GB2446250A - A dust- or particle-based solar shield to counteract global warming - Google Patents

A dust- or particle-based solar shield to counteract global warming Download PDF


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GB2446250A GB0724255A GB0724255A GB2446250A GB 2446250 A GB2446250 A GB 2446250A GB 0724255 A GB0724255 A GB 0724255A GB 0724255 A GB0724255 A GB 0724255A GB 2446250 A GB2446250 A GB 2446250A
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Stephen Roger Wakefield
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Stephen Roger Wakefield
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    • A01G15/00Devices or methods for influencing weather conditions
    • B64G1/00Cosmonautic vehicles
    • B64G1/10Artificial satellites; Systems of such satellites; Interplanetary vehicles


A global warming solution, comprising at least one specially-designed component such as a space craft, with the purpose of counteracting global warming effects upon the earth. The craft may be positioned between the earth and sun and emits a stream of specially designed particles at a chosen density and speed, thus acting as a precision dust- or particle-pump. The material for making the particles can be and augmented by supply vessels. The purpose of the dust shield is to reduce components of solar radiation incident on the earth by variable amounts, thus acting as an extraterrestrial cloud maker with the direct intention of increasing the albedo of the earth and thus mimicking global dimming. It may act within the magnetosphere or actively dope the magnetopause.




There are few detractors these days against the concept of global warming. Severe and changing weather patterns are affecting all continents in one way or another and most alarmingly the Greenland ice sheets are moving faster than has ever been recorded, as is the vast ice sheet on western Antarctica. These are very serious matters and some of the most pessimistic predict that billions, not millions, billions may die in this century should the global temperature exceed 3 degrees. Some predict it will reach 6 degrees! The disappearance of the ice sheets reduces the albedo of the earth and thus increase's the temperature rise problems that the earth is experiencing. The ice sheets do need to be maintained! The engines of production in both India and China are picking up speed and few countries are even attempting to meet their targeted quotas of emissions, including Europe, as agreed at the Kyoto summit. America the biggest polluter in the world has yet to acknowledge the problem and chose not to sign up to the Kyoto agreement.

This basically paints a grim picture and the problem of global warming is set to be the worst case, scenario! For any one tuned in to such topics there are dark clouds looming and the future looks bleak.

There is no known tool or remedy, to my knowledge, that seeks to solve or even partly remedy this situation.

My invention and solution in The Shadow Lands and Dark Lands projects are indeed not particularly aimed at the current generations but those who will come after and suffer the sins of the fathers. Indeed it is likely that my concept will be ridiculed and myself vilified by those blind to what is forming about them, but I know there will come a time where desperation will open new avenues and paths to search for a glimmer of hope! It is for this reason that I am placing this invention in to the patenting system. I feel it worth recording should I fail in my endeavors or succumb to an early death. It is for when the sea's come for our children, unless by some miracle we come to our senses earlier! The debate about global warming still rages and I do not wish to enter that arena in any greater depth! However should it be found that global warming has taken place and it is an immediate threat to our continued existence on the planet then it would be a foolish people who would not already have evaluated solutions for such an eventuality? It is this exploration of such a scenario that has brought about the concept of The Shadow Lands Project.

In principle and in comparison with other space missions the Shadow Lands Project should be inexpensive and relatively low tech, in some embodiments.

Further more a theory called global dimming has recently come to light. I do not intend to expand upon this theory in any great detail here but it is a theory that the shadow lands project adopts as part of its mission. Briefly the theory has been discovered through monitoring by light sensors and a more traditional evaporation rate, which has shown that in the last few decades a significant reduction of light reaching the earth surface has occurred attributable directly to pollution. The drop in sun light reaching the earths surfhce has been analyzed and is thought to range from 10% to more than 20% in more developed regions! This detection did not occur because of the decline in crop yields nor defoliation; indeed these growth rates seem to have remained constant despite the significant deterioration of sunlight (this is an important point please take note)! Further more with the decline in particulate emissions such light dimming pollution is now on the wane and levels of sunlight are beginning to resume to their earlier rates. This has disastrous consequences for global warming in that the radiation that the original global warming estimates were based on were in fact erroneous due to the actual reduction in radiation, in turn due to global dimming. In short, we need that dimming to slow the effects of global warming. This feature is of great importance to the shadow lands concept! Any readers who are not familiar with this theory, should seek out further reading and familiarize themselves with the principle, a theory I adopt and hold to be true! James Lovelock the inventor and promoter of the Gala theory stated in a publication on the 16th January 2006, that the world is seriously ill! Other very eminent climatologists have publicly stated that we have passed the point of no return and that the world is as such, beyond repair. As a father with young children, I cannot nor will not accept that prognosis! Technology has gotten us in to this mess and technology most assuredly can reclaim some of the damage! It is with this in mind that I will describe my invention.

This invention relates to actively reducing the amount of solar radiation hitting the face of the earth using current technologies in a novel way and capitalizing upon existing space science. There are some elements that will require technologies that may be subsequent derivatives of this idea but nearly all the requirements that can be foreseen are commonly in place terrestrially or in orbit at this moment in time.

