GB2309703A - Polymer electrolyte - Google Patents

Polymer electrolyte Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2309703A
GB2309703A GB9700926A GB9700926A GB2309703A GB 2309703 A GB2309703 A GB 2309703A GB 9700926 A GB9700926 A GB 9700926A GB 9700926 A GB9700926 A GB 9700926A GB 2309703 A GB2309703 A GB 2309703A
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United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
electrolyte material
pvdf
cell electrolyte
cell
preceding
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GB9700926A
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GB9700926D0 (en
GB2309703B (en
Inventor
Esam Kronfli
Christine Ruth Jarvis
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AEA Technology PLC
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AEA Technology PLC
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Priority to GBGB9601890.8A priority Critical patent/GB9601890D0/en
Priority to GBGB9618695.2A priority patent/GB9618695D0/en
Application filed by AEA Technology PLC filed Critical AEA Technology PLC
Priority to GB9700926A priority patent/GB2309703B/en
Publication of GB9700926D0 publication Critical patent/GB9700926D0/en
Publication of GB2309703A publication Critical patent/GB2309703A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of GB2309703B publication Critical patent/GB2309703B/en
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Application status is Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/052Li-accumulators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/056Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte characterised by the materials used as electrolytes, e.g. mixed inorganic/organic electrolytes
    • H01M10/0564Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte characterised by the materials used as electrolytes, e.g. mixed inorganic/organic electrolytes the electrolyte being constituted of organic materials only
    • H01M10/0565Polymeric materials, e.g. gel-type or solid-type
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/02Electrodes composed of or comprising active material
    • H01M4/13Electrodes for accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte, e.g. for lithium-accumulators; Processes of manufacture thereof
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/052Li-accumulators
    • H01M10/0525Rocking-chair batteries, i.e. batteries with lithium insertion or intercalation in both electrodes; Lithium-ion batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/02Electrodes composed of or comprising active material
    • H01M2004/026Electrodes composed of or comprising active material characterised by the polarity
    • H01M2004/027Negative electrodes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/02Electrodes composed of or comprising active material
    • H01M4/36Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids
    • H01M4/58Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids of inorganic compounds other than oxides or hydroxides, e.g. sulfides, selenides, tellurides, halogenides or LiCoFy; of polyanionic structures, e.g. phosphates, silicates or borates
    • H01M4/583Carbonaceous material, e.g. graphite-intercalation compounds or CFx
    • H01M4/587Carbonaceous material, e.g. graphite-intercalation compounds or CFx for inserting or intercalating light metals

Abstract

A polymer electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell comprises polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) combined with a solution of a salt such as lithium perchlorate, in a compatible solvent such as an ethylene carbonate/N-methyl-pyrrolidone mixture. The PVdF is a homopolymer of high molecular weight, with a melt flow index at 230{C and 10 kg of less than 1.0g/10 min.

Description

Polymer Electrolyte This invention relates to a polymer electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells and to an electrochemical cell incorporating this electrolyte.

For many years it has been known to make rechargeable cells with lithium metal anodes and cathodes of a material into which lithium ions can be intercalated or inserted. Such cells may use a separator such as filter paper or polypropylene saturated with, as electrolyte, a solution of a lithium salt (e.g. lithium perchlorate) in an organic liquid such as propylene carbonate. Alternatively they may use a solid-state ionconducting polymer, for example a complex of a lithium salt with poly(ethylene oxide). A wide variety of intercalation or insertion materials are known as cathode materials, such as TiS2, V6Ol3 and LixCoO2 where x is less than 1; and these materials are often mixed with solid electrolyte material to form a composite cathode. To avoid the problems arising from dendrite growth at the anode, it has been proposed to use an intercalation material as the anode material too, and this also may be mixed with solid electrolyte material to form a composite anode.

An alternative type of polymer electrolyte has recently been proposed by Gozdz et al (US 5 296 318), which comprises a copolymer of 75 to 92% vinylidene fluoride and 8 to 25% hexafluoropropylene, blended with a lithium salt and a compatible solvent such as ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate mixture. This composition can be cast from a suitable solvent, to provide a stable film with conductivity 10-4 the range 10-4 to 10-3 S -1 film with conductivity in the range 10 to 10 5 cm Gozdz et al reported that they had tried to make such electrolyte films using PVdF homopolymers, but that the solutions, once made, gelled to an unworkable state after standing for a short time at room temperature, rendering these materials unsuitable for practical electrolyte use.

Before solidification a portion of the solution was cast and dried to give a film about 0.1 mm thick. The resulting film exhibited a pronounced bloom or whitening as a result of crystalline formation; it had low physical strength and split under moderate handling; and the -E conductivity (about 10-5 -1 electrical conductivity (about 10 S cm ) was well below the range of practical utility. The present inventors have confirmed that such electrolyte films made with the PVdF homopolymers usually used are brittle and unsuitable for use as practical electrolytes.

