JP2005262369A - Robot system - Google Patents

Robot system Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2005262369A
JP2005262369A JP2004077487A JP2004077487A JP2005262369A JP 2005262369 A JP2005262369 A JP 2005262369A JP 2004077487 A JP2004077487 A JP 2004077487A JP 2004077487 A JP2004077487 A JP 2004077487A JP 2005262369 A JP2005262369 A JP 2005262369A
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Prior art keywords
robot
coordinate system
position
robots
workpiece
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JP2004077487A
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JP2005262369A5 (en
Inventor
Ryuichi Morita
Michiharu Tanaka
隆一 守田
道春 田中
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Yaskawa Electric Corp
株式会社安川電機
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Priority to JP2004077487A priority Critical patent/JP2005262369A/en
Publication of JP2005262369A5 publication Critical patent/JP2005262369A5/ja
Publication of JP2005262369A publication Critical patent/JP2005262369A/en
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a robot system for cooperatively handling the same workpiece by a plurality of robots. <P>SOLUTION: This robot system has a carrying means 1 for carrying a workpiece 20, the plurality of robots A and B for gripping the workpiece 20, a robot control device 10 for controlling the robots A and B, and a position detector 3 for detecting a position of the carrying means 1; and operates the workpiece 20. One of the plurality of robots A and B is formed as a master robot, and the other robot is formed as a slave robot. The robot control device 10 has a carrying coordinate system position detecting part 4 for arithmetically operating a position on a coordinate system of the carrying means 1 on the basis of a detecting result of the position detector 3, a slave coordinate system converting part 8 for converting a coordinate system of the master robot into a coordinate system of the slave robot, and a carrying coordinate system converting part 5 for converting a position detected by a carrying mean position detecting part 4 into a position of the coordinate system of the master robot. One workpiece 20 is gripped by cooperatively operating the plurality of robots B. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2005,JPO&NCIPI

Description

The present invention relates to a palletizing robot system using a plurality of robots.

Conventionally, a palletizing robot control device synchronizes a workpiece placed on a conveyance device such as a conveyor with the conveyance device, operates the robot, takes out the workpiece, and then aligns the workpiece with a pallet at a predetermined position. It was.
As a first conventional technique, a technique of a robot control apparatus that executes a palletizing operation in cooperation with a plurality of robots will be described with reference to FIG.
The robots A and B are controlled by one robot control device 10. The robot A grips the workpiece 300 sent from the conveyors 100 and 200 and palletizes it on the pallet 104. When palletizing the workpiece 300 on the pallet 104 and when taking out the workpiece 300 from the conveyor 200, the robot A The robots A and B were controlled so that A and B would not enter at the same time. Thus, since the palletizing operation can be performed with respect to one pallet by two robots, the cycle time of the work is shortened (Patent Document 1).
In addition, as a second conventional technique, a technique of a robot control apparatus that uses a plurality of robots to hold a single transfer work is disclosed. A sensor and end effector attached to the wrist of each hand of a plurality of robots and an end effector controller for controlling the end effector are provided, and the robot is operated in accordance with the position displacement of the workpiece by the output of the end effector controller. (Patent Document 2)
Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 5-111888 JP-A-7-205072

In a production facility, there is a process in which a robot picks up a workpiece that has been conveyed on a conveyor, and performs welding and sealing. For example, when the workpiece is an automobile frame or the like, since the workpiece itself is large, a large robot having a large payload is required. Large robots have a large operation range, and various settings (limitation of the operation range) have been applied to the robot in order to cope with problems such as interference with peripheral equipment of the robot. However, when the range in which the robot is operated is narrow, it is efficient to transport the same workpiece in cooperation with a plurality of robots.
Also, if the workpiece has a large outer shape but its weight is small, it is necessary to grip and palletize multiple locations so that the workpiece does not deform. At this time, the hand attached to the tip of the robot must be large. In some cases, the hand is heavier than the workpiece that is actually handled. Also, in various mixed flow lines such as automobiles, multiple hands corresponding to the vehicle type are prepared, the vehicle type signal is input to the robot control device, and the hand corresponding to the vehicle type is attached based on the vehicle type signal. It was.
In order to solve the above problems, when the first prior art is applied, there is a problem that a plurality of robots cannot be applied to the same workpiece. In addition, when the second prior art is applied, there is a problem that it cannot be synchronized with the conveying means. Even if the second prior art and the first prior art are combined, there is no description about the coordinate system of the transfer device and the coordinate system of the two robots, and it cannot be actually combined.