The Shadow Lands Project to which part of this invention relates, is: To provide an experimental test bed and subsequent indefinite space mission, to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth and offset the extra radiation that is being trapped by global warming gasses within the eco systems of the earth. It is not a cure for global warming but is seen as a tool for dealing with the immediate affects of our industrial age.

imagine that we could guide our own comet between our star the sun and our planet the earth. What would we observe? Firstly the faint and barely discernible shadow of the solid cometary body itself and then the more expansive voluminous dust cloud blowing in the solar wind. As the tail turned directly in front of us the sheer scale of dust particles and water vapor would begin to place the earth in to dusk and then finally darkness.

Should the comet remain frozen in a shadowing orbit then the world would begin to cool.

A cooling that would be far worse than any volcanic or nuclear winter. Indeed the earth would become a cold world similar to Jupiter's satellite 10, warmed only from the core within. It is not my intention to replicate any thing nearly as severe but this is the principle! This scene previously defined is the principle of the Shadow Lands Project with the exception that the comet itself is a man made and controlled device in which the tail is well regulated and as easily terminated as it is invoked.

A global warming solution comprises of at least one extra terrestrial or sky bound component which has as it's main function the propagation of an invasive cloud/field of matter/contamination by some means with the basic intention of causing a planet, planetoid, satellite or some form of solar related body as a whole or in part to be obscured from the suns/stars emissions by way of a shadow created by the means of: reflecting, deflecting or absorbing some part of the electro magnetic spectrum to some ratio or varying degree and creating an area of lesser emissions or completely blocked emission to this purpose, in it's wake/shadow.

The craft, the Solar Shield would mimic the earth's orbit about the sun and could be placed at any desired distance from the earth. To act, either at a regional level or a global level (allowing for the tilted axis of the earth). The craft would emit, upon activation, a consistent flow of pre designated particles of a set area and or volume, out in to a radial and forced path in to the solar wind where they would be blown in to a tail, a cone like debris field behind the craft. This conical debris field would envelop the earth or just parts of the earth, as it is blown past in the solar winds. The emission of the cloud of particles would need to be strictly controlled so that the light depletion attributable to the particles were held steady at a strict percentage perhaps for instance a 15% light reduction. It should be remembered that termination of the process would see the cloud of light reducing particles quickly blown away and past the earth by the solar winds. Thus alleviating any long-term harm.

Such leaps of imagination are initially to fantastic to be taken seriously and some would argue belong in a book or Hollywood epic but sadly the peril to mankind requires that solutions need to be out of the ordinary and I ask that the reader bear with me. There are to my knowledge, no competing technologies with which to measure this solution. In other words, the reader should consider that we are not spoilt for choice on this particular possible solution. Again I ask that this be taken in to consideration.

So how might this be achieved? Three different types of craft are required in one embodiment of the idea! The first as previously explained, the Solar shield itself, a man made comet type device and it should be remembered that the craft need not be a singular vessel but could be in multiples. A supply ship and a deploying positioning tug will also supplement the shield. The solar Fisher and a proposed lunar mining aggregate vehicle called The Lunar Leviathan, this lunar based vessel mines the small particles and ejects them up to the Solar fisher for supply to the Solar Shield. The Lunar Leviathan may be replaced or augmented by a craft called the Solar Leviathan all or none may have a manned presence. Obviously all these vessels will originally have been blasted by a chosen rocketry method from the earth for immediate deployment or assembly in orbit.

It should be noted that the soon to be redundant space shuttle fleet could possibly be used for the purpose of the Solar Fisher craft in this embodiment. Unmanned these robotic converted vessels would not require any life systems and alternative interplanetary drive systems can be added such as magnetic sail or ion drives. I have an idea for one if no one else has but I am certain that there are many alternatives to conventional rocket power. Orbital mechanics, I am certain can also be adequately employed. A more recent debate highlights the plausibility of catapulting loads in space at aimed target locations. The solar shield could be just such a target location! The solar shield component of the system is the most important part. Basically it is supplied with its graded dust supply and tended by the Solar Fisher craft. The solar Fisher carries it, guides it in to position and erects it and then sets it's trajectory. It further begins to rotate the structure to the required rpm. The Solar shield might also employ it's own rotational system. Other variations may well see the solar shield as a self -contained spacecraft able to locate itself in to any orbit or position.

Once in place and supplied with it's dust reservoir, the Solar Shield acts as a controlled dust pump. A precision dust pump! It is rotating as a giant gyroscope and thus has a certain amount of designed centrifugal force apparent. This allows the dust to be emitted under pressure but it is foreseen that a greater pressure may be required and that some form of pumping action will be needed to emit the particles with sufficient force to have their own trajectory within the solar winds and form the desired conical radiation protection shield (the mass of particle is also of great importance). Simple methods could be to super heat a gas by the power of sunlight or solar produced electricity. This could even frequent steam (a vapor trail)! Also microwave energy. The solar wind itself could be harvested by some large catchment area and then funneled down to a smaller area and used to drive out and kinetically aggravate the dust particles. This lists but a few of the many possibilities. The speed is directly variable and can be programmed. High speeds of rotation may be required to throw the particles out with sufficient velocity to produce the right sized dust cone in the solar wind. It is also possible that the structure might not be required to rotate but remain static. The nozzles may be slightly upturned to deflect the dust on a trajectory at perhaps 30 degrees away from the plane of rotation and further towards the sun. The nozzles could be controlled in their angle of emission to any desired trajectory; a powered ball joint could be supplied for this. The dust trajectory will put them on a path closer to the sun and in direct conflict with the direction of the solar wind.

