JP2001324629A - Array waveguide type diffraction grating - Google Patents

Array waveguide type diffraction grating

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Publication number
JP2001324629A
JP2001324629A JP2001053951A JP2001053951A JP2001324629A JP 2001324629 A JP2001324629 A JP 2001324629A JP 2001053951 A JP2001053951 A JP 2001053951A JP 2001053951 A JP2001053951 A JP 2001053951A JP 2001324629 A JP2001324629 A JP 2001324629A
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Prior art keywords
waveguide
diffraction grating
end face
type diffraction
slab
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JP4762422B2 (en
Inventor
Kazuhisa Kashiwabara
Kazutaka Nara
Masanobu Nekado
Tsuneaki Saito
一孝 奈良
恒聡 斎藤
一久 柏原
昌伸 根角
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Furukawa Electric Co Ltd:The
古河電気工業株式会社
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Abstract

(57) [Problem] To provide an arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating in which the central wavelength of light transmission does not depend on the ambient temperature. SOLUTION: An optical input waveguide 2, a first slab waveguide 3, a plurality of arrayed waveguides 4 having different lengths from each other, and a plurality of second slab waveguides 5 are arranged in parallel. A waveguide forming region 10 formed by sequentially connecting the optical output waveguides 6 is formed on the substrate 1. The first slab waveguide 3 is cut and separated at a cutting plane 8 obliquely intersecting with the central axis of the first slab waveguide 3 in the light traveling direction, and the first waveguide forming region 10a formed by this cutting and separation is separated. A high coefficient of thermal expansion member 7 having a larger coefficient of thermal expansion than the substrate 1 is provided so as to straddle the second waveguide forming region 10b. The first and second waveguide forming regions 10a, 10a,
By varying the interval of 10b, the output end 20 of the optical input waveguide 2 is moved in the directions of the arrows A 'and B' to reduce the temperature-dependent variation of the optical transmission center wavelength of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating.

Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating used as an optical multiplexer / demultiplexer in, for example, wavelength division multiplexing optical communication.

[0002]

2. Description of the Related Art In recent years, in optical communications, research and development on optical wavelength division multiplexing has been actively conducted as a method for dramatically increasing the transmission capacity, and practical use thereof has been progressing. Optical wavelength division multiplexing is, for example, a method of multiplexing and transmitting a plurality of lights having different wavelengths from each other. In order to extract the light, a light transmission device or the like that transmits only light of a predetermined wavelength,
It is essential to have it in the system.

As an example of a light transmitting device, a planar optical waveguide circuit (PLC; Planar Li) as shown in FIG.
Array Waveguide Grating (AWG; Arrayed Waveguide)
Grating). The arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is obtained by forming a waveguide configuration as shown in FIG. 1 on a substrate 1 made of silicon or the like using a core made of quartz glass or the like.

The waveguide configuration of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is as follows.
At least one of the light input waveguides 2 arranged side by side
Of the first slab waveguide 3 is connected to a plurality of array waveguides 4 arranged in parallel, and the output side of the array waveguide 4 is connected to a second slab waveguide 3. 5
Are connected, and a plurality of juxtaposed optical output waveguides 6 are formed on the emission side of the second slab waveguide 5.

[0005] The arrayed waveguides 4 are for propagating light derived from the first slab waveguides 3 and are formed to have different lengths, and the lengths of adjacent arrayed waveguides 4 are different from each other by ΔL. ing. The optical input waveguide 2 and the optical output waveguide 6 are provided in correspondence with the number of signal lights having different wavelengths to be split or multiplexed by, for example, an arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating. Wave 4
Are usually provided, for example, as many as 100. In the figure, for the sake of simplicity, the number of each of the optical input waveguide 2, the array waveguide 4, and the optical output waveguide 6 is shown. Is simply shown.

An optical fiber (not shown) on the transmission side, for example, is connected to the optical input waveguide 2 so that wavelength-division multiplexed light is introduced. The light introduced into the slab waveguide 3 spreads due to the diffraction effect and enters each array waveguide 4, and the array waveguide 4
Is propagated.

The light that has propagated through the array waveguide 4 is transmitted to the second
Reaches the slab waveguide 5, and is further condensed and output to the optical output waveguide 6. Since the lengths of all the array waveguides 4 are different from each other, each of the individual The phase of the light is shifted, and the wavefront of the converged light is tilted according to the amount of the shift.

For this reason, the light condensing positions of the lights having different wavelengths are different from each other. By forming the light output waveguide 6 at that position, the light having different wavelengths (demultiplexed light) is different for each wavelength. The light can be output from the optical output waveguide 6.

That is, the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating separates the light of one or more wavelengths from the multiplexed light having a plurality of different wavelengths input from the optical input waveguide 2 to each optical output waveguide. 6 has a light demultiplexing function, and the center wavelength of the demultiplexed light is equal to the difference (Δ
L) and proportional to the effective refractive index n c of the arrayed waveguide 4.

Since the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating has the above-mentioned characteristics, the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating can be used as an optical wavelength demultiplexer for wavelength division multiplexing transmission. For example, as shown in FIG. And the wavelength λ from one optical input waveguide 2
When wavelength multiplexed light of 1, λ2, λ3,... Λn (n is an integer of 2 or more) is input, the light of each of these wavelengths becomes the first light.
Is spread by the slab waveguide 3, reaches the array waveguide 4, passes through the second slab waveguide 5, is condensed at different positions depending on the wavelength as described above, and is incident on the different optical output waveguides 6. Through each optical output waveguide 6,
The light is output from the output end of the optical output waveguide 6.