According to the present invention there is provided a cell electrolyte material comprising polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) combined with a solution of a salt in a compatible solvent, wherein the PVdF is a homopolymer of sufficiently high molecular weight that its melt flow index at 2300C and 10 kg is less than 1.0 g/10 min.

The melt flow index is a parameter commonly used to characterise polymers, and can be measured by the method specified in standard ASTM D 1238.

Surprisingly it has been found that use of PVdF homopolymer with such a low melt flow index provides good quality electrolyte material, which is clear, and tough enough to withstand handling, and can have sufficient conductivity for use in a cell at room temperature. It will be appreciated that the electrical properties of such an electrolyte material depend also on the selection of the salt and the compatible solvent.

The electrolyte material may be used in a lithium cell, for example a lithium ion cell where both the anode and cathode incorporate appropriate insertion materials.

In such a lithium ion cell both the anode and the cathode may also incorporate an electrolyte material (so forming a composite electrode), and the electrolyte material of the invention may be used in one or both electrodes.

Alternatively the electrolyte material of the invention may be used in some layers of such a cell while a different electrolyte material is used in other layers.

If the cell is a lithium cell (or a lithium ion cell) then the salt will be a lithium salt, such as lithium perchlorate LiCl04. Other suitable salts are LiAsF6, LiPF6 LiBF,, LiN(SO2CF3)21 or LiCF3SO3. A variety of compatible solvents may be used, in particular ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate; alternative solvents are dimethylcarbonate, diethoxyethane, diethyl carbonate, or dimethoxyethane. Plasticisers such as tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (tetraglyme), or Nmethyl- pyrrolidone (l-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) may also be provided, to ensure that the solvent does not crystallize at the desired operating temperature and so to ensure adequate electrical conductivity.

The invention will now be further and more particularly described, by way of example only, and with reference to the accompanying drawings in which: Figure 1 shows graphically the variation of electrical conductivity of an electrolyte material with temperature; and Figure 2 shows graphically the cycling performance of a lithium ion cell incorporating the electrolyte material.

Electrolvte PreDaration 8.75g N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) and 8.75g ethylene carbonate (EC) were mixed with 26.0g tetrahydrofuran (THF). Then 2.0g LiClO4 was dissolved in this mixture.

Then 5.0g PVdF was added while stirring, and the mixture was warmed to fully dissolve the polymer.

The PVdF was of the type Solef 1015 (Solef is a trade mark of Solvay Chemicals Ltd) which has a melt flow index at 2300C of 0.7 g/10 min at 10 kg, and 0.2 g/10 min at 5 kg.

The mixture was then coated onto release paper at a web speed of 1 m/min, using a doctor blade over a roller with a blade gap of 0.5 mm, and dried in the presence of an air stream while passing through successive drying zones at 500C, 550C and 600C, to evaporate all the THF.

Referring to Figure 1 there is shown graphically the measured values of the electrical conductivity (a) (which is ionic conductivity) of this electrolyte film at a range of different temperatures (T). It will be observed that at a temperature of 130C (286K) the conductivity a is 3 about 1.8 x 10-3 S cm-.

Grafted Polymer Pretaration For some purposes the adhesion between the PVdFbased electrolyte material and a metal component such as a current collector is noc sufficient. The adhesion can be improved by grafting monomers onto the polymer chain, the monomer being a mono-unsaturated sulphonic acid, phosphonic acid, carboxylic acid, ester, or amide; generally smaller monomers, with less than five carbon atoms in the carbon chain R-, are preferable. For example acrylic acid, various isomers of butenoic acid, or isomers of pentenoic acid may be used. The degree of grafting is desirably between 2 and 20% of the final weight, more preferably between 3 and 12%, for example 5% or 108. The grafting can be achieved by an irradiation process or a pre-irradiation process.

PVdF powder (Solef 1015) was irradiated by a cobalt60 gamma source for a total dose of 15 kgray, at a dose rate of 1 kgray hour . The irradiated PVdF powder was then placed in a reaction vessel containing a deoxygenated aqueous solution of acrylic acid (25% by weight) also containing ferrous sulphate (0.02 M) as a homopolymerisation inhibitor. This reaction mixture was held at 800C and the progress of the reaction with the acrylic acid was monitored at intervals by taking a sample of the mixture and determining the remaining concentration of the acid by titration with sodium hydroxide.

After a few hours, when the desired consumption of acrylic acid had been achieved, the resulting graft copolymer powder was washed several times with deionised water, and then dried in a vacuum oven for 24 hours at 500C. The weight of the powder was found to have increased, the increase being equal to 102 of the final weight, as a consequence of the grafting of acrylic acid into the PVdF chain.

