GB2104692A - Motor control system - Google Patents

Motor control system Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2104692A
GB2104692A GB08223117A GB8223117A GB2104692A GB 2104692 A GB2104692 A GB 2104692A GB 08223117 A GB08223117 A GB 08223117A GB 8223117 A GB8223117 A GB 8223117A GB 2104692 A GB2104692 A GB 2104692A
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United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
stator
control system
rotor
signal
components
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Granted
Application number
GB08223117A
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GB2104692B (en
Inventor
Colin David Schauder
Roy Caddy
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GEC ELLIOTT AUTOMATION Ltd
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GEC ELLIOTT AUTOMATION Ltd
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Priority to GB8205942 priority
Application filed by GEC ELLIOTT AUTOMATION Ltd filed Critical GEC ELLIOTT AUTOMATION Ltd
Priority to GB08223117A priority patent/GB2104692B/en
Publication of GB2104692A publication Critical patent/GB2104692A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of GB2104692B publication Critical patent/GB2104692B/en
Application status is Expired legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P21/00Arrangements or methods for the control of electric machines by vector control, e.g. by control of field orientation
    • H02P21/06Rotor flux based control involving the use of rotor position or rotor speed sensors

Abstract

In order to control the torque of an induction motor, a transform circuit (13) is applied with an actual rotor position signal ( theta ) and signals (i*ds, i*qs) representing orthogonal stator current demand values proportional to sine and cosine of the rotor slip angle. The circuit (13) supplies required current signals to comparators (9) which also receive current feedback signals from stator windings (a, b, c). The resulting difference signals control thyristor converters (3). <IMAGE>

Description

SPECIFICATION Motor control system This invention relates to motor control systems and particularly to a motor control system for torque control of an induction motor.

Most speed controlled drives found in industry are undemanding in terms of speed control bandwidth and operating range. In contrast, there are some applications where fast and accurate four quadrant control (i.e. drive and brake in both directions) is important. These applications range from small machine tool drives to the large reversing mill main drives in the steel industry, and their requirements have been adequately met by drives using d.c. machines supplied from static convertors.

Apart from the familiar problems associated with the commutator, d.c. drives provide excellent response and are commonly available with torque control bandwidths of 500 rad/s and speed control bandwidths around 30 rad/s.

Alternative systems using a.c. motors with static power equipment have not to date offered a serious challenge to the d.c. drive in these specialised application areas, both because of their relatively high cost and their inability to match the performance specifications. However, present economic trends indicate that a.c. drives must eventually show overall cost advantages in relation to the equivalent d.c. system. In view of this it has become increasingly important to develop a control capability for a.c. motor drives which provides equivalent performance.

While such systems have been proposed for use with synchronous motors, the present invention is particularly concerned with a.c. drives employing induction motors and comparing in performance with d.c. systems.

The object of the present invention is therefore to provide an a.c. motor control system which is comparable in performance with existing d.c. systems and is at the same time financially practical.

According to the present invention, an induction motor control system comprises means for producing signals representative of desired values of stator-current amplitude and accrued slip-angle, means responsive to the rotor angular position to produce a rotor angle signal, means for resolving the stator-current amplitude signal into orthogonal demand components proportional to the sine and cosine of the accrued slip-angle signal, and forward transform means responsive to said demand components and to said rotor angle signal to produce equivalent stator-winding drive signals.

Each of said drive signals may be arranged to be combined with a negative feedback signal derived from a respective stator phase winding to provide direct control of the stator M.M.F.

Preferably, inverse transform means responsive to the rotor angle signal is provided for converting signals representing actual stator phase current into equivalent orthogonal actual components which rotate in synchronism with the rotor and vary as the sine and cosine of the accrued slip-angle, these actual components constituting negative feedback signals in a closed control loop.

In a system in which the motor stator carries no zero sequence component, one of the statorwinding drive signals is preferably derived as the negative sum of the remainder. Thus, the forward transform providing stator phase current values las and ics in terms of the orthogonal rotor-referenced components id5 and iq5 may incorporate the matrix product <img class="EMIRef" id="027199482-00010001" />

and the inverse transform may incorporate the matrix product:: <img class="EMIRef" id="027199482-00010002" />

There are preferably included means for calculating from the actual components in respect of the stator M.M.F. the corresponding components in respect of the rotor M.M.F., means for deriving from the stator and rotor actual components a signal representative of the actual torque, and means for comparing this actual torque signal with a torque reference signal in the closed control loop.

