JP2003266072A - Membrane filtration method - Google Patents

Membrane filtration method

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Publication number
JP2003266072A
JP2003266072A JP2002074550A JP2002074550A JP2003266072A JP 2003266072 A JP2003266072 A JP 2003266072A JP 2002074550 A JP2002074550 A JP 2002074550A JP 2002074550 A JP2002074550 A JP 2002074550A JP 2003266072 A JP2003266072 A JP 2003266072A
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membrane
backwash
filtration
water
step
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JP2002074550A
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Japanese (ja)
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Hiroyuki Koide
Chikakazu Murata
博幸 小出
周和 村田
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Japan Organo Co Ltd
オルガノ株式会社
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Priority to JP2002074550A priority Critical patent/JP2003266072A/en
Publication of JP2003266072A publication Critical patent/JP2003266072A/en
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To keep a cleaning effect although the amount of water and a time for backward washing of a membrane module are curtailed.
SOLUTION: Treatment water from a raw water tank 1 is supplied to the membrane module 4 by a pressure pump 2. After a filtration process for supplying filtrate to a filtrate tank 6, the filtrate of the filtrate tank 6 is supplied to the membrane module by a backward wash pump 7. A first backward washing process for discharging backward washing wastewater from a valve 9 and a second backward washing process for discharging backward washing wastewater from a valve 10 are repeated alternately.
COPYRIGHT: (C)2003,JPO

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】 【0001】 【発明の属する技術分野】本発明は、精密ろ過膜や限外ろ過膜などのろ過膜を使用し、ろ過膜を透過したろ過水を得る膜ろ過方法に関する。 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0001] [Technical Field of the Invention The present invention uses a filtration membrane such as microfiltration membrane or ultrafiltration membrane, to a membrane filtration method for obtaining a filtered water having passed through the filtration membrane . 【0002】 【従来の技術】膜ろ過装置は、操作の簡便性や処理水の安定性などの利点から、各種産業用水処理や排水処理、 [0002] Membrane filtration device, the advantages such as stability of convenience and treated water operations, various industrial water treatment and wastewater treatment,
浄水処理などへ多数導入されている。 It has been introduced many to such water treatment. 【0003】このような膜ろ過装置では、精密ろ過膜や限外ろ過膜により原水室と透過水室とに区分されたろ過膜モジュールによりろ過処理を行うが、そのろ過処理を継続する過程で被処理水中の不溶解性物質や溶解性物質がろ過膜面に堆積してろ過水量(処理水量)が低下していく。 [0003] In this kind of membrane filtration devices, microfiltration membrane and ultrafiltration membrane raw water chamber and performs the filtering process by segmented filtration membrane module to the permeate chamber, the process continues the filtering process to be water filtration insoluble material and soluble substances in the treated water is deposited on the filter membrane surface (process water) is lowered. このため、膜ろ過装置では、ろ過膜における圧力損失(膜間差圧)が所定以上となったときや、一定時間のろ過を行った場合に、ろ過膜モジュールの逆洗工程を実施する。 Therefore, a membrane filtration apparatus, and when the pressure loss in the filter membrane (transmembrane pressure) is a predetermined or more, when performing filtering for a certain period of time, carrying out the backwashing step of the filtration membrane module. これによって、膜ろ過装置のろ過能力が回復し、安定したろ過処理を継続することができる。 Thus, to recover the filtration capability of the membrane filtration apparatus, it is possible to continue a stable filtration. 【0004】このろ過膜モジュールの逆洗は、膜ろ過処理水などの清澄水をろ過通水方向とは逆方向に膜モジュールへ導入し、ろ過膜面に堆積した目詰まり物質を膜モジュール外へ排出する方法を採用する。 [0004] backwash of the filtration membrane module, the refining of water, such as membrane filtration treatment water introduced in the opposite direction to the membrane module and the filtration water flow direction, clogging material deposited on the filtering membrane surface outside the membrane module to adopt a method to discharge. 【0005】ここで、膜モジュールの逆洗方法には、膜モジュール内から効率的に目詰まり物質を排出する目的で、多くの方法が提案されている。 [0005] Here, in the backwash process of the membrane module, for the purpose of discharging efficiently clogging substances from the membrane module, it has been proposed many methods. 例えば、特許272 For example, patent 272
