GB1594532A - Apparatus for forming glassware - Google Patents

Apparatus for forming glassware Download PDF

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Publication number
GB1594532A
GB1594532A GB285878A GB285878A GB1594532A GB 1594532 A GB1594532 A GB 1594532A GB 285878 A GB285878 A GB 285878A GB 285878 A GB285878 A GB 285878A GB 1594532 A GB1594532 A GB 1594532A
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machine
cycle
series
binary
factor
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GB285878A
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Emhart Industries Inc
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Emhart Industries Inc
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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B9/00Blowing glass; Production of hollow glass articles
    • C03B9/30Details of blowing glass; Use of materials for the moulds
    • C03B9/40Gearing or controlling mechanisms specially adapted for glass-blowing machines
    • C03B9/41Electric or electronic systems
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/04Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers
    • G05B19/042Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers using digital processors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/04Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers
    • G05B19/10Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers using selector switches
    • G05B19/106Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers using selector switches for selecting a programme, variable or parameter
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/20Pc systems
    • G05B2219/23Pc programming
    • G05B2219/23223During each cycle, different on off sequences can be used
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/20Pc systems
    • G05B2219/25Pc structure of the system
    • G05B2219/25045Electronic cam, encoder for sequence control as function of position, programmable switch pls
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/20Pc systems
    • G05B2219/25Pc structure of the system
    • G05B2219/25399Variable, settable clock or cycle, phase duration
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/20Pc systems
    • G05B2219/25Pc structure of the system
    • G05B2219/25473Compensation variable cycle time, synchronized processes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/20Pc systems
    • G05B2219/25Pc structure of the system
    • G05B2219/25482Synchronize several sequential processes, adjust

Description

(54) APPARATUS FOR FORMING GLASSWARE (71) We, EMHART INDUSTRIES, INC., a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of Connecticut, United States of America, having a place of business at 426 Colt Highway, Farmington, Connecticut, United States of America, do hereby declare the invention, for which we pray that a patent may be granted to us, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement:- This invention relates to apparatus for forming glassware and more particularly to such apparatus which includes a glassware forming machine and an electronic control system for controlling the operation of the sequence of events within a machine cycle.
Prior art approaches to the electronic control of glassware forming machines are exemplified by U.S. patents No. 3,762,907, No. 3,877,915, No. 3,905,793 and No.
3,969,703, and U.K. patent No. 1,441,099.
In all of these prior art patents the basic premise has been to assume that one must have timing means responsive to a drive shaft or the like to provide an instantaneous indication of the elapsed time in each cycle of operation of the machine. In U.S. patent No.
3,762,907, No. 3,877,915 and No. 3,969,703, and in U.K. patent No. 1,441,099 a pulse generator provides 360 or more pulses per machine cycle, and is driven by a drive shaft associated with the molten glass feeder, or the takeaway conveyor, so that the "timing means" for the glassware machine is continually related to the speed of rotation of a rotating machine member. In U.S. patent No. 3,905,793 no pulse generator is used, but means is provided for generating a binary coded decimal signal indicative of the instantaneous position of a shaft, and the said signal is compared, sequentially, to a programmed sequence of events stored in memory for producing the necessary output signals to control the machine events.
All of these prior art systems require that a shaft, or other rotating member, be closely monitored during the machine cycle, and that a real time comparison be made to provide the output signals for the various events (usually an "on" or "off" signal to solenoid valves) in the typical Hartford I. S. type glassware forming machine.
In a typical Hartford I. S. type of glassware forming machine, molten glass gobs are delivered from a feeder, by means of a gob distribution system, in a predetermined sequence to the upwardly open blank molds of the various machine sections. Each section comprises a self-contained unit which includes a blank mold station and a blow mold station.
The gob of molten glass is formed into a parison at the blank station, and then trans ferred to the blow station by a neck ring arm which includes a neck mold. The neck mold not only mates with the blank mold at the blank station but also serves to support the parison during transfer to the blow station.
The blank mold may be of the split or the solid type and is adapted to mate with the neck mold. The neck mold is of the split type, and is annular in shape with a central opening to receive a vertically reciprocable plunger which presses the gob into the blank mold in the "press and blow" process, or which plunger is associated with a thimble to permit the parison to be formed by the "blow and blow" process. This latter process provides for "counter blow" air at the blank station in addition to the "final blow" air at the blow station. The description to follow is not limited to either process.
