JP2003148653A - Long stretching piece for marker - Google Patents

Long stretching piece for marker

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Publication number
JP2003148653A
JP2003148653A JP2001343492A JP2001343492A JP2003148653A JP 2003148653 A JP2003148653 A JP 2003148653A JP 2001343492 A JP2001343492 A JP 2001343492A JP 2001343492 A JP2001343492 A JP 2001343492A JP 2003148653 A JP2003148653 A JP 2003148653A
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information
buried
tape
etc
pipeline
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JP2001343492A
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JP4043761B2 (en
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Norio Kishi
Satoshi Ozawa
聡 小澤
則男 岸
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Furukawa Electric Co Ltd:The
古河電気工業株式会社
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a long stretching piece for a marker which simply acquires information about an embedded pipeline or cable at the site and confirming at the site the detailed information containing the maintenance and inspection history, the sort of cable, etc. SOLUTION: Wireless response tags such as an RFID tag 2, etc., are installed at a certain spacing on the long stretching piece 1 such as a tape, cord, etc., so that a marker tape is formed, which is laid in the pipeline or embedded between the pipeline and the ground surface. The embedding information of the cables, pipeline, etc., stored in the tags is touchlessly sensed by irradiating the tags with electromagnetic waves, and it is realized to simply acquire the information about the embedded pipeline or cables. Also it is realized to confirm detailed information about the maintenance and inspection history, the sort of cable, etc.

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】 【0001】 【発明の属する技術分野】本発明は、地中に埋設されている管路やケーブルについての情報を、地上から検知する場合などに好適な標識用長尺体に関する。 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0001] [Technical Field of the Invention The present invention, information about the pipe or cable that is buried in the ground, long a suitable label, for example, to detect from the ground body on. 【0002】 【従来の技術】現在、新規に地中埋設管路を設置する場合、既設の配管が敷設されている可能性があるため、事前に道路管理者が記録している書類を調査したり、部分的に試験掘削を行って、埋設物の有無や場所の確認を行う必要があった。 [0002] Currently, when installing the underground pipe to new, since there is a possibility that existing pipes are laid in advance to examine the documents the road administrator is recorded or by performing a partial test drilling, it is necessary to perform the confirmation of the existence and location of buried objects. また、地中に埋設されている電力・通信ケーブルを収納した管路に沿って、再掘削時の損傷防止のため、例えば地上と管路の間に、ケーブル種類等を明記した図5に示す樹脂製の標識シートを管路敷設と同時に埋設することもある。 Furthermore, along the conduit housing the power and communication cables are buried in the ground, prevent damage at the time of re-drilling, for example, between ground and line, shown in FIG. 5 as specified cable type and the like sometimes burying the resin label sheet pipe laying at the same time. このようにしておけば再度、 In this way again if in,
道路工事等により管路埋設部分を掘削した場合にも、掘削過程において上記標識シートに引っかかることにより、管路が埋設してあることが判り、管路の損傷を防止できる。 Even when the drilling pipe buried portion by road construction or the like, by catching on the label sheet at the drilling process, it can be seen that the conduit is are embedded, it can be prevented damage to the conduit. また、地表面には管路の埋設ルートにそって一定の間隔で、管路の管理者記号や管路種によって色分けされた埋設標を埋め込んでおき、埋設物の位置がわかるようにされていた。 Further, the ground surface at regular intervals along the buried route of the pipeline, is embedded a buried target color-coded by the administrator sign or line type, line, is to know the location of the buried object It was. このような従来技術は電力や通信管路に限らず、ガスや上下水道等の地中埋設設備・管路にも適用されてきた。 Such prior art is not limited to the power and communication line, it has also been applied to underground equipment and pipes such as gas and water supply and sewerage. 【0003】 【発明が解決しようとする課題】上記のように管路を新設する場合には、事前調査や、試験掘削を行っているが、試験採掘等で予想したルートと別のルートに管路が敷設されていることが判明することもある。 [0003] In the case of newly established a conduit as described above [0006], the preliminary survey and, although tested drilling, pipe to route and another route which was expected in the test mining, etc. sometimes it is found that road is laid. このような場合、設計を再度やりなおしたり、大規模な試験掘削を行わなくてはならず、非常に手間がかかる上に、工期が遅れてしまう問題があった。 In such a case, or try the design again, must not be without a large-scale test drilling, on a very time-consuming, there is a problem that the construction period is delayed. 埋設標識シートの場合も、 In the case of buried label sheet,