Then, by connecting an optical fiber (not shown) for optical output to the output end of each optical output waveguide 6,
The light of each wavelength is extracted through the optical fiber. When an optical fiber is connected to each of the optical output waveguides 6 and the optical input waveguide 2 described above, for example, an optical fiber array in which the end faces of the optical fibers are fixed in a one-dimensional array is prepared. The optical fiber is connected to the optical output waveguide 6 and the optical input waveguide 2 while being fixed to the connection end face side of the output waveguide 6 and the optical input waveguide 2.

In the above-mentioned array waveguide type diffraction grating, the light transmission characteristics of the light output from each light output waveguide 6 (the wavelength characteristics of the transmitted light intensity of the array waveguide type diffraction grating) are as shown in FIG. 7, for example. And each light transmission center wavelength (for example, λ
1, .lambda.2, .lambda.3,..., .Lambda.n), and shows a light transmission characteristic in which the light transmittance decreases as the wavelength shifts from the corresponding light transmission center wavelength. The light transmission characteristic does not always have one maximum value, and may have two or more maximum values.

Since the array waveguide type diffraction grating utilizes the principle of reciprocity (reversibility) of light, it has not only a function as an optical demultiplexer but also a function as an optical multiplexer. . That is, contrary to FIG. 6, light of a plurality of wavelengths different from each other is supplied to each optical output waveguide 6 for each wavelength.
, These lights pass through the reverse propagation path, are multiplexed by the arrayed waveguide 4, and are emitted from one optical input waveguide 2.

In such an arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating, as described above, since the wavelength resolution of the diffraction grating is proportional to the difference (ΔL) between the lengths of the arrayed waveguides 4 constituting the diffraction grating, ΔL is set to The large design enables the optical multiplexing and demultiplexing of wavelength-division multiplexed light with a narrow wavelength interval, which could not be realized by conventional diffraction gratings. , Ie, a function of demultiplexing or multiplexing a plurality of optical signals having a wavelength interval of 1 nm or less.

[0015]

Incidentally, the above-mentioned arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is mainly made of a silica glass material, and therefore, the array waveguide is caused by the temperature dependence of the silica glass material. The light transmission center wavelength of the waveguide grating shifts depending on the temperature. The temperature dependence is such that the transmission center wavelength of light output from one optical output waveguide 6 is λ, the equivalent refractive index of the core forming the arrayed waveguide 4 is n c , and the substrate (for example, silicon substrate) 1 Where α s is the thermal expansion coefficient and T is the temperature change of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating.

[0016]

(Equation 1)

Here, a conventional general array waveguide type circuit is used.
In the folded grating, the temperature of the light transmission center wavelength is calculated from (Equation 1).
Let's look for degree dependence. Conventional general array waveguide type
In a diffraction grating, dnc/ DT = 1 × 10-5(℃
-1), Αs= 3.0 × 10 -6(℃-1), Nc=
1.451 (value at a wavelength of 1.55 μm)
Then, these values are substituted into (Equation 1).

Although the wavelength λ differs for each optical output waveguide 6, the temperature dependence of each wavelength λ is equal.
The array waveguide type diffraction grating currently used is often used for demultiplexing or multiplexing wavelength-division multiplexed light in a wavelength band centered at 1550 nm. = 1550 nm is substituted for (Equation 1). Then, the temperature dependence of the light transmission center wavelength of the conventional general array waveguide type diffraction grating becomes a value shown in (Equation 2).

[0019]

(Equation 2)

The unit of dλ / dT is nm / ° C. For example, when the use environment temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is 2
If the temperature changes by 0 ° C., the central wavelength of light transmitted from each optical output waveguide 6 shifts to the longer wavelength side or the shorter wavelength side by 0.30 nm, and the change in the use environment temperature is 7 °.
At 0 ° C. or higher, the shift amount of the light transmission center wavelength becomes 1
nm or more.

The arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is characterized in that wavelengths can be split or multiplexed at very narrow intervals of 1 nm or less. Since this feature is utilized for wavelength division multiplexing optical communication, As described above, it is fatal that the light transmission center wavelength changes by the shift amount due to a change in the use environment temperature.

Therefore, conventionally, an arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating provided with a temperature control means for keeping the temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating constant so that the light transmission center wavelength does not change with temperature has been proposed. . This temperature adjusting means is configured by, for example, providing a Peltier element, a heater, and the like, and all of them perform control for maintaining the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating at a predetermined set temperature (room temperature or higher). .

In the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating shown in FIG. 6, a Peltier element indicated by reference numeral 30 is provided on the substrate 1 side of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating, and a thermistor 31 is provided.
Is adjusted so as to keep the temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating constant based on the detected temperature. In the case where a heater is provided instead of the Peltier element, the heater is maintained at a high temperature so that the temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is kept constant.

As described above, if the temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is kept constant, the expansion and contraction of the substrate 1 and the change of the equivalent refractive index of the core do not occur due to the temperature. Can be solved.

Further, due to a manufacturing error (errors such as film thickness, width, refractive index, etc.) of the array waveguide portion constituting the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating, the light transmission center wavelength is set to an ITU grid wavelength or the like. Even when the wavelength is deviated from the wavelength, the temperature at which the light transmission center wavelength becomes the set wavelength is calculated using (Equation 2), and the temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is set to the calculated temperature by using a Peltier element or the like. If the temperature is adjusted by a temperature adjusting means having a heater or the like, the light transmission center wavelength can be adjusted to the grid wavelength.

However, in the case where the temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is kept constant by using a temperature adjusting means such as a Peltier element or a heater, a current of, for example, 1 W is always supplied to the Peltier element or the heater for temperature adjustment. However, there is a problem that the cost must be increased.