The glass gobs are formed at a rate dictated by the size and shape of the ware to be produced, and these gobs are fed through a distribution system to the various blank mold cavities. Each blank cavity is upwardly open, and a funnel is usually provided to move in onto the closed blank mold for guiding the gob into such cavity. The gob drops through the funnel into the cavity, and into the neck mold, which is always closed except for a short time at the blow station for release of the parison. In this "delivery mode" of the machine the plunger and the thimble must be raised to define the neck opening of the ware.
This initial mode is triggered either upon "start up" of the machine, or of a master section thereof, or in accordance with the gob distributor system.
The next mode of operation of the machine can be characterized as one of "settling" the gob or charge into the neck mold. This is accomplished in the usual "blow and blow" process by bringing a baffle down onto the funnel, and providing air to the baffle for "settling" the charge in the blank mold. If no funnel is used in loading the gob, the baffle may move directly in on top of the blank mold.
As so configured the blank station of the machine section is in its "parison settle" mode.
After settle blowing has been completed the baffle, and funnel, are returned to their inactive positions, respectively.
The next mode of operation of the machine occupies only a short time, and can be characterized as "parison corkage reheat." The plunger moves downwardly away from the neck of the parison allowing the heat of the glass to stabilize in this part of the parison.
This short pause softens the glass surface by internal conduction, at least in the area where the plunger tip has caused it to cool during the "delivery" and "settle" modes, and as so configured the machine is in its "corkage reheat" mode.
The next mode of operation of the machine can be characterized as one of "parison forming", and in the "blow and blow" process such forming is carried out by introducing counter blow air to the softened area of the parison.
The mechanical machine configuration is only altered from the previous mode in that the baffle is lowered onto the blank mold. This mode will see the gob expanded to fill the upper regions of the blank cavity defined by the blank mold and by the baffle. After allowing time for this preliminary forming the counter blow air is turned off, the baffle is returned to its inactive position, and the split blank mold is ready for opening. As so configured the blank station of the machine is in its "parison forming" or "counter blow" mode.
The next mode involves "reheating" parison and the initial phase is accomplished simply by opening the split blank mold. With the blank mold open the parison is not in contact with any mold parts except the neck mold.
This configuration allows the heat stored in the thick walled parison to raise the temperature of its external surfaces, hence the derivation of the term "reheat" mode. This phase can be called "blank side reheat." Once the blank mold has completely opened, the neck ring arm inverts the neck mold and the parison along with it. This phase of the reheat mode can be characterized, thermodynamically, as "invert reheat". This reheating continues at least until the parison has been transferred to the blow station. As the parison reaches the blow station the third phase of reheat occurs. The blow mold closes around the parison and around a bottom plate, which will be spaced below that end of the parison opposite its neck or open end.The blow mold has an upper portion which supports the parison from just below its finish, allowing the neck mold to be opened prior to revert, or return movement of the neck ring mold. The neck ring mold recloses during return move ment so that the blank mold can close around it once the neck mold has returned to the blank station.
The next mode involves final forming of the body of the ware, the finish of the ware having been formed by the neck mold at the blank station and during transfer. The final blow air is delivered to the interior of the parison by a blow head which moves down onto the top of the closed blow mold. After a preset time for final blowing the air is turned off and the blow head returned to its inactive position.
The blow mold opens and take-out tongs (open) are swung into the blow station. The tongs close around the newly formed ware and the article is lifted off the bottom plate for delivery to the deadplate portion of a take away conveyor system.
The above described cycle of operation is representative of the typical I. S. machine, and the various events can be seen to com prise simply the turning on or off certain valves in each machine section. This is achieved by the control of solenoids through the control system to be described. The concept of dividing up the cycle into various modes is described in the prior art U.S. patents No.
3,877,915 and No. 3,905,793. However, in these prior art patents, and the others referred to above, insofar as changes to the speed of the feeder or take-away conveyor drive shaft are encountered, changes to the frequency of a pulse generator tied thereto will necessarily be encountered.
