GB2186404A - Security system with signal accuracy checking - Google Patents

Security system with signal accuracy checking Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2186404A
GB2186404A GB8701956A GB8701956A GB2186404A GB 2186404 A GB2186404 A GB 2186404A GB 8701956 A GB8701956 A GB 8701956A GB 8701956 A GB8701956 A GB 8701956A GB 2186404 A GB2186404 A GB 2186404A
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Prior art keywords
signal
means
condition
data signal
comprises
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GB8701956D0 (en )
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Kevin T Ruddell
Stacy E Gehman
Brian D Dawson
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Notifier Co
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Notifier Co
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08BSIGNALLING OR CALLING SYSTEMS; ORDER TELEGRAPHS; ALARM SYSTEMS
    • G08B25/00Alarm systems in which the location of the alarm condition is signalled to a central station, e.g. fire or police telegraphic systems
    • G08B25/01Alarm systems in which the location of the alarm condition is signalled to a central station, e.g. fire or police telegraphic systems characterised by the transmission medium
    • G08B25/10Alarm systems in which the location of the alarm condition is signalled to a central station, e.g. fire or police telegraphic systems characterised by the transmission medium using wireless transmission systems
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08BSIGNALLING OR CALLING SYSTEMS; ORDER TELEGRAPHS; ALARM SYSTEMS
    • G08B29/00Checking or monitoring of signalling or alarm systems; Prevention or correction of operating errors, e.g. preventing unauthorised operation
    • G08B29/12Checking intermittently signalling or alarm systems
    • G08B29/14Checking intermittently signalling or alarm systems checking the detection circuits

Abstract

A security system having one or more sending units 10, 11, 12 for transmitting a digitised r-f signal representative of a condition such as fire, smoke, intrusion, battery condition, an emergency, or other condition to a central r-f receiving unit 18. The sending units 10, 11, 12 each include a microcomputer which shifts the data while adding the 6th bit without carry to bits one and three. After shifting is completed, the lower five bits remaining comprise a Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC). The sending unit microcomputer generates a pseudo-random number, waits for a number of cycle periods equal to the pseudo-random number, then activates a transmitter 14, 15, 16 to send the data signal and the CRC to the receiving unit 18. The receiver 18 includes a microprocessor which recalculates the CRC and compares it with the received CRC, and those signals for which the codes are the same are gated to an output device to provide an indication of the conditions. <IMAGE>

Description

SPECIFICATION Security system with signal accuracy checking The invention in general relates to security systems and in particular a wireless security system having one or more detector/sending units for reporting the existence of a condition of a central receiving unit.

Securitysystemswhich include one or more sending units which transmit coded radio frequency (r-f) signals to a central receiving unitwhich decodes the signals to produce an alarm or other indication of a condition at the sending unit location arewell known. The condition may be the existence of a fire, an intrusion, an emergency, the presence of water or other fluid, or other condition desired to be monitored, orthe condition may be the status ofthe sending unit, such as the condition of its battery or other sensor status. Generally, the information sentwill also include the identity or location of the sending unit. A major problem with r-f or wireless security systems is the lack of reliability of the communicated data.The information or the condition, status, location etc. is generally transmitted serially as a string of digital data bits modulated on the r-f carrierwave which is received and demodulated by the central receiving unit to provide a digital data string to a processing circuit which analyses the data. Because of the nature of r-f communication, noise can disturb this process by causing unwanted transitions in otherwise valid transmitted data or by generating apparent data that is actually only noise. Since the processing circuitry analyses the received data for information about the status of the various sensors, noise in the data can cause a system to either reject a valid transmission orto falsely report an alarm status for one of the sensors.Previous attempts to solve this problem have involved transmitting the data several times and requiring the processing circuitry to receive multiple, identical data strings before reporting an alarm condition. This results in inefficient use of transmission time, leading to problems with battery life, clash (or collision) of transmissions from different sending units and meeting FCC regulations on net broadcast energy. This invention discloses a new approach for security systems to establish the accuracy and reliability of the received data.

It is one object ofthe invention to provide an improved security system, comprising transmitter means, that permits the communicated data signal to be reliably checked for accuracy.

The invention provides a security system comprising sensor means for sensing a condition at a location in a security area and producing a data signal representative ofthe condition at the location, means for producing an error check signal that is shorterthan the data signal, transmitter means for transmitting an r4signal modulated byte data signal and the error check signal, receiver means for receiving the modulated r-f signal, means utilising the received errorchecksignal for checking there- ceived data signal foraccuracyandforselecting received signalsthatare accurate, and means respon sive to the accurate data signal for producing an output indicative of the condition. Preferably the error checksignal is a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) code.Preferably the CRC code comprises the remainder when a polynomial representation ofthe data signal is divided by the polynomial A5 + A2 + 1.

Preferably, the means for producing an error check signal comprises a microcomputer having a software-implemented shift register and the division is performed by shifting the data signal through the shift register while feeding back at least one bit into another bit.