4673号公報や特開平8−299767号公報では、 In 4673 and JP 8-299767, JP-
膜モジュール全体の目詰まり物質をモジュール外へ排出するために、膜モジュールの両端面より交互に逆洗排水を排出する方法が提案されている。 In order to discharge the clogging material of the entire membrane module outside module, a method of discharging has been proposed a backwash effluent alternately from both end surfaces of the membrane module. また、特開2001 In addition, JP-2001
−54789号公報では、膜モジュールへの被処理水の供給と膜モジュールの逆洗を同時に行う逆洗方法が提案されている。 In -54789 discloses, backwash method for performing backwashing of the supply and the membrane module of the water to be treated to the membrane module at the same time have been proposed. 【0006】 【発明が解決しようとする課題】上述のように、各種の逆洗方法が提案されているが、これらの方法は、いずれも1回の逆洗により膜面に堆積した目詰まり物質をできるだけ完全にモジュール外へ排出する目的でなされたものである。 [0006] As described above [0006], but backwash method Various types have been proposed, these methods clogging substances were all deposited on the membrane surface by backwash once the it is as completely as possible those made for the purpose of discharging to the outside of the module. 【0007】しかしながら、これらの方法では洗浄に使用する水量が多くなり、さらに洗浄に費やす時間が長くなってしまい、結果的に水回収率が低くなり、装置の稼働効率が低下し、造水コストが増大する問題がある。 However, the amount of water used for washing is increased by these methods, becomes longer time spent on further washing, resulting in lower water recovery ratio, reduces the operating efficiency of the apparatus, desalination costs but there is a problem to increase. 【0008】本発明は膜モジュールの逆洗にかかる水量や時間を削減し、従来と同程度の膜モジュール洗浄効果を得る膜ろ過方法を提案する。 The present invention reduces such water and time to backwash the membrane modules, proposes a conventional membrane filtration method for obtaining the same degree of membrane module cleaning effect. 【0009】 【課題を解決するための手段】本発明者らは、膜モジュールの逆洗に関して種々の検討を実施した結果、膜モジュール全体の半分を交互に逆洗することにより、一度に膜モジュール全体の目詰まり物質を排出する従来の逆洗方法と同様の効果が得られることを知見し、さらに1回の逆洗水使用量は、膜モジュール全体を洗浄する場合の半量で十分であることを知見し、本発明に到った。 [0009] Means for Solving the Problems The present inventors, as a result of performing various studies with respect to backwash of the membrane module, by backwash alternately half of the total membrane module, the membrane module at a time It was found that the same effect as the conventional backwashing method of discharging the entire clogging substance is obtained, further backwash water usage once, that in half of the cases of cleaning the entire membrane module is sufficient was knowledge, led to the present invention. 【0010】すなわち、本発明は、膜によって原水室と透過水室に仕切られた膜モジュールの原水室に被処理水を導入し、膜を透過した処理水を透過水室から得る膜ろ過方法であって、前記原水室の両端部に被処理水を導入または排出する一対の原水側開口部が設けられ、前記透過水室に逆洗水を導入し、原水室の前記原水側開口部のいずれからでも逆洗排水を排出することが可能であり、 [0010] Namely, the present invention introduces the water to be treated raw water chamber of the membrane module which is partitioned into the raw water chamber and the permeate chamber by a membrane, film membrane filtration method for obtaining the permeated treated water from the permeate chamber there are a pair of the raw water side opening for introducing or discharging the treated water is provided at both ends of the raw water chamber, introducing backwash water in the permeate chamber, one of the raw water side opening of the raw water chamber it is possible to discharge the backwash waste water from any,
所定期間のろ過工程終了後、前記原水室の一方の原水側開口部を開、他方の原水側開口部を閉として、一方の原水側開口部から逆洗排水を排出して第1逆洗工程を実施し、この第1逆洗工程の終了後、ろ過工程に戻り、所定期間のろ過工程終了後、前記原水室の前記他方の原水側開口部を開、前記一方の開口部を閉として、前記他方の原水側開口部から逆洗排水を排出して第2逆洗工程を実施し、この第2逆洗工程の終了後、ろ過工程に戻り、ろ過工程を挟んで、第1逆洗工程と、第2逆洗工程を繰り返すことを特徴とする。 After the step of filtering termination predetermined period, said one of the raw water side opening open raw water compartment, the other as a closed raw water side opening, the first backwash step to discharge the backwash effluent from one of the raw water side opening carried out after the end of the first backflushing step, returned to the filtration step, after a predetermined period filtration step is completed, the raw water side opening of the other of the raw water chamber opens, the one opening is closed, a second backflushing step is carried out by discharging a backwash effluent from the other raw side opening, after the end of the second backflushing step, returned to the filtration step, across the filtration step, first backflushing step When, and repeating the second backwash step. 