Several motor control systems will now be described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, of which: Figure 1 is a block diagram of a direct control system for a three-phase induction motor employing magneto-motive-force (M.M.F.) rotating axis transformation in the 'forward direction' only; Figure 2 is a similar block diagram in which feedback is provided by an inverse rotating axis transformation; Figure 3 is a block diagram of transformation circuitry incorporating both forward and inverse transformations consistent with Figure 2; Figure 4 illustrates a system such as that of Figure 2 and Figure 3 and the corresponding waveforms of the M.M.F. components and the motor torque; Figure 5 illustrates a contrasting system in which orthogonal stator M.M.F. components are extracted for torque calculation and direct torque control;; Figures 6 and 7 illustrate a cyclo-converter induction motor drive with control in accordance with Figures 4 and 5 respectively.

In an induction motor, as in other electric motors, in controlling the instantaneous torque it is necessary to control the amplitude and space phase relationship between the stator and rotor magnetomotive forces (M.M.F.'s). An essential feature of the present invention is that the stator M.M.F.

is resolved in a reference frame fixed, arbitrarily, with respect to the rotor. Since the rotor rotates at a speed which differs from that of the stator M.M.F. by the slip frequency, the stator M.M.F. can be defined by the resultant of orthogonal components, aligned with the axes of the rotor frame and varying in magnitude according to the sine and cosine of ot, where s9 is the slip frequency. At constant slip frequency, a;t can be seen to be an accrued value of the angle through which the rotor has slipped relative to the stator M.M.F. This slip angle will be designated 0.

The two orthogonal components are referred to as the direct and quadrature components and designated id5 and qa' the corresponding components of the rotor M.M.F. being idr and qr referred to the same axes.

From the above, 1ds=1 COS and lq5=l sin 0 where I is the resultant stator M.M.F.

A required torque can therefore be obtained by control of the stator current amplitude (I) and the slip frequency, and therefore by specifying the direct and quadrature components da and qa' and the slip angle.

The required or 'demand' components thus specified are designated i*d5 and i*q5, to distinguish from the component values actually arising.

Once the values id5 and qa are established, the individual stator phase currents iat 1b and ic can be obtained by the following transformation: <img class="EMIRef" id="027199482-00020001" />

Thus <img class="EMIRef" id="027199482-00020002" />

and similarly for ib5 and i,,. More briefly, <img class="EMIRef" id="027199482-00020003" />

The angle 0 is the rotor position angle mentioned above and determined by a position encoder mounted on the motor shaft.

Referring to Figure 1, an induction motor has three phase windings a, b and c in star connection, these being supplied by a thyristor power amplifier/convertor represented by blocks 3. Each motor phase current, as etc, is controlled by a closed loop including a current transformer 5, a unity gain feedback path 7, a differencing circuit 9 and an amplifier 11 , the latter providing the forward path compensation.

The reference, or drive signal input to the differencing circuit 9 is derived from a forward transform circuit 13. This circuit is provided with the rotor angle signal 8 and the orthogonal demand components i*d5 and i*q5 and produces the transformation given above.

In this direct control system each control loop is required to track its oscillating reference signal with acceptably small errors.

Figure 2 shows a similar motor arrangement with feedback of the phase currents, but in this case the feedback signals are converted by the inverse C transformation (indicated as C- in block 15) to feedback values in the rotating reference frame. The transformed feedback values id5 and iq5 are subtracted from the corresponding demand values i*d5 and i*,5 in differencing circuits 1 7 to provide signals for the forward transformation. In this case these error signals emerge as voltage inputs to the power amplifiers 3, the voltage signals being given by the following matrix relation which can be seen as the series effect of the loop components. <img class="EMIRef" id="027199482-00030001" />

Unfortunately, the amount of real-time computation required for this derivation of the motor phase voltages may be considered excessive. In this case the derivation can be simplified considerably by use of the constraint ias+ibs+ics=0 This assumes that the phase currents contain no instantaneous zero sequence components.

On this assumption the inverse transformation becomes: <img class="EMIRef" id="027199482-00030002" />

and the forward transformation becomes: <img class="EMIRef" id="027199482-00030003" />

which, on expansion gives: <img class="EMIRef" id="027199482-00030004" />

The remaining phase current ba is then given by: ibs= (Ias+Ics) These simplified transformations are incorporated in the controller of Figure 3 which provides voltage signals Vcs and V55 to the respective power amplifiers 3, the remaining voltage signal Vbs being obtained as the negative sum of Vcs and Vas.

The torque demand is specified in terms of l* and 6, i.e., the resultant stator MMF and the accrued slip angle. Sine and cosine functions of 4 are derived by analogue circuits or digital 'look-up' tables 19 and 21, the results being multiplied by l* in circuits 23 and 25 to give its and i*d5 respectively.

Also provided for the controller are the rotor angle H from a shaft position encoder and two of the stator phase currents ca and ias.

Again, analogue circuits or digital look-up tables (with corresponding input and output signals) 27, 29, 31 and 33 are employed to derive the sine and cosine of 0 and the sine and cosine of (07r/3).

