GB2459450A - Automatic interconnection of Intelligent Wireless Nodes to provide connection to external networks - Google Patents

Automatic interconnection of Intelligent Wireless Nodes to provide connection to external networks Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2459450A
GB2459450A GB0807272A GB0807272A GB2459450A GB 2459450 A GB2459450 A GB 2459450A GB 0807272 A GB0807272 A GB 0807272A GB 0807272 A GB0807272 A GB 0807272A GB 2459450 A GB2459450 A GB 2459450A
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Prior art keywords
device
wireless
network
devices
iwn
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GB0807272A
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GB0807272D0 (en
Inventor
Adam Beaumont
Greg Masters
Mark Lodge
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BUBBLENETS Ltd
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Bubblenets Ltd
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Priority to GB0807272A priority Critical patent/GB2459450A/en
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Publication of GB2459450A publication Critical patent/GB2459450A/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W88/00Devices specially adapted for wireless communication networks, e.g. terminals, base stations or access point devices
    • H04W88/005Data network PoA devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W40/00Communication routing or communication path finding
    • H04W40/24Connectivity information management, e.g. connectivity discovery or connectivity update
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W84/00Network topologies
    • H04W84/18Self-organising networks, e.g. ad-hoc networks or sensor networks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W88/00Devices specially adapted for wireless communication networks, e.g. terminals, base stations or access point devices
    • H04W88/08Access point devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W92/00Interfaces specially adapted for wireless communication networks
    • H04W92/04Interfaces between hierarchically different network devices
    • H04W92/045Interfaces between hierarchically different network devices between access point and backbone network device
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W92/00Interfaces specially adapted for wireless communication networks
    • H04W92/16Interfaces between hierarchically similar devices
    • H04W92/20Interfaces between hierarchically similar devices between access points

Abstract

An Intelligent Wireless Node (IWN) is a device capable of being deployed as part of a dynamic, self-configuring and re-configuring network. An IWN may identify and communicate with other IWNs over a wireless bearer network. Once created, IWNs can dynamically enter and leave the wireless bearer network. Individual IWNs connected to the bearer network may have onward connections to one or more external networks, such as the Internet, providing multiple routes out from the bearer network. An IWN acts as wireless access point, a wireless repeater, a wireless router and/or a replica wireless access point and may use additional wireless frequencies to build a dynamic, secure and mutable wireless bearer network that interconnects IWNs and provides dynamic paths between devices connected to the wireless bearer network and to external networks.An IWN may process, store, filter and forward information that passes between all the networks to which it is connected, thus reducing the number of external network points required to support a large wireless network and therefore lowering bandwidth requirements.

Description

Background

A wireless network access point acts as a link between a single internal wireless network and a single external network. The bandwidth of the link between the internal wireless network and the external network dictates the effective bandwidth available to the client devices connecting to the wireless access point, with respect to their onward connectivity to the external network. A wireless network access point therefore represents a single point of entry to the external network, limiting the bandwidth available to client devices.

Wireless network access points extend their range by repeating a transmitted signal.

This is achieved using a dedicated wireless network repeater, or by a wireless access point that can be configured to operate in this manner. The total amount of bandwidth available on the wireless network is shared between all the connected wireless devices, including those in the repeated section. Therefore, the bandwidth available to individual wireless devices is reduced as additional wireless devices are connected.

Wireless network repeaters must be configured to repeat the signal of a wireless network with which they are associated. In practice, a wireless network repeater must be associated with a specific wireless access point and network, and configured accordingly. This association between the devices means that the wireless repeater cannot be used to repeat the signal of other wireless networks without reconfiguration.

The users of client devices to connect to external networks by means of a wireless access point. When connected to the wireless network, their traffic is directed to the * external network by the wireless access point. The network services accessed by the user, such as web pages, are requested by the client device and served through its connection to the wireless and external networks. Multiple requests made by a single : client device to a single service, or a single requests made by multiple client devices * to a single service, are served independently. This independent approach leads to repeated requests and high levels of network traffic.