The invention also provides a method of providing an indication of a condition art a protected location comprising the steps of: sensing the condition and providing a data signal representative of the condition, analysing the data signal to determine an error check signal that is shorter than the data signal, transmitting the data signal and error signal, receiving the transmitted signal, checking the received signal for accuracy, and utilising the accurate ones of the received signals to provide an indication ofthe condition at the protected location.Preferably the step of sensing and providing comprises providing a digital signal and the step of analysing comprises dividing the signal by a digital representation of an algebraic polynomial, and the step of transmitting includes transmitting the remainder left after the division (the CRC) along with the data signal. Preferably the step of checking comprises dividing the data portion of the received signal by the algebraic polynomial and comparing the remainder (the CRC) to the error check portion of the signal; i.e. the CRC cal- culated at the transmitter. In the preferred embodiment, there are eighteen bits of data and five bits of CRC code.

Use of an error check signal that is significantly shorter than the data signal, in systems and methods according to the invention, provides more reliable error checking than the repetition of the data signal and signal accuracy can be assured without the doubling ortripling of total transmission time that repetitive data transmissions require.

The invention further provides a detection system comprising a plurality of sending units, each ofthe units including a sensing means for sensing a condition, a means responsive to the sensing meansfor sending a data signal representative ofthe condition at randomised time intervals, and receiving means for receiving the data signals and producing an output indicative of the condition. Preferably the means for sending includes a means for generating a pseudo-random number, and a means for delaying the sending of the data signal for a time period related to the pseudo-random number. The sending of signals at a randomised time intervals markedly decreases the probability of synchronised clashing.

The invention also provides a method of providing an indication of a condition at a remote location comprising the steps of sensing the condition, waiting for a randomised time interval, sending a data signal representative of the condition, and receiving the data signal and utilising itto provide and indication ofthe condition. Preferably, the step of waiting comprises generating a pseudo-random number and waiting for a time interval related to the pseudo-random number. In the preferred embodiment, the step of waiting for a time interval related to the pseud random number comprises cycling through atiming loop for a number of times equal to the pseudorandom number. The method may also include the step of waiting for an additional predetermined time interval.

According to algebraic coding theory, up to two errors in the received data will always result in a disagreement between the two calculated CRC's. in comparison, two transmissions of the same data signal can match if there are two errors; i.e. if the same bit in each transmission is erroneous. Thus, the apparatus and method of the invention provide better accuracy than the repetition of transmissions even though itwould take eighteen bits to repeat a transmission as compared to the five bits the CRC requires in the preferred embodiment. Numerous otherfeatures, objects and advantages of the invention will becomeapparentfromthefollowingdet- ailed description when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, of a detection system embodying the invention.It will be realised thatthis system has been selected for description to illustrate the invention byway of example.

In the accompanying drawings: Figure lisa schematic illustration of an exemplary detection system embodying the invention; Figure2 is an electrical circuit diagram of a portion ofthe sending unit ofthe illustrative system showing the electrical connections to the microcomputer, Figure 3 is an electrical circuit diagram of the receiving unit ofthe system showing the connections to the microprocessor; Figure4isaflowchartshowingthestepsofthe microcomputer of the system; Figure 5is a flow chart showing the steps ofthe microprocessr program of the system; and Figure 6shows an exampleofthecalculation of a CRC using a shift register.

Directing attention to Figure 1, a security system embodying the invention is shown. This embodiment includes three remote sending units 10,11 and 12 and a central receiving unit 18. The sending units include an intrusion detector 10 on a door, a panic button u nit 1, and fire detector unit 12, each of which produces a signal when the particu la r condi- tion they are designed to detect occurs. Each remote detector unit 10,11 and 12 has a radio frequency (r-f) transmitter 14, 15 and 16 respectively, associated with it which transmits a modulated r-f signal which includes a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) code, which signal is received by the central unit 18.The central unit 18 demodulates the signals, calculates a second CRC and compres itto the transmitted CRCto determine ifthetransmitted signal is accurate, then decodes the accurate signals and provides outputs, such as flashing lights 20, a buzzer 21,or a signal 22 over a telephone line 23 to a supervising station (not shown), which indicate the conditions detected.

