GB1112274A - Improvements in or relating to electric heaters - Google Patents

Improvements in or relating to electric heaters

Info

Publication number
GB1112274A
GB1112274A GB2569465A GB2569465A GB1112274A GB 1112274 A GB1112274 A GB 1112274A GB 2569465 A GB2569465 A GB 2569465A GB 2569465 A GB2569465 A GB 2569465A GB 1112274 A GB1112274 A GB 1112274A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
sp
lt
gt
electrodes
heater
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
GB2569465A
Inventor
Nathaniel Ellmaker Hager
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Armstrong Cork Co
Original Assignee
Armstrong Cork Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Armstrong Cork Co filed Critical Armstrong Cork Co
Priority to GB2569465A priority Critical patent/GB1112274A/en
Publication of GB1112274A publication Critical patent/GB1112274A/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/10Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor
    • H05B3/12Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material
    • H05B3/14Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material the material being non-metallic
    • H05B3/146Conductive polymers, e.g. polyethylene, thermoplastics
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24DDOMESTIC- OR SPACE-HEATING SYSTEMS, e.g. CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS; DOMESTIC HOT-WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS THEREFOR
    • F24D13/00Electric heating systems
    • F24D13/02Electric heating systems solely using resistance heating, e.g. underfloor heating
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B30/00Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]
    • Y02B30/08Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] relating to domestic heating, space heating, domestic hot water heating [DHW] or supply systems
    • Y02B30/20Heat consumers, i.e. devices to provide the end-user with heat
    • Y02B30/26Radiant panels electrically heated

Abstract

1,112,274. Resistance heating elements. ARMSTRONG CORK CO. 17 June, 1965, No. 25694/65. Heading H5H. [Also in Division B5] A large area electric heater comprises a semiconductive layer, having a uniform thickness d inches and a resistivity R a in the range 4 x 10<SP>3</SP> to 4 x 10<SP>7</SP> ohm-inches, sandwiched between two electrodes at least one of which is a metal foil having a resistivity R s ohm-inches, a thickness t in the range 0À0001 to 0À01 inch, and a length L inches. The heater is constructed so that when a voltage V is impressed across the electrodes, current flows therebetween in a direction perpendicular to the planes of the electrodes, and the power per unit area P = V<SP>2</SP>/R a <SP>d</SP> does not vary more than 20% over the area of the heater. This is achieved by choosing t = KR s L<SP>2</SP>/R a <SP>d</SP> where K depends on the position and form of the power connections which extend across the width of the electrodes, and is in the range 4 to 2000. The power connections may be at corresponding or opposite ends of the electrodes and may be formed by extensions of the electrodes or by strips applied over the edges of the electrodes. One of the electrodes may be a rigid plate, so that the heater forms a food-warming or cooking plate, or the heater may be a flexible sheet for use in floors, walls, ceilings or roads. The heater may comprise two semi-conducting layers sandwiched between three electrodes, both outer electrodes being earthed. The electrodes may be of aluminium, copper or stainless steel and the semi-conducting adhesive layer of carbon black or graphite mixed with an epoxy resin or thermoplastic material. A suitable epoxy resin is the reaction product of epichlorohydrin and a bis-phenol which is mixed with a hardening agent or catalyst, e.g. amines or amides, and melted or applied as a film to one or both electrodes which are then pressed together and heated to cure the resin. Suitable thermoplastic materials are polyvinyl acetate, vinyl chloride - vinyl acetate copolymers, vinyl acetate-ethyl acrylate copolymers, ethyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate copolymers, and acrylic ester polymers. Conducting ceramic materials may also be used for the semi-conducting layer. Specific examples are given.
GB2569465A 1965-06-17 1965-06-17 Improvements in or relating to electric heaters Expired GB1112274A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB2569465A GB1112274A (en) 1965-06-17 1965-06-17 Improvements in or relating to electric heaters

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB2569465A GB1112274A (en) 1965-06-17 1965-06-17 Improvements in or relating to electric heaters

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB1112274A true GB1112274A (en) 1968-05-01

Family

ID=10231784

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB2569465A Expired GB1112274A (en) 1965-06-17 1965-06-17 Improvements in or relating to electric heaters

Country Status (1)

Country Link
GB (1) GB1112274A (en)

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2141610A (en) * 1983-05-11 1984-12-19 Raychem Corp Laminar electric heaters
US4548662A (en) * 1983-05-11 1985-10-22 Raychem Corporation Method of providing a protective covering over a substrate
US4764664A (en) * 1976-12-13 1988-08-16 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
US4866253A (en) * 1976-12-13 1989-09-12 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
US4876440A (en) * 1976-12-13 1989-10-24 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
GB2470471A (en) * 2009-05-15 2010-11-24 Sagentia Ltd Thin film heating element combined with power control element .

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4764664A (en) * 1976-12-13 1988-08-16 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
US4866253A (en) * 1976-12-13 1989-09-12 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
US4876440A (en) * 1976-12-13 1989-10-24 Raychem Corporation Electrical devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
GB2141610A (en) * 1983-05-11 1984-12-19 Raychem Corp Laminar electric heaters
US4517449A (en) * 1983-05-11 1985-05-14 Raychem Corporation Laminar electrical heaters
US4548662A (en) * 1983-05-11 1985-10-22 Raychem Corporation Method of providing a protective covering over a substrate
GB2470471A (en) * 2009-05-15 2010-11-24 Sagentia Ltd Thin film heating element combined with power control element .

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4845343A (en) Electrical devices comprising fabrics
EP0340361B1 (en) Electrical device comprising a PTC-resistive polymer element
US4783587A (en) Self-regulating heating article having electrodes directly connected to a PTC layer
US4223209A (en) Article having heating elements comprising conductive polymers capable of dimensional change
SE9503187L (en) Heated glazing panel and control circuit for use with the same
EP0181627A3 (en) Sound-insulating composite panel and its production method
SE8304127D0 (en) force sensors
SE7704143L (en) Electrical uppvermningsanordning comprising a bluff body of a material with positive temperature coefficient
US4777351A (en) Devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
GB1468036A (en) Actuable input device
IE43414L (en) Thermoplastic plastics sheets
US4177446A (en) Heating elements comprising conductive polymers capable of dimensional change
US4761541A (en) Devices comprising conductive polymer compositions
GB1511060A (en) Heat-and pressure-sensitive adhesive sheet and method of producing the same
US3153140A (en) Radiant heating panel
GB778684A (en) Improvements in or relating to methods of jointing surfaces by heat-hardenable resins
EP0291063A3 (en) Electroblotting apparatus and method for transferring specimens from a polyacrylamide electrophoresis or like gel onto a membrane
GB1247016A (en) Electrically conductive adhesive tape
FR2439530A1 (en) Electric resistance heating element
GB937755A (en) Improvements in or relating to heat sealed articles and method of making the same
SE8004167L (en) Seen that Tecka a substrate Along with vermeaterhemtbar device for anvendas for the set
FI47056C (en) Process for the PVC foam suurtaajuushitsaamiseksi siivilämäisesti perforation substances ttyihin
KR890006768A (en) Conductive heating paint, conductive heating device using same and manufacturing method thereof
CA1018232A (en) Mounting grommet for an electric heating element used in appliances and the like
US3587377A (en) Electrically heated die-cutting apparatus