GB2156127A - Method of and apparatus for the identification of individuals - Google Patents

Method of and apparatus for the identification of individuals Download PDF

Info

Publication number
GB2156127A
GB2156127A GB08507033A GB8507033A GB2156127A GB 2156127 A GB2156127 A GB 2156127A GB 08507033 A GB08507033 A GB 08507033A GB 8507033 A GB8507033 A GB 8507033A GB 2156127 A GB2156127 A GB 2156127A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
individual
apparats
means
identifying
radiation
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB08507033A
Other versions
GB8507033D0 (en
GB2156127B (en
Inventor
Joseph Rice
Original Assignee
Joseph Rice
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB848407249A priority Critical patent/GB8407249D0/en
Priority to GB848412407A priority patent/GB8412407D0/en
Priority to GB8501939 priority
Application filed by Joseph Rice filed Critical Joseph Rice
Priority to GB08507033A priority patent/GB2156127B/en
Publication of GB8507033D0 publication Critical patent/GB8507033D0/en
Publication of GB2156127A publication Critical patent/GB2156127A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of GB2156127B publication Critical patent/GB2156127B/en
Application status is Expired legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K9/00Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints
    • G06K9/20Image acquisition
    • G06K9/2018Identifying/ignoring parts by sensing at different wavelengths
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K9/00Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual entry or exit registers
    • G07C9/00126Access control not involving the use of a pass
    • G07C9/00134Access control not involving the use of a pass in combination with an identity-check
    • G07C9/00158Access control not involving the use of a pass in combination with an identity-check by means of a personal physical data
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K9/00Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints
    • G06K9/00885Biometric patterns not provided for under G06K9/00006, G06K9/00154, G06K9/00335, G06K9/00362, G06K9/00597; Biometric specific functions not specific to the kind of biometric
    • G06K2009/00932Subcutaneous biometric features; Blood vessel patterns

Description

SPECIFICATION Method of and apparats for the identification of individuals This invention relates to devices for the identification of individuals and finds particular application in instances where access is required to be restricted such as credit or cash dispensing or admission to secure sites or the operation of sensitive machiner.

To restrict access to items such as bank accounts, authorised individuals are customarily issued with identity cards bearing a unique alphanumeric code. Usually these cards bear impressed characters ; they may also, or alternatively, contain magnetically encoded data or alternatively optically encoded data in the form of thin films readable only with special optical apparats. A difficulty with cards of this type is that they can become lost or stolen, or the encoded data may be easily copied. It is therefore desirable to devise some means of identification which is unique to an individual and which, preferably cannot be separated from them. One possibility is to make use of fingerpints, which are known to be characteristic of a particular person cven identical twins possess different patterns.

However, sophisticated optical apparats would be required as the patterns are extremely fine.

In another personal identification system, described in US Patent 4 393 366, properties of the eye are used as a basis for recognition.

Amongst the stable features contributing to a complex optical image are the number of retinal blood vessels and their relative angles and branching characteristics, the size of the optic disc, pigments or colouring patterns of the retina and the choroidal vasculature. The method relies on the simplicity of optical access and the fact that the eye itself can form part of the optical system.

We have found that it is not necessary to rely on a means of identification which requires visual access to a characteristic of the human body. We have found that the pattern of subcutaneous blood vessels is characteristic of an individual, and that observation can be effected using radiation such as infra-red or thermal radiation to which the skin is translucent. If a sufficient intensity is employed, visible radiation in conjunction with appropriate filters may be used instead of infra-red radiation.

The location of blood vessels may be detected by differential temperature mesurement. Alterntively, movement or the presence of blood can be detected by techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance or acoustic monitoring of the pulse.

By subcutaneous is meant lying beneath the skin and not accessible to normal visual observations.

According to the present invention there is provided apparats for identifying an individual comprising means for detecting the arrangement of a network of subcutaneous blood vessels and comparator means for comparing said arrangement with a predetermined pattern.

An embodiment of the invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: Figure 1 shows a plan view of the underneath of a scanning device used for the identification of individuals.

Figure 2 shows in section, details of the construction of one element of the scanning device.

Figure 3 is a block diagram of part of a circuit used in association with the scanner of Fig. 1 and Figure 4 is an example of several scans of an individual wrist using the apparats of Fig.