Turning now to a more detailed description ofthe detection system shown in Figure 1,the system includes an intrusion detector unit 10, a panic button 11 and afire detector unit 12. It is understoodthatthe three remote units shown are exemplary. An embodiment may have two such remote units or it may have hundreds. Other types of detectors than intrusion, panic and fire may also be included. For example, detectors which signal the presence of water where it should not be, orotherunsafe orundesirable conditions may be included. Remote unit 10 includes a magnetic contact device 31 on a doorwhich isconnectedviawire32to a signal processing circuit 33.The processing circuit 33 is connected to r4trans- mitter 14whichtransmits a signal to central unit 18 via antenna 34. Similarly, panic unit 11 comprises a panic button 35 which is connected to signal processing circuit 36, which is connected to transmitter 15, having antenna 37, and fire unit 12 comprisesfire detector 38 which is connected to signal processor 39, which is connected to transmitter 16, having antenna 40. Central unit 18 includes antenna 42 which is connected to a receiver 88 (Figure 3) and signal processing circuitry within the chassis 43 of central unit 18. The signal processing circuitry is connected to annunciator lights 20, buzzer 21, and a telephone line 23. Other inputs and outputs shall be discussed in reference to Figure 3. It should be understood that the inputs and outputs are exemplary.In some embodiments, a variety of others may be used. It is also understood that a wide variety of other signals, such as battery status signals, supervision signals etc.

may be transmitted between remote units 10, 11 and 12 and central unit 18.

Asemi-block diagram of the circuitry of a processing circuit, such as 36 of an exemplary sending unit, such as 11, is shown in Figure 2, and a semi blockdiagram ofthe circuitry of the central receiving unit 18 is shown in Figure 3. In these drawings, the numbers on the lines into the microcomputer 50 and the microprocessor 80, such as the "1" at the upperleft ofthe microcomputer 50, referto the pin numbers ofthese two components.The labels within the microcomputer and microprocessor next to the pins, such as "OSC1" nextto pin 1, referto the internal signals ofthese computing units.The pin numbers and other details of the other components, such as EE Prom 51, transmitter 15, receiver 88, and memory 90 are not shown as details of such components are well known in the art.

The particular embodiment of the processing unit and transmitter shown in Figure 2 is a multipurpose one to which a number of different sensing devices, such as the panic button 35, fire detector 38, intrusion detector 31 or other devices may be connected.

The interface (not shown) between the sensing devices such as 35, and the processing circuitry 36 is arranged so thatthe triggering of the device places a low signal on line 56 and on one ofthe input lines 57, 58 and 59. The details of the sensing devices 31,35 and 38 as well as the interface will not be described in detail as these are well known in the art.

The processing circuit, such as 36, includes microcomputer 50, EE Prom 51, timer 53, inverter 54, ceramic resonator 62, resistors 63 through 66, capacitor 68 and diodes 70,71, and 72. The processing circuit 36 also includes a power supply (not shown) which provides the voltage source required to use the circuitry, such as Vdd (75) and the ground, such as 76.

Finally, the processing circuit 36 also includes a bat tery status circuit (not shown) which provides a low signal on line 60 when the battery charge drops below a certain level. The power supply and battery status circuits are known in the art.

The number 1 pin of microcomputer 50 isconnec- ted to ground through ceramic resonator 62 and to the Vdd voltage through resistor 63. The number 2 pin isconnectedtotheVdd voltage. The number3 pin is connected to the number 26 pin. The number 28 pin is connected to the output of inverter 54 through resistor 64. The input inverter 54 is connected to input line 56. The number 28 pin is also connected to the number 27 pin through resistor 65 and diode 70 in parallel, with the cathode of the diode toward the number 28 pin. The number 27 pin is also connected to ground through capacitor 68. The number 6 through 9 pins are connected to inputs 57 through 60. The number 24 pin is connected to the output of timer 53.The output of timer 53 is also con nectedtotheinputofinverter54through diode71, with the cathode of the diode toward the timer. The number 25 pin is connected to the data output of EE Prom 51. The number4and 5 pins are connected to the system ground. The number 16 pin ofthe microcomputer 50 is connected to the (MR) input oftimer 53 andto groundthrough resistor66. The number 14 pin is connected to the input of inverter 54through diode 72 with the cathode of the diode toward the microcomputer. The number 13 pin is connected to the power on input of the transmitter 15 and the number 17 pin is connected to the data inputofthe transmitter. The number 15 pin is connected to the power on in put to the EE Prom 51.Pins 10,11 and 12 are connected to the data input, chip select, and clock inputs, respectively, of EE Prom 51.

Figure 3 shows various components associated with central unit 18 and their connections to microprocessor80. These components includetape deck 81, interface 83, programming unit 85, interface 87, receiver 88, power supply 89, memory 90, parallel outputs 91, parallel inputs 92, serial outputs 93, re mote function 94, oscillator 99, transistor 100, re sistors 101 through 105 and capacitors 109 and 110.