重機等で実際に掘削していき、シートにぶつからないと管路が埋設されていることが判らず、シート上の情報も目視できないため、管路敷設予定場所で見つかった場合、管路敷設ルートの見直しが必要となった。 It will actually drilled in heavy machinery and does not hit the sheet not know that the conduit is embedded, the information on the sheet may not be visible, if found in line laying scheduled places, pipe laying route review of became necessary. また、埋設標識シートに気づかず管路まで重機がとどいてしまい、既設配管を傷つけてしまうこともあるのが実情である。 Moreover, embedded label sheets would be heavy equipment reach up conduit unaware, a fact is sometimes damage the existing pipe. また、埋設標からは地上で管理者の記号や埋設位置、管路種に関する情報は得られるが、それ以上の情報、例えば埋設深さや管路条数、ケーブルの種類、敷設時期、敷設業者など、メンテナンスや災害復旧等で緊急に必要となる詳細な情報については得ることができず、 Further, the ground a manager of symbols and buried locations from buried target, but the information is obtained about the conduit species, more information, for example, buried depth and pipe Article number, the type of cable laying time, laying of skill such as , it is not possible to obtain detailed information that is urgently needed in the maintenance and disaster recovery, etc.,
管理者の保管する書類を調べたりする必要があった。 There was a need to examine or documents stored administrator. 本発明は上記事情に鑑みなされたものであって、本発明の目的は、埋設管路やケーブルに関する情報を簡単に得ることができるようにするともに、保守点検履歴やケーブルの種類等の詳細情報を現地で確認できようにすることである。 The present invention has been made in view of the above situation, the objective is both detailed information such as the type of maintenance history or cable to be able to easily obtain information about buried duct and the cable of the invention the is to ensure that can be found in the local. 【0004】 【課題を解決するための手段】上述する課題を解決するため、本発明は、テープやひも等の長尺体上に無線応答タグを所定の間隔で設置して標識用長尺体を構成した。 [0004] To solve the problem of above SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention, by installing a radio response tag on the elongated body such as a tape or cord at predetermined intervals for labeling long body you configure.
この無線応答タグに対して電磁波を照射することにより、非接触で無線応答タグに記憶させた情報、例えばケーブルや埋設管路等の埋設情報、長尺体の一端からの距離情報、あるいは標準情報を地上から検知できるようにしたものである。 By irradiating an electromagnetic wave with respect to the wireless response tag, information stored in the wireless response tag without contact, for example, a cable or a buried duct or the like embedded information, distance information from one end of the elongate body or standard information, it is that to be able to detect from the ground. 無線応答タグとしては、RFID(Rad The wireless response tag, RFID (Rad
io Frequency Identifcation) タグが知られている。 io Frequency Identifcation) tag is known. 上記RFIDタグを用いる非接触式認識システムは、無線(電磁波) でRFIDタグに内蔵されたICメモリと情報のやりとりを行うシステムであり、非接触でデータの読み出し、書き換えが可能であるため、これまで物流管理等で用いられていたバーコードや、キャッシュカード等に用いられてきた磁気テープにかわるものとして注目されており、現在では量産化によって単価が下落し、急激に普及し始めている。 Non-contact recognition system using the RFID tag is a system that exchanges IC memory and information incorporated in the RFID tag wirelessly (electromagnetic waves), data without contact reading, since rewriting is possible, this barcode or which has been used in physical distribution management or the like to have been attracting attention as an alternative to magnetic tape which has been used in the cash card or the like, falling unit prices by mass production is currently beginning to spread rapidly. 【0005】上記RFID非接触式認識システムの構成は、個体管理の基となる「RFIDタグ」、通信の中継を行う「アンテナ」、上記RFIDタグのID情報の読み取り/書き込みを行う「リーダ」から構成され、RF [0005] of the RFID contactless recognition system configuration from a group of individual management "RFID tag", and relays communication "antenna", to read / write the ID information of the RFID tag "reader" configured, RF
IDタグには、ID情報を格納するメモリと通信回路から成るICチップと超小型アンテナが内蔵されている。 The ID tag, IC chip and micro antenna consisting of a memory and a communication circuit for storing the ID information is embedded.