  The present invention is intended to solve the problem of such a conventional configuration, and provides a robot system that handles the same workpiece in cooperation with a plurality of robots.

According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a robot system according to a first aspect of the present invention, comprising: a conveying unit that conveys a workpiece; a plurality of robots that grip the workpiece; a robot controller that controls the plurality of robots; and a position of the conveying unit. In a robot system including a position detector to detect, one of the plurality of robots is a master robot, and the other robot is a slave robot, and the robot control device is configured to A transport coordinate system position detector that calculates the position of the workpiece on the coordinate system of the transport means, a slave coordinate system converter that converts the coordinate system of the master robot into the coordinate system of each slave robot, and the transport means position A transport coordinate system conversion unit that converts the position detected by the detection unit into the coordinate system position of the master robot, A plurality of robots is cooperative operation, is characterized in that gripping the one of the workpiece.

  According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided a robot system according to a second aspect of the present invention, comprising: a conveying unit that conveys a workpiece; a plurality of robots that grip the workpiece; a robot controller that controls the plurality of robots; and a position of the conveying unit. In a robot system comprising a position detector for detection, one of the plurality of robots is a master robot, the other robot is a slave robot, and a camera that images the workpiece transported by the transport means; An image processing device that performs image processing on a captured image captured by a camera, wherein the robot control device stores a program storage unit that stores a work program, and coordinates of the transport unit based on a detection result of the position detector. A transport coordinate system position detection unit for calculating the position of the workpiece on the system, and based on the processing result of the image processing apparatus The position of the workpiece on the transfer coordinate system based on the results of the position of the workpiece when picked up by the camera and the type identification unit for calculating the type information of the workpiece, and the type determination unit and the transfer coordinate system position detection unit The position of the workpiece detected by the workpiece position detection unit, the conveyance coordinate system conversion unit for converting the position of the workpiece detected by the workpiece position detection unit to the position of the coordinate system of the master robot, and the output of the product type determination unit A sequence operation control unit that reads out the work program stored in the program storage unit based on product type information and controls the operation of the plurality of robots.

  The robot system according to claim 3 of the present invention is an independent command calculation unit that converts the coordinate value of the master robot coordinate system of the workpiece calculated by the transfer coordinate system conversion unit into the coordinate value of the coordinate system of the slave robot. The series operation control unit, when the type information is a type that each robot independently operates on the same type of work by the plurality of robots, to the independent command calculation unit The result of the transport coordinate system conversion unit is output.

In the robot system according to claim 4 of the present invention, the robot control device includes a drive control unit that operates the robot for each robot, and the drive control unit is activated synchronously at a constant cycle, It is characterized by driving a robot.

The present invention has a remarkable effect that a highly flexible production facility can be constructed because a plurality of robots can handle the same workpiece conveyed by the conveying means.

  Hereinafter, an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS.

Example 1 will be described with reference to FIGS.
FIG. 1 shows a system configuration. The robots A and B are controlled by the robot controller 10. An example in which a conveyor is used as the conveying means will be described. The conveyor 1 is driven by the conveyor driving unit 2. The conveyor drive unit 2 has a structure that is rotated electrically. The conveyor 1 includes a drive mechanism that converts the rotation operation of the conveyor drive unit 2 into movement in the direction of the arrow. The conveyor drive unit 2 is rotated by a drive current from the outside. In addition, a position detector 3 that detects the rotational position is attached to the conveyor drive unit 2.
In order to detect that the workpiece 20 conveyed by the conveyor 1 passes the reference position, a sensor 50 is installed. When the sensor 50 detects the workpiece 20, the sensor 50 outputs a signal to the transport coordinate system detection unit 4 of the robot control device 10.
The robot control apparatus 10 includes a drive control unit 9A that drives the robot A and a drive control unit 9B that drives the robot B. The robot control apparatus 10 stores programs for operating the robot A and the robot B in the program storage unit 6.

