FR3012257A1 - Process for prehending a substrate - Google Patents

Process for prehending a substrate Download PDF

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Publication number
FR3012257A1
FR3012257A1 FR1302451A FR1302451A FR3012257A1 FR 3012257 A1 FR3012257 A1 FR 3012257A1 FR 1302451 A FR1302451 A FR 1302451A FR 1302451 A FR1302451 A FR 1302451A FR 3012257 A1 FR3012257 A1 FR 3012257A1
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FR
France
Prior art keywords
substrate
network
opening
handle
shutter
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
FR1302451A
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Marcel Broekaart
Ionut Radu
Blanchard Christelle Lagahe
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Soitec SA
Original Assignee
Soitec SA
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Soitec SA filed Critical Soitec SA
Priority to FR1302451A priority Critical patent/FR3012257A1/en
Publication of FR3012257A1 publication Critical patent/FR3012257A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/683Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L21/6835Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using temporarily an auxiliary support
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2221/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof covered by H01L21/00
    • H01L2221/67Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L2221/683Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L2221/68304Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using temporarily an auxiliary support
    • H01L2221/68318Auxiliary support including means facilitating the separation of a device or wafer from the auxiliary support
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2221/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof covered by H01L21/00
    • H01L2221/67Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L2221/683Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L2221/68304Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using temporarily an auxiliary support
    • H01L2221/68327Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using temporarily an auxiliary support used during dicing or grinding
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2221/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof covered by H01L21/00
    • H01L2221/67Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L2221/683Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L2221/68304Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using temporarily an auxiliary support
    • H01L2221/6834Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using temporarily an auxiliary support used to protect an active side of a device or wafer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2221/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof covered by H01L21/00
    • H01L2221/67Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L2221/683Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L2221/68304Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using temporarily an auxiliary support
    • H01L2221/68368Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using temporarily an auxiliary support used in a transfer process involving at least two transfer steps, i.e. including an intermediate handle substrate
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2221/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof covered by H01L21/00
    • H01L2221/67Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L2221/683Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L2221/68304Apparatus for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using temporarily an auxiliary support
    • H01L2221/68381Details of chemical or physical process used for separating the auxiliary support from a device or wafer

Abstract

The invention relates to a method of gripping a substrate (6) using a structure (1), called handle or temporary, which comprises at least one duct forming a network (3) opening, on one side on a first face (2) of the structure (1) and on the other opening onto at least one opening (5) on another face (4) of the structure (1), the method being characterized by the following steps: - bringing the first face (2) of the structure (1) into contact with a surface of the substrate (6), so that the grating (3) opening onto the first face (2) of the structure (1) ) is sealed by the surface of the substrate (6); - Subjecting the network (3) to a depression, maintained by a shutter member (7) disposed on the opening (5), so that the network (3) can exert a suction force sufficient to at least lift the weight of the substrate (6) using the structure (1).