In addition, in order to use electric components such as a Peltier element and a heater, a controller, a thermistor for control, a thermocouple, and the like are required, and light transmission due to misalignment of these components is required. In some cases, the center wavelength shift cannot be suppressed accurately.

Further, the connection between the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating and the optical fiber array is generally performed using an adhesive, and the temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is raised to a temperature higher than room temperature by a Peltier element or a heater. When controlled, the adhesive provided on the connection surface between the arrayed waveguide diffraction grating and the optical fiber expands or softens, for example, at a temperature higher than room temperature. Therefore, when the temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is kept constant by using a Peltier element or the like, the expansion or softening of the adhesive causes the light input waveguide 2 or the optical output of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating. There is a problem that the connection loss between the waveguide 6 and the optical fiber increases, and the reliability of the connection between the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating and the optical fiber is impaired.

The present invention has been made to solve the above-mentioned problem, and an object of the present invention is to provide an inexpensive arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating capable of accurately suppressing the temperature dependency of the central wavelength of light transmission. Is to do.

[0030]

In order to achieve the above-mentioned object, the present invention has the following structure to solve the problem. That is, in the first invention, the first slab waveguide is connected to the output side of one or more optical input waveguides arranged in parallel, and the first slab waveguide is connected to the output side of the first slab waveguide. A plurality of side-by-side arrayed waveguides of different lengths for transmitting light derived from the slab waveguide are connected, and a second slab waveguide is connected to an output side of the plurality of arrayed waveguides. On the output side of the second slab waveguide, a waveguide forming region to which a plurality of light output waveguides arranged in parallel are connected is formed on a substrate, and a plurality of mutually different light input waveguides are input from the optical input waveguide. An array waveguide type diffraction grating having an optical demultiplexing function of demultiplexing light of one or more wavelengths from light having a wavelength and outputting the light from each optical output waveguide, wherein the first slab waveguide and At least one of the second slab waveguides is positioned with respect to the central axis of the slab waveguide in the light traveling direction. A separated slab waveguide is formed by being cut at a cross-section that crosses obliquely, and the waveguide forming region includes a first waveguide forming region including one separated slab waveguide and a second waveguide including a separated slab waveguide on the other side. 2
And an end face interval varying means for varying the interval between the end faces of the first and second waveguide formation areas which are opposed to each other. It is a means to solve.

According to a second aspect of the present invention, in addition to the configuration of the first aspect, the end face interval variable means is configured to change an end face interval between the first and second waveguide forming regions from each optical output waveguide. The present invention is a means for solving the problem with a configuration which is a means for reducing the temperature-dependent fluctuation of the light transmission center wavelength of the output light to be outputted.

Further, the third invention is directed to the first or second embodiment.
In addition to the configuration of the invention, the end face interval variable means has a member provided so as to straddle the first waveguide formation region and the second waveguide formation region, and the member includes a waveguide formation region and This is a means for solving the problem by using a structure having a high thermal expansion coefficient member having a higher thermal expansion coefficient than the substrate.

Further, the fourth invention is directed to the first or second embodiment.
In addition to the configuration of the invention, the end face interval variable means is interposed between at least one of the first waveguide forming region and the second waveguide forming region and the base on which the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is disposed. This is a means for solving the problem with a configuration in which the member is a high thermal expansion coefficient member having a larger thermal expansion coefficient than the waveguide forming region and the substrate.

Further, the fifth invention is directed to the first to fourth embodiments.
In addition to the configuration of any one of the inventions described above, the end face interval variable means solves the problem with a configuration in which the end faces of the first waveguide formation region and the second waveguide formation region facing each other are in a parallel state. Means.

Further, the sixth invention is directed to the first to fourth embodiments.
In addition to the configuration of any one of the aspects of the invention, the end face interval variable means solves the problem with a configuration in which the end faces of the first waveguide formation region and the second waveguide formation region facing each other are in a non-parallel state. Means to do that.

The present inventor paid attention to the linear dispersion characteristics of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating in order to suppress the temperature dependence of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating. Light incident from the optical input waveguide in the arrayed waveguide grating is diffracted by the first slab waveguide (input slab waveguide) to excite the arrayed waveguide. As described above, the lengths of adjacent array waveguides are different from each other by ΔL. Then, the light that has propagated through the array waveguide satisfies (Equation 3) and is collected at the output end of the second slab waveguide (output side slab waveguide).

[0037]

(Equation 3)

[0038] In equation (3), n s is the equivalent refractive index of the first slab waveguide and the second slab waveguide, n c is the effective refractive index of the arrayed waveguide, phi is the diffraction angle, m is the diffraction order ,
d is the interval between adjacent array waveguides, and λ is the transmission center wavelength of light output from each optical output waveguide, as described above.

[0039] Here, when the light transmission center wavelength at which a diffraction angle phi = 0 and lambda 0, lambda 0 is expressed by equation (4). The wavelength λ 0 is generally called the center wavelength of the arrayed waveguide grating.

[0040]

(Equation 4)

In FIG. 3, the central axis direction of the light traveling direction of the first and second slab waveguides 3 and 5 is defined as Y direction, and the direction orthogonal to the Y direction is defined as X direction. When the focusing position of the arrayed waveguide grating comprising a diffraction angle phi = 0 and the point O, the condensing position of light having a diffraction angle φ = φ p (positions at the output end of the second slab waveguide) is For example, the position of the point P (position shifted from the point O in the X direction). Here, assuming that a distance in the X direction between O and P is x, Expression 5 holds between the wavelength and the wavelength λ.

[0042]

(Equation 5)

In (Equation 5), L f is the focal length of the second slab waveguide, and ng is the group index of the arrayed waveguide. Incidentally, the group index n g of the arrayed waveguide, the effective refractive index n c of the arrayed waveguide, is given by equation (6).