The products from equation (3) above are then provided by the multipliers 35, 37, 39 and 41.

Multipliers 35 and 37 may be seen to give (together) the feedback value id5 which is subtracted from the demand value i*d5 in the summing amplifier 43 (P #t I indicating proportional and integral). Similarly iq5 is subtracted from it5 in the summing amplifier 45.

These amplifiers 43 and 45 thus correspond to the differencing circuits 17 in Figure 2.

The forward transformation of equation (4) is then obtained by the multipliers 47, 49, 51 and 53 which give, respectively, *ds sin 0, its cos 0, i*d5 sin (#-#/3) and it5 cos (0 /3). Further combination by amplifiers and inverters gives the required phase voltages Vacs, Vbs and V55 for application to the power amplifiers 3.

The realisation in Figure 3 of a controller employing a 2x2 matrix (Equations 1 and 2) instead of the full 3x3 matrix produces a very practical system which can be accommodated by a microprocessor. The microprocessor may do all the organisation of the system in addition to the provision of sine and cosine values from look-up tables. It also handles the slip frequency resolution and other look-up tables associated with the induction motor control system.

Figures 4 and 5 show alternative methods of torque control of an induction motor both based on a controller such as illustrated in Figure 3. In Figure 4 the torque reference input controls the stator MMF demand, which in turn controls, as described above, the stator phase voltages. The torque reference input 55, which corresponds to slip frequency, is applied to a transfer circuit 57 relating total stator MMF (I) to the slip frequency at constant stator flux linkage.

In addition, the slip frequency, a', is integrated to give cl)t, or O, the accrued slip angle, by integrator 59. These demand values, of 1* and 0 are applied to the M.M.F. control 61 as in Figure 3. The motor 63 is driven by the power amplifiers 3 (Figure 2) and provides feedback of the phase current values as and Cs, and of the rotor angle 0, as required by the controller.

Figure 4(b) shows the torque value achieved and the corresponding oscillating values of ds and iqs.Torque control by this method leaves something to be desired although it is adequate for certain applications.

In Figure 5 a similar inner control is used but the orthogonal component values id5 and q which actually arise, and which are derived in the inputs of amplifiers 43 and 45 in Figure 3, are used in a torque calculator 65 to provide an actual torque value. This is compared with, or subtracted from, a demand torque value in a differencing circuit 67. The error signal is then converted to total M.M.F. and accrued angle values, as in Figure 4.

Figure 5(b) shows the improvement in the acquisition of a steady torque and the absence of oscillation of the M.M.F. components.

The improved torque control of Figure 5 is a feature of this embodiment of the invention and results from the relatively simple relationship that exists between the stator M.M.F. components and the rotor M.M.F. components in a rotor based reference frame. The relationship follows: Kp idr= ids 1 +Trp and Kp iqr= iqs 1 +Trp where K is a constant, Tr is the rotor time constant, and p is the operator d/dt.

These relationships allow very simple torque calculations, i.e.

T=K(iqsidr-idsiqr) Only in the rotor reference frame is the torque calculation so easily achieved.

Having calculated the torque in this way it becomes a simple matter to close a torque loop, as shown in Figure 5, which eliminates the slip frequency components associated with M.M.F. control above.

Figure 6 shows a schematic diagram of a complete induction motor drive circuit using a ringconnected cycloconvertor.

A 3-phase supply is connected to a cycloconvertor comprising three 3phase thyristor bridges 67, 68 and 69, fed in parallel from the supply. The d.c. outputs of the bridges are connected in series and the star connected stator phase windings a, b and c are connected to the bridge interconnections. The bridge thyristors are fired by a firing circuit 71 which is controlled from a ring interface control circuit 73. This circuit receives the stator phase voltages V55, Vbs and Vcs from the M.M.F. control 61 and relays the actual stator phase currents i55 and ics, the latter being derived from current transformers 75, by way of a bridge current monitoring circuit 77. Conventional zero current detection (79) and bridge inhibit circuitry (81) is also provided.

The rotor angle 0 is determined by shaft angle transducer 83, and the rotor velocity by a shaft speed transducer 85. The rotor angle signal 0 is applied to the M.M.F. control circuit 61 and the shaft speed signal is applied to a differencing circuit 87 where it is subtracted from a speed reference signal.

The error output of the circuit 87 is applied to a speed control circuit 89 to derive a required slip frequency signal which is then applied to a transfer circuit 57 and to an integrating circuit 59 as explained with reference to Figure 4. These circuits provide the total M.M.F. demand signal l* and the accrued slip-angle signal 0 for the M.M.F. control circuit 61.