Hitherto it has been considered essential that the generation of pulses for the control system should be tied to some mechanically moving part of the glassware forming machine or apparatus mechanically associated therewith, for example the gob feeder mechanism, the gob distributor or the takeaway conveyor, in order for the process cycle provided by the electronic control system to be kept in phase with the operation of the glassware forming machine and in particular with the rate at which gobs of molten glass are delivered to the glassware forming machine.
We have now found that it is not essential for the electronic control system to be operated at a rate which is tied to the speed of operation of the glassware forming machine throughout the process cycle of the glassware forming machine.
According to one aspect of the present invention there is provided apparatus for forming glassware which comprises a glassware forming machine having a plurality of sections in each of which a series of events is performed in a predetermined sequence constituting a machine section cycle, and a control system in which a series of binary clock signals is produced at a rate which is independent of the speed of either the machine or any apparatus associated therewith in mechanically handling glass, a factor (Q) is applied to the series of binary clock signals to produce a series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of a machine section cycle, a cycle counter is updated by the series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of the machine section cycle, and each of the events of the said series of events is initiated following a satisfied comparison between the updated cycle counter and binary words which are stored in a memory and each of which is representative of the fractional part of a machine section cycle at which one event is desired to occur.
Apparatus in accordance with the present invention avoids the necessity for providing a shaft encoder or pulse generator associated with the glassware forming machine, or apparatus associated therewith in mechanically handling glass, for example the glass feeder which provides gobs to the machine, the gob distributor or a drive shaft such as that associated with the take-away conveyor which carries the glassware articles away from the machine, for generating multiple pulses during each feeder cycle.
Preferably, the factor (Q) is updated once in each cycle of a machine section.
Conveniently, the factor (Q) is updated by a signal derived from a feeder feeding gobs of molten glass to all the sections of the glassware forming machine. In the preferred embodiment the factor (Q) is updated by such a signal only when the sum of the series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of a section machine cycle since the previous updating of the factor (Q) corresponds to the completion of at least one programmed machine section cycle.
Alternatively, however, the factor (Q) may be updated utilising a pulse produced once per cycle from a distributor mechanism for distributing gobs to the respective machine sections. The production of a pulse once per cycle of a glassware forming machine is described in U.K. Patent Specification No. 1,455,574 in which the pulse results from a coincidence between pulses produced by two rotors which are rotating at different speeds.
In the embodiment of the invention which will be described, the factor (Q) is applied to the series of binary clock signals to produce therefrom a corresponding number of signals in the said series of signals representative of fractional parts of a machine section cycle, but at a different rate from the rate at which the said series of binary clock signals is produced.
In apparatus in accordance with the present invention the control system may be a hardwired system having the binary words which are representative of the fractional parts of the machine section cycle at which events are desired to occur stored in a ferrite core store.
In such apparatus all the said binary words in the core store are examined at each updating of the cycle counter by a signal representative of a unitary fractional part of the machine section cycle for a positive comparison with the updated cycle counter.
However, advantageously, apparatus in accordance with the present invention has a control system including a general purpose digital computer with suitable memory and access thereto for producing control signals to solenoid valves or the like when appropriate, which system also stores a sequence of events within a machine cycle. Preferably, when a general purpose digital computer such as a commercially available minicomputer is employed, the binary words are preferably stored in a memory in the form of a threaded list.
In the preferred embodiment of the present invention which will be described the stored binary words each constitute a first part of a respective binary element also having a second part which is a binary word representing the identity of the particular section event and its desired state, a third part which is a binary word representing the desired condition (on/ off) of a solenoid valve corresponding to the particular section event, and a fourth part which is a binary word representing the memory address of the binary element corresponding to the next succeeding event in the machine section cycle.
Further in accordance with another aspect of the present invention there is provided apparatus for forming glassware which comprises a glassware forming machine having a plurality of sections in each of which a series of events is performed in a predetermined sequence, which constitutes a machine section cycle, in accordance with binary words which are stored in a memory and which are representative of fractional parts of the machine section cycle at which each of the events is programmed to occur in a cycle time for the machine section, which cycle time is also stored, in which a series of binary clock signals is produced at a fixed frequency independently of the machine section or any apparatus mechanically associated therewith, a factor (Q) is derived from an input made once in each machine cycle, the factor (Q) is applied to the series of binary clock signals to produce a series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of a machine section cycle, a cycle counter is incremented by the signals representative of unitary fractional parts of the machine section cycle, each of the events of the said series of events is initiated following a satisfied comparison between the incremented cycle counter and a stored binary word representative of the fractional part of the machine section cycle at which that event is desired to occur, and the input utilised to up date the factor (Q) is derived from the operation of a mechanical part of, or associated with, the machine.