The position detector 3 is connected to the position detection unit 4 of the robot control device 10. The position detector 3 outputs angle data of the rotating conveyor driving unit 2.
When the workpiece 20 is conveyed by the conveyor 1 and detected by the sensor 50, the angle data at the time of detection is stored. The conveyance coordinate system position detection unit 4 obtains the position of the workpiece 20 on the conveyance coordinate system from the angle data detected by the sensor 50 and the current angle data. This transport coordinate system will be described later with reference to FIG.
A position on the transport coordinate system is detected from the transport coordinate system position detector 4. The transport coordinate system conversion unit 5 converts the position on the transport coordinate system detected by the transport coordinate system position detection unit 4 into the coordinate system of the master robot.

Next, the actual operation will be described.
The designated program is read from the program storage unit 6 by an external signal (for example, an incoming signal from an external control device or a start button attached to the robot control device 10). This program teaches the movement positions of the robot A and the robot B and the trajectory interpolation method for the movement section.
When calculating the trajectory of the robots A and B, first, the trajectory is calculated in the coordinate system of the master robot of the robot A that is the master robot. The locus calculation result on the coordinate system of the master robot is only the calculation result of the taught program, and the amount of movement of the conveyor is not taken into consideration. The cooperative command calculation unit 7 calculates a locus on the coordinates of the master robot from the taught position, and adds the amount of conveyor movement in the coordinate system of the master robot converted by the transfer coordinate system conversion unit 5. That is, in the cooperative command calculation unit 7, the trajectories of the robot A and the robot B are calculated on the coordinate system of the master robot, with the amount of conveyor movement as the correction amount.

The cooperative command calculation unit 7 outputs a command of the robot A to the drive control unit 9A. This is because the trajectory calculated by the cooperative command calculation unit 7 is a trajectory on the coordinate system of the master robot, and the robot A is a master robot. Further, the cooperative command calculation unit 7 outputs a command on the coordinate system of the master robot of the robot B to the slave coordinate system conversion unit 8. The slave coordinate system conversion unit 8 converts the locus on the coordinate system of the master robot of the robot B into a locus on the coordinate system of the slave robot which is the robot B. The slave coordinate system conversion unit outputs a drive command for the robot B to the drive control unit 9B.
At this time, the command output from the cooperative command calculation unit 7 is processed at the same timing by the drive command unit 9A and the drive command unit 9B. This is configured such that each drive control unit 9A, 9B is activated by a synchronization signal called a machine clock in the robot control apparatus 10 with a constant period.

The relationship between the transport coordinate system and the coordinate system of robot A, which is the master robot, will be described with reference to FIG.
Usually, a robot is controlled at a position on a calculation coordinate system unique to each robot. The origin of the robot coordinate system of robot A in FIG. 2 is MO. The origin of the transport coordinate system of the conveyor 1 is CO. This transport coordinate system is defined with the origin CO, the traveling direction of the conveyor 1 as the X axis, and the transport plane of the conveyor 1 as the XY plane.
Here, if the center of gravity of the workpiece 20 on the transport coordinate system is W C and the transformation matrix between the coordinate system of the robot A and the transport coordinate system is T, the position W A of W on the robot A coordinate system is ,
W A = T · W C (1)
It is calculated by.
The transfer coordinate system conversion unit 5 stores this conversion matrix T.

With reference to FIG. 3, a coordinate system of robot A as a master robot and robot B as a slave robot will be described.
The origin of the robot coordinate system of robot A is MO, and the origin of the robot coordinate system of robot B is SO. The control point of the robot A is PA, and the control point of the robot B is PB. The cooperative control referred to in the present invention is control for operating the PB so that the relative positions and postures of the PA and PB are in a specified relationship even when the PA is operated.
The transformation matrix between the robot coordinate system of robot A and the robot coordinate system of robot B is R, point PA on the robot coordinate system of robot A is M A , and point PB on the robot coordinate system of robot B is S B. . Here, when the point PB when viewed from the tool coordinate system with the point PA of the robot A as the origin is M B ,
M B = (M A ) −1 · R · S B (2)
It becomes. However, (M A ) −1 is an inverse matrix of M A.