【0011】このように、本発明によれば、膜モジュールの一方の原水側開口部から逆洗排水を排出する第1逆洗と、膜モジュールの他方の原水側開口部から逆洗排水を排出する第2逆洗を、ろ過工程を間に挟んで交互に実施する。 [0011] Thus, according to the present invention, discharge a first backwashing for discharging the backwash effluent from one of the raw water side opening of the membrane module, the backwash effluent from the other of the raw water side opening of the membrane module the second backwashing to be carried out alternately in between the filtration step. これによって、一度の逆洗によって確実に洗浄できる膜面積は若干少なくなるが、かなりの逆洗効果が得られる。 Thus, the membrane area can be reliably cleaned by backwashing once but slightly less, the resulting considerable backwashing effect. そして、2つの逆洗を切り替えて交互に実施することにより、一度の逆洗によって膜モジュール全体の洗浄を実施する従来の方法に比較して、逆洗使用水量、逆洗時間を半分にすることができる。 Then, by alternately performed by switching the two backwashing, as compared to the conventional method of performing a cleaning of the entire membrane module by backwashing once, to backwash water consumption, the backwash time half that can. 従って、装置全体の回収率と稼働効率が向上し、結果的に膜ろ過装置の造水コストや設備費を削減することが可能となる。 Thus, improved operating efficiency and recovery of the entire apparatus, it is possible to eventually reduce desalination cost and equipment cost of the membrane filtration device. 【0012】 【発明の実施の形態】以下に、図面を参照して本発明の実施の形態を詳細に説明する。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Hereinafter, with reference to the drawings illustrating the embodiments of the invention in detail. 【0013】図1〜図3は、本発明の実施の形態を説明するための膜ろ過装置の概略図であり、図1はろ過工程、図2は第1逆洗工程、図3は第2逆洗工程を示している。 [0013] Figures 1-3 are schematic views of a membrane filtration apparatus for explaining an embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 1 is a filtration step, FIG. 2 is a first backflushing step, FIG. 3 is a second It shows the backwash process. 【0014】原水槽1は、被処理水を貯留するタンクであり、河川水、地下水、排水など各種の被処理水が流入貯留される。 [0014] raw water tank 1 is a tank for storing the water to be treated, river water, ground water, various treatment water such as wastewater is introduced reservoir. 原水槽1には、加圧ポンプ2の吸い込み側が接続され、加圧ポンプ2の吐き出し側は、バルブ3を介し、膜モジュール4に接続されている。 The raw water tank 1, is the suction side connection of the pressure pump 2, the discharge side is pressure pump 2, through a valve 3, and is connected to the membrane module 4. この膜モジュール4は、いわゆる内圧式中空糸膜モジュールを模式的に示したもので、内部の中空糸状ろ過膜41によって原水室42と透過水室43とに仕切られている。 The membrane module 4, a so-called internal pressure type hollow fiber membrane module in which schematically shows, is partitioned into a raw water chamber 42 by an internal hollow fiber filtration membrane 41 and the permeate chamber 43. なお、図1〜図3においては、便宜上、中空糸状ろ過膜41を1 Note that, in FIGS. 1 to 3, for convenience, the hollow fiber filtration membrane 41 1
本だけ示してあるが、実際のモジュールにおいては中空糸状ろ過膜が多数本装着されている。 Although there is shown only the, hollow fiber filtration membrane is large number of mounting in the actual module. さらに、原水室4 In addition, the raw water chamber 4
2には、膜モジュール4の一端側(図における下端側) The 2, one end of the membrane module 4 (lower side in the drawing)
の第1の原水側開口部44と、他端側(図における上端側)の第2原水側開口部45が設けられており、加圧ポンプ2からの配管は、バルブ3を介し、第1原水側開口部44に接続されている。 A first raw water side opening 44 of the other end and second raw water side opening 45 of the is provided (upper side in the figure), the pipe from the pressure pump 2, through a valve 3, the first It is connected to a raw water side opening 44. 透過水室43には透過水側開口46が設けられており、この透過水側開口46は、バルブ5を介してろ過水槽6が接続されている。 The permeate chamber 43 is provided with the permeate side opening 46, the permeate side opening 46, filtering water tank 6 is connected via a valve 5. また、ろ過水槽6には、逆洗ポンプ7の吸い込み側が接続されており、逆洗ポンプ7の吐き出し側は、膜モジュール4の透過水側開口46と、バルブ5の中間部の配管に接続されている。 Further, the filtering water tank 6 is the suction side of the backwashing pump 7 is connected, discharging side of the backwashing pump 7, a permeate side opening 46 of the membrane module 4 is connected to the pipe of the intermediate portion of the valve 5 ing. また、膜モジュール4の原水側開口部44とバルブ3との中間部の配管には、逆洗排水排出用のバルブ9が接続されており、膜モジュール4の原水側開口部45には、逆洗排水排出用のバルブ10が接続されている。 Further, the pipe in the middle of the raw water side opening 44 and the valve 3 of the membrane module 4, and the valve 9 for backwashing wastewater discharge is connected to a raw water side opening 45 of the membrane module 4, the reverse valve 10 for washing wastewater discharge is connected. 【0015】なお、図示は省略したが、バルブ3、5、 [0015] Although not shown, valves 3 and 5,