The aim of this is to delay the formation of the shield cone and allow it a greater diameter before it is totally affected by the solar wind. It is seen that this could facilitate the Solar Shield being placed closer to the earth. It might be possible to create eddies in the particles as they are emitted. Basically the particles could form a helical passage of travel about each other with the desire that their passage is more robust in the solar wind.

Similar things have been observed in the rings of Saturn by larger debris.

Experimentation in gravity less vacuum (space) will supply the answers to this. It should also be noted that the accretion disc that the solar shield creates would create a darker shadow in its center (a thicker dust cloud at it's epicenter and thinner at it's furthest coverage). This is an unavoidable consequence for the method of deployment and hence the creation of the dust field will have to facilitate an average density to allow the field its optimum density over its largest working area. l'his can be advantageous since it is a direct inversion of the suns radiation effect upon the earth.

A direct correlation exists between the mass of the dust, the speed at which it is emitted and its vulnerability to the solar winds apparent at that time. This correlation will form a ratio, a ratio that will dictate how far the solar shield should be located from the earth, how much dust it will consume per hour (dependent on speed of particle) and what physical dimensions it may be required to embody. As stated it is only experiment that can derive this equation since ultimately the ability to block the required spectra itself will define the equation.

It should be noted that particles down to the size of an atom may be used but as to what kind of radiation obscurment that they might provide is only provable by experiment.

Particulates the size of a smoke molecules frequent the tails of comets and would appear on mass to deflect solar radiation. This leaves open the possibilities of gasses also being used. It is not to hard to foresee that the very pollutants themselves that ultimately destroy our terrestrial environment could be harnessed, stored, transported and applied as a medium to the solar shield and act as a gaseous cloud to deflect radiation away from the planet and so aid the recovery of the planet that in the past they so helped damage! It should be remembered that it is most probable that the launch of any rocket might well create more pollutants than those to which it is administering transportation.

There is an even more complex phenomenon that comes in to play as the dust particles become smaller The earth's magnetosphere, which works in a very complex way, will start to influence particles below a certain mass! Experiment will dictate as to exactly what the particle mass is, as to when it begins to react to the magnetosphere. Some may feel that this large field might present unassailable problems in the deployment of a shield. I have formed the opinion that it offers many more advantages than disadvantages! I have decided to disclose this part of the patent as a separate detail since it is so complex and is also near impossible to predict terrestrially and as such when the shield is talked about out side of this detail the reader should consider how this implication might also effect other disclosures that are described for simplicity in a more rudimentary manner. This is of particular relevance as to where smaller dust particles are being mentioned.

Doping the magnetopause! This probably would take place at a considerably further distance from the earth than I have further to or will subsequently mention. The magnetopause is that area where the solar winds meet the magnetosphere. The solar winds are denied entry in to our own earth's magnetic field and form a bow shock wave as they channel around the planets magnetosphere. Any particle subject to the solar winds will be deflected around this bow shockwave and will have no window of opportunity to enter a terrestrial bound trajectory. This means that the earth will be quarantined from any harmful effects of possible dust contamination. The plasma wall that insulates terrestrial energy from solar energy is impenetrable to particles below a set mass and above zero mass (e.g. photons neutrinos). For an explanation of these phenomena the reader should familiarize themselves with the principles that I am unable to enter into, in any further detail here. But these are scientific facts and we are protected from damaging solar particles and it is for this reason that we do have an atmosphere. To dope the magnetopause with particles the solar shield component would need to be place beyond the magnetopause in its entirety but still between the earth and the sun. The optimum distance will have to be established by experiment. The near elemental dust particle size that the shield emits will be immediately taken up by the solar winds and it's dispersion properties may not be of much importance in this scenario. The solar winds will hit the magnetosphere to form the magnetopause and form a bow shock wave around this void carrying the dust as it goes and doping the magnetopause as it does so with the solar shields deployed dust. This dust will take on the shape of the magnetopause (a dome) as it passes about the earth. Plainly the most important part of the disc of accretion will be its initial one since this is the part that will shield the earth an operational disc probably no more than 9000 miles in diameter (denser in the middle than at the outer diameter).

The subsequent dust will then be harmlessly carried out to a very great diameter and carried out as a long tail trailing from the earth's magnetosphere and carried by the deformed solar winds on out and beyond the solar system. It would be the most visible act of mankind to ever embellish the universe to date! All dust deployed within the magneto sphere will be subject to terrestrial influence and not solar nor solar wind influence and will very likely be trapped within the geosphere and ultimately after a duration the earths atmosphere itself This should be considered in the design of any subsequent particle. It should be remembered also that vast amounts of dust are quite naturally and independently hitting the earth's atmosphere and are quite happily ingested in to the eco system and have been since the creation of the solar system. It could be possible to place dust bands with precision in the outer atmosphere at any latitude, in line with the equator, to place specific equatorial latitudes in shadow such as for instance either of the polar regions, the equator or all three! There might be a nuclear reactor of some kind employed in the heart of the Solar Shield.

This will be to provide power for the shield but more importantly it is seen that there might be advantages to cooking the dust that the Solar Shield is about to emit. The main advantage is that there might be gases stored within the dust particles, which could be released when it is heated up. Hydrogen is present as an ion in lunar dust, the release of such gases might aid the volume of materials supplied in the shield, increasing the pressure, and allow the particles to be emitted with an even greater force. Another advantage is that it might break the dust down in to an even smaller particle. The reactor could be used to heat up a supplied separate gas or invoke a chemical reaction with other elements or molecules/agents. Perhaps even steam. Kinetic energy taking place within a particle might aid its deflection properties upon dispersal.