: * Many internet services, such as real-time audio and video, are intolerant to changes in client IP addresses. (Other protocols, such as I-ITTP are also intolerant, but the nature of the protocol means that subsequent requests will result in the ultimate delivery of the requested data.) This means that communication will fail if the IP address of a client device changes during its communication with a second device. This is a problem in traditional meshed networks where the external address associated with a single client devices changes as traffic is routed through different gateways. This may occur during roaming or the reconfiguration of the network topology.

Additionally, by virtue of each IWN being capable of caching or storing content, every IWN device can act as a standalone content portal, delivering content to client devices within its vicinity either by wireless means or other technologies, including but not limited to, Bluetooth, visual or audio output or any other compatible data-feed, including but not limited to, GSM micro/nano/pico cells, and any other near-field based communications medium.

Statement of Invention

A single IWN device can: act as a wireless access point; and/or act as a wireless repeater; and/or act as a wireless router; create replica wireless access points that are able to accommodate roaming client devices.

A IWN device has, but is not limited to but by way of example herein; three network interfaces either physical or virtual, any of which may be active or inactive at any given time. The first interface may be connected to an external network, the second to a wireless bearer network, and the third may act as a wireless access point or gateway, receiving connections from client devices and thus creating a client wireless network.

Connections from client devices may be passed by a IWN to external network or networks, access services available on the IWN, or be routed elsewhere.

A IWN device may identify and communicate with other IWN devices over a wireless bearer network. This wireless bearer network is created by a IWN device and can be joined by other IWN devices when within range of the wireless signal. Once created, IWN devices can dynamically enter and leave the wireless bearer network. Individual IWN devices connected to the bearer network may have onward connections to one or more, identical or different, external networks, providing multiple routes out from the bearer network.

The range of a client wireless network can be extended dynamically by deploying additional IWN devices, which may or may not be connected to the wireless bearer network, or by installing a IWN in stand-alone mode. An individual IWN device only : needs to be within the wireless range of one other IWN device to join the wireless bearer network. This allows the wireless network to be extended without the need to share the bandwidth of a single wireless access point, or to repeat the signal of a wireless access point.

A IWN can act as a wireless access point, wireless repeater, wireless router or replica wireless access point and automatically configures itself without the need to know the : *a configuration of other wireless access points or IWN devices. This is achieved through internal processing and communications with other devices, including IWN *:" devices, if available.

A IWN device improves upon existing wireless technology by storing and processing large volumes of data. The IWN processes, stores, filters and forwards traffic that passes over the wireless client network and/or the bearer network. Traffic can be forwarded between all networks to which a IWN is connected. A IWN is able to increase the speed of connections with the use of transparent caching technology. This involves storing local copies of previously requested data, before serving it locally to other IWN or client devices making an identical request. Unique content can also be processed, stored and disseminated from a IWN. This processing, storage and filtering mechanisms reduces the number of external network points required to support a large wireless network and therefore lowers the bandwidth requirements.

A IWN device allows the layer-2 Ethernet network to be securely extended without the limitations encountered by repeating the wireless signal. Ethernet traffic is routed and bridge across discrete networks, thus allowing it to appear at any given location.

Bridged traffic is processed on arrival at its destination and routed according to standard technologies available to those conversant with the art including, but not limited to, stateful packet inspection, traffic fingerprinting, and source and destination characteristics. * * * * S..

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Detailed Description

A IWN can act as a wireless access point and/or a wireless repeater andlor a wireless router. It can also create replicate wireless access points to accommodate roaming client devices.

A IWN can operate as a single stand-alone system, or can communicate dynamically with other IWN devices, figure 1, over the wireless bearer network, to create a larger wireless network with numerous gateway links to external networks, comprising distributed IWN nodes. In addition to this, a IWN can be used to disseminate information electronically, using protocols including but not limited to, HTTP and HTTPS. This information can be disseminated between, but not limited to, individual IWN devices, a IWN device and a client device, and a IWN device and another device connected to an external network.

Through its operation, a IWN may create a wireless bearer network, or join an existing wireless bearer network created by another IWN device. Individual IWN devices connected to the wireless bearer network may have onward connections to one or more, identical or different, external networks, providing multiple redundant routes out to an external network or networks from the wireless bearer network.

