GB2438892A - Microengineered vacuum interface for an electrospray ionization system - Google Patents

Microengineered vacuum interface for an electrospray ionization system Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2438892A
GB2438892A GB0611221A GB0611221A GB2438892A GB 2438892 A GB2438892 A GB 2438892A GB 0611221 A GB0611221 A GB 0611221A GB 0611221 A GB0611221 A GB 0611221A GB 2438892 A GB2438892 A GB 2438892A
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planar
electrospray
layers
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GB0611221D0 (en )
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Richard Syms
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Microsaic Systems Ltd
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Microsaic Systems Ltd
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J49/00Particle spectrometers or separator tubes
    • H01J49/02Details
    • H01J49/10Ion sources; Ion guns
    • H01J49/16Ion sources; Ion guns using surface ionisation, e.g. field-, thermionic- or photo-emission
    • H01J49/165Electrospray ionisation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J3/00Details of electron-optical or ion-optical arrangements or of ion traps common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
    • H01J3/14Arrangements for focusing or reflecting ray or beam
    • H01J3/18Electrostatic lenses
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J49/00Particle spectrometers or separator tubes
    • H01J49/0013Miniaturised spectrometers, e.g. having smaller than usual scale, integrated conventional components
    • H01J49/0018Microminiaturised spectrometers, e.g. chip-integrated devices, MicroElectro-Mechanical Systems [MEMS]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J49/00Particle spectrometers or separator tubes
    • H01J49/02Details
    • H01J49/04Arrangements for introducing or extracting samples to be analysed, e.g. vacuum locks; Arrangements for external adjustment of electron- or ion-optical components
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J49/00Particle spectrometers or separator tubes
    • H01J49/02Details
    • H01J49/06Electron- or ion-optical arrangements
    • H01J49/067Ion lenses, apertures, skimmers

Abstract

A planar component for interfacing an atmospheric pressure electrospray ionizer 507 to a vacuum system such as a mass spectrometer 502 is described. The component combines electrostatic optics with an internal chamber that can be filled with a gas at a prescribed pressure and is fabricated by lithography, etching and bonding of silicon. Separately patterned and etched semi-conductor layers are arranged in a stack, the orifices defined in each line-up to provide a channel through the component.

Description

<p>Microengineered Vacuum Interface for an Electrospray Ionization

System</p>

<p>Field of the Invention</p>

<p>This invention relates to mass spectrometry, and in particular to the use of mass spectrometry in conjunction with liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis.</p>

<p>The invention more particularly relates to a microengineered interface device for use in mass spectrometry systems.</p>

<p>Background</p>

<p>Electrospray is a method of coupling ions derived from a liquid source such as a liquid chromatograph or capillary electrophoresis system into a vacuum analysis system such as a mass spectrometer (Whitehouse et al. 1985; US 4,531,056). The liquid is typically a dilute solution of analyte in a solvent. The spray is induced by the action of a strong electric field at the end of capillary containing the liquid. The electric field draws the liquid out from the capillary into a Taylor cone, which emits a high-velocity spray at a threshold field that depends on the physical properties of the liquid (such as its conductivity and surface tension) and the diameter of the capillary.</p>

<p>Increasingly, small capillaries known as nanospray capillaries are used to reduce the threshold electric field and the volume of spray (US 5,788,166).</p>

<p>The spray typically contains a mixture of ions and droplets, which in turn contain a considerable fraction of low-mass solvent. The problem is generally to couple the majority of the analyte as ions into the vacuum system, at thermal velocities, without contaminating the inlet or introducing an excess background of solvent ions or neutrals. The vacuum interface carries out this function. Capillaries or apertured diaphragms can restrict the overall flow into the vacuum system. Off-axis spray (USRE354I3E) and obstructions (US 6,248,999) can reduce line-of-sight contamination by droplets, and orthogonal ion sampling (US 6,797,946) can reduce contamination still further. Arrays of small, closely spaced apertures can improve the coupling of ions over neutrals (U568 18889). Co-operating electrodes (U55 157260) and quadrupole ion guides (US 4963736) can apply fields to encourage the preferential transmission of ions. The use of a differentially pumped chamber containing a gas at intermediate pressure can thermalise ion velocities, while the use of heated ion channels (US 5,304,798) can encourage droplet desolvation. The device of U55304798 is fabricated in a thermally and electrically conductive material, and is a massive device, the heated channel being of the order of 1-4 cm long.</p>