[0044]

(Equation 6)

The above (Equation 5) is obtained by arranging the input end of the optical output waveguide at a position dx away from the focal point O of the second slab waveguide in the X direction, so that the light having a different wavelength by dλ. Means that it is possible to retrieve

The relationship of (Equation 5) is similarly established for the first slab waveguide 3. That is, for example, assuming that the focal center of the first slab waveguide 3 is a point O ′, and a point located at a position shifted from the point O ′ by a distance dx ′ in the X direction is a point P ′, light is emitted to this point P ′. When incident, the wavelength of the output is shifted by dλ ′. When this relationship is represented by an equation, it becomes as shown in (Equation 7).

[0047]

(Equation 7)

In equation (7), L f ′ is the focal length of the first slab waveguide. This (Equation 7) is the first
By disposing the output end of the optical input waveguide at a position dx 'away from the focal point O' of the slab waveguide in the X direction, dλ 'in the optical output waveguide formed at the focal point O is obtained.
This means that light with different wavelengths can be extracted.

Therefore, when the center wavelength of light transmitted from the optical output waveguide of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is shifted by Δλ due to a change in the use environment temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating, dλ ′ = Δλ. If the output end position of the optical input waveguide is shifted by a distance dx ′ in the X direction (that is, the direction perpendicular to the central axis of the slab waveguide in the light traveling direction), for example, in the optical output waveguide formed at the focal point O, ,
Light having no wavelength shift can be extracted, and the same effect occurs for other optical output waveguides. Therefore, the light transmission center wavelength shift Δλ can be corrected (eliminated).

In the present invention having the above-described structure, at least one of the first slab waveguide and the second slab waveguide is cut and separated at a cutting plane obliquely intersecting the center axis of the slab waveguide in the light traveling direction. Have been.

Therefore, the first slab waveguide will be discussed on the assumption that it is cut and separated. The first waveguide formation including the cut and separated one side separated slab waveguide is performed by the end face interval varying means. By varying the distance between the end face of the area and the end face of the second waveguide forming area including the separated slab waveguide on the other side, for example, the output end position of the optical input waveguide is
The first slab waveguide shifts in a direction orthogonal to the central axis in the light traveling direction. Then, according to the above principle, it becomes possible to shift the light transmission center wavelength of the output light output from each optical output waveguide.

Further, the end face interval varying means is configured to reduce the temperature-dependent variation of each of the light transmission center wavelengths so that the temperature-dependent variation (wavelength shift) Δλ of each of the light transmission center wavelengths becomes equal to dλ. If the output end position of the optical input waveguide is moved by changing the end face interval, the shift of the light transmission center wavelength can be eliminated.

Strictly speaking, by changing the distance between the end faces of the first and second waveguide forming regions, the first slab waveguide from the output end of the optical input waveguide to the input end of the arrayed waveguide is changed. Although the focal length L f ′ of light propagating through the inside slightly changes, the focal length of the first slab waveguide in the array waveguide type diffraction grating currently used is on the order of several mm, while the array waveguide The variable distance between the end faces moved for correcting the light transmission center wavelength of the waveguide diffraction grating is on the order of several μm to several tens of μm, and is extremely smaller than the focal length of the first slab waveguide.

Therefore, there is no problem if the change in the focal length is substantially ignored. From this, as described above, the end face of the first waveguide formation region and the end face of the second waveguide formation region are reduced so as to reduce the temperature-dependent variation of each light transmission center wavelength in the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating. By adjusting the interval, it is possible to eliminate the wavelength shift of the light transmission center wavelength.

Here, the relationship between the temperature change amount and the position correction amount of the optical input waveguide will be derived. The temperature dependence of the light transmission center wavelength (the amount of shift of the light transmission center wavelength due to the temperature) is expressed by the above (Equation 2). 8).

[0056]

(Equation 8)

From the equations (7) and (8), the temperature change amount T and the position correction amount dx ′ of the optical input waveguide are obtained.
Is led.

[0058]

(Equation 9)

Therefore, in the present invention, the position of the output end of the optical input waveguide is shifted by the position correction amount dx 'shown by (Equation 9) in the direction orthogonal to the central axis of the first slab waveguide in the light traveling direction. The gap between the light transmission center wavelengths can be eliminated by variably adjusting the distance between the end face of the first waveguide forming area and the end face of the second waveguide forming area by the end face distance varying means so that the light transmission center wavelength can be moved. Becomes

As described above, the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is formed by utilizing the reciprocity of light.
In the case where the second slab waveguide side is cut and separated, the waveguide forming region is cut and separated corresponding to the cut and separated, and the first waveguide forming region and the second waveguide forming region are formed. ,
The same effect as described above can be obtained by the operation of the end face interval varying means, and it is possible to eliminate the temperature-dependent fluctuation of the respective light transmission center wavelengths.

Further, in the present invention, based on the above-mentioned principle, even without using a Peltier element or a heater, the shift of the light transmission center wavelength due to the use environment temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is suppressed, and the temperature of the light transmission center wavelength is reduced. Since it can be made independent, unlike the case where a temperature control means including a Peltier element and a heater is provided, it does not need to be constantly energized, does not cause a temperature correction error due to a component assembling error, and has a room temperature or higher. By keeping the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating at the above temperature, there is no fear of an increase in connection loss between the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating and the optical fiber.

[0062]

Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. In the description of the present embodiment, the same reference numerals are given to the same parts as those in the conventional example, and the overlapping description will be omitted. FIG. 1 is a schematic plan view of a first embodiment of an arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating according to the present invention. FIG. 3A is a plan view of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating of this embodiment, and FIG. 3B is a side view thereof.