The number 2 and 3 pinsofmicroprocessor80are connected to the programming inputs ofthe central unit 18. Programming unit 85 may be connected to thethesepinsthrough an interface 87 oralternatively tape deck 81 may be connected through its interface 83. These components, 85 and 87 or 81 and 83, generally are connected only during the pro gramming ofthe unit 18. The number40 pin of mic roprocessor80 is connected to the Vcc system voltage source and to the data output of receiver 88 through resistor 101. The data output of receiver 88 is also connected to pin 4 ofthe microprocessor. Pin 12 is connected to the carrier detect output of receiver 88 and to the Vce voltage through resistor 102.The number9pin isconnectedtothedrainoftransistor 100 and to the Vce voltage through resistor 103. The source oftransistor 100 is connected to ground and the gate is connected to the reset output ofthe power supply 89. The power supply 89 provides the Vccvol- tage 114and a ground 115forthesystem.The number 13 pin is connected to the Vccvoltage through resistor 104. The number 18 pin of micro processor 80 is connected to the number 19 pin through oscillator 99 and to ground through capacitor 109. The number 19 pin is also connected to ground through capacitor 110. The number 20 pin is grounded and the number 31 pin is connected to ground through resistor 105.The number 6,10,11, 14 and 15 pins are connected to various remotefunctions, such as a modem, dialeretc.Thesefunctions includethetelephone line 23 (Figure 1). Pins 1,7 and 8 are connected to the serial outputs which may may include relays and other devices. The number 5 pin is connected to the reset input ofthe smoke detector auxiliary powercircuit. The number32-39 pins pro videthe parallel input/output function and are con nectedto both the parallel outputs, such as relays, LED's 20 and buzzer 21 and to the parallel inputs, which may include hardwired inputs to various sensors (providing a hardwire option for the system) and to various status inputs such as the battery and the memory unit.The number 16,17 and 21-30 pins are connected to the central memory unit 90.

In the illustrative system, the parts ofthe circuits of Figures 2 and 3 are as follows: microcomputer 50 isa PIC 16C58,EE Prom 51 includeseitheran ER59256 or NMC9306N chip plus the FETand related circuitry to powerthe chip. Transmitter 15may be one of many such transmitters known in the art plus associated buffers, transistors, etc. to turn on and off the trans- mitter and to shape the data prior to transmitting it.

Timer53 includesa 4541 programmabletimerand its associated components, inverter 54 is one of a Schmitttrigger hex inverter package type 40106, resonator 62 is a 2M hertz ceramic resonator, resistors 63,64,65 and 66 are 2.2M ohm, 4.7K ohm, 82K ohm and 100K ohm respectively, capacitor 68 is 0.1 M farad, and diodes70,71 and 72 are type 1 N4148.Microprocessor80 is preferably an Intel 8031 micro controller,tape deck81 and interface83 may bea cassette deck or any other type of tape deck with an appropriate interface to match itwiththe microprocessor, programming unit 85 and interface 87 may be any mini, personal, or othertype computer, with appropriate interfacing, receiver 88 may be one of many such receivers in the art, while the power supply, memory, parallel outputs and inputs, serial outputs and remote functions are all devices which are well known in the art. Preferably resistors 101, 102 and 104are 10Kohm,while 103 and 105 are4.7K and 1K ohm respectively, capacitors 109 and 110 are 30 picofarads, oscillator 99 is an 8 megahertz crystal oscillator, and transistor 100 is a type VN1OKM.

Figure 4 shows a flow chart of the microcomputer 50 program ofthe system. Figure 5 shows a flow chart of the microprocessor 80 program of the system. Following the flow charts and referring to Figures 2,3 and 6, the system functions asfollows.

To conserve battery power, microcomputer 50 is normally held in stand-by by a low signal on pin 28.

The timer 53, however, operates continuously as long as a battery with sufficient charge is connected to the system. The timer 53 is programmed to change its output (the line connected to the cathode of diode 71) from high to low at appropriatetimesto make a supervisory report. This low signal is applied to the put of inverter 54 which causes its output to go high, placing a high signal on pin 28 ofthe micro computer 50 to turn it on. Or, a low signal from any one ofthe sensing devices (such as 31,35, or 38) con- nected to input 56 will also place a high signal on microcomputer input pin 28toturn iton. Ashorttime after pin 28 goes high, pin 27 also goes high (with a delay determined by a resistor 65 and capacitor 68) and clears the microcomputer.Once turned on,the microcomputer drives its number 14 pin low to keep itself on. It then initialises the software, turns on the EE Prom 51 by placing a high signal on pin 15, enables the EE Prom by placing a high signal on pin 11 (chip select), reads the sending unit identification data from the EE Prom on pin 25 while clocking the EE Prom with a signal output on pin 12 and sending the address from which the data is to be read via pin 10.

The identification data consists of a preamble, system identification number, and transmitter identification number. The microcomputer 50 adds the current status (as defined by the inputs 6through 8) to the identification data to provide a data signal to be transmitted. The microcomputer 50 then computers a 4-bit pseud-random number (0 through 15) as follows: a 1 S-bit shift register is initialised with a non-zero value. The contents of the register are shifted left, with the right-most bit (bit 1) replaced by the exclusive-OR of bits 14 and 15 (the two left-most bits). This new number in the register is the pseudorandom number which is used to determine the number of 20 millisecond delay loops to be executed by the microcomputer.This randomised delay may be from Oto 300 milliseconds (15 x 20 milliseconds) and will average 150 milliseconds. Each successive shift ofthe 15-bit registerwill generate a new 15-bit number in a pseudo-random sequence. The sequence repeats after 32,767 numbers have been generated. Only4-bitsfromthe 1 S-bit number are used to determine the randomised delay.