8、9、10、加圧ポンプ2、逆洗ポンプ7を制御する制御装置を有しており、制御装置がろ過工程、第1、2 8,9,10, pressure pump 2, includes a control device for controlling the backwash pump 7, the control device is a filtration step, first and second
逆洗工程への移行を制御する。 Controlling the shift to the backwash process. 【0016】図1は、ろ過工程時のフローを示したもので、太線によって、ろ過工程時のフローチャートを示している。 [0016] Figure 1 shows the flow during the filtration process, the thick line shows a flow chart of the filtration process. このろ過工程では、図において白抜きで示されているバルブ3、5が開、黒塗りで示されているバルブ8、9、10が閉、加圧ポンプ2が運転、逆洗ポンプ7 In this filtration step, valves 3, 5, shown in white are opened, valves 8, 9, 10, shown in black is closed, the pressure pump 2 is operated in the figure, the backwash pump 7
が停止状態である。 There is a stop state. 【0017】被処理水は、原水槽1から、加圧ポンプ2 The treated water from the raw water tank 1, the pressure pump 2
によりバルブ3を介して、膜モジュール4の原水室42 Through a valve 3, the raw water chamber of the membrane module 4 42
へ供給される。 It is supplied to. 膜モジュール4の中空糸状ろ過膜41を透過した透過水は、透過水室43の透過水側開口46からバルブ5を介し、ろ過水槽6へ送られる。 Permeate passing through the hollow fiber filtration membrane 41 of the membrane module 4, through the valve 5 from the permeate side opening 46 of the permeate chamber 43, it is sent to the filtering water tank 6. なお、図1 It should be noted that, as shown in FIG. 1
において矢印は中空糸状ろ過膜41を透過した透過水の流れを示している。 Arrows indicate the flow of permeate having passed through the hollow fiber filtration membrane 41 in. 【0018】このろ過工程を一定時間実施した場合には、第1逆洗工程(下部逆洗)に入る。 [0018] When carrying out the filtration process a certain time enters the first backflushing step (lower backwash). 第1逆洗工程におけるフローを図2に示す。 The flow in the first backflushing step shown in FIG. 図2の第1逆洗工程では、 In the first backflushing step of Figure 2,
加圧ポンプ2は停止し、バルブ3、5、10が閉、バルブ8、バルブ9が開となる。 Pressure pump 2 is stopped and the valve 3, 5, 10 is closed, the valve 8, the valve 9 is opened. 【0019】この状態で、逆洗用ポンプ7が起動し、ろ過水をろ過水槽6からバルブ8を介して、膜モジュール4の透過水室43へ逆流させ、中空糸状ろ過膜41に透過室43側から原水室42側に逆洗水を透過させ、中空糸状ろ過膜41の逆洗を行う。 [0019] In this state, backwash pump 7 is started and the filtered water from the filtering water tank 6 via a valve 8, to flow back into the permeate chamber 43 of the membrane module 4, the transmission chamber 43 to the hollow fiber filtration membrane 41 by transmitting backwash water from the side to the raw water chamber 42 side, performing backwashing of hollow fiber filtration membrane 41. 逆洗排水は膜モジュール下端よりバルブ9を介して排出される。 Backwash effluent is discharged through the valve 9 from the membrane module lower. なお、図2において矢印は逆洗水の流れを示している。 Arrows in FIG. 2 indicate the flow of the backwash water. この図2の逆洗状態では、中空糸状ろ過膜41を透過して中空糸の内部に流入した逆洗水は、すべて下端に設けられた原水側開口部44から排出される。 In the backwash state of FIG. 2, backwashing has flowed into the inside of the hollow fiber passes through the hollow fiber filtration membrane 41 water is discharged from the raw water side opening 44 provided all its lower end. 従って、中空糸状ろ過膜41 Thus, hollow fiber filtration membrane 41