Another idea might be to focus the solar radiation itself to heat up the dust particles and produce the above outlined results. This might employ the use of a lens of some kind.

Further more it could be used as the light source for a powerful laser. A powerful laser powered by any means, could be used to accelerate particles as well as heating them, and this could allow for acceleration due to gas emissions and the actual laser emission itself.

Indeed the light emitted down a long tubular arm would have a captive audience of matter to heat on it's passage through the said arm, There are many combinations that could be employed but again experimentation would have to dictate the best design for the required types of dust particles. Other variations might include the use of infrared radiation, ultra violet, ultrasonic emissions, microwaves and magnetic fields.

All or only part of the craft may rotate. The particles will be emitted from very long arms located diametrically opposite and about the axis of rotation. If experiment dictates they may also be short or even telescopic/interchangeable. There may be few or many as desired and not all may be deployed in operation. There may even be contra-rotating sets of arms. Each arm will have a precise nozzle to control the rate of flow of dust being emitted. Perhaps these nozzles may mimic some or all of the technologies currently used in computer ink jet printers. There will be formula's that will link emissions with rotation and centrifugal force to provide the desired result. Different formulas may thus be employed for differing results. For instance darker some hours than others. A shield could even take the form of a cylinder, rotating or not, dispersing a ribbon of dust as against a cone. The Solar Shield is seen as being directly programmable and immediately interactive. Thus it may employ differing emission clouds for differing regions. Say when a rain forest is due to pass under it (when being used locally as against globally, i.e. close to the earth) a lighter mix can be deployed some time earlier. Remember the aim is not to create an impenetrable dust cloud that will turn the earth in to winter; it is to slightly reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth. We are creating a kind of temporary controlled oil slick in space. If in experiment we get it wrong the supply can be shut down and the solar winds will soon remedy, by dissipation, any ill effects. The solar shield may also take the form of a large disk to displace its dust. We are creatng an accretion disk/cone in space. The dust may take the form of fluids, ice, and molecules up to aggregate sized particles. Though it must be remembered that though the intention is to miss the earth with this emission large particles could cause significant damage to spacecraft and may not be desirable. The ideal is personally seen as being exceedingly small emitted as an even spaced sheet! They may be reflective or absorb the radiation.

Though I suspect if sourcing from the moon were viable then we must take what we can get and this may well be the very fine almost graphite that the few astronauts who walked on the moon have reported. A mix with gas, fluids and even statically charged particles are not ruled out. The cone of influence may be large enough to engulf the entire planet making it a global shield or it may cover a location about the rotating globe. I.e. it may track the equator but what ever path it covers it must be remembered that it can only track paths that are symmetrical with the poles and this may vary with the seasonal orientation of the sun to the poles unless the craft is moved to prevent this. In truth the shield needs only to cover the area directly under the suns intensity since as the circumference of the earth slopes away the atmosphere ingests less radiation. However producing a cone like this will bring the slight dust supply directly to the earths atmosphere and this would need to be monitored to ensure that the dust does pass directly to the ground and is not caught up in the outer atmosphere creating an immovable and impenetrable cloud with time.

Larger particles would prevent this. Windows for the launching of spacecraft would be facilitated at dawn or dusk to prevent contact with the shield. Astronomy other than solar would not be affected in this scenario.

It should be noted that it is not known what, if any, effect that the moons gravitational field will have on any subsequent dust cloud but again this will be dictated to by the mass of the particle concerned and experimentation.

There are a multitude of design criteria's for the particles that are emitted. The main reason being that there are vast discrepancies in the solar winds that they will be subjected to. The solar winds can range from between 300 kilometers per second right up to 800 kilometers per second and this is directly related to conditions upon the surface of the sun itself. The solar shield might have to carry stocks of differing sized particles to accommodate this variation. The aim of this being the greater the mass and or density of the particle the less affected it will be by a stronger solar wind. Again the Solar Shield will be interactive and facilitate changes in the solar wind automatically or interactively with the earth ground station. Plainly this will have to be a theory proven by experiment.

Alternatives also would be to vary the speed that the particles are being emitted at. The average size particle in a comets tail is described as being smoke sized and this lack of mass makes them especially vulnerable to the solar wind. It is there fore hoped that increasing the mass and or density of the particle will make them more resilient to the solar wind and it's fluctuations, at least in the short term! This will allow the particle to travel on its preset trajectory from the solar shield for as long as possible. It is seen as being essential that some form of scaled down model is used to accrue data to facilitate improved design before the full-scale shield could ever be contemplated. This patent application is placed with this in mind. It is plausible that chemical reactions could be employed to create the dust cloud. This could see the cloud being smoke, vapor or an actively congealing substance.

It is possible for the dust particles being emitted to be fired directly out from the solar shields arms or to be deflected at up to ninety degrees so that a spiraled dust plume could be created, perhaps slowing down the dust expenditure of the solar shield by delaying the particles path out of it's area of cover but perhaps not at the detriment of the particles velocity. Again experiment will dictate how the dust is emitted and such experimentation might even take place by using our own moon as a test bed (it should be noted that such experimentation would be devoid of any of the effects of the magnetosphere, to it's detriment). In such a way we need not take risks with our own eco systems till the technology is proven. Light sensors on the moon could relay information as to how a small test bed solar shield, was performing between the moon and the sun.