One or more IWN devices can increase the range of a single wireless client network, which may be provided by a standard wireless access point, by acting as one or more replica wireless access points. The use of identical hardware MAC addresses and network identifiers, and different wireless frequencies, set on the network cards used : by the IWN supporting the replica client network provides transparent client device roaming. * S..

A IWN device can forward and/or disseminate network traffic that has been passed to : ... it by another device. This occurs in a secure and controlled fashion, with packet filtering used when necessary to provide access control. A IWN device may also store, processes, filter and forward information that passes between all networks to * .. which it is connected. Unique content can also be processed, stored and disseminated * S * from a IWN device. *

**Se.. * *

A IWN device has six modes of operation, which are defined below and in figure 2.

Network Mode: External Network Access A IWN device is connected to an external network or networks. The IWN device also connects dynamically to any other IWN devices within wireless range over an existing wireless bearer network, or by creating a new wireless bearer network if one is not detected. When operating in this mode, the IWN device provides a route between the wireless bearer network and the external network or networks, processing, storing, filtering and forwarding traffic as required.

Network Mode: External Network Access and Access Point A IWN device is connected to an external network or networks. The IWN device also connects dynamically to any other IWN devices within wireless range over an existing wireless bearer network, or by creating a new wireless bearer network if one is not detected. In addition to this, the LW/N creates a wireless client network, either identical or different to other wireless client networks. When operating in this mode, the IWN device provides a route between the wireless bearer network, the wireless client network and the external network or networks, processing, storing, filtering and forwarding traffic.

Network Mode: Forwarding Network Access A 1W/N device is not connected to an external network. The IWN device connects dynamically to any other IWN devices within wireless range over an existing wireless bearer network, or by creating a new wireless bearer network if one is not detected.

When operating in this mode, the IWN supports the bearer network by processing, storing, filtering and forwarding traffic between LW/N devices.

Network Mode: Forwarding Network Access and Access Point A IWN device is not connected to an external network. The 1\VN device connects dynamically to any other IWN devices within wireless range over an existing wireless bearer network, or by creating a new wireless bearer network if one is not detected. In addition to this, the IWN creates a wireless client network, either identical or different to other wireless client networks. When operating in this mode, the IWN device provides a route between the wireless bearer network and the client network, .. : processing, storing, filtering and forwarding traffic. Traffic sent from a client device situated the client wireless network may be accepted by the IWN device and routed to an external network via the wireless bearer network.

:... Stand-Alone Mode: External Network Access and Access Point A IWN device is connected to an external network. In addition to this, the IWN * .. creates a wireless client network, either identical or different to other wireless client * . S networks. When operating in this mode, the IWN device provides a route between the wireless client network and the external network or networks, processing, storing, filtering and forwarding traffic passing between the networks.

Stand-Alone Mode: No Network Access and Access Point A IWN device is not connected to an external network. The 1W/N creates a wireless client network, either identical or different to other wireless client networks. Client devices situated within the client network can connect to the IWN and access network services.

When operating in a network mode, a 1W/N device selects its mode of operation automatically, making decisions based on, but not limited to, the availability of previously unused wireless frequencies, connectivity with other IWN devices and connections to external networks. Switching between modes takes place when the IWN device is initialised at power-on, and also periodically when operational.

When operating in all modes, the IWN device is able to disseminate information from itself, in addition to forwarding traffic to other devices. This is achieved through the use of but not limited to, a web server or Bluetooth server running locally on the device. The decision to serve information locally from the IWN, or to forward it to other devices situated within the wireless bearer network or external networks, is determined intelligently by the device. * * * S. * * S5* * .5* * * * * .. * S S *S..

**S...

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Worked Example

The worked example is shown in Figure 3.

For the purpose of this example, network IP addresses and ranges will be defined; however, the following example will be valid for any IP version 4 or 6 IP address ranges and sub-networks.

IP-based protocols, including, but not limited to, Voice Over IP (VIOP), require every client device connected to a network to present a consistent and routable source IP address in order communicate with another device.