As shown in the figure, the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating of this embodiment also has a core waveguide structure formed on the substrate 1 in the same manner as the conventional arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating.
In FIG. 1, the formation region of the waveguide configuration on the substrate 1 is shown as a waveguide formation region 10 (10a, 10b).

The arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating of this embodiment is, like the conventional example, provided with one optical input waveguide 2, a first slab waveguide 3, a plurality of arrayed waveguides 4, and a second slab. A waveguide 5 and a plurality of optical output waveguides 6 are provided. The arrayed waveguides 4 and the optical output waveguides 6 are arranged side by side at predetermined waveguide intervals. In the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating of the embodiment, the first slab waveguide 3 has a cut surface 8 obliquely intersecting the center axis (Y direction in the drawing) of the first slab waveguide 3 in the light traveling direction. The cutting is separated.

Further, in the present embodiment, the substrate 1 and the waveguide forming region (waveguide forming region) 10 are also cut and separated into two with the cutting at the cutting surface 8 of the first slab waveguide 3. Have been. First including separation slab waveguide 3a
In a mode in which the thermal expansion coefficient is larger than that of the waveguide forming region 10 and higher than that of the substrate 1, the high heat is applied over the waveguide forming region 10a and the first waveguide forming region 10b including the separation slab waveguide 3b. An expansion coefficient member 7 is provided,
The high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 is fixed to the substrates 1a and 1b below the waveguide forming regions 10a and 10b with an adhesive 13.

In this embodiment, the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7
Functions as an end face interval varying means for changing the interval between the end face 8a of the first waveguide formation area 10a and the end face 8b of the second waveguide formation area 10b. Further, the end face interval varying means is configured to change the gap between the end face 8a and the end face 8b by setting the end face 8a of the first waveguide forming area 10a and the end face 8b of the second waveguide forming area 10b to be in parallel with each other. And

In FIG. 1, when the central axis direction of the light traveling direction of the first slab waveguide 3 is defined as the Y direction and the direction orthogonal to the Y direction is defined as the X direction, the end face interval variable means includes the end face 8a and the end face 8a. By changing the interval of 8b, the position of the output end 20 of the optical input waveguide 2 in the X direction is changed, and the change has the function of eliminating the shift of the light transmission center wavelength of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating. I have.

The high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 has, for example, a thermal expansion coefficient of 2. so that contraction due to the thermal expansion coefficient occurs corresponding to the interval between the end faces 8 a and 8 b capable of performing this function.
It is formed of 5 × 10 −5 (1 / K) Al (aluminum).

The high thermal expansion coefficient member 7
In this embodiment, the end face interval varying means is provided with the first and second waveguide forming regions 10a and 10b.
By varying the distance between the end surfaces 8a and 8b, the temperature-dependent fluctuation reducing means for reducing the temperature-dependent fluctuation of the light transmission center wavelength of the output light output from each optical output waveguide 6 is formed.

In this embodiment, each parameter in the waveguide structure is configured as follows. That is, the focal length L f ′ of the first slab waveguide 3 is equal to the focal length L f of the second slab waveguide 5 and the value is 9 mm. 3 of the equivalent refractive index and the equivalent refractive index of the second slab waveguide 5 are both n s, the value is, the wavelength 1.
It is 1.453 for 55 μm light. Furthermore, the equivalent refractive index n c is 1.451 of the arrayed waveguide 4 for light having a wavelength of 1.55 .mu.m, the group index n g of the arrayed waveguide 1.
475, the optical path length difference ΔL of the arrayed waveguide 4 is 65.2 μm.
m, the interval between adjacent arrayed waveguides 4 is 15 μm, and the diffraction order m is 61.

Therefore, in the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating of this embodiment, the light transmission center wavelength λ 0 at which the diffraction angle φ = 0 is obtained from the above (Equation 4).
λ 0 = 1550.9 nm.

By the way, in order to suppress the temperature dependence of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating, the present inventor pays attention to the linear dispersion characteristics of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating. As described with reference to FIG. 2, the use environment temperature change amount T of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating and the position correction amount dx ′ of the optical input waveguide are described.
And sought a relationship. Then, it was confirmed that this relationship was represented by the above (Equation 9).

Therefore, in this embodiment, each parameter of the waveguide configuration of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating and (Equation 9)
When the relationship between the change amount T of the use environment temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating and the position correction amount dx ′ of the optical input waveguide 2 is obtained based on the above, it is found that the relationship shown in (Formula 10) is obtained. .

[0074]

(Equation 10)

Therefore, in this embodiment, when the use environment temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating changes by 10 ° C., the position of the output end of the optical input waveguide 2 is moved in the X direction (the first slab waveguide 3). (In the direction orthogonal to the central axis of the light traveling direction) by about 3.83 μm (movement), the calculation can correct the center wavelength shift due to temperature.

Therefore, in the present embodiment, when the operating environment temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating rises by 10 ° C., the first waveguide forming region 10a becomes the second waveguide forming region 10a.
b in the direction of arrow A in FIG.
The distance b was widened, so that the position of the output end 20 of the optical input waveguide 2 was moved in the A ′ direction by about 3.83 μm.

On the contrary, in this embodiment,
When the use environment temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is lowered by 10 ° C., the first waveguide forming region 10a moves in the direction of arrow B in FIG. The variable distance between the end faces 8a and 8b is determined so that the distance between the end faces 8b is reduced so that the position of the output end 20 of the optical input waveguide 2 moves by about 3.83 μm in the B ′ direction.

Then, the size and the like of the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 are formed so as to obtain the variable distance, and the temperature-dependent fluctuation of each light transmission center wavelength is reduced by the thermal expansion and contraction of the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7. Direction, the first waveguide forming region 10
a and the second waveguide forming region 10b are relatively moved.

