GB1394171A - Blood glucose level monitoring-alarm system and method therefor - Google Patents

Blood glucose level monitoring-alarm system and method therefor

Info

Publication number
GB1394171A
GB1394171A GB2345673A GB2345673A GB1394171A GB 1394171 A GB1394171 A GB 1394171A GB 2345673 A GB2345673 A GB 2345673A GB 2345673 A GB2345673 A GB 2345673A GB 1394171 A GB1394171 A GB 1394171A
Authority
GB
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
glucose
anode
diffusion
cathode
oxygen
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
GB2345673A
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Whittaker Corp
Original Assignee
Whittaker Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/0002Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network
    • A61B5/0031Implanted circuitry
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue
    • A61B5/14532Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue for measuring glucose, e.g. by tissue impedance measurement
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/26Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating electrochemical variables; by using electrolysis or electrophoresis
    • G01N27/28Electrolytic cell components
    • G01N27/30Electrodes, e.g. test electrodes; Half-cells
    • G01N27/327Biochemical electrodes electrical and mechanical details of in vitro measurements
    • G01N27/3271Amperometric enzyme electrodes for analytes in body fluids, e.g. glucose in blood
    • G01N27/3273Devices therefor, e.g. test element readers, circuitry

Abstract

1394171 Surgical implants WHITTAKER CORP 16 May 1973 23456/73 Heading A5R [Also in Divisions H1 G1 and G3] The blood glucose level of a human body is monitored by an implanted glucose diffusion-limited cell 10. A membrane 14 (materials are exemplified) which permits free transmission of oxygen and glucose &c but impedes the diffusion of large macro-molecules defines a chamber 16 within which are positioned metal catalyst coated anode 18 and cathode 20, body fluid within the chamber acting as an electrolyte. Cathode 20 has a larger surface area than the anode 18 and is covered with a thin layer of membrane 22 which allows free passage of water, oxygen &c but strongly resists the diffusion of glucose molecules so that it serves as an oxygen electrode. The anode 18 is covered with a relatively thick layer 24 of porous plastics material which impedes the diffusion of glucose. Thus the rate of oxygen molecules arriving at the cathode is always larger than the rate of glucose impingement on the anode surface and the current that can be drawn from the cell 10 is proportional to the diffusion of glucose molecules and hence to the concentration of glucose in the body fluid which is in turn proportional to the concentration of glucose in the blood. The anode and cathode catalyst materials are different, suitable materials for the anode being platinum black or group VIII transition metals and for the cathode Group Ib metals such as gold, silver Anion and/or cation exchange membrane may be interposed directly between the two electrodes to serve as a solid electrolyte as well as a partition for two half cells. Circuitry. The output current from cell 10 is after amplification 30 applied to a current to frequency converter 32 connected to a pulse code modulation transmitter 34, Fig. 3 (not shown) so that the blood glucose level signal may be transmitted to an appropriate receiver, Fig. 4 (not shown) outside the body. The receiver circuit includes a voltage comparator which compares the blood glucose level with a voltage or a range of voltages which represent a natural or desired level. If the level goes outside the range an alarm may be operated to signify the requirement of addition of glucose or insulin in a diabetic and appropriate values are actuated to add the glucose or insulin. Degradation of the platinum anode surface is counteracted by using a third biased electrode and cycling the anode from anodic to cathiodic using pulses. Instead of monitoring the output current of the fuel cell other characteristics which may be measured include the rate of potential rise in a cell on charging the temperature rise due to glucose oxidation, the change in pH value as a result of the formation of gluconic acid and the reduction of oxygen tension as a result of O 2 consumption.
GB2345673A 1973-05-16 1973-05-16 Blood glucose level monitoring-alarm system and method therefor Expired GB1394171A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB2345673A GB1394171A (en) 1973-05-16 1973-05-16 Blood glucose level monitoring-alarm system and method therefor

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB2345673A GB1394171A (en) 1973-05-16 1973-05-16 Blood glucose level monitoring-alarm system and method therefor