1.

Referring now to Fig. 1 of the drawings, a carrier 1 has mounted thereon a plurality of scanning elements 2. Rotatably mounted on the block is a pair of encoder wheels 3. Fig. 2 illustrates a section through a single scanning element. This comprises a translucent block 4 in which are encapsulated infra-red radiation emitting diodes 5. The block acts as a radiation integrater and floods the adjacent surface of the skin 6 of an individual under test with infra-red radiation. The skin is transparent to the radiation which penetrates into and illuminates the subcutaneous region 7. The radiation is reflected by subcutaneous blood vessels 8 and is received by a photosensitive pin diode 9. A lens 10 and aperture restricting tubular stop 11 liait the area of the region from which radiation is received at any given instant.

The electronic circuit for processing the output signals from the pin diodes is shown in Fig. 3. The output signals from a plurality of diodes 9 are fed to a multiple amplifier 21 and thence to an analogue-to-digital converter 22. The parallel outputs are converted to four bit words by an interface adapter circuit 23.

The encoder wheel 3 rotates adjacent to a pickup transducer 24 which feeds a bistable 25 to produce a train of READ pulses 26 as the carrier block 1 traverses the surface of the skin.

A typical output signal produced by a transducer prior to digitisation is shown in Fig. 4.

This exhibits a series of peaks which are characteristic of a particular individual and correspond to the pattern of veins beneath the surface of the skin. Thus if a transducer is constrained to follow a predetermined path it will reproduce a pattern which can be recorded and correlated with the pattern produced on subsequent traverses of the same path. By using a detector with a plurality of transducers, a matrix of readings may be obtained. These are stored as a block of words in memory 27. The outputs from the interface adapter are fed to a storage and rotational transformation circuit 28 which stores the scanner readings as a two-dimensional array. Under the control of a sweep oscillator 29, the transformation circuit performs rotational transforms on the array, to take account of the fact that the subsequent scan may not have been parallel to the original calibration scan. The scan signal is compared with the calibration signal by a correlator circuit 30 which provides an output to an indicator 31 when a desired level of match is attained. The memory holding the reference signal is in the form of a ring counter which is clocked at a rate significantly higher than the rate of rotational transformation to take account of possible lateral displacement of the scanning head.

The scanning and monitoring circuits may be incorporated in a static monitoring device which can be strapped to an individual's wrist to authenticate his identity.

By incorporating a transponder, the device may be used for remote identification in the following manner. On entering a secure area or before performing a secure operation the device is interrogated by a remote transmitter. If the desired signal is present at the output of the correlator, then the transponder sends back a verification signal.

The monitoring device may incorporate environmental monitoring circuits to establish the continued presence of the device on the user's wrist. If the device is removed, the transponder is deactivated until a predetermined security code is entered into priming circuits within the monitor. Additional environmental monitoring may establish that the wearer's pulse rate, pulse profile, skin resistance or wrist vein pattern conform either to known norms or to the individual's characteristics which are pre-entered into secure memory locations in the device.

The device finds particular application in credit transactions. It can also be used in other applications such as locks for preventing access to secure areas or for prevention of operation of weapons systems. In particular, a vein pattern recognition device may be mounted on, for example, a gun but to prevent operation other than by an authorised individual.

Claims (8)

1. Apparats for identifying an individual comprising means for detecting the arrangement of subcutaneous blood vessels and comparator means for comparing said arrangement with a predetermined pattern.
2. Apparats for identifying an individual as claimed in Claim 1 wherein the means for detecting the arrangement of subcutaneous blood vessels comprises a radiation detector sensitive to different levels of incident radiation.
3. Apparats for identifying an individual as claimed in Claim 1 wherein the means for detecting the arrangement of subcutaneous blood vessels comprises means for sensing the presence of blood.
4. Apparats for identifying an individual as claimed in Claim 3 wherein the means for sensing the presence of blood comprises a nuclear magnetic resonance detector sensitive to a component of the blood.
5. Apparats for identifying an individual as claimed in Claim 3 wherein the means for sensing the presence of blood comprises an acoustic detector sensitive to the pulse of an individual.
6. Apparats for identifying an individual as claimed in Claim 2 comprising a source of radiation adapted to illuminate the subcutaneous blood vessels and detector means to detect radiation reflected from the subcutaneous layer including the blood vessels and sensitive to differences in intensity of said reflected radiation.
7. Apparats as claimed in Claim 6 wherein said detector is sensitive to infra-red radiation.
8. Apparats for identifying an individual as claimed in any one of the preceding claims including a correlator for comparing the detected pattern of subcutaneous blood vessels with a predetermined pattern.
GB08507033A 1984-03-20 1985-03-19 Method of and apparatus for the identification of individuals Expired GB2156127B (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB848407249A GB8407249D0 (en) 1984-03-20 1984-03-20 Authentication of individuals
GB848412407A GB8412407D0 (en) 1984-05-15 1984-05-15 Authentication device
GB8501939 1985-01-25
GB08507033A GB2156127B (en) 1984-03-20 1985-03-19 Method of and apparatus for the identification of individuals