の内部では、中空糸の下側ほど流速が大きくなっている。 Inside the lower as side flow rate of the hollow fiber is increased. 従って、中空糸状ろ過膜41の内部表面上の固形物は、下側ほど除去されやすい状態になっている。 Thus, solids on the inner surface of the hollow fiber filtration membrane 41 is in a state likely to be removed toward the lower side. 従って、膜モジュール4の下部分が十分洗浄されるが、上部分には十分洗浄が行われない部分が生じやすい。 Thus, although the lower part of the membrane module 4 is sufficiently cleaned, washed well is not performed moiety is likely to occur in the upper portion. 【0020】図2の第1逆洗工程が終了した後、図1のろ過運転工程へ復帰し、ろ過運転を行う。 [0020] After the first backflushing step of Figure 2 has been completed, it returns to the filtration operation process of FIG. 1, and filtration operation. そして、所定時間が経過した場合には、第2逆洗工程(上部逆洗)に入る。 When the predetermined time has elapsed, it enters the second backflushing step (upper backwash). この第2逆洗工程のフローを図3に示す。 It shows the flow of the second backwashing step in FIG. 第2逆洗工程では、加圧ポンプ2は停止し、バルブ3、バルブ5、バルブ9が閉、バルブ8、バルブ10が開とする。 In a second backflushing step, the pressure pump 2 is stopped, the valve 3, valve 5, valve 9 is closed, the valve 8, the valve 10 is opened. 【0021】この状態で、逆洗用ポンプ7が起動し、ろ過水をろ過水槽6からバルブ8を介して、膜モジュール4の透過水室43へ逆流させ、中空糸状ろ過膜41に透過室43側から原水室42側に逆洗水を透過させ、中空糸状ろ過膜41の逆洗を行う。 [0021] In this state, backwash pump 7 is started and the filtered water from the filtering water tank 6 via a valve 8, to flow back into the permeate chamber 43 of the membrane module 4, the transmission chamber 43 to the hollow fiber filtration membrane 41 by transmitting backwash water from the side to the raw water chamber 42 side, performing backwashing of hollow fiber filtration membrane 41. 逆洗排水は膜モジュール上端よりバルブ10を介して排出される。 Backwash effluent is discharged through the valve 10 from the membrane module upper. なお、図3において、矢印は図2の場合と同じく逆洗水の流れを示している。 In FIG. 3, arrows indicate the same flow of backwash water to the case of FIG. この図3の逆洗状態では、中空糸状ろ過膜41 The backwash state of FIG. 3, hollow fiber filtration membrane 41
を透過した逆洗水は、すべて上端に設けられた原水側開口部45から排出される。 Backwash water that has passed through the is discharged from the raw water side opening 45 provided all the top. 従って、中空糸状ろ過膜41 Thus, hollow fiber filtration membrane 41
の内部では、中空糸の上側ほど流速が大きくなっている。 Inside the upper as the flow rate of the hollow fiber is increased. 従って、中空糸状ろ過膜41の内部表面上の固形物は、上側ほど除去されやすい状態になっている。 Thus, solids on the inner surface of the hollow fiber filtration membrane 41 is adapted to easily be upper extent removed state. 従って、膜モジュール4の上部分が十分洗浄されるが、下部分には十分洗浄が行われない部分が生じやすい。 Thus, although the upper portion of the membrane module 4 is sufficiently cleaned, washed well is not performed moiety is likely to occur in the lower part. 図3の第2逆洗工程が終了した後、図1のろ過運転工程へ復帰し、ろ過運転を行う。 After the second backwashing step of FIG. 3 has been finished, return to the filtration operation process of FIG. 1, and filtration operation. 【0022】本実施形態では、このようなろ過工程→第1逆洗工程(下部逆洗)→ろ過工程→第2逆洗工程(上部逆洗)→・・・・・という工程を繰り返す。 [0022] In this embodiment, repeating such filtration step → first backflushing step (lower backwash) → filtration step → second backflushing step (upper backwash) → step of ...... このような逆洗によって、中空糸状ろ過膜41の各端部は、2回の逆洗工程の中の1回は、十分に洗浄される。 Such backwash, the ends of the hollow fiber filtration membrane 41, once in two backwashing step is thoroughly washed. そこで、 there,
従来のように毎回両方向の逆洗を行うのと同等の逆洗効果を得ることができる。 As in the prior art it is possible to obtain the same backwash effect as performing the backwash in both directions each time. 【0023】そして、一度に膜モジュール全体の洗浄を実施する従来の方法に比較して、逆洗使用水量、逆洗時間を半分にして安定運転をすることができる。 [0023] Then, it is possible as compared with the conventional method of performing the cleaning of the entire membrane module at a time, to the stable operation and backwash water consumption, the backwash time in half. 従って、 Therefore,
装置全体の回収率と稼働効率が向上し、結果的に膜ろ過装置の造水コストや設備費を削減することが可能となる。 Recovery rate of the entire apparatus and to improve operation efficiency, it is possible to eventually reduce desalination cost and equipment cost of the membrane filtration device. 【0024】なお、図に示した装置は本発明の実施の形態の一例を示すものであって、本発明はその要旨を越えない限り、図示の形態に限定されるものではない。 [0024] Incidentally, the apparatus shown in FIG. There is shown an example of an embodiment of the present invention, the present invention as long as not exceeding the gist thereof, it is not limited to the illustrated. 【0025】膜モジュール4の形状には、中空糸膜、管状膜、モノリス型、プリーツ型、平膜などがあり、逆洗可能な分離膜であれば、いずれの形状のものでも用いることができるが、好ましくは逆洗の容易である中空糸膜、モノリス型、管状膜が適用される。 [0025] The shape of the membrane module 4, the hollow fiber membrane, tubular membrane, monolithic, pleated, include a flat membrane, if backwashable separation membrane, can be used any ones any shape but is preferably hollow fiber membrane is easily backwash, monolithic, tubular film applied. 