<p>Vacuum interfaces are now highly developed, and can provide extremely low-noise ion sampling with low contamination. However, the use of macroscopic components results in orifices and chambers that are unnecessary large for nanospray emitters and that require large, high capacity pumps. Furthermore, the assemblies must be constructed from precisely machined metal elements separated by insulating, vacuum-tight seals. Consequently, they are complex and expensive, and require significant cleaning and maintenance.</p>

<p>Summary</p>

<p>These problems and others are addressed by the present invention by providing the key elements of the electrospray as a miniaturised component with reduced orifice and channel sizes thereby reducing the size and pumping requirements of vacuum interfaces. The advance over prior art is achieved by using the methods of microengineering technology such as lithography, etching and bonding of silicon to fabricate suitable electrodes, gas flow channels and chambers. In further embodiments the invention provides for a making of such components with integral insulators and vacuum seals so that they may ultimately be disposable.</p>

<p>Accordingly the invention provides an interface component according to claim 1 with advantageous embodiments provided in the dependent claims thereto. The invention also provides an interface component according to claim 15 with advantageous embodiments provided in the dependent claims thereto. The invention also provides a system according to claim 19. A method of fabricating an interface is also provided in claim 21.</p>

<p>These and other features of the invention will be understood with reference to the following figures.</p>

<p>Brief Description of the drawings</p>

<p>Figure 1 shows in section (Ia) and plan (ib) view the first two layers of a planar microengineered vacuum interface for an electrospray ionization system according to the present invention.</p>

<p>Figure 2 shows in section (1 a) and plan (1 b) view a third layer of a planar microengineered vacuum interface for an electrospray ionization system according to the present invention.</p>

<p>Figure 3 shows how a planar microengineered vacuum interface for an electrospray ionization system may be formed by a stacking arrangement.</p>

<p>Figure 4 shows a mounting of an assembled planar microengineered vacuum interface for an electrospray ionization system on a flange according to the teachings of the present invention, with Figure 4a being prior to assembly and Figure 4b an assembled interface.</p>

<p>Figure 5 shows a mounting arrangement for using a planar microengineered vacuum interface with a capillary electrospray source according to the present invention.</p>

<p>Figure 6 shows a construction of a two stage planar microengineered vacuum interface for an electrospray ionization system according to another embodiment of the present invention.</p>

<p>Detailed description of the drawings</p>

<p>A detailed description of the invention is provided with reference to exemplary embodiments shown in Figures 1 to 6.</p>

<p>A device in accordance with the teaching of the invention is desirably fabricated or constructed as a stacked assembly of semiconducting substrates, which are desirably formed from silicon. Such techniques will be well known to the person skilled in the art of microengineering. Figure 1 shows the first substrate, which is constructed as a multilayer. A first layer of silicon 101 is attached to a second layer of silicon 102 by an insulating layer of silicon dioxide 103. Such material is known as bonded silicon on insulator (BSOJ) and is available commercially in wafer form. A further insulating layer 104 is provided on the outside of the second silicon layer.</p>

<p>The first silicon layer carries or defines a first central orifice 105. The interior side walls 112 of the first layer which define the orifice, include a proud or upstanding feature 106 on the outer side of the first wafer which is provided at a higher level than the remainder of the top surface 113 of the first layer. The outer region of the first wafer and the insulating layer are both removed, so that the second wafer is exposed in these peripheral regions 107. These peripheral regions define a step between the first and second wafer layers, and as will be described later may be used for locating external electrical connectors or the like. The second silicon layer carries an inner chamber 108, which consists of a second central orifice 109 intercepted by a transverse lateral passage 110, shown in the plan view of Figure lB.</p>