In a wireless network, which may have multiple paths to external networks that change dynamically, packets sent by client devices are masqueraded and are presented on external networks with the source IP address of the gateway's external interface.

As a client device roams from access point to access point, the gateway used by each access point may change, and therefore have a different external IP address. In this case, the source IP address appearing on the external network will also chance, causing any previously established connections to fail.

In a repeated wireless network, the source IP address of the client device does not change. but the network performance degrades significantly as the client moves away from the original access point (the access point that is being repeated), or when other devices are connected to the repeated network, which then share the total bandwidth available. * ..*

.. : A IWN device has the ability to extend the wireless client network whilst maintaining *::* a consistent and routable source [P address. This applies to a client device accessing external networks via multiple wireless access points and gateways. This can be achieved without the need to repeat the wireless signal.

For the purpose of this example, three identical IWN devices are used and are labeled IWN A, IWN B and IWN C. A client wireless device, Client X, is also used. * S.

Network Identification, IP Addresses and Ranges * . On boot, and as an on-going process, IWN devices communicate with other IWN devices in order to create a wireless bearer network. The bearer network used for the purpose of this example is in the IP address range 10.0.0.0/9.

The IP address range used in the wireless client network is 10.128.0.0/9.

IWNA

IWN A automatically detects that it has a direct connection to an external network.

Having done this, the device creates a fixed Ethernet-bridged interface gateway, using the fixed static IP address 10.128.0.1/9 and the fixed static MAC address 01:02:03:04:05:06.

The IWN then starts a local VPN server, listening on its wireless bearer network interface, which is configured to accept bridged Ethernet packets sent from neighboring IWN devices that wish to use it as a gateway to the external network to which it is directly connected.

The IWN then initiates a VPN connection, or tunnel, to a IWN device acting as a bridging-server on the external network. The bridging-server has a valid and routable IP address and connection to the external network and also a bridged IP address in the O.128.O.O/9 range.

(Note, although the bridging-server can be connected on the internet, this need not be the case. The bridging-server could be a I\VN device connected at an advantageous position within the wireless bearer network. For example, it may he able to communicate with a large number of other IWN devices, being effectively situated in the centre of the wireless bearer network, or is a small number of hops away from the furthest IWN device, or is hardwired to other IWN devices and connected directly to an external network.) IWN A communicates with other IWN devices, via the wireless bearer network, informing them that it is a gateway to an external network and the current level of service it provides.

IWN A also creates a client wireless access point and allows client devices to connect and use it as a gateway to external networks.

IWNB * S * ** *

IWN B establishes that it does not have a direct connection to an external network and communicates with other IWN devices to identify the most suitable gateway. **

IWN B calculates that IWN A, with which it is in direct wireless communication, is currently the most suitable gateway to an external network. IWN B therefore * establishes a VPN-bridged connection, or tunnel, to IWN A. IWN B then creates a client wireless access point and allows client devices to connect * *: and use it as a gateway, with all traffic to external networks routed through IWN A. Client devices connecting to IWN B are transparently bridged across the VPN-bridged connection, or tunnel, to IWN A, which processes the traffic as if it had arrived from its own client wireless access point.

IWN C

IWN C establishes that it does not have a direct connection to an external network and communicates with other IWN devices to identify the most suitable gateway.

IWN C calculates that IWN A, with which it is not in direct wireless communication, is currently the most suitable gateway to an external network. IWN C therefore establishes a VPN-bridged connection, or tunnel, to IWN A by routing its traffic through EWN B, which acts as an intermediary routing device.

IWN C then creates a client wireless access point and allows client devices to connect and use it as a gateway, with all traffic to external networks routed through IWN A via IWN B. Client devices connecting to IWN C are transparently bridge across the VPN-bridged connection, or tunnel, to IWN A, which processes the traffic as if it had arrived from its own client wireless access point.

A Client Connection To continue the worked example, Client X connects to internet servers and services via the client wireless access point active on IWN C. Upon connection to the client wireless access point of IWN C, client X is allocated a unique IP address in the range 1 0.1 28.0.0/9 and assigned a default gateway of 10.128.0. 1.