Lithium Ion Cell Construction A lithium ion cell was made with a composite cathode containing lithium nickel oxide as an insertion material, a composite anode containing graphite as an insertion material, and a layer of electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and the cathode. Ungrafted electrolyte material was used in the cathode and in the electrolyte layer. In the anode the electrolyte material used was based on PVdF 1015 onto which acrylic acid had been grafted by the pre-irradiation process described above.

The cathode comprises an aluminium foil current collector which is firstly coated with a dag (Acheson Electrodag 109B; trade mark) carbon layer. A composite cathode mixture comprising LiXNiO2, carbon black, and a mixture of ungrafted 1015 PVdF, EC and Lilo4, is cast onto the carbon-coated aluminium foil using dimethyl acetamide (DMA) and acetone as solvents (instead of THF).

An electrolyte layer comprising ungrafted 1015 PVdF, EC, NMP, and Lilo4 is then cast onto the composite cathode, using THF as the volatile solvent.

The anode comprises a copper foil current collector, onto which is cast a composite anode mixture comprising graphite mixed with acrylic acid grafted 1015 PVdF, EC, NMP and LiClQ, using acetone as the volatile solvent. A layer of electrolyte comprising ungrafted PVdF, EC, NMP and LiCl04 is then cast onto the composite anode, using THF as the volatile solvent. This is then assembled with the cathode and electrolyte layer described above and held together under pressure at 1000C so the two electrolyte layers bond together.

Cell Cycling The cell made as described above was repeatedly discharged and recharged, between voltage limits of 4.0 V and 3.0 V. The first five cycles were at a current of 17 mA and enabled the cell capacity to be determined; the subsequent cycles were at the C/S rate which is a slightly higher current. As shown in Figure 2, which shows graphically the variation of the specific energy with cycle number, there is very little change over 50 cycles. Such a cell has been cycled as many as 500 times, and still provides a specific energy of over 3 mWh/cm It will be appreciated that, whether using grafted or ungrafted PVdF grade 1015, a wide variety of different compositions lead to production of satisfactory electrolyte or composite electrode layers. Four alternative compositions are as follows: A. Composite Electrode 3.0 PVdF was dispersed in a small volume of methanol to which 14.5g N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) and 20 cm dimethyl acetamide (DMA) were added to dissolve the PVdF.

1.2g Lilo,, 9.2g ethylene carbonate, 12.0g graphite, 25 cm acetone and a further 5.0g NMP were added to the PVdF solution, and the mixture stirred and heated. The resulting slurry was cast onto a copper foil current collector and dried to evaporate the methanol, acetone and DMA. This produced satisfactory composite electrodes using PVdF-g-acrylic acid and using PVdF ungrafted (type 1015 in each case).

B. Composite Electrode A slurry was made of 24.0g of graphite powder, 6.0g PVdF, 12.0g ethylene carbonate, 6.0g propylene carbonate and 3.91g lithium imide (LiN(CF3SO2)2, in 78.0g dimethyl acetamide (DMA). The slurry was subjected to low shear and high shear mixing to ensure homogeneity, and then allowed to cool to room temperature. The slurry was then coated onto copper foil at 1 m/min using a 0.5 mm blade gap, and the casting solvent DMA evaporated by passage through succesive drying zones at temperatures of 1100, 1120 and 1300C.

This produced satisfactory composite electrodes using PVdF-g-acrylic acid and using PVdF ungrafted (type 1015 in each case). However, the electrode made using the grafted PVdF adhered more firmly to the copper current collector.

C. Composite Electrode Another alternative composition of a composite anode consists of 6g PVdF, 24g graphite, 30g ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate (EC/DEC) mixture containing a 1M concentration of fiPF6, and 9g propylene carbonate (PC), and may be cast using 20 ml acetone and 50g DMA as volatile solvents.

D. Electrolvte An alternative electrolyte composition consists of 5g PVdF, 20g of a 1M solution of LiPF6 in EC/DEC, and 4.5g PC. This can be cast using 9g DMA and 15g THF as the volatile solvents.

It will be noticed from the above examples that the ratio of the weight of the liquids (solvent for the salt plus plasticiser) in the composite electrode or electrolyte, and the weight of the PVdF, varies between about 3 and 10. This ratio is preferably not less than 1, or the electrical conductivity becomes rather too low.

The ratio is preferably no more than about 10 or 20, or a coherent film will not be formed; however where other solids are present, such as in a composite anode, a larger ratio is possible than in an electrolyte layer, as some of the liquid becomes associated with the solid.