The circuit of Figure 6 operates in accordance with Figure 4 to provide direct M.M.F. control of the stator phase voltages and hence the stator M.M.F.

Figure 7 shows a similar induction motor drive circuit but modified in accordance with Figure 5.

The calculated torque feedback, from box 65, is compared in a differencing circuit 67 with, either, a torque reference signal or a required torque signal derived from a speed comparison.

This drive circuit therefore takes full advantage of the invention, providing an economic drive with rapid response to torque requirements.

Claims (11)

Claims
1. An induction motor control system comprising means for producing signals representative of desired values of stator-current amplitude and accrued slip-angle, means responsive to the rotor angular position to produce a rotor angle signal, means for resolving the stator-current amplitude signal into orthogonal demand components proportional to the sine and cosine of the accrued slipangle signal, and forward transform means responsive to said demand components and to said rotor angle signal to produce equivalent stator-winding drive signals.
2. A control system according to Claim 1, wherein each of said drive signals is arranged to be combined with a negative feedback signal derived from a respective stator phase winding to provide direct control of the stator M.M.F.
3. A control system according to Claim 1, including inverse transform means responsive to said rotor angle signal for converting signals representing actual stator phase current into equivalent orthogonal actual components which rotate in synchronism with the rotor and vary as the sine and cosine of said accrued slip-angle, said actual components constituting negative feedback signals in a closed control loop.
4. A control system according to Claim 3 for a system in which the motor stator carries no zero sequence component and in which one of said stator-winding drive signals is derived as the negative sum of the remainder.
5. A control system according to Claim 4, wherein the forward transform providing stator phase current values ias and ics in terms of the orthogonal rotor-components ds and iq5 incorporates the matrix form: <img class="EMIRef" id="027199483-00050001" />
and the inverse transform incorporates the matrix product: <img class="EMIRef" id="027199483-00050002" />
6. A control system according to Claim 3, wherein said actual components are subtracted from said demand components.
7. A control system according to Claim 3 or Claim 4, including means for calculating from said actual components in respect of the stator M.M.F. the corresponding components in respect of the rotor M.M.F., means for deriving from the stator and rotor actual components a signal representative of the actual torque, and means for comparing this actual torque signal with a torque reference signal in said closed control loop.
8. Apparatus for controlling the operation of an a.c. induction motor, said apparatus comprising; means coupled to the motor for deriving a feedback signal representative of actual motor torque; second means for providing a demand signal representative of a desired motor torque and means responsive to the difference between the feedback signal and the demand signal for controlling the instantaneous amplitude of the resultant stator M.M.F. and the angle of the said M.M.F. relative to an arbitrary axis fixed in the rotor of the motor so that the said difference is minimised.
9. An induction motor control system substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to Figure 1 of the accompanying drawings.
10. An induction motor control system substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to Figures 2, 3 and 4 of the accompanying drawings.
11. An induction motor control system substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to Figures 3 and 5 of the accompanying drawings.
1 2. An induction motor control system substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to Figure 6 or Figure 7 of the accompanying drawings.
GB08223117A 1981-08-12 1982-08-11 Motor control system Expired GB2104692B (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB8124625 1981-08-12
GB8205942 1982-03-01
GB08223117A GB2104692B (en) 1981-08-12 1982-08-11 Motor control system

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB08223117A GB2104692B (en) 1981-08-12 1982-08-11 Motor control system

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GB2104692A true GB2104692A (en) 1983-03-09
GB2104692B GB2104692B (en) 1985-03-20

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2133591A (en) * 1982-12-10 1984-07-25 Gen Electric Plc Motor control circuit
US5032771A (en) * 1990-08-09 1991-07-16 Allen-Bradley Company, Inc. Slip control based on sensing voltage fed to an induction motor
GB2243464A (en) * 1990-03-23 1991-10-30 Toyoda Machine Works Ltd Digital servo-control apparatus

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2133591A (en) * 1982-12-10 1984-07-25 Gen Electric Plc Motor control circuit
GB2243464A (en) * 1990-03-23 1991-10-30 Toyoda Machine Works Ltd Digital servo-control apparatus
GB2243464B (en) * 1990-03-23 1994-02-23 Toyoda Machine Works Ltd Digital servo-control apparatus
US5309075A (en) * 1990-03-23 1994-05-03 Toyoda Koki Kabushiki Kaisha Digital servo-control apparatus for preventing torque variations
US5032771A (en) * 1990-08-09 1991-07-16 Allen-Bradley Company, Inc. Slip control based on sensing voltage fed to an induction motor

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732 Registration of transactions, instruments or events in the register (sect. 32/1977)
732 Registration of transactions, instruments or events in the register (sect. 32/1977)
PE20 Patent expired after termination of 20 years

Effective date: 20020810