<p>The features 105, 106, 107, 109 and 110 may all be formed by photolithography and by combinations of silicon and silicon dioxide etching process that are well known in the art. In particular, deep reactive ion etching using an inductively coupled plasma etcher is a highly anisotropic process that may be used to form high aspect ratio features (> 10: 1) at high rates (2 -4 tm/min). The etching may be carried out to full wafer thickness using silicon dioxide or photoresist as a mask, and may conveniently stop on oxide interlayers similar to the layer 103. The minimum feature size that can be etched through a full-wafer thickness (500 tim) is typically smaller than can be obtained by mechanical drilling.</p>

<p>Figure 2 shows the second substrate, which is constructed as a single layer. A layer of silicon 201 carries or defines a central orifice 202, the side walls 212 of which define a proud feature 203 upstanding from the top surface 213 of the second substrate. Two additional orifices 204 and 205 are also defined in this wafer and are arranged on either side of the central orifice 202. The features 202, 203, 204 and 205 may again be formed by photolithography and by silicon etching processes that are well known in the art.</p>

<p>Figure 3 shows the attachment of the first substrate 301 to the second substrate 302 in a stacked assembly. The prefix numbers used in Figures 1 and 2 are changed to 3, but the supplementary numbers remain the same. The two contacting surfaces 303 and 304 are desirably metallised, so that the two substrates may be aligned and attached together by compression bonding or by soldering, so that a hermetically sealed joint is formed around the periphery of the assembly. Additional features may be provided to aid alignment, or allow self-alignment. The metallisation also provides an improved electrical contact to the second substrate 302. The two additional surfaces 305 and 306 are also desirably metallised, to provide improved electrical contact to the two silicon layers of the first substrate 301. Bond wires 307 are then attached to all three silicon layers of the stacked assembly. The two substrates may be coupled to one another in a manner to ensure that the central orifices of each of the two substrates coincide thereby defining a central channel or cavity 310 through the two substrates.</p>

<p>Alternative configurations may benefit from a non-alignment of the central orifices such that a non-linear channel is defined through the substrate. Such arrangements will be apparent to the person skilled in the art.</p>

<p>It will be appreciated that the stacked assembly of the three features 105, 109 and 202 now form a set of three cylindrical or semi-cylindrical surfaces, which can provide a three-element electrostatic lens that can act on a separately provided ion stream 308 passing through the assembly. Such a lens arrangement may be configured as an Einzel lens, with the associated benefits of such arrangements as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art. It will also be appreciated that the three features 204, 205 and 110 now form a continuous passageway through which a gas stream 309 may flow, intercepting the ion stream 308 in the central cavity 310. The intersection, although shown schematically as being one where the two channels are mutually perpendicular to one another is, it will be appreciated, an example of the type of arrangement that may be used. Alternatives may include arrangements specifically configured to enable a generation of a vortex or any other rotational mixing of the two streams through the angular presentation of one channel to the other.</p>

<p>Figure 4 shows the attachment of the stacked assembly 401 to a third substrate 402 that is desirably formed in a metal. The third substrate again carries a central orifice 405 and in addition an inlet passageway 406 and an outlet passageway 407. The features 406 and 407 may be formed by conventional machining, using methods that are well known in the art. The two contacting surfaces 403 and 404 are desirably metallised, so that the two substrates may again be attached together by compression bonding or by soldering, so that a hermetically sealed joint is again formed around the periphery of the assembly.</p>