【0026】ろ過膜41の素材には、ポリアクリロニトリル、ポリスルフォン、ポリフッ化ビニリデン、ポリプロピレン、ポリエチレン、酢酸セルロース、セラミック、金属など分離膜に用いられているあらゆる素材が使用可能である。 [0026] Material of the filtration membrane 41, polyacrylonitrile, polysulfone, polyvinylidene fluoride, polypropylene, polyethylene, cellulose acetate, ceramic, and all materials used in the separation membrane such as a metal can be used. 【0027】膜の分離孔径はその処理用途によって、様々なものが使用可能であるが、通常は分画分子量数万程度から分離孔径数μmの分離膜が適用され、好ましくは分画分子量13,000から分離孔径3μmの範囲の分離膜が適用される。 [0027] by a membrane separation pore size that processing applications, but can be used are various, normally apply the separation membrane of the separation hole diameter of several μm from about fractional molecular weight tens of thousands preferably fractional molecular weight of 13, 000 separation membrane in the range of separation pore size 3μm is applied from. 【0028】本発明の被処理水は、特に限定されるものではなく、河川水、湖沼水、地下水、工業用水、上水、 The water to be treated of the present invention is not limited in particular, river water, lake water, ground water, industrial water, tap water,
各種排水に適用可能である。 It can be applied to various types of waste water. 【0029】本発明の実施の形態では、分離膜を一つの単体として図示したが、本発明は分離膜を複数本並列で並べ一組とするような分離膜ユニットとした装置にも適用可能である。 [0029] In the embodiment of the present invention has been illustrated separation membrane as one single, the present invention is applicable to was the separation membrane unit as a pair arranged separation membrane in a plurality of parallel devices is there. 【0030】膜モジュール4の通水方式は、実施の形態ではデッドエンドろ過として示したが、クロスフローろ過への適用も可能である。 The water flow system of the membrane module 4, in the embodiment is shown as dead end filtration, it can also be applied to cross-flow filtration. 例えば、ろ過工程において、 For example, in the filtration step,
バルブ10を開として、第1原水側開口部44から流入した原水の一部を第2原水側開口部45から流出させて原水槽1に戻すことによって、クロスフローろ過が行え、第1、第2逆洗工程は上述の通りでよい。 The valve 10 is opened, by returning a part of the raw water that has flowed from the first raw water side opening 44 to the raw water tank 1 by flowing out of the second raw water side opening 45, can cross-flow filtration, first, 2 backwashing process may be as described above. 【0031】膜モジュール4のろ過工程から逆洗工程への移行は、一般に時間設定されていることが多いが、膜モジュール4の膜間差圧上昇や原水濁度負荷、積算ろ過水量などいかなる指標も逆洗工程への移行条件に適用することができる。 The transition from the filtration step of the membrane module 4 to backwash process is generally but often are timed, transmembrane pressure increase and the raw water turbidity load of the membrane module 4, any indicator, such as an integrator water filtration it can be applied to shift condition to backwash process. 【0032】また、本発明の実施形態では膜モジュール4への送水や逆洗を加圧ポンプによるものとして図示したが、水頭圧などを利用して送水することも可能である。 Further, in the embodiment of the present invention have been illustrated and water or backwash of the membrane module 4 as using a pressure pump, it is possible to water by using such water head pressure. 【0033】さらに、膜モジュール4からの逆洗排水の排出は、膜モジュール下部、上部に設置した連通管とバルブを介して実施するものとして図示したが、膜モジュール4から効率的に排水ができる手法で、発明の主旨に合えばいかなる方法も採用可能である。 Furthermore, discharge of backwash waste water from the membrane module 4, membrane module lower, have been illustrated as being implemented via a communicating pipe and the valve installed in the upper portion, it is effectively drained from the membrane module 4 in approach, any method if someone within the spirit of the invention are possible employed. 【0034】 【実施例】以下に実施例および比較のための従来例を挙げて本発明をより具体的に説明する。 [0034] EXAMPLES cited prior art for the examples and comparative below illustrate the present invention more specifically. 【0035】本発明の実施の形態で述べた装置を3台用いて、河川表流水より上水を得る目的で、従来の逆洗方法(従来例)と本発明による逆洗方法(実施例)で同時並列運転を実施し、膜モジュールの運転安定性、回収率、稼働率を比較した。 [0035] Using three devices described in the embodiments of the present invention, in order to obtain clean water from the river surface water, conventional backwashing method (conventional example) and backwash process according to the invention (Example) in performing simultaneous parallel operation, the operating stability of the membrane module, the recovery rate was compared uptime. 【0036】実施例の装置では、発明の実施の形態で述べた図2、図3に示した第1、第2の逆洗工程を図1のろ過工程を挟んで交互に行う運転を実施した。 [0036] In the apparatus of example, FIG. 2 described in the embodiment of the invention, first shown in FIG. 3, and the second backwash step carried out operating alternately performed across the process of filtration 1 . すなわち、運転状況はろ過(図1)→第1逆洗(図2)→ろ過(図1)→第2逆洗(図3)→ろ過(図1)→第1逆洗(図2)→ろ過(図1)→第2逆洗(図3)→・・・・ That is, the driving situation is filtered (Figure 1) → first backwashing (Figure 2) → filtration (Figure 1) → second backwashing (Figure 3) → filtration (Figure 1) → first backwashing (Figure 2) → filtration (Figure 1) → second backwashing (Figure 3) → · · · ·