Until experiments can ascertain the mass of the particle, the speed of emission and the density and area of the dust film required then calculations for the quantities of dust that might be consumed by the solar shield would be open to serious error and thus worthless.

Experimentation can only conclusively dictate the quantities of dust required in all of the aforementioned scenarios. It is hoped that the end figure will be sustainable. My own guess-estimations tell me it is but as previously stated it is not my intention to misguide academic thought.

The solar shield could be placed as either a singular structure or in multiples and at any required construction scale. It could be part of a manned space station or totally robotic.

It is foreseen that the Solar Shield will have it's communication disk within the earth facing section of it's shield at the end of it's axis ofrotation and that all supplies will be made by the Solar Fisher at the end of the axis directly thcing the sun. This is so that the Solar Fisher does not disturb the shield dust cone nor suffer damage from it.

It might be a requirement for the solar shield to occupy a geo-stationary orbit over a particular site or sites, to only operate during feasible daylight hours. This might be to protect particular Polar Regions or ice sheets. It could also be to provide draconian cooling of deserts where a greater heat reduction can be obtained at a more limited cost to the eco system and more importantly measured cooling of the oceans, where it is scientifically accepted that the greater proportion of terrestrially stored solar energy is located within the uppermost 3 meters of the seas waters. Hopefully this could reduce storms such as typhoons and hurricanes or at least their magnitude.

Weights could be deployed about the arms of the solar shield for trimming the center of gravity of the whole solar shield. By pushing the weights down or up the arms in precisely controlled steps the center of balance should always be maintained and the durability of the placement of the station assured.

The solar shield can be programmed to produce window areas of the shield particle less voids that allow the sunlight to pass through un-hampered. This could be to allow for the passage of agricultural land under the shield or other sensitive terrain. Equally so it could be programmed to produce darker patches about the shield, perhaps this might be to allow for the passage of ice sheets or deserts to facilitate greater cooling ratios. It should be noted that monitoring of important food chains, particularly plankton should be undertaken to continually up date how aggressively the global dimming should be applied if at all in certain sensitive regions.

A further unrelated feature of the solar shield is that it could be plausible to create patterns or even write/print in the sky via the correct manipulation of suitable software and, computing power. To what benefit this could be applied is, at the moment, unknown but hopefully not vast scale advertising (although this might offset some of the operational costs, if feasible).

The Lunar Leviathan component of the Solar Shield is a multi functional robot or robots (It might share it's task amongst other components). It is primarily a surface scavenger, seeking out deposits of fine dust and then exploiting those deposits and making them ready for transportation to the Solar Shield via the Solar Fisher. The robot will sieve deposits and retain the most desired type of granule/aggregate. Anything unsuitable will be discarded. The correct type of dust will be placed in to a simple but sturdy packaging ready for transportation to the Solar Fisher robotic craft. It may have to employ some form of rocket to do this but I am considering with there being no atmosphere on the moon and an escape velocity of 1.47 miles per second that it might be possible to fire small packages from the surface of the moon by a specially designed cannon (and or combined with rocket power) and up to the receptacle ship (the solar fisher). An amazing advantage is also that the lunar regolith has been substantially built up from bombarding hydrogen ions in the solar wind since the satellite's creation and hence is very rich in hydrogen and an ideal source for refining in to rocket fuel. This has been a long established scientific fact! Further more this hydrogen could be used in creating and powering the solar shield! The dust could be shrink-wrapped with a robust bulkhead and or propulsion means. The moon has been chosen as a source for the dust since it is far more economical to Iransport in to space. The bonus also is that fine dust is in vast quantities upon the surface. The earth would be a very much more costly source but is not ruled out either.

The Lunar Leviathan could actually be substituted by a Solar Leviathan or even augmented by such a craft! This crafts purpose would be to hunt down dust sources and retrieve them as close to the solar shield as possible and for the earth for that matter, also.

It is seen that most suitable supplies of dust will be held in small sized rogue asteroids orbiting the earth or attracted by the earth. They could be collected and ground up in to the required dust types. It is thought that such bodies could be rich in water (ice) and that this could be a very desirable property for the solar shields particle emission systems not to mention as a potential fuel supply for all the family of craft. However it is foreseen that such small asteroids will be hard to find and capture, especially since they will undoubtedly have been aggravated by the earth's gravity and travel at high speeds. It might be necessary therefore to travel to the asteroid belt and hunt down the required materials. This could be achieved by a craft on an orbit between the earth and dipping in to the asteroid belt. Small asteroids could be brought a safe distance from the earth to be broken or ground up in to smaller pieces and eventually to dust, explosives up to and including atomic could be used for this purpose. This system might require more than one craft and loads would need to be significant to keep the solar shield supplied. It should be remembered that the journey to the asteroid belt itself is a significant journey. It is possible that one craft could actually break up in to a significant number of sub craft at the asteroid belt and return numerous numbers of the correct sized asteroids. Indeed the craft could be permanently stationed there and actually spend it's day putting asteroids on the correct trajectory by some means (probably a stick on solid fuel booster or even by a catapult system) and sending them on their own path to the correct locations.

Asteroids could be aimed at the moon and deliberately crashed in to the suthce to liberate dust! Special slim missiles could be fired at high speed into the moon with warheads that explode after deeply embedding themselves in to the lunar mantle and firing out high plumes of dust in to an orbit. The collection of dust could take place by using special ringed collector craft which use electrostatics to hoover up the dust in to giant pop up textile silos (like pop up tents) for delivery to the solar shield.