As already indicated the preferred embodi ment of apparatus in accordance with the present invention which will be described utilises a commercially available minicomputer for taking advantage of its memory and its programming capability. The feeder to the glassware forming machine provides a once per feeder cycle input to the minicomputer and a function generator produces trigger pulses each millisecond so that a factor (Q) can be calculated to relate these trigger pulses to fractional portions of the cycle, and hence to the event timings stored in memory. The sequence of events stored in memory comprise a threaded list of elements, each of which has four parts. The first part comprises the frac tional part of the cycle at which the particular event is to occur and the last part the address of the next succeeding element.The second part contains information to be interpreted for display on an operator's console, and to permit orderly access to the information contained in the four word element. The third part con tains the identity of a particular output, and its desired condition (on/off).
The signals representative of unitary fractional parts of a machine section cycle time the interrupts to the computer which are required to achieve the inherent sequential con trol basic to the I. S. type, and other types, of glassware forming machines.
Accordingly, a simple sensor, or proximity switch, is provided on the feeder to update the programmed sequence of events once per cycle. The interrupts required to sequence the solenoids in accordance with the stored program are derived from a commercially available function generator tied directly to the processor of the minicomputer.
The present invention will be further under stood from the following detailed description of one embodiment thereof, which is made, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which: Fig. 1 shows in schematic fashion the essen tial elements which comprise in combination the control system of the present invention.
Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate the threaded list logic of the system.
Referring now to Fig. 1, the glassware forming machine to be controlled is shown at 10, and comprises a plurality of individual sections arranged in-line, and each section is adapted to produce glassware articles, and to deposit them on a take-away conveyor (not shown). The molten glass gobs are delivered to the blank mould side of each section in a predetermined sequence from a feeder 12 which feeds gobs to these sections in a conven tional manner. The cycle of the machine 10 (and of its several sections) is dictated by the size and shape of the articles to be produced, and will vary for different production setups.
Although the rate at which the molten glass gobs are produced does dictate the cycle time of the I. S. machine, this cycle time need vary only slightly once the machine has been set up for a production run. We have found that such variations may be ignored during a machine cycle, and the system to be described takes advantage of this by sensing only the condition of a proximity switch 14, as a once per feeder cycle pulse produced by some cyclically movable part on the feeder. This design concept has facilitated the control of the I. S. machine timing from a commercially available function generator 16 and other digital computer components, to be described, during the machine cycle without reference to any continuously monitored shaft position or the like.
Still with reference to Fig. 1, a commercially available minicomputer 18 has conventional processor, memory, and input/output register means linked to one another so that data can be stored for.processing by the processor in accordance with program means, which includes means for varying the stored data from a console 20. Preferably, the minicomputer 18 comprises a PDP-1 1 manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts. This computer is of the general purpose digital type and has an internal clock (not shown) for timing purposes, and a UNIBUS architecture wherein addresses, data, and control information are sent along the 56 lines of the bus, indicated by the double arrow lines in Fig. 1.The PDP-11 UNIBUS architecture provides for bidirectional and asynchronous communication between the processor, the core memory, and input or output devices as indicated in Fig. 1. In order to permit all of these devices access to the UNIBUS through the addressing system used, a priority structure determines which device gets control of the bus when two request use of the bus simultaneously. The asynchronous feature allows the processor to perform data transfers directly between an input or output device and memory without disturbing the processor registers.
All sequencing is done by a programmed PDP-1 1 minicomputer using a function generator and an external proximity switch 14 located at the feeder 12 above the I. S. machine 10. The processor measures and records the machine cycle time. This time represents a machine cycle, and a constant Q is calculated to correlate time to a unitary fractional part of that machine cycle. At preset time intervals determined by the function generator, the processor CPU adds the factor Q to the contents of a core store location (cycle counter). This updated core store content is compared to the next element in a threaded or linked list also contained in the core store.