・の工程を繰り返した。 It was repeated - of the process. 【0037】従来例の装置では、発明の実施の形態で述べた図1のろ過工程の完了後に図2、図3で述べた逆洗工程を続けて行う運転を実施した。 [0037] In the apparatus of the prior art example, Figure 2 after completion of the filtration step 1 described in the embodiment of the invention, were carried out operation is continuously performed a backwash process described in FIG. 運転状態は、ろ過(図1)→第1逆洗(図2)→第2逆洗(図3)→ろ過(図1)→第1逆洗(図2)→第2逆洗(図3)→ろ過(図1)・・・・・の工程を繰り返した。 Operation state, filtration (Figure 1) → first backwashing (Figure 2) → second backwashing (Figure 3) → filtration (Figure 1) → first backwashing (Figure 2) → second backwashing (Figure 3 ) → repeated filtration (Fig. 1) ..... step. 【0038】両装置のろ過膜には、酢酸セルロース製、 [0038] The membrane of both devices, cellulose acetate made,
UF中空糸膜、分画分子量150,000、有効膜面積5mの製品を用いた。 UF hollow fiber membrane, cut-off molecular weight of 150,000, was used product of the effective membrane area 5 m. 【0039】両装置の運転条件は、それぞれ表1に示すごとく設定した。 The operating conditions of both devices were set as respectively shown in Table 1. 【表1】 [Table 1] 【0040】表1に示すように、従来例の運転条件は2 As shown in Table 1, the operating conditions of the conventional example 2
条件とした。 It was a condition. すなわち、従来例1では第1逆洗および第2逆洗の時間を実施例の条件と同様にし、従来例2では、実施例の運転条件と回収率が同じになるように第1 That is, the conventional example first backwash and second backwashing time in 1 in the same manner as in the conditions of Example, first as in the second conventional example, the operating conditions of Example and recovery are the same
逆洗および第2逆洗の時間を半分とした。 Time backwash and second backwashing was set to half. 【0041】図4に運転結果を示す。 [0041] shows the operation results in FIG. 実施例、従来例1 Examples, Conventional Example 1
を比較すると、約6ヶ月の運転期間で両方ともに、膜モジュールの膜間差圧上昇などはみられず、安定した運転を維持できた。 Comparing, in both in the operating period of about 6 months, etc. transmembrane pressure increase in the membrane module not observed, was able to maintain stable operation. 一方、実施例による運転の方が水回収率と運転時間に占めるろ過時間の割合が高く、ランニングコスト低減に効果があることが確認された。 On the other hand, towards the driver according to the embodiment has a higher percentage of filtration time occupied in the operation time water recovery rate, the effectiveness of the running costs was confirmed. 【0042】次に、実施例と、従来例2とを比較すると、従来例2では、運転当初から膜モジュールの膜間差圧上昇が認められ、約3ヶ月の運転期間で、連続運転が不可能となるまで、膜モジュールの閉塞が進んでしまった。 Next, the embodiment is compared with the conventional example 2, the conventional example 2, transmembrane pressure rise in the membrane module was observed from the start operation at an operating period of about 3 months, continuous operation not possible and until, it had progressed clogging of the membrane module. この結果から、実施例によれば水回収率を従来例2 From this result, the water recovery rate prior According to Embodiment Example 2
と同一としながら、逆洗効果を上昇して、安定運転期間を延長できることが確認された。 While the same and, by increasing the backwash effect, it was confirmed that the extension of the stable operation period. 【0043】 【発明の効果】本発明によれば、2種類の逆洗を連続して行うことで一度に膜モジュール全体の洗浄を実施する従来の方法に比較して、逆洗使用水量、逆洗時間を半分にして同様の逆洗効果を得て安定して運転を継続することができる。 [0043] According to the present invention, two types of backwash as compared with the conventional method of implementing a cleaning of the entire membrane module at a time by performing continuous backwash water consumption, reverse and the washing time in half can be continued stably operated Interested backwash effect. 従って、装置全体の回収率と稼働効率が向上し、結果的に膜ろ過装置の造水コストや設備費を削減することが可能となる。 Thus, improved operating efficiency and recovery of the entire apparatus, it is possible to eventually reduce desalination cost and equipment cost of the membrane filtration device.