Client X sends IP packets destined to hosts connected to an external network in the usual manner, using layer-2 and layer-3 network addressing to forward the packets through its default gateway. These packets are therefore received by IWN C and bridged across the VPN-bridged connection. or tunnel, to IWN A. Upon receipt of the traffic at IWN A, packets destined to IP services that are more tolerant of IP address changes, including but not limited to HTTP, are routed directly to external networks by the IWN device, and are masqueraded, or presented, with the IP address of its external interface. Traffic that is intolerant to [P address changes are routed across the VPN-bridged connection to the bridging-server connected to the external network, which presents, or masquerades, all communications from a single external IP address. * *.* * * SI.

When client X roams, its connections will be passed between the client wireless :. access points active on various IWN devices. The default gateway used by the client * device is always the fixed and static IP address 10.128.0.1, with the fixed and static MAC address of 00:01:02:03:04:05. This is the case regardless of the gateway that is actually being used at any given time. Therefore, the client device remains unaware of any changes in the gateway through which its communications pass and is always able to pass its traffic to the current gateway and on to external networks.

* S. I*S * p Every IWN device with a connection to external networks uses the same bridging-server for services that are intolerant to IP address changes. Thus, whilst using IP intolerant services, client device X's IP address is always masqueraded, or presented, as the bridging servers external IP address, regardless of its position in the wireless network, or the client wireless access point and default gateway with which it is associated.

Claims (15)

  1. Claims 1) A device capable of connecting automatically to other devices and also to the internet or other network either directly or via other identical or similar devices or a chain or network of other identical or similar devices, employing a connection via either wireless or hard-wired means of IP based connection.
  2. 2) A device as per claim (1) capable of allowing the initiation of end-user Ethernet connections via wireless means, such as but not limited to a wireless device accessing the internet via a single device or a network of such devices.
  3. 3) A device as per claim (2) capable of detecting other connected devices and conveying information between devices such that each device is capable of determining the most efficient route for conveying an end users connection to the required destination including, but not limited to, access to the internet or third party data network.
  4. 4) A device as per claim (3) capable of being deployed to create a system comprising many devices, each capable of being accessible by a configuration server capable of logging data from each device.
  5. 5) A device as per claim (3), each capable of being accessible by a configuration server and allowing that configuration server to send files or data to that device for deployment to attached end devices (such as but not limited to wifi 802.1 lb/g/a or similar handsets, PDA's Bluetooth devices, mobile phones) via wireless means. S.. **
  6. 6) A device as per claim (5) capable of identifying pre-defined RFC 1340 protocols and employing protocol specific prioritisation, routing or other actions based on this identification and conveying such identification to other devices.
  7. 7) A system based on such devices as per claim (6) and employing layer-2 Ethernet bridging technologies to maintain the session for pre-defined sensitive communication * ** protocols including, but not limited, to Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) * . * 4... communications.S* S....
  8. 8) A device as per claim (6) encompassed in a system as per claim (7) that allows the layer-2 Ethernet network to be securely extended without the limitations encountered by repeating the wireless signal, such as but not limited to change in IP network parameters.
  9. 9) A system based on devices as per claim (3) where each device has the ability to communicate with other devices, including but not limited to client devices, within proximity via, but not limited to, wireless, Bluetooth or to output communications via audio, video or to broadcast devices including, but not limited to, GSM micro/nano/pico cells.
  10. 10) A device as per claim (3) such that the range of a client wireless network can be extended dynamically by deploying additional such devices, which may or may not be connected to the wireless bearer network.
  11. 11) A System as per claim (3) such that it may processes, store, filter and forward traffic that passes over the wireless client network and/or the bearer network.
  12. 12) A device as per claim (3) such that it may forward traffic between all networks to which a device is connected.
  13. 13) A device as per claim (3) that is able to increases the speed of connections by the use of transparent caching technology.
  14. 14) A device as per claim (7) that processes bridged Ethernet traffic on arrival at its destination before routing it according to standard technologies available to those conversant with the art including, but not limited to, stateful packet inspection, traffic fingerprinting, and source and destination characteristics.
  15. 15) A device as per claim (1) capable of being accessed remotely by a secure protocol such as but not limited to SSH or IPSEC for the purposes of control, configuration, monitoring of or upload of end-user-data or media to the device 16) A device as per claim (7) that provides and supports traffic quality-of-service and prioritisation, 17) A device as per claim (3) capable of accepting media deployed to the device over IP from an external centralised database and transmitted in the proximity of the device via means not limited to wireless (802.11 b/g or similar), Bluetooth or via a serial or other link to an external device.: 18) A system consisting of deployed devices as per claim (5) and capable of ** deploying content (binary or text) to any specific network of devices or device as controlled and defined by a remote party using tcp/ip based protocols such as but not limited to http/https/xml or similar application programmer interfaces.19) A system comprising of devices as per claim (5) connected to a customer-facing portal allowing data upload via remote IP connection of, for example but not limited : *., to multimedia or text data, for delivery by one or more IWN devices to mobile handsets or passers by via means as such as Bluetooth, 802.11 a/bIg wireless, audio or * : * . video presentation or communication to other near-field or proximity based communication device such as DECT-GIJARD band, or GSM micro/nano/pico cell and such delivery as defined by metrics such as but not limited to its geographical location and time-of-day.20) A system as per claim (5) capable of deploying real-time information via Bluetooth, IP or other protocols based on delivery of such real-time information from a remote server into individual or groups of IWN devices from an external database system.21) A device as per claim (3) that acts as an SSL domain filter, re-director and access controller. The device automatically maintains a database of forward DNS look-ups (IP address to domain name), which is populated by monitoring the network traffic routed through its interfaces. The device then accepts or rejects client connections to HTTPS websites, making decisions based on these IP address to domain name mappings and a database of websites to which a client device are authorised to connect.22) A system as per all preceding claims capable of the intelligent routing of IP traffic based on protocol or other metrics from an end user, via a device or network of devices, with intelligent layer 2 bridging technology, additionally allowing the external pushing of content from an external content source back to individual network nodes for delivery back to the end device by mechanisms such as Bluetooth or wifi 802.11 alb/g or similar. *s.. * * * S. S * .*S * S * ..* * S * S..* S. -* S S S...S.....S S
GB0807272A 2008-04-21 2008-04-21 Automatic interconnection of Intelligent Wireless Nodes to provide connection to external networks Withdrawn GB2459450A (en)