The present inventor assembled a module by applying a temperature compensation package of a fiber grating when producing the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating of this embodiment. That is, the first slab waveguide 3 was cut using a dicing saw, and matching grease having a refractive index matched with that of quartz glass was applied to the cut surface 8 in order to prevent reflection at the cut surface 8. The adhesive 13 used for bonding the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 to the waveguide forming region 10a is as follows:
A thermosetting adhesive was cured at 100 ° C.

The present embodiment is configured as described above, and the first slab waveguide 3 is cut at the cut surface 8 obliquely intersecting with the central axis of the first slab waveguide 3 in the light traveling direction. When the ambient temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating changes, the first slab waveguides 3a and 3b are cut and separated by a high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 as an end face interval varying means. The distance between the end face 8a and the end face 8b of the second waveguide forming region 10b is variable.

The position of the output end 20 of the optical input waveguide 2 is set so that the temperature-dependent variation of the central wavelength of light transmitted from each optical output waveguide 6 of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is reduced (see FIG. (1 arrow A 'direction or arrow B' direction)
It is moved to.

Further, the amount of movement of the output end 20 of the optical input waveguide 2 in the X direction is the position correction amount dx 'obtained by the above (Equation 10), and the end face interval varying means includes the first and second end face spacing means.
Is adapted to compensate for the temperature-dependent variation of the optical transmission center wavelength of the output light output from the respective optical output waveguides 6 by varying the distance between the end faces 8a and 8b of the waveguide forming regions 10a and 10b. However, in the present embodiment, even if the use environment temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating changes, the shift of the light transmission center wavelength due to the change in temperature can be eliminated, and the so-called temperature does not depend on the use environment temperature. An array waveguide type diffraction grating of independent type can be obtained.

When the present inventor actually measured the temperature change of the light transmission center wavelength at an environmental temperature of 0 ° C. to 80 ° C., the result shown by the characteristic line a in FIG. 2 was obtained. Shift amount is about 0.01 nm or less,
It was confirmed that the center wavelength of light transmission hardly deviated even when the use environment temperature changed within the range of 0 ° C. to 80 ° C.

In FIG. 2, the parameters of the waveguide configuration in the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating are formed in the same manner as in the present embodiment, and the conventional array waveguide in which the first slab waveguide 3 is not separated is shown. Also shown is the result of measuring the temperature change of the light transmission center wavelength at an environmental temperature of 0 ° C. to 80 ° C. in the waveguide grating (characteristic line b in FIG. 2). As is clear from the comparison between the characteristic line a and the characteristic line b, the array waveguide type diffraction grating of the present embodiment is different from the conventional array waveguide type diffraction grating in that the temperature dependence of the light transmission center wavelength is a problem. It can be seen that this is an excellent arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating suitable for practical use such as for optical wavelength division multiplexing communication.

Further, according to the present embodiment, the end face interval varying means is constituted by providing the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 over the first waveguide forming region 10a and the second waveguide forming region 10b. Therefore, the configuration of the device can be greatly simplified, the cost of the device can be reduced, and the manufacturing yield can be improved.

Further, in this embodiment, the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 used as the end face interval varying means is made of inexpensive Al, so that the cost of the apparatus can be further reduced. .

Further, according to the present embodiment, since it is not necessary to use a Peltier element or a heater, there is no need to constantly supply power, as in the case where a temperature control means including a Peltier element or a heater is provided. No temperature correction error occurs due to an assembly error, and there is no danger of increasing the connection loss between the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating and the optical fiber by maintaining the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating at a temperature equal to or higher than room temperature.

Therefore, the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating of this embodiment can reliably eliminate the temperature dependence of the light transmission center wavelength, and has high connection reliability with the optical fiber of the connection partner, and can reduce the cost. And an inexpensive array waveguide type diffraction grating.

Further, according to the present embodiment, since the first slab waveguide 3 is cut at the cut surface 8, for example, the manufacturing error of the array waveguide portion forming the array waveguide type diffraction grating is reduced. If the light transmission center wavelength is deviated from a set wavelength such as an ITU grid wavelength, the distance between the end faces of the first and second waveguide forming regions 10a and 10b is shifted accordingly, and the light input By shifting the position of the waveguide 2 in the X direction, the light transmission center wavelength can be set to a set wavelength such as a grid wavelength at a set temperature.

FIG. 4 is a plan view schematically showing a second embodiment of the arrayed waveguide grating according to the present invention. FIG. 3A is a plan view of the arrayed waveguide grating of this embodiment, and FIG.
Shows a cross-sectional view taken along the line CC ′.

The second embodiment is substantially the same as the first embodiment, and the second embodiment is different from the first embodiment in that the second embodiment is characterized by an arrayed waveguide type. Base 9 on which diffraction grating is provided and first waveguide formation region 1
That is, the high-thermal-expansion-coefficient member 7 is interposed between the side surface of the end face 0a and the end face interval varying means.

Specifically, the base 9 is made of quartz glass or In.
The high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 is formed of a material having a low thermal expansion coefficient such as a var lot, and has a thermal expansion coefficient of 1.65 × 10
It is formed of -5 (1 / K) Cu (copper). The high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 is not connected to the upper surface of the first waveguide forming region 10a, but is connected to the upper plate portion 7a provided along the upper surface of the second waveguide forming region 10b. And a side plate portion 7b provided along the side surface of the region 10a. The side plate portion 7b of the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 is fixed to the base 9 with screws 11.

The first waveguide forming region 10a and the substrate 1a thereunder are fixed to the base 9, while the second waveguide forming region 10b and the substrate 1b thereunder are fixed.
It is slidably disposed along the surface of the base 9 in the directions of arrows A and B in the figure. Then, the upper surface of the second waveguide forming region 10b is fixed to the upper plate portion 7a of the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 with an adhesive 13.