【図面の簡単な説明】 【図1】 実施形態に係る膜ろ過装置の概略構成であって、ろ過工程を示す図である。 A schematic configuration of the BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [Figure 1] membrane filtration apparatus according to the embodiment and showing a filtration step. 【図2】 実施形態に係る膜ろ過装置の概略構成であって、第1逆洗工程を示す図である。 [Figure 2] A schematic configuration of a membrane filtration apparatus according to the embodiment and showing a first backflushing step. 【図3】 実施形態に係る膜ろ過装置の概略構成であって、第2逆洗工程を示す図である。 [Figure 3] A schematic configuration of a membrane filtration apparatus according to the embodiment and showing a second backwash step. 【図4】 運転時間の経過に伴う膜間差圧の変化状態を示す図である。 4 is a diagram showing a state of change of transmembrane pressure over the course of a run time. 【符号の説明】 1 原水槽、2 加圧ポンプ、3,5,8,9,10 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 raw water tank, 2 pressure pump, 3,5,8,9,10
バルブ、4 膜モジュール、6 ろ過水槽、7 逆洗ポンプ。 Valve, 4 membrane module, 6 filtering water tank, 7 backwash pump.

フロントページの続き Fターム(参考) 4D006 GA06 GA07 HA02 KA61 KC03 KE24Q MA01 MA02 MA03 MA04 MC02 MC03 MC18 MC22 MC23 MC29 MC39 MC62 PB04 PB05 PB08 Front page of the continued F-term (reference) 4D006 GA06 GA07 HA02 KA61 KC03 KE24Q MA01 MA02 MA03 MA04 MC02 MC03 MC18 MC22 MC23 MC29 MC39 MC62 PB04 PB05 PB08

Claims (1)

  1. 【特許請求の範囲】 【請求項1】 膜によって原水室と透過水室に仕切られた膜モジュールの原水室に被処理水を導入し、膜を透過した処理水を透過水室から得る膜ろ過方法であって、 前記原水室の両端部に被処理水を導入または排出する一対の原水側開口部が設けられ、前記透過水室に逆洗水を導入し、原水室の前記原水側開口部のいずれからでも逆洗排水を排出することが可能であり、 所定期間のろ過工程終了後、前記原水室の一方の原水側開口部を開、他方の原水側開口部を閉として、一方の原水側開口部から逆洗排水を排出して第1逆洗工程を実施し、 この第1逆洗工程の終了後、ろ過工程に戻り、 所定期間のろ過工程終了後、前記原水室の前記他方の原水側開口部を開、前記一方の開口部を閉として、前記他方の原水側開口部か Introducing water to be treated raw water chamber of the Claims 1 membrane module which is partitioned into the raw water chamber and the permeate chamber by a membrane, membrane filtration to obtain a treated water having passed through the membrane from the permeate chamber a method, wherein the pair of raw water side opening for introducing or discharging the treated water is provided at both ends of the raw water compartment, the introducing backwash water in the permeate chamber, the raw water side opening of the raw water chamber it is possible to discharge the backwash effluent from any, after a predetermined period filtration step is completed, one of the raw water side opening of the raw water chamber opening, it is closed and the other of the raw water side opening, one of the raw water a first backflushing step performed by discharging backwash effluent from the side opening, after the first backwash step is completed, return to the filtration step, after the step of filtering termination predetermined period of said other of said raw water chamber the raw water side opening opens, the one opening is closed, or the other raw side opening 逆洗排水を排出して第2逆洗工程を実施し、 この第2逆洗工程の終了後、ろ過工程に戻り、 ろ過工程を挟んで、第1逆洗工程と、第2逆洗工程を繰り返すことを特徴とする膜ろ過方法。 And discharging the backwash effluent and performing a second backwash step, after the end of the second backflushing step, it returned to the filtration step, across the filtration step, a first backflushing step, the second backwash step membrane filtration wherein the repeated.
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