<p>it will be appreciated that the combined assembly now provides a continuous passageway for the gas stream 408 that starts and ends in the metal layer, in which connections to an additional inlet and outlet pipe may easily be formed by conventional machining. It will also be appreciated that the ion stream 409 now passes through the metal substrate, which is now sufficiently robust to form part of the the enclosure of a vacuum chamber. It will also be appreciated that with the addition of such a chamber, the three regions 410, 411 and 412 may be maintained at different pressures.</p>

<p>Figure 5 shows how the assembly 501 may be mounted on the wall of a vacuum chamber 502 using an 0-ring' seal 503. In use, the inside of the vacuum chamber is evacuated to low pressure, while the outside is at atmospheric pressure. The central cavity 504 is maintained at an intermediate pressure by passing a stream of a suitable drying gas such as nitrogen from an inlet 505 to an outlet 506 connected to a roughing pump. It will be appreciated that the pressure in the central cavity may be suitably controlled using different combinations of inlet pressure and roughing pump capacity and by the relative sizes of the openings 204 and 205.</p>

<p>The flux of ions is provided from a capillary 507 containing a liquid that is (for example) derived from a liquid chromatography system or capillary electrophoresis system in the form of analyte molecules dissolved in a solvent. The flux of ions is generated as a spray 508 by providing a suitable electric field near the capillary. In addition to the desired analyte ions, which it is desired to pass as an ion stream 509 into the vacuum chamber, the spray typically contains neutrals and droplets with a high concentration of solvent.</p>

<p>Ions and charged droplets in the spray may be concentrated into the inlet of the assembly by the first lens element carrying the proud feature 510, which is maintained at a suitable potential by one of the connections 511 provided on external surfaces of the first, second or third wafers. Entering the central chamber 504, the ion velocities may be thermalised and the spray may be desolvated by collision with the gas molecules contained therein. The gas stream may be heated to promote desolvation, for example by RF heating caused by applying an alternating voltage between two adjacent lens elements and causing an alternating current to flow through the silicon.</p>

<p>Alternative mechanisms of achieving heating of the stream may include a heating prior to entry into the interface device where for example it is considered undesirable to actively heat the materials of the interface device.</p>

<p>Ions may be further concentrated at the outlet of the assembly by the second lens element and the third element carrying the proud feature 512, which are also maintained at suitable potentials by the remaining connections 511.</p>

<p>It will be appreciated that more complex assemblies of a similar type may be constructed. For example, Figure 6 shows the combination of two etched BSOI substrates 601 and 602 with a third single-layer substrate 603 to form a serial array in the form of a 5-layer assembly 604. Here the ion stream 605 must pass now through two cavities 606 and 607 at intermediate and successively reducing pressures. The gas therein is again provided by a gas stream taken from an inlet 608 to an outlet 609 by a system of buried, etched channels that pass through the two chambers 606 and 607.</p>

<p>The relative pressure in the two chambers 606 and 607 may be controlled, by varying the dimensions of the connecting orifices 610 and 611. Such a system corresponds to a two-stage vacuum interface, and it will be apparent that interfaces with even more stages may be constructed by stacking additional layers.</p>

<p>It will also be appreciated that there is considerable scope for variations in layout and dimension in the arrangements above. For example, it is not necessary for the ion path to be co-linear from input to output, and reduced contamination of the vacuum system may follow from adopting a staggered ion path so that no line of sight exists.</p>

<p>Similarly, it is not necessary for both of the orifices to be circular in geometry, and reduced contamination may again arise from (for example) the combination of a first circular orifice with a second circular annular orifice.</p>

<p>It will also be appreciated that the silicon parts may be fabricated in a batch process so that the assembly may be provided as a low-cost disposable element. Finally, it will be appreciated that because the entire vacuum interface is now reduced in size, a plurality of similar elements may be constructed as an array on a common substrate.</p>

<p>The array may then provide interfaces for a plurality of electrospray capillaries.</p>