The microcomputer 50 waits through the number of loop time periods determined by the pseudorandom number, then applies a high signal on pin 13. This high signal turns on the transmitter 15 and battery level indicator circuit (not shown). The preamble, system identification number, transmitter identification number and status are then output on pin 17. The battery status is then read on line 9 (a low signal indicates a low battery) and transmitted while a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) is calculated asfol lows: If data isA8 Al, T6 . . T1, S4,. .., S1, where Al through A8 representthe8-bitsystem identifier code, T1 through T6 represent the 6-bit transmitter code, and S1 through S4 represent the 4-bit sensor status code, then using algebraic coding theory, the data plus the CRC can be interpreted as an algebraic polynomial, namelyA8 a22 + A7 a21... + Sla5 + C5a4 + C4a3 + C3a2+ C2a +C1,whereCS through C1 is a 5-bit CRC. Algebraic coding theory states thatthe CRC should be chosen so thatthe above polynomial which we shall refer to as the "first polynomial" is exactly divisible by a second polynomial. In the preferred embdiment, the second polynomial is chosen as a5 + a2 + 1.The CEC may be determined by dividing the first polynomial with the CRC setto zero (C1 through C5 setto zero) bythe second polynomial, and the remainder will then be the CRC. The division process is preferably performed in microcomputer 50 by a softwareimplemented shift register with feedback. In the preferred embodiment, a 6-bit shift register is implemented with feedback from the 6th-bit added without carry to bits one and three. The division, i.e.

the progress of the data through the shift register is shown in Fig ure 6 for the sample data signal 000000010000011011. Note that until step 13, no l's are shifted into a5, so until the data is shifted across the register with no change. In step 13 the 1 in a5 is added without carry to a2 and aO. The shifting is con tinuedthrough step 18, atwhich pointthe CRC isthe lower order 5-bits of the shift register. The calculated CRC and an end oftransmission signal (EOT) are then transmitted and the transmitter is turned off.

After a supervisory transmission (activated bytimer 53), the microcomputer then resets thetimer by a high signal on pin 16and returns itselfto stand-by.

Non-supervisory transmissions, however, are repeated with a predetermined fixed delay plus a pseudorandom delay before the microcomputer resets the timer and returns to stand-by. If the condition to be reported is on pins 6 or 7, the transmission is repeated ninetimeswith a 100 millisecond predetermined fixed delay plus the random delay. If the condition to be reported is on input8 (the panic button input),the transmitter is usually a portable unit. Because the transmitter's location is not fixed, signal strength may be marginal, so the transmission is repeated thirty times with an 850 millisecondfixed delay plus the random delay. In the preferred embodiment,the transmitted data word lasts 18 milliseconds.Supervisory transmission reporting is set to about 60 sec ondsbyprogrammingtimers3.

The transmitted signal is received by receiver 88 via antenna 42. Upon receptionofasignal,there- ceiver puts a low signal on its carrier detect output which is applied to pin 12 of microprocessor 80 to turn the microprocessor on. Note that the preamble ofthe transmitted signal initiates the turn on process so that by the time the data arrives the microprocessor 80 is ready to receive it. The microprocessor 80 calculates a CRC, using the received data signal in the same manner as described above.

The resulting remainder, or second CRC is subtracted from the received CRC and if they are the same the result will be zero and the received signal is gated to the outputs. If the result is non-zero the received signal is not passed to the output.

The preferred embodiments ofthe computer programs which calculate the pseudo-random number and the CRC in the transmitter and which calculate and checkthe CRC in the receiver are given atthe end of the description of the system, just before the claims. Note that in the transmitter program the cal culations are performed concurrently in the midst of other operations.

According to algebraic coding theory, uptotwo errors in the received data will always be signalled by a mismatch between the CRC received and the one calculated in the control unit 18. Thus, all single and double errors will be deleted. Further, most triple and quadruple errors will also be detected.

Thus, the 5-digit CRC is more effective in catching errors than the repeat transmission of the entire data signal, which in this case would require 18-bits of transmission.

A novel security system apparatus and method which provides for rnliable accuracy checking ofthe transmitted data signal has been described. It is evident that those skilled in the art may now make many different embodiments and applications ofthe system without departing from the inventive concepts. For example, different polynomials may be used to calculate the error check code, or different software programming may be employed. Orthe calculation may be performed using hardware or hard-wired circuits ratherthan software. Equivalent electronic parts and components may be used. Accordingly, the present invention is to be construed as embracing each and every novel feature and novel combination of features present in the detection system described without limitation by the particular embodiment used to illustrate the invention.

