GB2309046A - Method of operation of authentication system - Google Patents

Method of operation of authentication system Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2309046A
GB2309046A GB9700341A GB9700341A GB2309046A GB 2309046 A GB2309046 A GB 2309046A GB 9700341 A GB9700341 A GB 9700341A GB 9700341 A GB9700341 A GB 9700341A GB 2309046 A GB2309046 A GB 2309046A
Authority
GB
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
code word
key
lock
desired
anti
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB9700341A
Other versions
GB9700341D0 (en )
Inventor
Norbert Grassmann
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Siemens AG
Original Assignee
Siemens AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08CTRANSMISSION SYSTEMS FOR MEASURED VALUES, CONTROL OR SIMILAR SIGNALS
    • G08C19/00Electric signal transmission systems
    • G08C19/16Electric signal transmission systems in which transmission is by pulses
    • G08C19/28Electric signal transmission systems in which transmission is by pulses using pulse code
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual entry or exit registers
    • G07C9/00174Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys
    • G07C9/00309Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys operated with bidirectional data transmission between data carrier and locks
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual entry or exit registers
    • G07C9/00174Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys
    • G07C9/00309Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys operated with bidirectional data transmission between data carrier and locks
    • G07C2009/00388Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys operated with bidirectional data transmission between data carrier and locks code verification carried out according to the challenge/response method
    • G07C2009/00404Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys operated with bidirectional data transmission between data carrier and locks code verification carried out according to the challenge/response method starting with prompting the lock
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual entry or exit registers
    • G07C9/00174Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys
    • G07C9/00309Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys operated with bidirectional data transmission between data carrier and locks
    • G07C2009/00412Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys operated with bidirectional data transmission between data carrier and locks the transmitted data signal being encrypted
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual entry or exit registers
    • G07C9/00174Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys
    • G07C2009/00579Power supply for the keyless data carrier
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual entry or exit registers
    • G07C9/00174Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys
    • G07C2009/00753Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys operated by active electrical keys
    • G07C2009/00769Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys operated by active electrical keys with data transmission performed by wireless means
    • G07C2009/00777Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys operated by active electrical keys with data transmission performed by wireless means by induction

Description

2309046 METHOD FOR OPERATION OF AN AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM, AND ANTI-THEFT

SYSTEM The invention relates to a method for operation of an authentication system, and to an anti-theft system using such a method, in particular for a motor vehicle.

An anti-theft system known from EP 0 257 376 has a key and a lock. Upon actuation, the key emits a code signal which is compared in the lock with a desired code signal. If the code signal does not correspond to the desired code signal, a search is made within a first pull-in range to see whether a similar desired code signal is present there. If there is no agreement in the first pull-in range either, two successive code signals have to agree with two successive desired code signals.

In this anti-theft system, there has to be complete correspondence between the code signal which is transmitted and the desired code signal which is calculated in the lock. If transmission interferences occur which partially distort the code signal, either the doors cannot be unlocked, or a new attempt has to be made.

The invention seeks to provide an authentication system having improved tolerance to transmission interferance, and an anti-theft system which permits reliable locking or unlocking or reliable releasing of the immobiliser even in the event of transmission interferences.

According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of operation of an authentication system, having a lock and a key, comprising the following steps:

generating a first code word in the lock and transmitting the first code word to the key, calculating a second code word, in the key, from the first code word and a mathematical algorithm stored is in the key, transmitting the second code word to the lock, calculating a desired code word, from the first code word and a mathematical algorithm stored in the lock which is the same as the algorithm in the key; and comparing the second code word with the desired code word, wherein an authentication signal is generated when the received second code word and the desired code word are substantially, but not completely, in agreement.

Thus in accordance with method of the invention a received codeword and a codeword expected by an authenticating device, or lock, are compared and the authentication signal is generated even if the compared codewords are not identical provided that the received codeword is sufficiently similar to the expected codeword.

According to a second aspect of the invention, there is provided an antitheft system operating in accordance with the method of the invention.

Advantageous developments of the invention are characterised in the subclaims.