A further embodiment of a solar leviathan could be that it will approach the moon and fire munitions (even atomic), sizeable fragments of debris or projectiles of significant mass at ample speeds deployed at acute angles in to the moons surface and enact such a vigorous reaction that matter is ejected from the surface of the moon and up in to a sufficient altitudes where easy harvesting and collection may take place. Such an endeavor might require the aid of orbital mechanics to acquire the velocities that might be necessary! This is actually how the moon itself was created from the earth, albeit on a far grander scale under current popular scientific interpretation.

Foreseeable down sides to the idea is that while the solar shield is in operation, astronomical observation will perhaps suffer some minor deterioration when practiced optically! Unless the shield is a local one, covering the equator, for instance. Depending on the size of the solar shields cone about the earth, some deep space missions might suffer more impacts with particles but these particles though blowing in the solar winds are not expected to achieve the devastating velocities that some other particles that such craft are already exposed to, reach. Brief windows for launching could be facilitated by temporarily suspending the solar shields emissions. This is not seen as being a major problem so long as the solar shield is not placed a disproportionately long way away from the earth (there would be no benefits and many great disadvantages in making the shield cone any larger than it needs to be).

It should be noted that depending how far a way the solar shield is placed from the earth there might become a gradual distortion of the dust cone where the solar winds begin to deform the leading edge and trailing edge. It is unlikely since observation of comets shows that the gaseous cloud actually takes up an orbit about the sun. However, should this become apparent, possibly due to the mass of the particles then the solar shield might be best placed slightly leading the rotation of the earth by a proportional amount (probable). It is however foreseen that the operating distance from the earth will possibly fall in the range of between twelve thousand miles and fifty thousand miles. Point of information: Every 28 days it should come as close as two hundred thousand miles from the moon a distance an orbiting craft should easily be able to make (Solar Fisher craft).

At the small distances involved it is foreseen that the distortion to the cone will be minimal and of little consequence. Should this not be the case then modifications to the design of the Solar Shield could allow it to push all of it's dust emissions to the trailing edge of it's orbit leaving a band of dust instead of a cone of dust in it's wake. This Ribbon would double the thickness of the film, unless programmed to be a single film by way of deactivating the dust nozzles as they enter the leading edge of rotation or inversely, the trailing edge of rotation of the orbit. There are many possible variations to the shape and design of the dust cloud and it is to early to eliminate any particular variation.

Global dimming is thought to have produced drought in many parts of the world by forming clouds around pollution instead of where they would have normally fonned.

Since the pollution invoked by the solar shield is not earth bound then there will be absolutely no means for this problem to occur. It is not immune to cooling oceans however.

The Solar Shields fine dust cloud/accretion disc may have some advantages in damping down solar flare radiation but this will be directly in line with how much solar radiation it is programmed to stop at that time.

The Dark Lands concept is an embodiment of the solar shield, which has as its mission nothing less than the total removal of the high levels of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere and in at a very quick time scale. Not a tool but a possible short term total solution! The solar shield is placed above one or other or even both of the polar ice caps (in a dual mission) and deploy their dust shields in only two quadrants instead of the usual four. The dust shield can be any strength up to and including totally impervious to radiation. This super freezes the ice cap or caps by denying any form or severely limiting solar radiation. Temperatures already fall to extreme lows in the Antarctic for example, Vostock in Antarctica recorded a low of-89Celsius and this was low enough to freeze carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and to create diy ice. The moon has recorded temperatures as low as -150 Celsius on its dark side and thought the earths weather patterns and insulating atmosphere will prevent such a low from being created it is strongly believed that the polar temperature will fall lower than -100 Celsius.

By maintaining a continual localized nuclear winter at the pole or poles concerned, for up to and beyond a decade, it is thought that large deposits of dry ice will build up with and in conventional water ice, indeed the dry ice becoming locked in to a strata's of water ice. It is seen that substantial strata's of ice and dry ice will build up together. When the solar shield is eventually turned off, obviously the arctic region will begin to warm again and the dry ice will gradually turn back to carbon dioxide. When the dry ice does turn back to carbon dioxide gas it will be trapped as bubbles in the existing water ice, which has a much higher melting point. This ice will be as firm as rock and will theoretically hold it in a fine honeycomb of gas and ice for many hundreds of thousands of years to be eventually unleash, in to a, hopefully, much improved sustainable environment.

The Polar Regions have little life apparent on their ice sheets but plainly what there is will be annihilated but specimens can be preserved for later re-populating. But it is plain that this largely sterile area is near ideal for a Carbon sink. It is not thought that marine life under the ice sheets will be too badly affected with the exceptions of seals and penguins. It should be remembered that the beauty of this application is that it can be stopped at any time and pre experimental conditions will be returned almost immediately.

As quickly terminated as it is invoked and few global warming remedies can boast that.

The embodiments strengths lie in the fact that there is not any physical terrestrial interference of any kind.

It further should be noted that cooler poles lead to cooler oceans/seas at the localities and this in turn also helps to deplete carbon dioxide.

It is seen that at this time there is little point in producing complex diagrams of the proposed spacecraft, since they will basically take the form of what ever mechanical means is required of them., to perform their function. Since this mechanical means is yet to be determined it would be a superfluous endeavor.