<p>It will be understood that what has been described herein are exemplary embodiments of microengineered interface components which are provided to illustrate the teaching of the invention yet are not to be construed in any way limiting except as may be deemed necessary in the light of the appended claims. Whereas the invention has been described with reference to a specific number of layers it will be understood that any stack arrangement comprising a plurality of individually patterned semiconducting layers with adjacent layers being separated from one another by insulating layers, and orifice defined within the layers defining a conduit through the stack should be considered as falling within the scope of the claimed invention.</p>

<p>Within the context of the present invention the term microengineered or microengineering is intended to define the fabrication of three dimensional structures and devices with dimensions in the order of microns. It combines the technologies of microelectronics and micromachining. Microelectronics allows the fabrication of integrated circuits from silicon wafers whereas micromachining is the production of three-dimensional structures, primarily from silicon wafers. This may be achieved by removal of material from the wafer or addition of material on or in the wafer. The attractions of microengineering may be summarised as batch fabrication of devices leading to reduced production costs, miniaturisation resulting in materials savings, miniaturisation resulting in faster response times and reduced device invasiveness.</p>

<p>Wide varieties of techniques exist for the microengineering of wafers, and will be well known to the person skilled in the art. The techniques may be divided into those related to the removal of material and those pertaining to the deposition or addition of material to the wafer. Examples of the former include: Wet chemical etching (anisotropic and isotropic) * Electrochemical or photo assisted electrochemical etching * Dry plasma or reactive ion etching * Ion beam milling * Laser Whereas examples of the latter include: * Evaporation * Thick film deposition * Sputtering * Electroplating * Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) * Epitaxy These techniques can be combined with wafer bonding to produce complex three-dimensional, examples of which are the interface devices provided by the present invention.</p>

<p>While the device of the invention has been described as an interface component it will be appreciated that such a device could be provided either separate to or integral with the other components to which it provides an interface between. By using an interface component it is possible to remove impurities or other unwanted components of the emitted spray material from the capillary needle conventionally used with mass Spectrometer system.</p>

<p>Alhere the words "upper", "lower", "top", bottom, "interior", "exterior" and the like have been used, it will be understood that these are used to convey the mutual arrangement of the layers relative to one another and are not to be interpreted as limiting the invention to such a configuration where for example a surface designated a top surface is not above a surface designated a lower surface.</p>

<p>Furthermore, the words comprises/comprising when used in this specification are to specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps or components but does not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, components or groups thereof.</p>

<p>References Whitehouse C.M., Dreyer R.N., Yamashita M., Fenn J.B. "Electrospray interface for liquid chromatographs and mass spectrometers" Anal. Chem. 7, 675-679 (1985) Labowsky M.J., Fenn J.B. "Method and apparatus for the mass spectrometric analysis of solutions" US 4,531,056 July23 (1985) Valaskovic G.A., McLaffert F.W. "Electrospray ionization source and method of using the same" US 5,788,166 Aug 4 (1998) Mylchreest I., Hail M.E. "Electrospray ion source with reduced neutral noise and method" USRE35413E Dec 31(1996) Apffel J.A., Werlich M.H., Bertsch J.L., Goodley P.C., Heniy K.D. "Orthogonal ion sampling for apci mass spectrometry" US 6,797,946 Sept 28 (2004) Milchreest I., Hail M.E., Heron J.R. "Method and apparatus for focusing ions in viscous flow jet expansion region of an electrospray apparatus" US5 157260 Oct 20(1992) Tomany M.J., Jarrell J.A. "Housing for converting an electrospray to an ion stream" US 5,304,798 April 19 (1994) Sheehan E.W., Willoughby R.C. "Laminated lens for focusing ions from atmospheric pressure" U56818889 Bi Nov 16 (2004)</p>

Claims (1)