For a better understanding of the present invention, and to show how it may be brought into effect, reference will now be made, by way of example, to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 shows a diagrammatic block-circuit diagram of an anti-theft system in accordance with the invention; Figure 2 shows code words of the anti-theft system; and Figure 3 shows a flow chart of a method of operation of the anti-theft system.

The method of operation of an authentication system in accordance with the invention will now be illustrated with reference to an anti-theft system for is a motor vehicle.

As shown in Figure 1, an anti-theft system in accordance with the invention has a lock 1 and a key 2. Arranged in the lock 1 is a computer unit 11, which first of all generates a random number (see also Figure 3). The random number is transmitted to the key 2, with the aid of a transmitting and receiving unit, which has an oscillating circuit having a coil 12 and a capacitor 13, when the key 2 is arranged in direct proximity to the lock 1.

In the key 2 is likewise a transmitting and receiving unit having an oscillating circuit, which has a coil 21 and a capacitor 22, by way of which the random number is received. The random number is supplied to a computer unit 23 on the key side, which computer unit repeatedly applies a mathematical algorithm to the random number and to a secret number which is stored in the key 2 and cannot be read out.

There is therefore generated a code word, which is transmitted back to the lock 1 by way of the coils 12, 21 which are inductively coupled with each other.

In the computer unit 11 of the lock 1, the same mathematical algorithm as in the lock 2 is applied to the random number and the secret number which is likewise stored in the lock 1. Consequently, there is generated in the lock 1 a desired code word, which is supplied to a comparator 14. The code word which is received from the key 2 is likewise supplied to the comparator 14. The code word and the desired code word are compared with each other in the comparator 14 and if at least a large portion of the code word and a large portion of the desired code word agree with each other, a release signal is generated which locks or unlocks the doors of the vehicle or releases the immobiliser.

The code words and the random number as well as is the secret number are binary encoded signals having in each case a predetermined number of bits. Thus, for example, the random number can be 6 bytes, i.e. 48 bits, long. A secret number having, for example, a length of 16 bytes can be stored in the key 2. As the most simple example of a mathematical algorithm, for example, an EXOR logic operation can be applied repeatedly to the random number and the secret number, so that, for example, a code word which is 6 bytes long is generated. The same occurs in the lock 1, where a desired code word which is 6 bytes long is generated from the random number and also the secret number and the mathematical algorithm.

The received code word and the generated desired code word are compared bit for bit with each other in the comparator 14. As a result of transmission interferences, which are caused by EW interferences in the surroundings of the anti-theft system or by external jamming transmitters, it is possible that the transmission of the code word is disrupted. As a result of this, some bits of the code word can be altered unintentionally. The effects of such interference are shown by way of example in Figure 2. The code word is there shown at the top and, as a result of interference, differs in two bits from the desired code word which is shown.

In the case of the anti-theft system in accordance with the invention, it is now permitted that the received code word and the generated desired code word differ in a predetermined maximum number of incorrect bits, for example 10 bits. Only when the two code words differ by more than the maximum number of incorrect bits is the release signal no longer generated.

The anti-theft system can also be constructed in such a way that a single incorrect bit per byte (i.e.

is per 8 bits) or per 4 bits is permitted. In this case, a code word according to Figure 2 would not lead to a release signal, because there are two incorrect bits in the second byte. The fewer incorrect bits permitted in all, the higher the security of the anti-theft system: at the same time, however, the susceptibility to outside interferences increases.

With this anti-theft system, a situation is achieved in which the immobiliser can be released when starting the motor vehicle even in the event of comparatively small EMV interferences. It is then no longer necessary to make a second start attempt. Likewise, the doors can be reliably unlocked or locked.

The function of an immobiliser can in this connection be realised in an engine control apparatus. Only when the authori.sed release signal reaches the engine control apparatus is it possible to start the engine and drive the motor vehicle. The engine control apparatus can also generate the random number and send it to the lock 1.

The code word can also have a portion which is specific to the vehicle, which portion is either attached to the code word before it is emitted or to which the mathematical algorithm is also applied. The desired code word then also has to have such a portion which is specific to the vehicle.