Claims (31)

1. Asecuritysystem comprising: sensor means for sensing a condition at a location in a security area and producing a data signal representative ofthe condition at the location; means for producing an errorchecksignal that is shorterthan said data signal; transmitter means for transmitting an r-f signal modulated by said data signal and said error check signal; receiver means for receiving said modulated r-f signal; means utilising said receiver error check signal for checking said received data signal for accuracy and for selecting received signals that are accurate; and means responsiveto said accurate signals for producing an output indicative of said condition.
2. A security system as in claim 1 wherein said errorchecksignal comprises a signal representative of an algebraic code.
3. A security system as in claim 2 wherein said algebraic code comprises a cyclic code.
4. A security system as in any one of claims 1 to 3 wherein said data signal may be represented by a first polynomial and said error detection signal com prisestheremainderwhensaidfirstpolynomial is divided by a second polynomial.
5. A security system as in claim 4 wherein said second polynomial is a5 + a2 + 1.
6. Asecuritysystem as in claim 1 wherein said data signal and said error detection signal are digital signals and the number of bits of said error detection signal is lessthan the number of bits of said data signal.
7. A security system as in claim 6 wherein said error detection signal comprises a digital representation of an algebraic polynomial.
8. A security system as in claim 7 wherein said error detection signal comprises the remainder when said data signal is divided by an algebraic polynomial.
9. A security system as in claim 8 wherein said means for checking the accuracy of said received signal comprises a means for dividing said data signal bysaid algebraic polynomial and forcompar- ing the resultwith said error detection signal.
10. Asecuritysystem asin claim 9 wherein said algebraic polynomial is a5 + a2 + 1.
11. Awireless security system as in claim 6 wherein said means for producing an error check signal comprises a feedback shift register.
12. A security system as in claim 11 wherein said means for producing further comprises a computer and said feedback shift register is a softwareimplemented shift register.
13. Asecuritysystem as in claim 6wherein said means for checking comprises a feedback shift register.
14. Asecuritysystem as in claim 13 wherein said means for checking further comprises a computer and said feedback shift register is a softwareimplemented shift register.
15. A method of providing an indication of a condition at a location protected by a security system comprising the steps of: sensing said condition and providing a data signal representative of the condition; analysing said data signal to determine an error checksignal thatisshorterthan said data signal; transmitting said data signal and said error signal; receiving said transmitted signal; checking said received signal for accuracy; and utilising the accurate ones of said received signals to provide an indication of said condition.
16. The method of claim 15 wherein said step of sensing and providing a data signal comprises providing a digital signal, said step of analysing comprises dividing said signal by a digital representation of an algebraic polynomial, and said step oftransmitting includes transmitting the remainder left after said division.
17. The method ofclaim 16whereinsaidstepof checking comprises dividing the data portion of said received signal by said algebraic polynomial and comparing the remainder of said error check portion ofsaid received signal.
18. The method of claim 16 wherein said step of dividing comprises shifting said digital data signal through a shift register while feeding back at least one bit into at least one other bit.
19. The method of claim 18 wherein said step of shifting comprises shifting said data signal through a six-bit shift register in the direction of bit one to bit six, and said step of feeding back comprises adding the sixth bit without carry to bits one and three.
20. A detection system comprising: a plurality of sending units, each of said units comprising: sensing means for sensing a condition, and means responsive to said sensing means for sending a data signal representative of said condition at randomised time intervals; and receiving means for receiving said data signals and producing an output indicative of said condition.
21. The detection system of claim 20 wherein said meansforsending includes: a means for generating a pseudo-random number; and a means for delaying the sending of said data signal for a time interval related to said pseudorandom number.
22. The detection system of claim 21 wherein said means for generating a pseudo-random number includes a shift register.
23. The detection system of claim 21 wherein said means for delaying comprises a means for cycl- ing through a number of time periods equal to said pseudo-random number.
24. The detection system of claim 21 and further comprising a means for delaying for a predetermined time interval in addition to said pseudorandom time interval.
25. A method of providing an indication of a condition at a remote location comprising: sensing said condition; waiting for a randomised time interval; sending a data signal representative of said condition; and receiving said data signal and utilising itto provide an indication of said condition.
26. The method of claim 25 wherein said step of waiting comprises generating a pseudo-random number and waiting for a time interval related to said pseudo-random number.
27. The method of claim 26 wherein said step of generating comprises placing a non-zero number in a shift register, and shifting the register contents while replacing one or more bits with the exclusive OR of at least two other bits.
28. The method of claim 26 wherein said step of waiting comprises cycling through a timing loop a numberoftimes equal to said pseudo-random number.
29. The rnethod of claim 25 and further including the step ofwaiting for a predetermined time interval in addition to said randomised time interval prior to sending said data signal.
30. Asecuritysystem constructed arranged and adapted to operate substantially as herein before described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
31. A method of providing an indication of a condition substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
GB8701956A 1986-02-06 1987-01-29 Security system Withdrawn GB8701956D0 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US82672586 true 1986-02-06 1986-02-06
US06826726 US4734680A (en) 1986-02-06 1986-02-06 Detection system with randomized transmissions