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Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2002089504A2 (en) * 2001-04-26 2002-11-07 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson Radio access network with meshed radio base stations
WO2004086667A2 (en) * 2003-03-24 2004-10-07 Strix Systems, Inc. Self-configuring, self-optimizing wireless local area network system
WO2006029126A2 (en) * 2004-09-07 2006-03-16 Meshnetworks, Inc. System and method for associating different types of nodes with access point nodes in wireless network to route data in the wireless network
WO2006060754A2 (en) * 2004-12-03 2006-06-08 B2 Technology & Consulting Services, Inc. Broadband multi-service, switching, transmission and distribution architecture for low-cost telecommunications networks
US20070070959A1 (en) * 2005-09-23 2007-03-29 Almeroth Kevin C Infrastructure mesh networks
GB2444304A (en) * 2006-11-30 2008-06-04 Michael Litherland Wireless networking

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2002089504A2 (en) * 2001-04-26 2002-11-07 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson Radio access network with meshed radio base stations
WO2004086667A2 (en) * 2003-03-24 2004-10-07 Strix Systems, Inc. Self-configuring, self-optimizing wireless local area network system
WO2006029126A2 (en) * 2004-09-07 2006-03-16 Meshnetworks, Inc. System and method for associating different types of nodes with access point nodes in wireless network to route data in the wireless network
WO2006060754A2 (en) * 2004-12-03 2006-06-08 B2 Technology & Consulting Services, Inc. Broadband multi-service, switching, transmission and distribution architecture for low-cost telecommunications networks
US20070070959A1 (en) * 2005-09-23 2007-03-29 Almeroth Kevin C Infrastructure mesh networks
GB2444304A (en) * 2006-11-30 2008-06-04 Michael Litherland Wireless networking

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