As described above, the cooperative command calculation unit 7 calculates the trajectory of the robots A and B on the master robot coordinate system. When the target positions of the robots A and B in the master robot coordinate system are M A and M B , equation (2) is established.
Here, as shown in equation (1), W A is calculated. That is, when the robot A when gripping a workpiece conveyor 1, grips the position of W A is
M A = W A (3)
It becomes.
(2) From equation (3)
M B = (W A ) −1 · R · S B (4)
It becomes.
The cooperative command calculation unit 7 outputs the target position calculated by the equation (4) to the slave coordinate system conversion unit 8.
Further, the target position calculated by the expression (3) is output to the drive control unit 9A.

The slave coordinate system conversion unit 8 is obtained from the equation (4):
S B = R -1 · W A · M B (5)
Thus, the position and orientation of the robot B on the robot coordinate system are calculated.
As described above, commands related to the position and posture of the robot on each robot coordinate system are output to the drive control unit 9A and the drive control unit 9B. Thereafter, a plurality of robots work by holding the same workpiece. Further, after two robots take out a workpiece from the transfer means, only one robot can grip and work.

A second embodiment will be described with reference to FIG.
The difference between the second embodiment and the first embodiment is that in the second embodiment, the workpiece 20 and the workpiece 30 are mixed and placed on the conveyor 1. A configuration different from that of the first embodiment will be described below.
The camera 21 is disposed on the conveyor 1. This position is an upstream position from the position where robot A and robot B palletize the workpiece. The camera 21 is connected to the image processing device 22. The image processing device 22 captures an input image from the camera 21 and analyzes the image. This analysis content is the determination of the two-dimensional position in the camera coordinate system and the type of workpiece.

The image processing device 22 is connected to the product type discrimination unit 23 in the robot control device 10. The type discriminating unit 23 discriminates the type of the detected object in the image processing device 22. For example, the workpiece 20 and the workpiece 23 have feature points registered in advance as reference images. At this time, an image picked up by the camera 21 is input to the image processing device 22, a correlation coefficient between the input image and the reference image is calculated, and the image processing device 22 uses the type determination unit 22 for output.
At the same time, the position coordinate value on the camera coordinate system is transmitted. The product type discrimination unit 23 outputs product type information to the series operation control unit 24 and outputs position coordinate values to the work position detection unit 25.

The workpiece position detection unit 25 calculates the coordinate value of the workpiece in the conveyance coordinate system from the movement amount on the conveyance coordinate system of the position detection unit 4 and the coordinate value on the camera coordinate system output from the product type determination unit 23. .
The position of the workpiece on the transfer coordinate system is converted by the transfer coordinate system conversion unit 5 into coordinate values on the coordinate system of the master robot.
The converted position of the master robot on the coordinate system is output to the series control unit 24. The sequence operation control unit 24 first determines whether the determined type is the independent work of the robot A and the robot B or the cooperative work of the robot A and the robot B. The independent work is a case where each handling is performed on an individual work 30.
The workpiece 20 is a cooperative operation of the robot A and the robot B, and the workpiece 30 is an independent operation of the robot B. The series operation control unit 24 reads out a program corresponding to the product type from the program storage unit 6 based on the product type information from the product type determination unit 23. When the type of the corresponding workpiece is the workpiece 20, the sequence control unit 24 outputs a command to the drive control unit 9B via the cooperative command calculation unit 7 and the slave coordinate system conversion unit 8 as in the first embodiment. The robot B is driven.