Claims (9)

Claims
1. A cell electrolyte material comprising polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) combined with a solution of a salt in a compatible solvent, wherein the PVdF is a homopolymer of sufficiently high molecular weight that its melt flow index at 2300C and 10 kg is less than 1.0 g/10 min.
2. A cell electrolyte material as claimed in Claim 1 wherein the salt is a lithium salt.
3. A cell electrolyte material as claimed in Claim 2 wherein the lithium salt is selected from LiCl04, LiAsF6, LiPF6, LiBF4, LiN(SO2CF3)2, or LiCF3 SO3.
4. A cell electrolyte material as claimed in any one of the preceding Claims wherein the compatible solvent is selected from ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, diethoxyethane, diethyl carbonate and dimethoxyethane, and mixtures thereof.
5. A cell electrolyte material as claimed in any one of the preceding Claims also including a plasticiser.
6. A cell electrolyte material as claimed in Claim 5 wherein the plasticiser is tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether and/or N-methyl pyrrolidone and/or propylene carbonate.
7. A cell electrolyte material as claimed in any one of the preceding Claims wherein the ratio of the weight of the liquid components (the compatible solvent plus the plasticiser, if present) to the weight of the PVdF is between 1 and 20, preferably between 3 and 10.
8. A cell electrolyte material substantially as hereinbefore described.
9. An electric cell including a cell electrolyte material as claimed in any one of the preceding Claims.
GB9700926A 1996-01-31 1997-01-17 Polymer electrolyte Expired - Fee Related GB2309703B (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GBGB9601890.8A GB9601890D0 (en) 1996-01-31 1996-01-31 Polymer composition
GBGB9618695.2A GB9618695D0 (en) 1996-09-06 1996-09-06 Polymer electrode
GB9700926A GB2309703B (en) 1996-01-31 1997-01-17 Polymer electrolyte

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GB9700926A GB2309703B (en) 1996-01-31 1997-01-17 Polymer electrolyte

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GB2309703A true GB2309703A (en) 1997-08-06
GB2309703B GB2309703B (en) 1999-06-16

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2335073A (en) * 1998-03-07 1999-09-08 Lexcel Technology Ltd Non-aqueous electrochemical cell containing conjugated polyimine functionality coupled to sulphur trioxide
WO2001048063A1 (en) * 1999-12-23 2001-07-05 Accentus Plc Microporous membrane
WO2002011230A1 (en) * 2000-07-31 2002-02-07 Accentus Plc Polymer electrolyte
US7150768B2 (en) 2000-06-30 2006-12-19 Absl Power Solutions Ltd Method of assembling a cell comprising a plurality of anode and cathode plates stacked together
CN105153603A (en) * 2006-07-06 2015-12-16 阿科玛股份有限公司 Ultra-high molecular weight poly(vinylidene fluoride) and manufacturing method thereof
US9252455B1 (en) * 2010-04-14 2016-02-02 Hrl Laboratories, Llc Lithium battery structures employing composite layers, and fabrication methods to produce composite layers

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH0359058A (en) * 1989-07-28 1991-03-14 Yuasa Battery Co Ltd Solid polyelectrolyte and production thereof
WO1996027908A1 (en) * 1995-03-07 1996-09-12 Ramot University Authority For Applied Research And Industrial Development Ltd. Lithium anode with solid electrolyte interface

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
TW342537B (en) * 1995-03-03 1998-10-11 Atochem North America Elf Polymeric electrode, electrolyte, article of manufacture and composition
US5620811A (en) * 1995-05-30 1997-04-15 Motorola, Inc. Lithium polymer electrochemical cells
US6200703B1 (en) * 1995-12-26 2001-03-13 Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Binder solution and electrode-forming composition for non-aqueous-type battery

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH0359058A (en) * 1989-07-28 1991-03-14 Yuasa Battery Co Ltd Solid polyelectrolyte and production thereof
WO1996027908A1 (en) * 1995-03-07 1996-09-12 Ramot University Authority For Applied Research And Industrial Development Ltd. Lithium anode with solid electrolyte interface

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
WPI Abstract Accession No 91-120651/17 & JP 03 059 058 A *

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2335073A (en) * 1998-03-07 1999-09-08 Lexcel Technology Ltd Non-aqueous electrochemical cell containing conjugated polyimine functionality coupled to sulphur trioxide
WO2001048063A1 (en) * 1999-12-23 2001-07-05 Accentus Plc Microporous membrane
US7150768B2 (en) 2000-06-30 2006-12-19 Absl Power Solutions Ltd Method of assembling a cell comprising a plurality of anode and cathode plates stacked together
WO2002011230A1 (en) * 2000-07-31 2002-02-07 Accentus Plc Polymer electrolyte
CN105153603A (en) * 2006-07-06 2015-12-16 阿科玛股份有限公司 Ultra-high molecular weight poly(vinylidene fluoride) and manufacturing method thereof
US9252455B1 (en) * 2010-04-14 2016-02-02 Hrl Laboratories, Llc Lithium battery structures employing composite layers, and fabrication methods to produce composite layers

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB2309703B (en) 1999-06-16
GB9700926D0 (en) 1997-03-05

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Effective date: 20080117