上記アンテナは、リーダーと組み合わせて効率的な通信ができるように設計されている。 The antenna is designed to allow efficient communication in combination with the reader. リーダーはRFモジュールとコントロールモジュールから成り、上記アンテナを通じてホストコンピュータからのデータをRFIDタグに書き込んだり、RFIDタグのID情報をホストコンピュータに伝送したりする。 Leader consists RF module and the control module writes the data from the host computer to the RFID tag through the antenna, or transmits the ID information of the RFID tag to the host computer. また、RFIDタグは、 In addition, RFID tags,
送信される電磁波により起動する無電源のものが主流となりつつある。 It is becoming the mainstream as of no power supply to start by electromagnetic waves transmitted. さらに、電磁波によってタグと交信するため、土砂や水、コンクリートを介してもタグの読み書きを行うことが可能である。 Moreover, for communication with the tag by electromagnetic waves, sand and water, even through the concrete it is possible to read and write tags. 【0006】このRFIDタグに、例えば管理者名や埋設位置、管路種や管路条数、ケーブルの種類、敷設時期、敷設業者、作業内容履歴など、メンテナンスや災害復旧等で必要となる詳細な情報を記録させ、例えば樹脂製の長尺テープにある間隔でとりつけておき、これを前記埋設標識シートと同様、管路と地上の間に埋設して設置する、あるいは管路内にこのテープを通して敷設しておけば、現地で送信回路によりアンテナから固有周波数の電磁波を発信し、RFIDタグが受信してIDデータを格納したメモリに記憶させた上記情報が返信され、リーダーによりリアルタイムで地上から地中に埋設してある管路やケーブルの情報を得ることができるようになる。 [0006] In this RFID tag, for example, the administrator name and buried position, the conduit species and pipe condition number, the type of cable, time laying, laying of skill in the art, such as work history, details that are required in the maintenance and disaster recovery, etc. such information is recorded, for example, made of resin keep attached at intervals in the long tape, similarly to the embedded label sheet this, the tape line and ground buried to be installed between the, or conduit if laying through, transmits electromagnetic waves of the natural frequency from the antenna by the local in the transmission circuit, the information stored in the memory storing the ID data received by the RFID tag is sent back, from the ground in real time by the reader it is possible to obtain a conduit or information cables are buried in the ground. このRFIDタグは、データの書き換え作業が可能であるため、最初に記憶させた情報を更新することが可能であり、メンテナンスの履歴等を書き足したり、書き換えたりすることが可能である。 The RFID tag are the rewritable work data, it is possible to update the information was initially stored, or add write history of maintenance, it is possible or rewritten. また、遠隔で情報の書き込みが可能であるため、敷設前にデータを書き込まないで、敷設後にデータを書き込むことも可能である。 Further, since it is possible to write information in a remote, not write data before laying, it is possible to write the data after laying. 【0007】既設の配管への対応としては、一管路内への敷設が適している。 [0007] In response to existing piping, it is suitable laying into single conduit. このような敷設形態をとれば、再掘削することなく、RFIDタグの敷設が可能となる。 Taking such laying form, without re-drilling, it is possible to lay the RFID tag.