  1. <p>Claims We claim 1. An interface for an electrospray ionization system
    constructed as a microengineered component from at least three separately patterned and etched semiconducting layers each separated by insulating layers, the first semiconducting layer defining a first orifice, the second semiconducting layer defining a second orifice and transected by a channel, the channel having a first end and a second end, the third semiconducting layer defining a third orifice and two additional openings, and wherein when each of the three layers are arranged in a stack arrangement relative to one another, the first, second and third orifices define a conduit through the interface and the two additional openings are arranged so as to connect to the two ends of the channel.</p>
    <p>2. A planar electrospray interface component as in Claim 1, in which the three orifices act as a conduit for ions.</p>
    <p>3. A planar electrospray interface component as in Claim I or Claim 2, in which the three orifices act as a three element electrostatic lens.</p>
    <p>4. A planar electrospray interface component as in any preceding Claim, in which side walls of the the first and third layers which define the first and third orifices contain proud upstanding features to concentrate electric fields.</p>
    <p>5. A planar electrospray interface component as in any preceding Claim, in which the channel and associated openings act as a conduit for a gas.</p>
    <p>6. A planar electrospray interface component as in any preceding Claim, in which the pressure in the second orifice may be provided as an intermediate pressure between the pressures in the first and third orifices.</p>
    <p>7. A planar electrospray interface component as in any preceding Claim being configured to be heated.</p>
    <p>8. A planar electrospray interface including a plurality of components as claimed in any preceding Claim, the plurality of components being arranged in a parallel array..</p>
    <p>9. A planar electrospray interface component as in any preceding Claim in which the semiconducting material is silicon.</p>
    <p>10. A planar electrospray interface component as in any preceding Claim in which the insulating material is silicon dioxide.</p>
    <p>11. A planar electrospray interface component as in any preceding Claim being constructed by bonding together etched oxidised silicon layers.</p>
    <p>12. A planar electrospray interface component as in any preceding Claim configured to be attached to a vacuum flange.</p>
    <p>13. A planar electrospray interface component as in any preceding Claim which is used as a method of introducing ions into a mass spectrometer system.</p>
    <p>14. A planar electrospray interface component as in any preceding Claim which is used in conjunction with a liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis system.</p>
    <p>15. A microengineered electrospray interface component comprising a plurality of individually patterned semiconducting layers provided in a stack arrangement with adjacent layers being separated from one another by insulating layers, and wherein each of the layers have an orifice defined therein, the stacking of the layers enabling an alignment of each of the orifices so as to provide a contiguous channel through the component.</p>
    <p>16. The component as claimed in claim 15 wherein the assembled stack arrangement further includes an interior chamber, defined by a patterning of the individual layers, the interior chamber defining a second channel through the component, the first and second channels intersecting one another.</p>
    <p>17. The component as claimed in claim 16 wherein at least a portion of the second channel defines a chamber, the chamber defining the intersection region between the first and second channels.</p>
    <p>18. The component as claimed in claim 17 wherein the chamber is arranged substantially transverse to the first channel.</p>
    <p>19. An electrospray ionization system including a vacuum system having an entrance port, the entrance port being arranged to be coupled to an interface component as claimed in any one of claims 15 to 18, and wherein the interface component enables a transmission of an electrospray from an ionizer to the vacuum system.</p>
    <p>20. An electrospray ionization interface substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to any one of Figures 1 to 6 of the accompanying drawings.</p>
    <p>21. A method of fabricating an ionization interface, the method comprising the microengineering steps of: a) fabricating a first layer in silicon, the fabricating step including the formation of an orifice in the silicon, b) fabricating a second layer in silicon, the fabricating step defining a second orifice in the silicon and the creation of a channel transecting said orifice, the channel having a first end and a second end, c) fabricating a third layer in silicon, the fabricating step defining a third orifice and two additional openings, d) arranging each of the three layers in a stack arrangement relative to one another, the first, second and third orifices define a conduit through the interface and the two additional openings being arranged so as to connect to the two ends of the channel.</p>
GB0611221A 2006-06-08 2006-06-08 Microengineered vacuum interface for an electrospray ionization system Withdrawn GB0611221D0 (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0611221A GB0611221D0 (en) 2006-06-08 2006-06-08 Microengineered vacuum interface for an electrospray ionization system