When the type of the corresponding work is the work 30, the series control unit 24 performs the trajectory calculation of the robot A and the robot B by the independent command calculation unit 26. Since the robot A has been converted from the transport coordinate system of the conveyor 1 to the coordinate system of the robot A by the transport coordinate system conversion unit 5, the teaching position of the program storage unit 6 and the transport coordinate system conversion unit 5 are changed. Based on this, a command is output to the drive command unit 9A. The position and posture of the robot B will be described below.
Here, when the relationship between the coordinate system of the robot A and the coordinate system of the robot B is a transformation matrix R,
Gravity position W A of the workpiece 20, expressed in W B on the coordinate system of the robot B,
W B = (W A ) −1 · R (6)
It becomes.
In other words, by adding the position target position stored in the program storage unit 6 of the W B, the position and orientation data of the robot coordinate system of the robot B is calculated.
After calculating the command of the robot B in this way, the independent command calculation unit 26 outputs a command to the drive command unit 9B.

As described above, according to the present embodiment, a plurality of robots can be independently or cooperatively controlled according to the type of workpiece, and can be applied to highly flexible production equipment.
In the first and second embodiments, two robots are used. However, the operation control can be performed in the same manner when three or more robots are used. Further, the image processing is used for the sensor, but the same effect can be obtained with other sensors.

This is useful for a robot system in which a plurality of robots handle the same workpiece transported by a transporting means.

System configuration diagram of Embodiment 1 of the present invention Explanatory drawing of the robot A of this invention and a conveyance coordinate system Coordinate system explanatory view of robot A and robot B of the present invention System configuration diagram of embodiment 2 of the present invention Prior art diagram

Explanation of symbols

A, B: Robot 1: Conveyor 4: Position detection unit 5: Transfer coordinate system conversion unit 6: Program storage unit 7: Coordination command calculation unit 8: Slave coordinate system conversion unit 9A, 9B: Drive control unit 10: Robot controller 20, 30: Work

Claims (4)

  1. In a robot system comprising transport means for transporting a work, a plurality of robots for gripping the work, a robot controller for controlling the plurality of robots, and a position detector for detecting the position of the transport means,
    One of the plurality of robots is a master robot, and the other robots are slave robots.
    The robot controller is
    A transport coordinate system position detector that calculates the position of the workpiece on the coordinate system of the transport means based on the detection result of the position detector;
    A slave coordinate system conversion unit that converts the coordinate system of the master robot into the coordinate system of each slave robot;
    A transfer coordinate system conversion unit that converts the position detected by the transfer means position detection unit into a coordinate system position of the master robot,
    A robot system characterized by cooperatively operating the plurality of robots and gripping one workpiece.
  2. In a robot system comprising transport means for transporting a work, a plurality of robots for gripping the work, a robot controller for controlling the plurality of robots, and a position detector for detecting the position of the transport means,
    One of the plurality of robots is a master robot, and the other robots are slave robots.
    A camera that images the workpiece conveyed by the conveying means;
    An image processing device that performs image processing on a captured image captured by the camera,
    The robot controller is
    A program storage unit for storing work programs;
    A transport coordinate system position detector that calculates the position of the workpiece on the coordinate system of the transport means based on the detection result of the position detector;
    A type discriminating unit for calculating the position of the workpiece and the type information of the workpiece when imaged by the camera based on the processing result of the image processing apparatus;
    A workpiece position detection unit that detects the position of the workpiece on the transfer coordinate system from the results of the product type determination unit and the transfer coordinate system position detection unit;
    A transport coordinate system conversion unit that converts the position of the work detected by the work position detection unit into a position of the coordinate system of the master robot;
    A sequence operation control unit that reads out the work program stored in the program storage unit based on the product type information that is output from the product type determination unit and controls the operation of the plurality of robots. Robot system characterized by
  3. An independent command calculation unit that converts the coordinate value of the master robot coordinate system of the workpiece calculated by the transfer coordinate system conversion unit into the coordinate value of the slave robot coordinate system;
    The series operation control unit converts the conveyance coordinate system to the independent command calculation unit when the type information is a type that each robot operates independently on the same type of work by the plurality of robots. The robot system according to claim 2, wherein the result of the unit is output.
  4.   The robot control apparatus includes a drive control unit for operating the robot for each robot, and the drive control unit is activated in synchronization with a predetermined period to drive the robot. 4. The robot system according to any one of items 3 to 3.
JP2004077487A 2004-03-18 2004-03-18 Robot system Pending JP2005262369A (en)

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