This list is composed of a number of elements. The number of elements is determined by how many valves on the I. S.
machine are to be turned on or off, and how many times each valve is to be turned on or off within a cycle. There is one element in the threaded list for each change of state of a valve. Thus, if during one I. S. machine cycle, a valve is turned on twice and off twice, there are four changes of state, requiring four elements. A typical I. S. machine has 21 valves per I. S. machine section, and 8 sections per I. S. machine. There are thus 168 valves. Each valve is typically turned on and off once per machine cycle, with typically one exception, that exception being the valve controlling the baffle mechanism on each section.
That valve is typically turned on and off twice during each I. S. machine cycle. Thus, a typical I. S. machine has a threaded list containing 352 elements.
An element is composed on four memory words, and each memory word is 16 bits in length.
Each element is set up as follows: The first word contains the fractional part, or angle, at which the valve state change is to take place. This angle is between 0 and 359.9" where 360 equals one cycle. The second word contains information for operator display and identification purposes. The third word contains the output number and the state in which it is to be left (on or off). The fourth word contains the memory address of the next element in the threaded list.
The elements in the threaded list are arranged in sequence by angle, that angle being in the first word of each element.
Fig. 2 shows by way of example a five element threaded, or linked list, wherein the first word of each element comprises an angle stored in memory; the second word comprises operator display information identifying the section, event, and state (on/off); the third word comprises the output or driver number and its state; and the fourth word comprises the memory address of the next element in the threaded list. An-unused or blank element is also shown at F in Fig. 2, and illustrates the unused core storage capacity of the minicomputer.
From zero degrees in a cycle, in the example given in Fig. 2, the cycle counter is updated at a preset interval determined by the function generator 16 by the successive addition of the constant Q. This new accumulated value of the cycle counter is then compared with the first word (angle) stored in the next element in the threaded list (element A in Fig. 2).
When the contents of the cycle counter core store location is equal to or greater than the angle in the first word of element A, the processor performs the operation called for by the third word (output 16 on).
The fourth word is read by the processor, when such operation has been called for, to update a pointer, located in core store, so that further comparisons can be made with the first word (angle) of element B.
This process is repeated for elements B, C, D, and E in the threaded list of Fig. 2.
Element E continues the cycle back through element A etc. Element F is not used, that is this element is not in the threaded list.
To change the angle at which a particular event takes place, the operator, via the operator's console, enters information describing the new angle with reference to a particular element if he merely wants to vary the sequence within a particular cycle that this event is to occur. This information causes the following changes in the threaded list: A search for the element in the threaded list which pertains to the given event takes place (element D in our example). Upon finding the element, the CPU searches core store for an unused element (element F in Fig. 2). The CPU next copies all the information in words two and three from the old element (element D) into words two and three of the unused element (element F).The new angle is put in the first word of the unused element (in Fig. 3, 315 ). Next, the CPU searches the threaded list for the proper insertion place for the new element. By changing the linkage of the threaded list, the new element is linked into the list, and the old element is excluded from the linkage and marked as unused.
The preferred minicomputer currently used for the above described embodiment is the DEC PDP-1 1, not only because it is well suited to perform the above described operations when provided with the factored clock signal Q from the function generator 16, but also because DEC has recently introduced to the trade a compatible system, the ICS-1 1 which provides a separately housed source of input/output modules, which can be. located adjacent to the I. S. machine and feeder, and which still comprises a continuation of the UNIBUS architecture such that these modules contain circuitry for addressing, encoding, decoding, interrupt control and servicing, as well as data multiplexing and transfer.Thus, the proximity switch 14 data signal is encoded and fed to the UNIBUS through an input card in the module 26, and emergency stop manual switches on each section of the machine are also so received in the system. So too are the start/stop sequence control switches, and the gob delivery switch for each section as indicated at 28. The emergency, and normal shut down sequences are stored in memory for controlling these modes of operation in addition to the normal operating mode described above, and so too is the start-up mode, and the gob delivery mode, which introduces hot glass to each section after checking a machine set-up upon preparation for production of a particular size and shape of glassware. The subprogrammed, selectively addressable sequences are described in one or more of the U.S. patents listed above, and need not be described in detail herein. U.S.
patent No. 3,905,793 discloses these subprograms, and is incorporated by reference herein.