Applications Claiming Priority (9)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0611221A GB0611221D0 (en) 2006-06-08 2006-06-08 Microengineered vacuum interface for an electrospray ionization system
GB0620256A GB2438894B (en) 2006-06-08 2006-10-12 Microengineered vacuum interface for an ionization system
EP20070109370 EP1865533B1 (en) 2006-06-08 2007-05-31 Microengineerd vacuum interface for an ionization system
CA 2590762 CA2590762C (en) 2006-06-08 2007-05-31 Microengineered vacuum interface for an ionization system
US11810052 US7786434B2 (en) 2006-06-08 2007-06-04 Microengineered vacuum interface for an ionization system
JP2007151953A JP5676835B2 (en) 2006-06-08 2007-06-07 Interface parts and a manufacturing method thereof
CN 200710110694 CN101097831B (en) 2006-06-08 2007-06-08 Microengineerd vacuum interface for an ionization system
US12837100 US8148681B2 (en) 2006-06-08 2010-07-15 Microengineered vacuum interface for an ionization system
JP2013117362A JP5785219B2 (en) 2006-06-08 2013-06-03 Interface parts and a manufacturing method thereof

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GB0611221D0 GB0611221D0 (en) 2006-07-19
GB2438892A true true GB2438892A (en) 2007-12-12

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Citations (4)

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US20020000517A1 (en) * 2000-01-18 2002-01-03 Corso Thomas N. Separation media, multiple electrospray nozzle system and method
WO2002045865A1 (en) * 2000-12-08 2002-06-13 Amersham Biosciences Ab Electrospray interface
US6818889B1 (en) * 2002-06-01 2004-11-16 Edward W. Sheehan Laminated lens for focusing ions from atmospheric pressure
US20040245458A1 (en) * 2003-06-07 2004-12-09 Sheehan Edward W. Ion enrichment aperture arrays

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4926056A (en) 1988-06-10 1990-05-15 Sri International Microelectronic field ionizer and method of fabricating the same
CA1307859C (en) 1988-12-12 1992-09-22 Donald James Douglas Mass spectrometer and method with improved ion transmission
US5747815A (en) * 1993-09-22 1998-05-05 Northrop Grumman Corporation Micro-miniature ionizer for gas sensor applications and method of making micro-miniature ionizer
US5492867A (en) * 1993-09-22 1996-02-20 Westinghouse Elect. Corp. Method for manufacturing a miniaturized solid state mass spectrograph
CN100380120C (en) * 1998-09-17 2008-04-09 阿德文生物科学公司;基奥尼斯公司 Electric spraying device
US6627882B2 (en) * 1999-12-30 2003-09-30 Advion Biosciences, Inc. Multiple electrospray device, systems and methods

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020000517A1 (en) * 2000-01-18 2002-01-03 Corso Thomas N. Separation media, multiple electrospray nozzle system and method
WO2002045865A1 (en) * 2000-12-08 2002-06-13 Amersham Biosciences Ab Electrospray interface
US6818889B1 (en) * 2002-06-01 2004-11-16 Edward W. Sheehan Laminated lens for focusing ions from atmospheric pressure
US20040245458A1 (en) * 2003-06-07 2004-12-09 Sheehan Edward W. Ion enrichment aperture arrays

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Publication number Publication date Type
JP5785219B2 (en) 2015-09-24 grant
CN101097831A (en) 2008-01-02 application
GB0620256D0 (en) 2006-11-22 grant
GB2438894A (en) 2007-12-12 application
CN101097831B (en) 2011-11-09 grant
JP2013210384A (en) 2013-10-10 application
GB0611221D0 (en) 2006-07-19 grant
GB2438894B (en) 2013-05-01 grant

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