There are many fine Engineers, Physicists, designers and planetary scientists who will need to be involved before a firm image of the concept could be truly gauged. I am if you like merely presenting the blank drawing board or embryo.

I am aware that there may be or indeed will be environmental repercussions in the long term to reducing the solar emissions to the planet but this will be the trade off to stabilize the global warming effects. I believe that this is a worthwhile trade irrespective since our existence with extreme global warming does not appear to be viable.

Should this be viable, then it will become mans first attempt to terraform a planet. How sad that it should need to be our own.

The solar shield sufficiently supplied could well possess the near biblical powers like that of turning day in to endless night and with it will come awesome responsibility for it's wholesome use. Since whilst it may posses powers in aiding the convalescence of a planet, it also posses terrible capabilities of manifest evil, with the potential to bringing famine and dark targeted destruction in it's wake! This is meant as a warning, since the solar shield is ultimately, in the wrong hands, a weapon of mass destruction far more lethal in its application than any mere atomic weapon. It could fearfully be said that if the shield is plausible then it will be a weapon like no other and where the 20th century spawned and is identified with the atom bomb, the 21 could be identified with the solar shield. As a weapon, were it to be focused on the poppy fields of Afghanistan or the drug plantations of Columbia for instance, then it could provide a remedial service to society.

If the future it saves for today then it may well go on to help terraform other planets in to worlds, as a tool of mankind in a golden future of exploration and diversity.

There is also an implication for the third world in this invention. It is not my desire to see a globally operational solar shield, which might show positive deference to the richer western civilizations that may well have funded it. By this I mean it would be actively plausible for the solar shield to reduce more solar radiation to one particular area and allow more radiation to reach other locations. I.E The shield to switch off during Europe's transit beneath it and double it's density during Africa's transit, geographically I doubt that this is possible but it is plausible for other significantly developed and wealthy regions. All nations should bear the responsibilities equally without any trade off's.

It is foreseen that the solar shield might be funded by subscription from the worst polluters. Whether this is taken to be at a national level or an industrial level, it is certain to be a point of great debate.

The idea is seen as a tool to aid the repair of our planet not as a cure for the continued unabated abuse of the planet. There would be a time where the shield cloud could begin to affect the living planet that it was designed to aid. A twenty percent light reduction might be sustainable but if you need to go to fifty percent then the Solar Shield would have outlived it's purpose and the world would be doomed.

It is a tool and perhaps the last chance for mankind, if not all, planet bound life! I prey this line is overtly dramatic but I don't, in my heart of hearts feel this to be the case.

The invention will now be further described by means of the attached drawings where: Figure 1 represents a solar diagram showing the possible deployment of the solar shield (arrow B) between the sun, our own star (arrow A) and the earth's daylight zone (arrow d) and the dark side of the earth (arrow E). The dust cloud accretion cone is also shown (arrow C). The relevance of this diagram is to show how the dust cloud cone C might be emitted firstly in a general direction closer to the sun and more importantly the solar winds emanating from the sun. The intention of such a procedure is to delay the moment that the dust particles are actually effected by the solar winds so that they might travel out as far as possible before being blown backwards in to the cone shape. The intention of this is that the dust cloud will spread out as far as possible in as shorter distance from the earth as is possible. Important factors that need to be taken in to account are the density of the particle and its velocity (mass). It's ability to absorb radiation and the speed of the solar winds at that particular moment. Hence the earlier mentions of designer particles to facilitate such fluctuations. An equation is feasible to ensure that a particle, which is appropriate for each condition, can be deployed automatically.

Figure 2 shows again a similar scene where arrow A again depicts the sun, B the solar shield, D the Eight side of the earth, E the dark side, C the dust trail cone and F it's interception point with the earths atmosphere. The notable point of this disclosure is that the dust cloud C has simply been emitted at a right angle to the solar shield and is at a far closer distance to the earth. Indeed point F is showing the interception point of where the dust cloud C meets the earth's atmosphere! It is foreseen that the density of the particles is sufficient for them to burn up in the outer atmosphere or at least harmlessly fall to earth. What is not acceptable is for the particles to take up an orbit of the planet in the outer atmosphere, ultimately over time leading to symptoms similar to that of a nuclear winter, it is thought that the solar winds will provide enough inertia for the velocity of the particle to gain sufficient mass to fall directly to the planets surface. Such localized applications might protect specific regions of the earth although the shield itself would have to take up a static orbit of that region and sporadically deploy it's dust at the correct time when the sun is rising then to overhead and declining to dusk. Deploying dust outside of these times would obviously be a wasteful exercise. The deployment if feasible could be again in a static position about the suns orbit and continually dusting the daylight world at set latitudes. Indeed set at equatorial latitude such a deployment could cover an area at an average dust density (denser in the middle, sparser at it's maximum circumference but achieving it's 20% for example, average midway between both) to thoilitate the most economical method of utilizing the dust resources. For instance the earth presents a disk approximately 12000 miles in diameter but much of that outside of the disc is in dusk, in fact we know ourselves from experience that the hottest parts of the day are the 2 hours preceding noon and directly following it! This approximately again requires an operational accretion disc of 4000 miles substantially smaller than the in excess of 12000 miles other methods would require. At 4000 miles diameter with a 20% particle saturation rate the logistics become more sustainable. The down side is that an accident in space with a silo feeding the solar shield might enter in to an orbit of the earth with problematic consequences, since the solar winds might not supply enough velocity to accelerate the particle out of such an orbit! Again experiment would have to dictate such abstract but data less predictions. But they are mentioned any way to hopefully be discarded but discarded they must! Figure 3 depicts one embodiment of how the solar shield might look. Arrow 0 points towards the solar array and this in turn points towards the sun where sufficient power to supply the solar shield might be generated. It is held in place by a structural arm arrow R that might be of a collapsible elastic nature to facilitate impacts due to collisions. Support R should be of a sufficient length to keep the solar panels G well away from the dusting activities of the shield. Arrow Q points to a gantry which supports item H the transmitter/receiver, which points to the earth to facilitate communications with a terrestrial control station. This is placed below any possible interference from the dust cloud. Arrow K points to a dust silo a container that is transported by the solar fisher craft after having been filled with graded dust by the Lunar Leviathan. This might be a giant pop up textile container rather like a pop up tent or a giant solid metal vessel. . It must be carefully maneuvered in to place to one of the four docking ports detailed at arrow L, item R being impervious to impacts as detailed earlier. All the, afore mentioned, are not seen to be requiring any rotational inertia. The dusting arms are detailed at arrow J and are eight in number on this embodiment the four which lie below the arrowed set are contra rotating on this experimental application. It should be noted that item K the dust silos could be interchanged for item J the dusting arms. Simple docking devices and counter weighting systems could be used and the Solar Fisher delivery craft would deliver a complete sub system and then remove it upon exhaustion of mediwn or other ejection method. This would see the silos themselves being rotated about the axis and emitting dust/particulate clouds from a nozzle/reaction chamber system of some form at their leading edge. This would render servicing of the unit easier and make the whole function of the shield itself a much more consumables orientated device. Such a combination might well be the substance of future design.