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GB8701956D0 GB8701956D0 (en) 1987-03-04
GB2186404A true true GB2186404A (en) 1987-08-12

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Cited By (29)

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FR2621723A1 (en) * 1987-10-13 1989-04-14 Michel Baudoin Method for remote monitoring of goods and / or persons
EP0322204A2 (en) * 1987-12-22 1989-06-28 Zone Technology Limited Detector unit and system
EP0325433A2 (en) * 1988-01-21 1989-07-26 Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. Wireless transmission-reception control system
GB2212642A (en) * 1987-11-17 1989-07-26 Alan Lee Deller Monitoring system
DE3832667A1 (en) * 1988-09-27 1990-04-05 Telefunken Electronic Gmbh safety device
FR2638268A1 (en) * 1988-10-25 1990-04-27 Cerberus Guinard Devices allow to discriminate between several simultaneous phenomena
EP0391566A1 (en) * 1989-04-07 1990-10-10 Payrise Limited Alarm systems
GB2233789A (en) * 1989-05-04 1991-01-16 Dolphin Hitec Limited Electronic security apparatus
EP0446979A1 (en) * 1990-03-16 1991-09-18 Ericsson Radio Systems B.V. System for transmitting alarm signals with a repetition
FR2661791A1 (en) * 1990-05-07 1991-11-08 Electrolux Sa Method for digitally transmitting a message code and issuance system.
EP0490836A2 (en) * 1990-12-07 1992-06-17 G.P.B. BEGHELLI S.r.l. Improvement in independent emergency lighting systems with alarm signals for fires, harmful gas, surrounding air pollution and alike
FR2674658A1 (en) * 1991-03-28 1992-10-02 Fusilier Jean Marie Method for transmission and for remote transmission in blind random mode between several transmitters and receivers
FR2691274A1 (en) * 1992-05-13 1993-11-19 Seb Sa Surveillance system for household - has central control receiving coded radio signals from remote units and sending alarm to siren
EP0591585A1 (en) * 1991-07-31 1994-04-13 Mutuo Tanaka Remote monitoring unit
EP0638878A1 (en) * 1991-10-11 1995-02-15 Advanced Mining Software Limited Location system
DE19505199A1 (en) * 1995-02-16 1996-08-29 Wolfgang Dipl Ing Sachs Anti-theft radio alarm installation with in-built security
US5635907A (en) * 1993-08-10 1997-06-03 Bernard; Hermanus A. Location system
GB2278463B (en) * 1993-05-24 1998-01-07 British Gas Plc Control system
US6088659A (en) 1997-09-11 2000-07-11 Abb Power T&D Company Inc. Automated meter reading system
WO2001026067A1 (en) * 1999-10-05 2001-04-12 Bi Incorporated Authentication techniques in a monitoring system
EP1218866A1 (en) * 1999-09-23 2002-07-03 Northrop Grumman Corporation Randomization of transmit time
US6700902B1 (en) 1998-10-19 2004-03-02 Elster Electricity, Llc Method and system for improving wireless data packet delivery
GB2393827A (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-04-07 Michael John Leck Remotely monitoring variables
US7702594B2 (en) 2004-09-24 2010-04-20 Elster Electricity, Llc System and method for automated configuration of meters
US7742430B2 (en) 2004-09-24 2010-06-22 Elster Electricity, Llc System for automated management of spontaneous node migration in a distributed fixed wireless network
US8073384B2 (en) 2006-12-14 2011-12-06 Elster Electricity, Llc Optimization of redundancy and throughput in an automated meter data collection system using a wireless network
US8320302B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2012-11-27 Elster Electricity, Llc Over the air microcontroller flash memory updates
US8525692B2 (en) 2008-06-13 2013-09-03 Elster Solutions, Llc Techniques for limiting demand from an electricity meter with an installed relay
US9612132B2 (en) 2007-12-26 2017-04-04 Elster Solutions, Llc Optimized data collection in a wireless fixed network metering system

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Cited By (42)