There has been hereinbefore described apparatus for forming articles of glassware which comprises a glassware forming machine and a control system which incorporates a general purpose digital computer for storing a sequence of events within a machine cycle, the system being capable of controlling the operation of the machine without the necessity of generating during each feeder cycle, multiple pulses from the glass feeder which provides gobs to the machine, or from a drive shaft such as that associated with the take-away conveyor which carries the glassware articles away from the machine.
WHAT WE CLAIM IS: 1. Apparatus for forming glassware which comprises a glassware forming machine having a plurality of sections in each of which a series of events is performed in a predetermined sequence constituting a machine section cycle, and a control system in which a series of binary clock signals is produced at a rate which is independent of the speed of either the machine or any apparatus associated therewith in mechanically handling glass, a factor (Q) is applied to the series of binary clock signals to produce a series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of a machine section cycle, a cycle counter is updated by the series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of the machine section cycle, and each of the events of the said series of events is initiated following a satisfied comparison between the updated cycle counter and binary words which are stored in a memory and each of which is representative of the fractional part of a machine section cycle at which one event is desired to occur.
2. Apparatus according to Claim 1 wherein the factor (Q) is updated once in each cycle of a machine section.
3. Apparatus according to Claim 1 in which the factor (Q) is updated by a signal derived from a feeder feeding gobs of molten glass to all the sections of the glassware forming machine.
4. Apparatus according to Claim 3 wherein the signal is obtained from a proximity switch provided on the feeder.
5. Apparatus according to Claim 4 in which the factor (Q) is updated only when the sum of the series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of a section machine cycle since the previous updating of the factor (Q) corresponds to the completion of at least one programmed machine section cycle.
6. Apparatus according to Claim 2 in which the factor (Q) is updated utilising a pulse produced one per cycle from a distributor mechanism for distributing gobs to the respective machine sections.
7. Apparatus according to any one of Claims 1 to 6, in which the factor (Q) is applied to the series of binary clock signals to produce therefrom a corresponding number of signals in the said series of signals representative of fractional parts of a machine section cycle, but at a different rate from the rate at which the said series of binary clock signals is produced.
8. Apparatus according to any one of the preceding claims in which the stored binary words each constitute a first part of a respective binary element also having a second part which is a binary word representing the identity of the particular section event and its desired state, a third part which is a binary word representing the desired condition (on/off) of a solenoid valve corresponding to the particular section event, and a fourth part which is a binary word representing the memory address of the binary element corresponding to the next succeeding event in the machine section cycle.
9. Apparatus for forming glassware comprising a glassware forming machine having a plurality of sections in each of which a series of events is performed in a predetermined sequence, which constiutes a machine section cycle, in accordance with binary words which are stored in a memory and which are representative of fractional parts of the machine section cycle at which each of the events is programmed to occur in a cycle time for the machine section, which cycle time is also stored, in which a series of binary clock signals is produced at a fixed frequency independently of the machine section or any apparatus mechanically associated therewith, a factor (Q) is derived from an input made once in each machine cycle, the factor (Q) is applied to the series of binary clock signals to produce a series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of a machine section cycle, a cycle counter is incremented by the signals representative of unitary fractional parts of the machine section cycle, each of the events of the said series of events is initiated following a satisfied comparison between the incremented cycle counter and a stored binary word representative of the fractional part of the machine section cycle at which that event is desired to occur, and the input utilised to update the factor (Q) is derived from the operation of a mechanical part of, or associated with, the machine.