Item P as arrowed is the reaction chamber where the dust under goes processing such as, for example, heating, chemical reactions, mixing or a combination of processes and is then injected in precise quantities to the arms J for dispersion to the arms rotate-able ejector nozzles, arrowed at N. Lasers may be deployed down the length of the arms J to speed the dusts emissions! Items J.N.M and possibly P, are all seen to be rotating on this embodiment as previously mentioned, the lower arms J are rotating in an opposing direction. This is not absolutely necessary. The gantry Q is removable so as to allow for further arms or sets of arms to be attached should there be a requirement to do so! Single arm sets in any number above one, are also facilitated on this design. The arms can also be telescopic and have differing lengths and counter balances to enhance the deployment of dust. Ultimately it is all down to how effective the dust dispersion methods are found to be and how stable the Solar Shield platform is found to be in such multiples! This design is purely a prototype and is detailed for a visual demonstration only, since the ultimate shield design will be dictated by experiment alone as will all the three aspects of the process (dust extraction, transport and deployment) and hence this will affect all the final designs or indeed whole process.

Figure 4 shows an embodiment where the Dark Lands variant has been deployed.

Item A depicts the sun and Item D depicts the planet Earth. Item E depicts the dark side of the earth facing away from the sun. Item S depicts a Solar Shield Dark Maker variant spacecraft. It is deploying a two quadrant dust cloud detailed as Item W a hollow cloud area. Item T depicts the point at where one of the two Polar Regions are about the globe.

Item X depicts a shadow, which will have been created by the cloud (item W), which has blocked out the sun. This unnatural phenomenon is sustained over long periods and may take place inside of or outside of the magnetosphere as required. Particle size of the dust cloud would be of great importance were it to be used within the magnetosphere since dust might not be able to escape the magnetosphere where as larger particles with speed and mass should break free. It is seen as more desirable to enact the process outside of the magnetosphere. A minor image of S.W.X added to the diagram would frequent the cooling of the second polar region.

Claims (9)

1) A global warming solution comprises of at least one extra terrestrial or high altitude component which has as a function or functions, the propagation of a physically invasive particle field/contamination of matter of any form, with the intention of causing a natural or man made celestial body of some form, to be partially or totally obscured from an Electro magnetically radiating source such as a star or a man made phenomena, by the means of reflecting, deflecting or absorbing to some ratio, all or some part of that Electro magnetic energy field/spectrum and so placing the chosen body or bodies into a shaded/shadowed area of lesser or completely blocked Electro magnetic emissions.
2) A system as claimed in claim I where the particle emission system utilizes an Electro magnetic processes, thermal processes, mechanical, centhfugal, elasticity, gravity or polarized charge means to emit its
particle field.
3) A system as claimed in claim 1 and 2 where the emitted particle matter is chosen, designed and or manufactured to deploy some special attribute in its deployment.
4) A system as claimed in claims 1,2 and 3 where the emitted particle is of a lesser and or greater volume and or density than previously defmed.
5) A system as claimed in preceding claims where the shape of the particle exerts some special attribute.
6) A system as claimed in preceding claims where the particle velocity can be augmented or varied remotely from the emitting means by any method including the use of the electromagnetic spectrum.
7) A system as claimed in preceding claims where a planets or celestial bodies magnetosphere is employed as a propagation means, for a particle.
8) A system as claimed in preceding claims where a planets or celestial bodies atmosphere is employed as a propagation means, for a particle.
9) A system as claimed in preceding claims where the application is to control weather patterns by denying solar energy.
GB0724255A 2007-01-04 2007-12-12 A dust- or particle-based solar shield to counteract global warming Withdrawn GB2446250A (en)

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