The computer unit in the key 2 and in the lock 1 can be constructed as a crypto transponder. In such a transponder, a fixed mathematical algorithm runs, which is applied repeatedly to the random number and the secret number. The algorithm cannot be read out from the outside.

The energy for the key 2 can be sent to the key 2 with the random number and stored intermediately in an energy store 24. The key 2 can, however, also have its own battery or a rechargeable accumulator.

is In the anti-theft system, a device which receives a random word, processes the latter and sends it back to the lock 1 as a code word is termed key 2. This device can be arranged on a conventional mechanical key 2, on a cheque-card-sized card or on a functionally equivalent mechanical device.

A device which sends out the random word and receives the code word is termed lock 1. The code word which is received is compared with a desired code word generated in the lock 1. In the case of an authorised code word, the lock 1 generates an authentication or release signal, which is sent out to a safety unit, such as the immobiliser, or to the door locks.

The method in accordance with the invention, described in particular for use in the operation of an anti-theft system, can be used wherever crypto methods for identification or authentication are used hitherto. Thus, for example, it can also be used to generate an authentication signal for crypto-chip cards, telephone cards, and cheque cards for cash-point machines. Furthermore it may be readily appreciated that the method of this invention could be used to authenticate any received codeword with an expected codeword, regardless of whether or not the key generates a codeword from a signal transmitted from the lock.

Advantageously, the anti-theft system is used in motor vehicles, in which case the key 2 is an ignition key which receives the random number if the ignition key is inserted into the ignition lock and is turned in the ignition lock in order to start the engine.

is

Claims (9)

1. A method of operation of an authentication system, having a lock and a key, comprising the following steps:
generating a first code word in the lock and transmitting the first code word to the key, calculating a second code word, in the key, from the first code word and a mathematical algorithm stored in the key, transmitting the second code word to the lock, calculating a desired code word, from the first code word and a mathematical algorithm stored in the lock which is the same as the algorithm in the key; and comparing the second code word with the desired code word, wherein an authentication signal is generated when the received second code word and the desired code word are substantially, but not completely, in agreement.
2. A method of operation of an authentication system as claimed in claim 1, wherein if at least one portion of the code word agrees with at least one portion of the desired code word, an authentication signal is generated.
3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the mathematical algorithm is a crypto algorithm.
4. A method according to one of claims 1-3, wherein the desired code word and the received second code word are compared with each other bit for bit, and if at least a minimum number of bits agree the authentication signal is generated.
5. A method according to one of claims 1-3, wherein the desired code word and the received second code word are compared with each other in groups of several bits in each case and if in each case at least all of the bits in a group except for a predetermined number agree with those of the desired code word, the authentication signal is generated.
6. A method of operation of an authentication system substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
7. An anti-theft system, in particular for a motor vehicle, having a key and a lock, which antitheft system is operated with a method according to any preceding claim.
8. An anti-theft system according to claim 7, in which a transmitter on the lock side and a transmitter on the key side are constructed as coils, and the code words are transmitted between the coils by means of inductive coupling.
9. An anti-theft system substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
GB9700341A 1996-01-09 1997-01-09 Method for operation of an authentication system, and anti-theft system Withdrawn GB9700341D0 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE1996100556 DE19600556A1 (en) 1996-01-09 1996-01-09 A method of operating an anti-theft system and antitheft system

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB9700341D0 GB9700341D0 (en) 1997-02-26
GB2309046A true true GB2309046A (en) 1997-07-16

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB9700341A Withdrawn GB9700341D0 (en) 1996-01-09 1997-01-09 Method for operation of an authentication system, and anti-theft system

Country Status (3)

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DE (1) DE19600556A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2743386A1 (en)
GB (1) GB9700341D0 (en)

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1999067486A1 (en) * 1998-06-22 1999-12-29 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft Safety device
EP1052353A1 (en) * 1999-05-11 2000-11-15 Valeo Electronique Secure system for controlling the release of at least one motor vehicle opening
US7099474B1 (en) 1999-05-06 2006-08-29 Assa Abby Ab Key and lock device
US20110128121A1 (en) * 2009-12-02 2011-06-02 Yosi Shachar Remote access procedure for electronic locks
US20130257590A1 (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-10-03 Onity, Inc. Methods and systems for an authenticating lock with bar code
CN104943656A (en) * 2015-06-03 2015-09-30 沈阳理工大学 Anti-interference anti-theft system based on mutual correlation and anti-theft method thereof
US9821769B2 (en) 2016-01-25 2017-11-21 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Random seed entry number to eliminate key sequence capture