10. Apparatus according to Claim 9, where
**WARNING** end of DESC field may overlap start of CLMS **.

Claims (14)

**WARNING** start of CLMS field may overlap end of DESC **. described above, and so too is the start-up mode, and the gob delivery mode, which introduces hot glass to each section after checking a machine set-up upon preparation for production of a particular size and shape of glassware. The subprogrammed, selectively addressable sequences are described in one or more of the U.S. patents listed above, and need not be described in detail herein. U.S. patent No. 3,905,793 discloses these subprograms, and is incorporated by reference herein. There has been hereinbefore described apparatus for forming articles of glassware which comprises a glassware forming machine and a control system which incorporates a general purpose digital computer for storing a sequence of events within a machine cycle, the system being capable of controlling the operation of the machine without the necessity of generating during each feeder cycle, multiple pulses from the glass feeder which provides gobs to the machine, or from a drive shaft such as that associated with the take-away conveyor which carries the glassware articles away from the machine. WHAT WE CLAIM IS:
1. Apparatus for forming glassware which comprises a glassware forming machine having a plurality of sections in each of which a series of events is performed in a predetermined sequence constituting a machine section cycle, and a control system in which a series of binary clock signals is produced at a rate which is independent of the speed of either the machine or any apparatus associated therewith in mechanically handling glass, a factor (Q) is applied to the series of binary clock signals to produce a series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of a machine section cycle, a cycle counter is updated by the series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of the machine section cycle, and each of the events of the said series of events is initiated following a satisfied comparison between the updated cycle counter and binary words which are stored in a memory and each of which is representative of the fractional part of a machine section cycle at which one event is desired to occur.
2. Apparatus according to Claim 1 wherein the factor (Q) is updated once in each cycle of a machine section.
3. Apparatus according to Claim 1 in which the factor (Q) is updated by a signal derived from a feeder feeding gobs of molten glass to all the sections of the glassware forming machine.
4. Apparatus according to Claim 3 wherein the signal is obtained from a proximity switch provided on the feeder.
5. Apparatus according to Claim 4 in which the factor (Q) is updated only when the sum of the series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of a section machine cycle since the previous updating of the factor (Q) corresponds to the completion of at least one programmed machine section cycle.
6. Apparatus according to Claim 2 in which the factor (Q) is updated utilising a pulse produced one per cycle from a distributor mechanism for distributing gobs to the respective machine sections.
7. Apparatus according to any one of Claims 1 to 6, in which the factor (Q) is applied to the series of binary clock signals to produce therefrom a corresponding number of signals in the said series of signals representative of fractional parts of a machine section cycle, but at a different rate from the rate at which the said series of binary clock signals is produced.
8. Apparatus according to any one of the preceding claims in which the stored binary words each constitute a first part of a respective binary element also having a second part which is a binary word representing the identity of the particular section event and its desired state, a third part which is a binary word representing the desired condition (on/off) of a solenoid valve corresponding to the particular section event, and a fourth part which is a binary word representing the memory address of the binary element corresponding to the next succeeding event in the machine section cycle.
9. Apparatus for forming glassware comprising a glassware forming machine having a plurality of sections in each of which a series of events is performed in a predetermined sequence, which constiutes a machine section cycle, in accordance with binary words which are stored in a memory and which are representative of fractional parts of the machine section cycle at which each of the events is programmed to occur in a cycle time for the machine section, which cycle time is also stored, in which a series of binary clock signals is produced at a fixed frequency independently of the machine section or any apparatus mechanically associated therewith, a factor (Q) is derived from an input made once in each machine cycle, the factor (Q) is applied to the series of binary clock signals to produce a series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of a machine section cycle, a cycle counter is incremented by the signals representative of unitary fractional parts of the machine section cycle, each of the events of the said series of events is initiated following a satisfied comparison between the incremented cycle counter and a stored binary word representative of the fractional part of the machine section cycle at which that event is desired to occur, and the input utilised to update the factor (Q) is derived from the operation of a mechanical part of, or associated with, the machine.
10. Apparatus according to Claim 9, where
in the input utilised to update the factor (Q) is derived from the operation of a mechanical part which is cyclically moved a plurality of times within each cycle time, and the input is utilised only when the sum of the series of signals representative of unitary fractional parts of a machine section cycle is equal to, or greater than, the stored cycle time.
