The nonmagnetic one-component electrophotographic toner according to claim 1, wherein the first inorganic substance particles and the second inorganic substance particles are silica, and the third inorganic substance particles are titania. 5〜7μmの平均粒径を有することを特徴とする請求項1又は2に記載の非磁性一成分電子写真用トナー。   The nonmagnetic one-component electrophotographic toner according to claim 1, which has an average particle diameter of 5 to 7 μm. トナーを担持搬送するための弾性現像ロールと、この弾性現像ロール上に前記トナーを薄層状に形成するように前記トナーの厚さを規制するためのトナー層規制部材とを備え、前記弾性現像ロールの搬送速度が100mm/秒以上である現像装置に用いられる前記請求項1〜3のいずれかに記載の非磁性一成分電子写真用トナー。   An elastic developing roll for carrying and transporting toner; and a toner layer regulating member for regulating the thickness of the toner so as to form the toner in a thin layer on the elastic developing roll. The non-magnetic one-component electrophotographic toner according to claim 1, wherein the toner is used in a developing device having a conveying speed of 100 mm / second or more.
JP2006095265A 2006-03-30 2006-03-30 Nonmagnetic monocomponent electrophotographic toner Pending JP2007271766A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2013145188A (en) * 2012-01-16 2013-07-25 Sumitomo Metal Mining Co Ltd Particle abundance ratio calculation method and particle crystal size calculation method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH1048888A (en) * 1996-08-06 1998-02-20 Minolta Co Ltd Developer
JPH11102089A (en) * 1997-07-31 1999-04-13 Kyocera Corp Image forming method using electrophotographic method
JPH11184144A (en) * 1997-12-24 1999-07-09 Minolta Co Ltd Nonmagnetic one-component developer
JP2005283794A (en) * 2004-03-29 2005-10-13 Casio Electronics Co Ltd Nonmagnetic one component toner

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH1048888A (en) * 1996-08-06 1998-02-20 Minolta Co Ltd Developer
JPH11102089A (en) * 1997-07-31 1999-04-13 Kyocera Corp Image forming method using electrophotographic method
JPH11184144A (en) * 1997-12-24 1999-07-09 Minolta Co Ltd Nonmagnetic one-component developer
JP2005283794A (en) * 2004-03-29 2005-10-13 Casio Electronics Co Ltd Nonmagnetic one component toner

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2013145188A (en) * 2012-01-16 2013-07-25 Sumitomo Metal Mining Co Ltd Particle abundance ratio calculation method and particle crystal size calculation method

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