The second embodiment is configured as described above. In the second embodiment, the second waveguide forming region 10b is connected to the first waveguide 10b in accordance with the thermal contraction of the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7. By moving relative to the waveguide forming region 10a, the end face 8b of the second waveguide forming region 10b and the first conductive line are moved in accordance with the thermal expansion and contraction of the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 as in the first embodiment. The distance between the end face 8a of the wave path forming region 10a and the end face 8a is variable, and the same effect can be obtained by the operation substantially similar to that of the first embodiment.

Further, also in the second embodiment, the end face interval variable means has a simple structure having the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 and the base 9, and it is possible to avoid complication of the structure of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating. It can be easily manufactured.

Further, in the second embodiment, it is possible to use Cu or the like having a smaller linear (thermal) expansion coefficient than Al, and there is an advantage that the material of the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 does not need to be particularly limited. That is, in the first embodiment, considering the arrangement of the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7,
It is necessary to increase the thermal expansion of the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7,
Although it is necessary to be formed of Al or the like, in the second embodiment, for example, the chip size (waveguide forming regions 10a, 10
This is applicable even when the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 does not fit within the chip size due to a small (b size), so that the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 can be made of a material whose linear expansion coefficient is not as large as Al.

FIG. 5 is a schematic plan view showing a third embodiment of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating according to the present invention. The third embodiment is substantially the same as the second embodiment, and the third embodiment is different from the second embodiment in that the end-face interval variable units are mutually different. The end face 8a of the opposing first waveguide forming area 10a and the end face 8b of the second waveguide forming area 10b are in a non-parallel state, and the interval between the end faces 8a and 8b is variable.

More specifically, in the third embodiment, a hinge 15 formed of an elastically deformable plastic film is fixed to one end of the first waveguide forming region 10a by an adhesive 13. A notch 12 is formed at the other end of the first waveguide forming region 10a. Then, the base end side of the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 is fixed to the base 9,
The tip side of the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 is provided so as to be in contact with the notch 12, and the first waveguide forming region 10 a is tilted with S in the drawing as a fulcrum according to the thermal expansion and contraction of the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7. ing.

In the third embodiment, with such a structure, the end face 8a of the first waveguide formation region 10a and the end face 8b of the second waveguide formation region 10b which face each other are non-parallel and obliquely intersect. As a state, the interval between the end face 8a and the end face 8b is changed (in other words, the angle formed between the end face 8a and the end face 8b is changed). The third embodiment is also different from the first and second embodiments. A similar effect can be obtained by a similar operation.

The present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment, but can adopt various embodiments. For example,
In each of the above embodiments, the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 is made of Al
Although the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 is not necessarily made of Al or Cu, the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7 may be formed of a material other than Al or Cu having a larger thermal expansion coefficient than the waveguide forming region.

In each of the above embodiments, the first slab waveguide 3 is cut and separated. However, the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is formed by utilizing the reciprocity of light. Is cut and separated on the side of the slab waveguide 5 to vary the distance between the end faces of the first and second waveguide formation regions facing each other, and output light output from each optical output waveguide. The temperature-dependent variation of the central wavelength of light transmission may be reduced. In this case, the same effect as in the above embodiments can be obtained, and the temperature-dependent variation of the central wavelength of light transmission can be eliminated. .

Further, in each of the above embodiments, the end face 8a of the first waveguide forming area 10a formed by cutting and separating the first slab waveguide 3 and the end face 8b of the second waveguide forming area 10b are formed. Is formed by providing the high thermal expansion coefficient member 7, but the configuration of the end face interval varying means is not particularly limited and may be set as appropriate. That is, the end face interval varying means is configured to connect the end face 8a of the first waveguide formation region 10a to the second face
By changing the distance between the end faces 8b of the waveguide forming region 10b, the function of shifting the light transmission center wavelength of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating may be used.

In particular, the end face interval varying means is provided with a first and a second means for reducing the temperature-dependent variation of each light transmission center wavelength of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating as in each of the above embodiments.
It is desirable to have a function of varying the end face interval of the waveguide forming region of the above. By configuring the end face interval varying means in this way, the conventional arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating can be used as in each of the above embodiments. Thus, the temperature dependence of the light transmission center wavelength, which was a problem in the above, can be solved, and an excellent arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating suitable for practical use such as optical wavelength division multiplexing communication can be obtained.

Further, detailed values such as the equivalent refractive index, the number, and the size of each of the waveguides 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 constituting the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating of the present invention are not particularly limited. Instead, they are set as appropriate.

[0105]

According to the first invention, at least one of the first slab waveguide and the second slab waveguide is cut at a cross section obliquely intersecting the center axis of the slab waveguide in the light traveling direction. Since the gap is cut and separated and the distance between the end face of the first waveguide forming area and the end face of the second waveguide formed area formed by the cut / separation is changed, for example, by changing the gap between the end faces, for example, the optical input waveguide By shifting the output end position and the input end position of the optical output waveguide in a direction orthogonal to the central axis, each light transmission center wavelength of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating can be shifted.

Further, according to the second invention, in addition to the first invention, each of the optical output waveguides is provided by changing the end face interval variable means by changing the end face interval between the first and second waveguide forming regions. Temperature-dependent fluctuation reducing means for reducing the temperature-dependent fluctuation of the light transmission center wavelength of the output light output from the light source. Temperature dependent fluctuation (wavelength shift)
Can be eliminated.