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB08507033A GB2156127B (en) 1984-03-20 1985-03-19 Method of and apparatus for the identification of individuals

Publications (3)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB8507033D0 GB8507033D0 (en) 1985-05-15
GB2156127A true GB2156127A (en) 1985-10-02
GB2156127B GB2156127B (en) 1987-05-07

Family

ID=27449537

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB08507033A Expired GB2156127B (en) 1984-03-20 1985-03-19 Method of and apparatus for the identification of individuals

Country Status (1)

Country Link
GB (1) GB2156127B (en)

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1988004153A1 (en) * 1986-12-02 1988-06-16 Kodak Limited Information concerned with the body of an individual
GB2276749A (en) * 1993-04-01 1994-10-05 British Tech Group Individual verification
JPH0832318B1 (en) * 1987-11-30 1996-03-29 Mitsubishi Chem Corp
WO2000016247A1 (en) * 1998-09-11 2000-03-23 Pro Technologies Llc Method and system for biometric recognition using sensors with unique characteristics
WO2000016245A1 (en) * 1998-09-11 2000-03-23 Quid Technologies Llc Method and system for biometric recognition based on electric and/or magnetic properties
EP1018091A1 (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-07-12 Dwight C Peterson Personal identification system
WO2001054074A1 (en) * 2000-01-19 2001-07-26 Skidata Ag Authorization control device
GB2364376A (en) * 2000-07-05 2002-01-23 Astron Clinica Ltd Skin illumination and examination apparatus
US6343140B1 (en) 1998-09-11 2002-01-29 Quid Technologies Llc Method and apparatus for shooting using biometric recognition
WO2002054337A1 (en) * 2001-01-04 2002-07-11 Advanced Biometrics, Inc. Method and apparatus for subcutaneous identification
US6507662B1 (en) * 1998-09-11 2003-01-14 Quid Technologies Llc Method and system for biometric recognition based on electric and/or magnetic properties
EP1385116A1 (en) * 2002-07-22 2004-01-28 Human Bios GmbH Method for granting an access authorisation
WO2004049241A2 (en) * 2002-11-28 2004-06-10 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Bio-linking a user and authorization means
USH2120H1 (en) * 2002-10-10 2005-07-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Biometric personal identification credential system (PICS)
US8190239B2 (en) 2002-09-03 2012-05-29 Fujitsu Limited Individual identification device

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1593001A (en) * 1977-01-17 1981-07-15 Hill R B Apparatus and method for identifying individuals through their retinal vasculature patterns
EP0061832A2 (en) * 1981-02-17 1982-10-06 Eye-D Development Ii Ltd. Apparatus and method for checking identity by means of the ocular fundus pattern

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1593001A (en) * 1977-01-17 1981-07-15 Hill R B Apparatus and method for identifying individuals through their retinal vasculature patterns
EP0061832A2 (en) * 1981-02-17 1982-10-06 Eye-D Development Ii Ltd. Apparatus and method for checking identity by means of the ocular fundus pattern

Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1988004153A1 (en) * 1986-12-02 1988-06-16 Kodak Limited Information concerned with the body of an individual
JPH0832318B1 (en) * 1987-11-30 1996-03-29 Mitsubishi Chem Corp
GB2276749A (en) * 1993-04-01 1994-10-05 British Tech Group Individual verification
EP1018091A4 (en) * 1995-08-31 2001-02-28 John A Stiver Personal identification system
EP1018091A1 (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-07-12 Dwight C Peterson Personal identification system
WO2000016247A1 (en) * 1998-09-11 2000-03-23 Pro Technologies Llc Method and system for biometric recognition using sensors with unique characteristics
US6507662B1 (en) * 1998-09-11 2003-01-14 Quid Technologies Llc Method and system for biometric recognition based on electric and/or magnetic properties
AU763410B2 (en) * 1998-09-11 2003-07-24 Gr Intellectual Reserve, Llc Method and system for biometric recognition based on electric and/or magnetic properties
US6343140B1 (en) 1998-09-11 2002-01-29 Quid Technologies Llc Method and apparatus for shooting using biometric recognition
WO2000016245A1 (en) * 1998-09-11 2000-03-23 Quid Technologies Llc Method and system for biometric recognition based on electric and/or magnetic properties
AU761532B2 (en) * 1998-10-30 2003-06-05 Gr Intellectual Reserve, Llc Method and apparatus for shooting using biometric recognition
WO2001054074A1 (en) * 2000-01-19 2001-07-26 Skidata Ag Authorization control device
US6799726B2 (en) 2000-01-19 2004-10-05 Skidata Ag Authorization control device including a wristwatch having a biometric sensor
GB2364376A (en) * 2000-07-05 2002-01-23 Astron Clinica Ltd Skin illumination and examination apparatus
WO2002054337A1 (en) * 2001-01-04 2002-07-11 Advanced Biometrics, Inc. Method and apparatus for subcutaneous identification
EP1385116A1 (en) * 2002-07-22 2004-01-28 Human Bios GmbH Method for granting an access authorisation
US8190239B2 (en) 2002-09-03 2012-05-29 Fujitsu Limited Individual identification device
USH2120H1 (en) * 2002-10-10 2005-07-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Biometric personal identification credential system (PICS)
WO2004049241A2 (en) * 2002-11-28 2004-06-10 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Bio-linking a user and authorization means
WO2004049241A3 (en) * 2002-11-28 2004-08-12 Wilhelmus F J Fontijn Bio-linking a user and authorization means

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB8507033D0 (en) 1985-05-15
GB2156127B (en) 1987-05-07

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CA1306304C (en) Personal indentification system
US5903225A (en) Access control system including fingerprint sensor enrollment and associated methods
KR101035667B1 (en) Biometric Pattern Detection Device, Personal Authentication Device and Method
US7751594B2 (en) White-light spectral biometric sensors
US8285010B2 (en) Biometrics based on locally consistent features
US8577807B2 (en) Method for protecting secret information in a system for reporting an emergency when secret information is accessed
US6877097B2 (en) Security access method and apparatus
EP0533891B1 (en) Method for identifying individuals from analysis of elemental shapes derived from biosensor data
EP0533829B1 (en) Security of objects or documents
US4963859A (en) Method and apparatus for capturing information in drawing or writing
US7172115B2 (en) Biometric identification system
EP0731426A2 (en) Process for encrypting a fingerprint onto an I.D. card
US8180120B2 (en) Finger sensor using polarized light and associated methods
US20080212849A1 (en) Method and Apparatus For Facial Image Acquisition and Recognition
KR100756611B1 (en) Renewal method and renewal apparatus for an ic card having biometrics authentication functions
US6950540B2 (en) Fingerprint apparatus and method
RU2267159C2 (en) Method and system for generation of a set of parameters of access key, and for authentication of a person on basis of his biometric parameter
US20010013546A1 (en) Identification system
US4641017A (en) Fraud resistant credit card system
US20080192988A1 (en) Multibiometric multispectral imager
US3928842A (en) Fingerprint comparator
US4501439A (en) Document having a security feature and method of determining the authenticity of the document
US20060080547A1 (en) Biometrics authentication method and biometrics authentication device
US10320767B2 (en) Systems and methods for securely monitoring an individual
US6549118B1 (en) Security apparatus and method

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
732 Registration of transactions, instruments or events in the register (sect. 32/1977)
732 Registration of transactions, instruments or events in the register (sect. 32/1977)
PCNP Patent ceased through non-payment of renewal fee

Effective date: 20030319