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EP0312431A1 (en) * 1987-10-13 1989-04-19 C M S -Central Multi Services Remote goods and/or persons supervising method
FR2621723A1 (en) * 1987-10-13 1989-04-14 Michel Baudoin Method for remote monitoring of goods and / or persons
GB2212642A (en) * 1987-11-17 1989-07-26 Alan Lee Deller Monitoring system
EP0322204A2 (en) * 1987-12-22 1989-06-28 Zone Technology Limited Detector unit and system
EP0322204A3 (en) * 1987-12-22 1991-01-09 Zone Technology Limited Detector unit and system
EP0325433A2 (en) * 1988-01-21 1989-07-26 Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. Wireless transmission-reception control system
EP0325433A3 (en) * 1988-01-21 1991-06-12 Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. Wireless transmission-reception control system
US5077831A (en) * 1988-09-27 1991-12-31 Telefunken Electronic Gmbh Safeguard device with coded transmitted signal
DE3832667A1 (en) * 1988-09-27 1990-04-05 Telefunken Electronic Gmbh safety device
FR2638268A1 (en) * 1988-10-25 1990-04-27 Cerberus Guinard Devices allow to discriminate between several simultaneous phenomena
EP0368710A1 (en) * 1988-10-25 1990-05-16 CERBERUS GUINARD Société dite: Devices for discriminating between a number of simultaneous phenomena
EP0391566A1 (en) * 1989-04-07 1990-10-10 Payrise Limited Alarm systems
GB2233789A (en) * 1989-05-04 1991-01-16 Dolphin Hitec Limited Electronic security apparatus
EP0446979A1 (en) * 1990-03-16 1991-09-18 Ericsson Radio Systems B.V. System for transmitting alarm signals with a repetition
US5164704A (en) * 1990-03-16 1992-11-17 Ericsson Radio Systems B.V. System for transmitting alarm signals with a repetition
FR2661791A1 (en) * 1990-05-07 1991-11-08 Electrolux Sa Method for digitally transmitting a message code and issuance system.
EP0490836A2 (en) * 1990-12-07 1992-06-17 G.P.B. BEGHELLI S.r.l. Improvement in independent emergency lighting systems with alarm signals for fires, harmful gas, surrounding air pollution and alike
EP0490836A3 (en) * 1990-12-07 1993-08-18 G.P.B. Beghelli S.R.L. Improvement in independent emergency lighting systems with alarm signals for fires, harmful gas, surrounding air pollution and alike
FR2674658A1 (en) * 1991-03-28 1992-10-02 Fusilier Jean Marie Method for transmission and for remote transmission in blind random mode between several transmitters and receivers
EP0591585A1 (en) * 1991-07-31 1994-04-13 Mutuo Tanaka Remote monitoring unit
US5382943A (en) * 1991-07-31 1995-01-17 Tanaka; Mutuo Remote monitoring unit
EP0638878A1 (en) * 1991-10-11 1995-02-15 Advanced Mining Software Limited Location system
US5438321A (en) * 1991-10-11 1995-08-01 Bernard; Hermanus A. Location system
FR2691274A1 (en) * 1992-05-13 1993-11-19 Seb Sa Surveillance system for household - has central control receiving coded radio signals from remote units and sending alarm to siren
GB2278463B (en) * 1993-05-24 1998-01-07 British Gas Plc Control system
US5635907A (en) * 1993-08-10 1997-06-03 Bernard; Hermanus A. Location system
DE19505199A1 (en) * 1995-02-16 1996-08-29 Wolfgang Dipl Ing Sachs Anti-theft radio alarm installation with in-built security
US6088659A (en) 1997-09-11 2000-07-11 Abb Power T&D Company Inc. Automated meter reading system
US6700902B1 (en) 1998-10-19 2004-03-02 Elster Electricity, Llc Method and system for improving wireless data packet delivery
EP1218866A1 (en) * 1999-09-23 2002-07-03 Northrop Grumman Corporation Randomization of transmit time
EP1218866A4 (en) * 1999-09-23 2004-09-29 Northrop Grumman Corp Randomization of transmit time
US6844816B1 (en) 1999-10-05 2005-01-18 Bi Incorporated Authentication techniques in a monitoring system
WO2001026067A1 (en) * 1999-10-05 2001-04-12 Bi Incorporated Authentication techniques in a monitoring system
GB2393827A (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-04-07 Michael John Leck Remotely monitoring variables
GB2393827B (en) * 2002-10-04 2005-11-16 Michael John Leck Monitor system
US7061399B2 (en) 2002-10-04 2006-06-13 Michael John Leck Monitor system
US7702594B2 (en) 2004-09-24 2010-04-20 Elster Electricity, Llc System and method for automated configuration of meters
US7742430B2 (en) 2004-09-24 2010-06-22 Elster Electricity, Llc System for automated management of spontaneous node migration in a distributed fixed wireless network
US8073384B2 (en) 2006-12-14 2011-12-06 Elster Electricity, Llc Optimization of redundancy and throughput in an automated meter data collection system using a wireless network
US8320302B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2012-11-27 Elster Electricity, Llc Over the air microcontroller flash memory updates
US9612132B2 (en) 2007-12-26 2017-04-04 Elster Solutions, Llc Optimized data collection in a wireless fixed network metering system
US8525692B2 (en) 2008-06-13 2013-09-03 Elster Solutions, Llc Techniques for limiting demand from an electricity meter with an installed relay

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DE3642951A1 (en) 1987-08-20 application

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