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB1394171A true true GB1394171A (en) 1975-05-14

Family

ID=10195926

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB2345673A Expired GB1394171A (en) 1973-05-16 1973-05-16 Blood glucose level monitoring-alarm system and method therefor

Country Status (1)

Country Link
GB (1) GB1394171A (en)

Cited By (70)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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FR2406825A1 (en) * 1977-10-22 1979-05-18 Mitsubishi Chem Ind Method and apparatus for the determination of glucose
FR2423778A1 (en) * 1978-04-20 1979-11-16 Siemens Ag Method for determining the concentration of sugar and detector electrocatalytic own sugar such process
US4230122A (en) * 1977-08-22 1980-10-28 Max Planck Gesellschaft Fuer Foerderung Der Wissenschaften Transcutaneous monitoring of critical perfusion-efficiency situations
EP0245073A2 (en) * 1986-05-06 1987-11-11 The Regents Of The University Of California A complete glucose monitoring system with an implantable, telemetered sensor module
EP0453283A1 (en) * 1990-04-19 1991-10-23 Teknekron Sensor Development Corporation An integral interstitial fluid sensor
US6103033A (en) 1998-03-04 2000-08-15 Therasense, Inc. Process for producing an electrochemical biosensor
WO2000053257A1 (en) * 1999-03-05 2000-09-14 Impulse Dynamics Nv Blood glucose level control
US6120676A (en) 1997-02-06 2000-09-19 Therasense, Inc. Method of using a small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US6134461A (en) 1998-03-04 2000-10-17 E. Heller & Company Electrochemical analyte
US6162611A (en) 1993-12-02 2000-12-19 E. Heller & Company Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US6175752B1 (en) 1998-04-30 2001-01-16 Therasense, Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US6251260B1 (en) 1998-08-24 2001-06-26 Therasense, Inc. Potentiometric sensors for analytic determination
US6299757B1 (en) 1998-10-08 2001-10-09 Therasense, Inc. Small volume in vitro analyte sensor with diffusible or non-leachable redox mediator
US6591125B1 (en) 2000-06-27 2003-07-08 Therasense, Inc. Small volume in vitro analyte sensor with diffusible or non-leachable redox mediator
US6616819B1 (en) 1999-11-04 2003-09-09 Therasense, Inc. Small volume in vitro analyte sensor and methods
US6654625B1 (en) 1999-06-18 2003-11-25 Therasense, Inc. Mass transport limited in vivo analyte sensor
US6810286B2 (en) 2000-03-06 2004-10-26 Medtronic, Inc Stimulation for delivery of molecular therapy
US7006871B1 (en) 1997-07-16 2006-02-28 Metacure N.V. Blood glucose level control
EP1825880A1 (en) * 1999-03-05 2007-08-29 Metacure Limited Blood glucose level control
WO2010079329A1 (en) * 2009-01-08 2010-07-15 James Gordon Campbell Method and apparatus for alcohol concentration detection in a blood sample
US7766829B2 (en) 2005-11-04 2010-08-03 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and system for providing basal profile modification in analyte monitoring and management systems
US7811231B2 (en) 2002-12-31 2010-10-12 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Continuous glucose monitoring system and methods of use
US7840262B2 (en) 2003-03-10 2010-11-23 Impulse Dynamics Nv Apparatus and method for delivering electrical signals to modify gene expression in cardiac tissue
US7928850B2 (en) 2007-05-08 2011-04-19 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring system and methods
US7966071B2 (en) 1997-07-16 2011-06-21 Metacure Limited Method and apparatus for regulating glucose level
US8019421B2 (en) 1999-03-05 2011-09-13 Metacure Limited Blood glucose level control
US8029442B2 (en) 2002-11-05 2011-10-04 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Sensor inserter assembly
US8066639B2 (en) 2003-06-10 2011-11-29 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Glucose measuring device for use in personal area network
US8103456B2 (en) 2009-01-29 2012-01-24 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and device for early signal attenuation detection using blood glucose measurements
US8112240B2 (en) 2005-04-29 2012-02-07 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and apparatus for providing leak detection in data monitoring and management systems
US8123686B2 (en) 2007-03-01 2012-02-28 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and apparatus for providing rolling data in communication systems
US8149117B2 (en) 2007-05-08 2012-04-03 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring system and methods
US8226891B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2012-07-24 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring devices and methods therefor
US8244371B2 (en) 2005-03-18 2012-08-14 Metacure Limited Pancreas lead