このように、埋設物標識用長尺体を設置すれば、記録を調査したり、試験掘削をすることなく、現地で地上から埋設管路の情報がとれることから、新設の管路工事をスムースに進めることが可能になるし、メンテナンス作業も容易になり、履歴等を残すことも簡単になる。 Thus, if installed buried objects labeling long body, smooth or investigate the recording without the test drilling, since the information of the buried duct can be taken from the ground in the field, the conduit construction of new it it becomes possible to proceed to, maintenance work even easier, it becomes easy to leave the history and the like. また、 Also,
地震等の災害で管路に納められているケーブルに支障が生じたとしても、無電源のRFIDタグを採用していれば、すぐにケーブル種類等が現地で把握でき、早急な復旧作業が可能になる。 Even trouble has occurred in the cable, which is housed in the conduit in a disaster such as an earthquake, if adopted an RFID tag of no power supply, ready-to-cable type or the like can be grasped by local, it can be immediate recovery work become. また、RFIDタグから返信される電磁波の受信強度をリーダーによって測定し、受信強度と距離の関係を解析することにより、RFIDタグとの距離を測定することもできる。 Furthermore, the reception intensity of the electromagnetic waves sent back from the RFID tag was measured by the reader, by analyzing the relationship between the reception intensity and the distance, it is possible to measure the distance to the RFID tag. この距離測定によって、タグの埋設深さを知ることができるので、管路内に標識用長尺体が敷設されていれば、管路の埋設深さが判明することになり、掘削時にその深さ付近まで、いっぺんに開削しても管路を傷つける恐れもなくなる。 This distance measurement, it is possible to know the buried depth of the tag, if it is laying labeling elongated body conduit, will be buried depth of the pipe is known, the depth at excavation to the vicinity of the even eliminated damage the at once conduit it is digging. 【0008】 【発明の実施の形態】図1は本発明の実施例の標識用テープの構成を示す図である。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Figure 1 is a diagram showing a configuration of a label tape of the embodiment of the present invention. 同図に示すように、長尺なテープ1にRFIDタグ2を所定の間隔で取り付ける。 As shown in the drawing, mounting the RFID tag 2 at predetermined intervals in a long tape 1.
テープは例えばポリエチレンなどの樹脂製が長期使用の点から望ましいが、金属製でもよい。 Tapes for example made of resin such as polyethylene is desirable in terms of long-term use, but may be made of metal. なお、形状はテープ状でなく、ひも状でもかまわない。 It should be noted that the shape is not a tape-like, it may be a string-like. タグの間隔は0. Tags of the interval 0.
5〜5m間隔が望ましい。 5~5m interval is desirable. すなわち、現在、RFIDタグの通信距離は最大で6m程度であり、ルート上で常に情報をモニタリングできることを考えると5m以下の間隔が望ましく、また、間隔をつめすぎると安価とはいえコストアップになることから0.5m以上の間隔が望ましい。 That is, currently, the communication distance of the RFID tag is 6m approximately at the maximum, consider the following intervals 5m is desirable to be able to monitor at all times the information on the route, also increased cost although cheaper too pawl apart interval of at least 0.5m from it is desirable. 現在、市販されているRFIDタグは、ID情報を格納したメモリと通信回路から成るICチップと超小型アンテナを、樹脂製のシートに挟み込んで封止してあるものや、樹脂、シリコン製やガラス製のケースに収められているものがあり、これらをテープにとりつけていってもかまわない。 Currently, RFID tags are commercially available which an IC chip and an ultra small antenna comprising a memory and a communication circuit that stores the ID information, are sealed by sandwiching a resin sheet or a resin, silicon or glass There is a thing, which is on the manufacturing of the case, it may be carried out by attaching them to the tape. また、上記封止するための樹脂性のシートを長尺テープ状にして、所定の間隔にICチップと小型アンテナを封止して、標識用テープとしてもよい。 Further, the resin of the sheet for the sealing in the long tape-like, sealing the IC chip and a small antenna in a predetermined interval, may be the labeling tape. このようにすれば、あとからRFIDタグを設置する手間を省くことが可能になる。 Thus, it is possible to save the trouble of installing the RFID tag later. 【0009】図2に上記標識用テープの敷設方法の一例を示す。 [0009] FIG. 2 shows an example of laying method of the label tape. 敷設方法としては、図2に示すように埋設敷設されている管路3内に、標識用テープ1を挿通して設置する方法を採ることができる。 As laying method can take into conduit 3 which is embedded laid as shown in FIG. 2, a method of installing and inserting the label tape 1. 通常、管路内には、線材が残されていることが多く、この線材を利用すれば既設の管路であっても標識用テープを容易に挿通させることができるが、テープ1の先端にパラシュートをつけて高圧空気で管内に吹き込む、いわゆる吹き流し方式で挿通させることもできる。 