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19736354A1 (en) * 1997-08-21 1999-02-25 Mannesmann Vdo Ag Security system for vehicle
DE19813068A1 (en) * 1998-03-25 1999-10-07 Bosch Gmbh Robert Start / drive authorization system for a vehicle
ES2259025T3 (en) 2000-03-10 2006-09-16 Assa Abloy Ab Device key and lock.
WO2001066887A1 (en) 2000-03-10 2001-09-13 Assa Abloy Ab Key and lock device

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0212046A2 (en) * 1985-08-21 1987-03-04 VDO Adolf Schindling AG System for locking and/or unlocking a security device
EP0265728A2 (en) * 1986-10-29 1988-05-04 Wilhelm Ruf KG Electronic remote control device for the central locking systems of motor vehicles
US4819267A (en) * 1984-02-22 1989-04-04 Thumbscan, Inc. Solid state key for controlling access to computer systems and to computer software and/or for secure communications
US5377270A (en) * 1993-06-30 1994-12-27 United Technologies Automotive, Inc. Cryptographic authentication of transmitted messages using pseudorandom numbers

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FR2603933B1 (en) * 1986-09-17 1994-10-14 Espinadel Gerard Control device by approximation in particular for electric locks
DE4218500A1 (en) * 1991-06-07 1992-12-10 Trw Sipea Spa Remote control
FR2717327B1 (en) * 1994-03-14 1996-04-19 Valeo Electronique A method of communication between an interrogation unit and a transponder used in particular for the unlocking of the doors and / or immobilizers of a vehicle, and the identification device using Óoeuvre.
FR2733192A1 (en) * 1995-04-18 1996-10-25 Valeo Electronique safety system key and lock, especially for a motor vehicle

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4819267A (en) * 1984-02-22 1989-04-04 Thumbscan, Inc. Solid state key for controlling access to computer systems and to computer software and/or for secure communications
EP0212046A2 (en) * 1985-08-21 1987-03-04 VDO Adolf Schindling AG System for locking and/or unlocking a security device
EP0265728A2 (en) * 1986-10-29 1988-05-04 Wilhelm Ruf KG Electronic remote control device for the central locking systems of motor vehicles
US5377270A (en) * 1993-06-30 1994-12-27 United Technologies Automotive, Inc. Cryptographic authentication of transmitted messages using pseudorandom numbers

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1999067486A1 (en) * 1998-06-22 1999-12-29 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft Safety device
US6731196B1 (en) 1998-06-22 2004-05-04 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft Safety device
US7099474B1 (en) 1999-05-06 2006-08-29 Assa Abby Ab Key and lock device
EP1052353A1 (en) * 1999-05-11 2000-11-15 Valeo Electronique Secure system for controlling the release of at least one motor vehicle opening
FR2793562A1 (en) * 1999-05-11 2000-11-17 Valeo Electronique Secure system for controlling the unlocking of at least one door of a motor vehicle
US6424254B1 (en) 1999-05-11 2002-07-23 Valeo Electronique Secure system for controlling the unlocking of at least one openable panel of a motor vehicle
US20110128121A1 (en) * 2009-12-02 2011-06-02 Yosi Shachar Remote access procedure for electronic locks
US20130257590A1 (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-10-03 Onity, Inc. Methods and systems for an authenticating lock with bar code
CN104943656A (en) * 2015-06-03 2015-09-30 沈阳理工大学 Anti-interference anti-theft system based on mutual correlation and anti-theft method thereof
US9821769B2 (en) 2016-01-25 2017-11-21 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Random seed entry number to eliminate key sequence capture

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
FR2743386A1 (en) 1997-07-11 application
DE19600556A1 (en) 1997-07-24 application
GB9700341D0 (en) 1997-02-26 grant

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