US8260416B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2012-09-04 Impulse Dynamics, N.V. Electrical muscle controller
US8287454B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2012-10-16 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US8321013B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2012-11-27 Impulse Dynamics, N.V. Electrical muscle controller and pacing with hemodynamic enhancement
US8346337B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2013-01-01 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US8346363B2 (en) 1999-03-05 2013-01-01 Metacure Limited Blood glucose level control
US8352031B2 (en) 2004-03-10 2013-01-08 Impulse Dynamics Nv Protein activity modification
US8456301B2 (en) 2007-05-08 2013-06-04 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring system and methods
US8465425B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2013-06-18 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US8548583B2 (en) 2004-03-10 2013-10-01 Impulse Dynamics Nv Protein activity modification
US8593109B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2013-11-26 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and system for powering an electronic device
US8612159B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2013-12-17 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US8652043B2 (en) 2001-01-02 2014-02-18 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US8655444B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2014-02-18 Impulse Dynamics, N.V. Electrical muscle controller
US8665091B2 (en) 2007-05-08 2014-03-04 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and device for determining elapsed sensor life
US8666495B2 (en) 1999-03-05 2014-03-04 Metacure Limited Gastrointestinal methods and apparatus for use in treating disorders and controlling blood sugar
US8688188B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2014-04-01 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US8700161B2 (en) 1999-03-05 2014-04-15 Metacure Limited Blood glucose level control
US8732188B2 (en) 2007-02-18 2014-05-20 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and system for providing contextual based medication dosage determination
US8771183B2 (en) 2004-02-17 2014-07-08 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and system for providing data communication in continuous glucose monitoring and management system
US8792985B2 (en) 2003-07-21 2014-07-29 Metacure Limited Gastrointestinal methods and apparatus for use in treating disorders and controlling blood sugar
US8825152B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2014-09-02 Impulse Dynamics, N.V. Modulation of intracellular calcium concentration using non-excitatory electrical signals applied to the tissue
US8930203B2 (en) 2007-02-18 2015-01-06 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Multi-function analyte test device and methods therefor
US8934975B2 (en) 2010-02-01 2015-01-13 Metacure Limited Gastrointestinal electrical therapy
US8974386B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2015-03-10 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US8993331B2 (en) 2009-08-31 2015-03-31 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring system and methods for managing power and noise
US9066695B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2015-06-30 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US9101765B2 (en) 1999-03-05 2015-08-11 Metacure Limited Non-immediate effects of therapy
US9226701B2 (en) 2009-04-28 2016-01-05 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Error detection in critical repeating data in a wireless sensor system
US9289618B1 (en) 1996-01-08 2016-03-22 Impulse Dynamics Nv Electrical muscle controller
US9314195B2 (en) 2009-08-31 2016-04-19 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte signal processing device and methods
US9320461B2 (en) 2009-09-29 2016-04-26 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and apparatus for providing notification function in analyte monitoring systems
US9668684B2 (en) 2009-02-26 2017-06-06 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Self-powered analyte sensor
US9713723B2 (en) 1996-01-11 2017-07-25 Impulse Dynamics Nv Signal delivery through the right ventricular septum
US9931503B2 (en) 2003-03-10 2018-04-03 Impulse Dynamics Nv Protein activity modification
US9968306B2 (en) 2012-09-17 2018-05-15 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Methods and apparatuses for providing adverse condition notification with enhanced wireless communication range in analyte monitoring systems
US9980669B2 (en) 2011-11-07 2018-05-29 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods

Cited By (251)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4230122A (en) * 1977-08-22 1980-10-28 Max Planck Gesellschaft Fuer Foerderung Der Wissenschaften Transcutaneous monitoring of critical perfusion-efficiency situations
FR2406825A1 (en) * 1977-10-22 1979-05-18 Mitsubishi Chem Ind Method and apparatus for the determination of glucose
FR2423778A1 (en) * 1978-04-20 1979-11-16 Siemens Ag Method for determining the concentration of sugar and detector electrocatalytic own sugar such process
EP0245073A2 (en) * 1986-05-06 1987-11-11 The Regents Of The University Of California A complete glucose monitoring system with an implantable, telemetered sensor module
EP0245073A3 (en) * 1986-05-06 1989-03-29 The Regents Of The University Of California A complete glucose monitoring system with an implantable, telemetered sensor module
US5161532A (en) * 1990-04-19 1992-11-10 Teknekron Sensor Development Corporation Integral interstitial fluid sensor
EP0453283A1 (en) * 1990-04-19 1991-10-23 Teknekron Sensor Development Corporation An integral interstitial fluid sensor
US8588881B2 (en) 1991-03-04 2013-11-19 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US6514718B2 (en) 1991-03-04 2003-02-04 Therasense, Inc. Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US8741590B2 (en) 1991-03-04 2014-06-03 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US6284478B1 (en) 1993-12-02 2001-09-04 E. Heller & Company Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US6329161B1 (en) 1993-12-02 2001-12-11 Therasense, Inc. Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US6162611A (en) 1993-12-02 2000-12-19 E. Heller & Company Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US8301247B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2012-10-30 Impulse Dynamics, N.V. Electrical muscle controller
US8655444B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2014-02-18 Impulse Dynamics, N.V. Electrical muscle controller
US8321013B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2012-11-27 Impulse Dynamics, N.V. Electrical muscle controller and pacing with hemodynamic enhancement
US8311629B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2012-11-13 Impulse Dynamics, N.V. Electrical muscle controller
US9186514B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2015-11-17 Impulse Dynamics Nv Electrical muscle controller
US8306616B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2012-11-06 Impulse Dynamics, N.V. Electrical muscle controller
US8260416B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2012-09-04 Impulse Dynamics, N.V. Electrical muscle controller
US9289618B1 (en) 1996-01-08 2016-03-22 Impulse Dynamics Nv Electrical muscle controller
US8825152B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2014-09-02 Impulse Dynamics, N.V. Modulation of intracellular calcium concentration using non-excitatory electrical signals applied to the tissue
US8958872B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2015-02-17 Impulse Dynamics, N.V. Electrical muscle controller
US8306617B2 (en) 1996-01-08 2012-11-06 Impulse Dynamics N.V. Electrical muscle controller
US9713723B2 (en) 1996-01-11 2017-07-25 Impulse Dynamics Nv Signal delivery through the right ventricular septum
US8118992B2 (en) 1997-02-06 2012-02-21 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
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US6120676A (en) 1997-02-06 2000-09-19 Therasense, Inc. Method of using a small volume in vitro analyte sensor
US8123929B2 (en) 1997-02-06 2012-02-28 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Small volume in vitro analyte sensor
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US7006871B1 (en) 1997-07-16 2006-02-28 Metacure N.V. Blood glucose level control
US7966071B2 (en) 1997-07-16 2011-06-21 Metacure Limited Method and apparatus for regulating glucose level
US8219201B2 (en) 1997-07-16 2012-07-10 Metacure Limited Smooth muscle controller for controlling the level of a chemical in the blood stream
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US7879213B2 (en) 1998-03-04 2011-02-01 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Sensor for in vitro determination of glucose
US8463351B2 (en) 1998-03-04 2013-06-11 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Electrochemical analyte sensor
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US6103033A (en) 1998-03-04 2000-08-15 Therasense, Inc. Process for producing an electrochemical biosensor
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