Typically, the conduit, often wire is left, but the existing label tape even line By using this wire can be easily inserted, the tip of the tape 1 blown into the tube with high pressure air with a parachute, it can also be inserted in a so-called streamers manner. この敷設方法であれば、既設管路にも簡単に適用できるメリットがあり、万が一、標識用テープを交換しなければならない場合にも、容易に交換することができる。 With this laying method, there is a merit that it is also easily applicable to the existing pipe, any chance, even if you have to replace the label tape can be easily replaced. また、既設管路の埋設位置を確認する際にも、管路に標識用テープを挿通させれば、管路の埋設位置を容易に確認することが可能となる。 Also, when checking embedded position of the existing pipeline, if inserting the label tape to the conduit, it is possible to easily check the embedded position of the conduit. さらに、 further,
RFIDタグから返信される電磁波の受信強度をリーダーによって測定し、受信強度と距離の関係を解析することにより、RFIDタグとの距離を測定することも可能であるため、例えば、図2に示したように、管内に埋設物標識用テープを納めておけば、管路深さが判るので、 The reception intensity of the electromagnetic waves sent back from the RFID tag was measured by the reader, by analyzing the relationship between the reception intensity and the distance, since it is possible to measure the distance to the RFID tag, for example, shown in FIG. 2 as such, if pay a buried object label tape into the tube, since pipe depth is known,
管路を傷つけずに掘削可能な深さをあらかじめ知ることが可能になる。 It is possible to know in advance the excavation depth without damaging the pipe. この標識用テープのRFIDタグに一方から連続番号を書き込んでおけば、この番号をたよりにマンホールからの管の長さをおおよそ知ることができる。 If writing one from the sequence number to the RFID tag of the label tape, it is possible to know the approximate length of the tube from the manhole this number to rely. 【0010】図3に標識用テープの敷設方法の他の例を示す。 [0010] FIG. 3 shows another example of a laying method labeling tape. 同図に示すように、従来の標識シートと同じように、管路3と地表との間の任意の位置に埋設物標識用テープ1を埋設する方法を採ることができる。 As shown in the figure, it can be like a traditional label sheet, take a method of burying a buried object labeling tape 1 at any position between the pipe 3 and the ground surface. この場合、 in this case,
管路本数分の埋設物標識テープを埋設してもかまわないが、複数本の管路に対し1本だけ埋設物標識用テープを敷設して、RFIDタグに複数管路の情報をまとめて記憶させておくことも可能である。 Although it may be buried pipe number fraction of buried objects labeled tape, one only laying the buried object labeling tape to a plurality of conduits, collectively stores information of a plurality conduit to RFID tags it is also possible to keep to. RFIDタグに記憶させる情報としては、例えば管理者名や埋設位置、管路種や管路条数、ケーブルの種類、敷設時期、敷設業者のみならず、情報の書き換えや書き加えも可能であるため、 The information to be stored in the RFID tag, for example, administrator name and buried position, line type and line number of threads, type of cables, timing laying, not laid skilled only, rewriting of information and write addition is for possible ,
保守点検履歴やケーブルの交換履歴など、メンテナンスや災害復旧等で必要となる情報が考えられる。 Such as maintenance and inspection history and cable replacement history of, information that is required for maintenance and disaster recovery and the like can be considered. また、R In addition, R
FIDタグは電池式のものと無電源式のものがあるが、 FID tag is there is and what the non-powered battery powered,
長期使用という観点から無電源式のものが望ましい。 Those from the viewpoint of long-term use of non-powered desirable. 【0011】埋設物標識用テープのその他の実施例を図4に示す。 [0011] Other embodiments of the buried object labeling tape shown in FIG. 同図に示すように、埋設物標識用テープに、 As shown in the figure, the buried object labeling tape,
管路・ケーブル情報を文字や記号で記載しておくことにより、掘削して掘り起こしたときに、管路等が埋設されていることを目視でも確認できるので便利である。 By previously described conduits cable information characters and symbols, when digging and excavating, it is convenient because it confirmed visually that is buried pipe or the like. なお、上記の実施例は、電力・通信管路について述べたが、同じように地中埋設されているガスや上下水道管路に関しても適用することが可能である。 Incidentally, embodiments described above has dealt with the power and communication line, it can be applied for the same way underground has been that gas and water and sewage pipes. 【0012】 【発明の効果】以上説明したように、以下の効果を得ることができる。 [0012] As described above, according to the present invention, it is possible to obtain the following effects. (1)無線応答タグを取り付けた標識用長尺体を用いれば、現地で埋設管路やケーブルに関する情報を正確に得ることが可能となり、書類による事前調査や、試験掘削が不要となり、掘削してからのルート変更等がなくなり、正確に工事を進めることが可能となる。 (1) By using the attached labels for long body wireless response tag, it is possible to obtain information about buried duct or cable correctly locally, preliminary studies and by documents, test drilling is not required, and drilling route changes and the like since is eliminated, it is possible to proceed with the accurate construction. また、上記標識用長尺体を既設管路中に挿通させれば、既設管路の埋設位置を容易に確認することができ、試験掘削等も不要となる。 Also, if inserted the labeling long body into the existing pipeline in the buried position of the existing pipeline can be easily confirmed, and also unnecessary test excavation. さらに、上記埋設物標識用長尺体を、管路等の埋設物と地表面の間に埋設敷設しておけば、従来の標識シートと同様な機能を持たせることもできる。 Furthermore, the buried object labeling long body, if embedded laid between buried objects and the ground surface of the conduit or the like, it may also be provided with a function similar to a conventional label sheets. (2)メンテナンスや災害時の復旧に際しても、保守点検履歴やケーブルの種類、敷設ルート等の詳細情報が現地で確認できるため、早急な対応が可能となる。 (2) the time of recovery in the event of maintenance or disaster, maintenance and inspection history and the type of cable, for detailed information such as the laying route can be confirmed at the local, immediate action is possible. また、 Also,
電子情報として情報を保管、伝送できるため、リーダーに携帯電話等の長距離通信手段を取り付けて、一括管理を行うホストコンピューターと情報を交換し、例えば地図情報等と組み合わせれば、管路網の管理システムにも応用できる。 Stores information as electronic information, it is possible to transmit, by attaching a long distance communication means such as a cellular phone to the reader, replacing the host computer and information to be managed collectively, for example, when combined with the map information and the like, of the pipe network It can also be applied to the management system.

【図面の簡単な説明】 【図1】本発明の実施例の標識用テープの構成を示す図である。 It is a diagram showing a configuration of a label tape of Example BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [Figure 1] present invention. 【図2】標識用テープの敷設方法の1例を示す図である。 2 is a diagram showing an example of laying Methods of labeling tape. 【図3】標識用テープの敷設方法の他の例を示す図である。 3 is a diagram showing another example of installation methods of the label tape. 【図4】標識用テープの他の例を示す図である。 4 is a diagram showing another example of the label tape. 【図5】従来から使用されていた標識シートの一例を示す図である。 5 is a diagram showing an example of a label sheet which has been conventionally used. 【符号の説明】 1 テープ2 RFIDタグ3 管路 [EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS] 1 tape 2 RFID tag 3 line

───────────────────────────────────────────────────── フロントページの続き (51)Int.Cl. 7識別記号 FI テーマコート゛(参考) G09F 3/02 G06K 19/00 Q H04B 1/59 H ────────────────────────────────────────────────── ─── of the front page continued (51) Int.Cl. 7 identification mark FI theme Court Bu (reference) G09F 3/02 G06K 19/00 Q H04B 1/59 H

Claims (1)

  1. 【特許請求の範囲】 【請求項1】 長尺体上に無線応答タグを所定の間隔で設置した標識用長尺体。 Claims 1. A installed, labeled for long body wireless response tag on the elongate body at a predetermined interval. 【請求項2】 請求項1の標識用長尺体であって、上記無線応答タグに対して、電磁波を照射することにより、 2. A labeling long body of claim 1, with respect to the wireless response tag, by irradiating an electromagnetic wave,
    非接触で無線応答タグに記憶させたケーブルあるいは埋設管路等の埋設情報を地上から検知できるようにしたことを特徴とする標識用長尺体。 Labeling long body, characterized in that the buried cable information or buried duct or the like are stored in the wireless response tag without contact and to be able to detect from the ground. 【請求項3】 上記長尺体は、管路等の埋設物と地表面の間に埋設敷設されることを特徴とする請求項1の標識用長尺体。 Wherein said length Shakutai may labeling long body of claim 1, characterized in that is embedded laid between buried objects and the ground surface of the conduit or the like. 【請求項4】 上記長尺体は、管内に敷設されることを特徴とする請求項1の標識用長尺体。 Wherein said length Shakutai may labeling long body of claim 1, characterized in that it is laid in the tube.
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