11. Apparatus for forming glassware which comprises a glassware forming machine having a plurality of sections which receive gobs of molten glass from a feeder, each section including a plurality of solenoid valves for controlling the various pneumatic components in the machine section, and said solenoid valves being energized and deenergized in a predetermined sequence to define a cycle for that section, and a control system comprising: a) a fixed frequency function generator and associated encoding means providing a series of binary clock signals of frequency independent of the speed of the machine or its feeder, b) digital computer means including a processor, and accessible memory means with a stored sequence of events for said machine section each event being defined by a binary element, each of which elements includes the following binary words:: 1) a desired fractional part of a section cycle at which an event is to occur, 2) the identity of a particular section event and its desired state, 3) the desired condition (on/off) of the solenoid valve corresponding to that event, and 4) the memory address of the next succeeding binary element corresponding to the next succeeding event in the cycle, c) means for applying a factor (Q) to said series of binary clock signals to provide the processor of said digital computer means with a series of interrupt signals, and said processor also serving to sum the series of unitary fractional parts of the section cycle and to update a memory location (cycle counter), d) said means further including comparator means for comparing said cycle counter memory word to the first word of the accessed binary element from memory and for accessing the next succeeding binary element following a positive comparison based upon the fourth word thereof, e) interface means responsive to such a positive comparison for energizing or deenergizing the identified solenoid based upon the second and third words of the accessed binary element from memory and f) data entry means for selectively varying the first word of certain of said linked elements to vary the desired fractional part of a section cycle at which certain of said events are to occur.
12. Apparatus according to Claim 11, wherein said means further includes means for periodically updating the factor (Q) and hence the unitary fractional part of the section cycle determined thereby, said means for updating the factor (Q) comprising means responsive to the cycle time period of the feeder associated with the machine, and said means providing said updating only when the sum of the series of interrupt signals corresponds to the completion of at least one programmed section cycle.
13. Apparatus according to Claim 11 or Claim 12, wherein said means further includes means for discriminating between said certain events within a section cycle and other events related thereto, and altering the latter in predetermined relationship to the former in response to said data entry means for varying the desired fractional part of a cycle at which both said certain event and said other related events are to occur.
14. Apparatus comprising a glassware forming machine, substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
GB285878A 1977-01-24 1978-01-24 Apparatus for forming glassware Expired GB1594532A (en)

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BE (1) BE861247A (en)
CA (1) CA1089057A (en)
DE (1) DE2751307C2 (en)
FR (1) FR2377977B1 (en)
GB (1) GB1594532A (en)
IN (1) IN147980B (en)
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MX145266A (en) * 1977-06-06 1982-01-19 Fabricacion De Maquinas Sa IMPROVEMENTS IN ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR GLASS AND THERMOPLASTIC ARTICLE FORMING MACHINES
US4152134A (en) * 1977-12-30 1979-05-01 Owens-Illinois, Inc. Electronic control system for an individual section glassware forming machine
JPS54101206A (en) * 1978-01-26 1979-08-09 Nissan Motor Channel selection programming device for radio receiver
US4247317A (en) * 1978-04-20 1981-01-27 Ball Corporation Glassware forming machine computer-ram controller system
FR2427649B1 (en) * 1978-05-31 1985-10-25 Hawker Siddeley Dynamics Eng Control system for industrial repetitive processes
JPS6323281B2 (en) * 1981-10-12 1988-05-16 Nishio Yukyoshi
US5247450A (en) * 1991-02-12 1993-09-21 Vhc Ltd. Electronic timing system for glassware-forming machines
US5410474A (en) * 1993-07-27 1995-04-25 Miles Inc. Buttonless memory system for an electronic measurement device

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DE2305337A1 (en) * 1973-02-03 1974-08-08 Licentia Gmbh RADAR COMMAND CENTER
US3905793A (en) * 1974-10-21 1975-09-16 Emhart Corp Computer control for glassware forming machine
DE2545764C2 (en) * 1975-10-13 1985-03-14 L. Schuler Gmbh, 7320 Goeppingen, De
FR2331834B1 (en) * 1975-11-14 1978-05-19 Mte

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JPS5424409B2 (en) 1979-08-21
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BE861247A (en) 1978-03-16
SE439393B (en) 1985-06-10
AU505973B2 (en) 1979-12-06
FR2377977A1 (en) 1978-08-18
SE7712880L (en) 1978-07-25
DE2751307A1 (en) 1978-07-27
FR2377977B1 (en) 1982-05-14
BE861247A1 (en)
CA1089057A (en) 1980-11-04
DE2751307C2 (en) 1985-08-22
IT1089036B (en) 1985-06-10
IN147980B (en) 1980-09-06
JPS5394316A (en) 1978-08-18

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PS Patent sealed
732 Registration of transactions, instruments or events in the register (sect. 32/1977)
PE20 Patent expired after termination of 20 years

Effective date: 19980123