Further, according to the second aspect of the present invention, the shift of the light transmission center wavelength due to the environmental temperature of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is suppressed without using a Peltier element or a heater, and the temperature of the light transmission center wavelength is independent of the temperature. Therefore, unlike the case where a temperature control means including a Peltier element and a heater is provided, there is no need to constantly supply power, and no temperature correction error occurs due to a component assembly error, and Also, there is no danger of increasing the connection loss between the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating and the optical fiber by maintaining the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating at a temperature equal to or higher than room temperature.

Therefore, the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating of the second invention has high connection reliability with the optical fiber of the connection partner, and can reliably eliminate the temperature dependence of the light transmission center wavelength.
An excellent array waveguide type diffraction grating with low cost can be obtained.

Further, according to the third and fourth aspects of the present invention, the high thermal expansion coefficient member having a larger thermal expansion coefficient than the waveguide forming region is straddled between the first waveguide forming region and the second waveguide forming region. The end face interval varying means is provided in a manner or interposed between a base on which the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is disposed and at least one of the first waveguide forming area and the second waveguide forming area. Since it is formed, the end face interval varying means can be formed with a simple configuration using a high thermal expansion coefficient member.

Therefore, according to the third and fourth aspects,
The array waveguide type diffraction grating exhibiting the above-described excellent effects can be easily manufactured with a simple configuration, and the cost can be reduced.

Further, as in the fifth and sixth aspects of the present invention, the end faces of the first waveguide forming region and the second waveguide forming region facing each other may be in a parallel state or a non-parallel state. In addition, it is possible to form an arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating capable of achieving the above-described effects in various ways, and to form a suitable arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating corresponding to the specifications of the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating.

[Brief description of the drawings]

FIG. 1 is a main part configuration diagram showing a first embodiment of an arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating according to the present invention by a plan view (a) and a side view (b).

FIG. 2 is a graph showing the temperature dependence of the central wavelength of light transmission in the arrayed waveguide grating of the above embodiment in comparison with the temperature dependence of the central wavelength of light transmission in the conventional arrayed waveguide grating. .

FIG. 3 is an explanatory diagram showing a relationship between a light transmission center wavelength shift and positions of an optical input waveguide and an optical output waveguide in an arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating.

FIG. 4 is a main part configuration diagram showing a plan view (a) and a sectional view (b) of a second embodiment of an arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating according to the present invention.

FIG. 5 is a main part configuration diagram showing a third embodiment of an arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating according to the present invention by a plan view.

FIG. 6 is an explanatory view showing a conventional arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating provided with a Peltier element.

FIG. 7 is a graph showing light transmission characteristics of light output from one light output waveguide of the arrayed waveguide grating.

[Explanation of symbols]

 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Substrate 2 Optical input waveguide 3 First slab waveguide 3a, 3b Separation slab waveguide 4 Array waveguide 5 Second slab waveguide 6 Optical output waveguide 7 High thermal expansion coefficient member 8 Cut surface 8a, 8b End surface 9 Base 10, 10a, 10b Waveguide forming region 14 Locking member

 ────────────────────────────────────────────────── ─── Continuing from the front page (72) Inventor Kazutaka Nara 2-6-1 Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. (72) Kazuhisa Kashihara 2-6-1 Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo F-term in Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. (reference) 2H047 KA03 LA19 NA10 TA11 2H049 AA02 AA31 AA51 AA62

Claims (6)

[Claims]
1. A first slab waveguide is connected to an output side of one or more optical input waveguides arranged side by side, and the first slab waveguide is connected to an output side of the first slab waveguide. A plurality of array waveguides having different lengths for transmitting light derived from the array waveguides are connected, and a second slab waveguide is connected to an output side of the plurality of array waveguides. A waveguide forming area to which a plurality of juxtaposed optical output waveguides are connected is formed on the substrate on the output side of the slab waveguide, and a plurality of different wavelengths input from the optical input waveguide are provided. An array waveguide type diffraction grating having an optical demultiplexing function of demultiplexing light of one or more wavelengths from the output light and outputting the demultiplexed light from each optical output waveguide, wherein the first slab waveguide and the second At least one of the slab waveguides crosses obliquely with respect to the central axis in the light traveling direction of the slab waveguide. And a second slab waveguide including a first slab waveguide on one side and a second slab waveguide on the other side. An end face interval varying means is provided which is separated into a waveguide formation area and which varies an interval between an end face of the first waveguide formation area and an end face of the second waveguide formation area facing each other. Array waveguide type diffraction grating.
2. The end face interval varying means reduces the temperature-dependent variation of the light transmission center wavelength of the output light output from each of the optical output waveguides by varying the end face interval between the first and second waveguide forming regions. 2. An arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating according to claim 1, wherein said arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating comprises temperature-dependent fluctuation reducing means.
3. The end face interval varying means has a member provided so as to straddle the first waveguide formation region and the second waveguide formation region, and the member is located between the waveguide formation region and the substrate. 3. The array waveguide type diffraction grating according to claim 1, wherein the diffraction grating is a high thermal expansion coefficient member having a large thermal expansion coefficient.
4. The end face interval varying means includes a member interposed between at least one of the first waveguide forming region and the second waveguide forming region and a base on which the arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating is provided. 3. The arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating according to claim 1, wherein said member is a high thermal expansion coefficient member having a larger thermal expansion coefficient than the waveguide forming region and the substrate.
5. The end face interval varying means according to claim 1, wherein an end face of the first waveguide forming area and an end face of the second waveguide forming area facing each other are in a parallel state. An arrayed waveguide grating according to any one of the preceding claims.
6. An end face interval varying means, wherein an end face of a first waveguide forming area and an end face of a second waveguide forming area facing each other are in a non-parallel state. An arrayed waveguide type diffraction grating according to any one of the above.
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