Description

The invention relates, in a general manner, to the fabrication of substrates for electronics, optoelectronics or optics, and more particularly to a method of gripping the a substrate using a structure. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The manufacture of such substrates involves, more and more frequently, techniques for the transfer of more or less thick layers from one support to another. Thus, in many applications in the field of microelectronics, it may be desired to transfer a layer of electrical components to a substrate, or a thin semiconductor layer present on the surface of a first substrate. to a second substrate. A thin layer, within the meaning of the present invention can not, because of its size and its fragility, be transported as it is. Also, to transport the layer, and in particular to transfer it from an initial substrate to a final substrate, it must be made integral with a transfer structure called handle or temporary. Such a structure then makes it possible to manipulate any substrate that needs to be moved and / or transferred. It plays the role of a handle, or structure used temporarily. For example, the initial substrate comprises a GaN gallium nitride thin film, and has within it a fragile interface, defining a preferred rupture plane. The transfer is effected by contacting the exposed face of the thin layer, carried by the initial substrate, with a face of a handle structure, ensuring proper adhesion between the contacted faces, and then effecting the detachment. thin layer at the fragile interface. The rupture zone, at the level of the fragile interface, is then cleaned, for example by TMAH, so that subsequently the thin semiconductor layer can be transferred to a final substrate, via the handle or temporary structure. Once realized, the handle is detached from the transferred substrate. In general terms, various ways of effecting this detachment of a handle structure and a transferred substrate are already known.
A first technique consists in destroying the handle structure by mechanical abrasion or chemical attack. It can also be eliminated by combining these two means, as described, for example, in FR-A-2,715,503. However, the mechanical abrasion of the substrate takes a long time, and such treatment is liable to damage the thin layer and / or circuits made therein, and does not allow the reuse of the handle structure. There is also a technique of creating a cleavage zone on the handle structure, for example by ion implantation and ideally on the side of the bonding interface between the substrate to be transferred and the handle structure, and to proceed with the withdrawal. of the handle structure, for example by tearing at the level of the cleavage zone, as described in document FRA-2 744 285. Another technique makes it possible to produce an oxide layer 15 buried in the handle, and to attack this layer by etching during removal of the handle structure, as described in US-A-6 027 958. Other known solutions consist in obtaining a fragile interface by creating a porous layer, as described for example in the EP document No. 4,049,788, and possibly implanting gaseous species into this layer to weaken to the desired degree. The rupture of these fragile interfaces is achieved by applying stress and / or shear and / or flexion. A chemical or mechanical planarization step is then required at the breaking interface. However, these various known methods all have disadvantages. In the first place, it is difficult, if not impossible, to control the actual binding forces between a substrate to be transferred and the handle structure, and / or at a previously weakened interface. As a corollary, the mechanical and / or thermal and / or chemical forces to be applied to achieve the detachment or destruction of the handle structure can be important, with a risk of deterioration or breakage of the substrates. This risk is even greater in the case where these efforts or part of these efforts are applied by hand, for example using a tool. OBJECT OF THE INVENTION AND BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The present invention aims to overcome these limitations of the state of the art and to provide a method for gripping a substrate using a structure, called a handle. or temporary, which comprises at least one duct forming a network opening, on one side, on a first face of the structure, and on the other, opening on an opening on another face of the structure. The method then consists in: bringing the first face of the structure into contact with a surface of the substrate, so that the network opening onto the first face of the structure is sealed off by the surface of the substrate; subjecting the network to a depression, maintained by a shutter element disposed on the opening, so that the network can exert a suction force sufficient to lift at least the weight of the substrate using the structure. Such an invention makes it possible to carry out a layer transfer, for example of electrical components, or a detachment between two parts of an intermediate substrate in a simple, efficient and precise manner.
Depending on the shape and the pressure subjected to the network of conduits leading to the first face of the structure, the invention makes it possible to precisely control the distribution and the amplitude of the forces intended to cause gripping and relaxation at the all or part of the substrate extension. Thus, the transferred substrate suffers the least possible stress as it moves and separates the substrate and structure. Furthermore, the implementation of such a method allows reuse at will of the handle, and avoid a step of planarization of the substrate at the face previously assembled to the handle structure. Finally, the fact of not using any abrasion, chemical or mechanical etching, tearing or heat treatment solution to remove the handle structure of the transferred substrate makes it possible to avoid contamination, deformation or damage to the substrate. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention will be better understood in the light of the following description of the particular and nonlimiting embodiment of the invention with reference to the attached figures among which: - Figure 1 is a view of a face of the structure, according to the invention, intended to come into contact with an initial substrate; - Figure 2 is a lateral cross section of the structure according to Figure 1; - Figures 3 and 4 show is a lateral cross section of the structure disposed on the initial substrate; - Figures 5 and 6 show a lateral cross section of the structure interposed between the initial substrate and the final substrate; - Figure 7 is a lateral cross section of the initial substrate transferred to the final substrate. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF AN EMBODIMENT In general, the gripping of a substrate using a structure, commonly referred to as a handle or temporary, is possible by assembling a face of the handle structure and one side of the substrate, for example, using molecular bonding. Once the handle structure is no longer useful and must be removed, the solutions of the prior art, making it possible to separate the face of the substrate from that of the handle structure, generate contaminations, deformations or damage to the substrate. . Furthermore, according to the embodiments of the prior art, the handle structure can not be reused or must undergo treatment before being. A possible embodiment of the gripping method 20 according to the invention, making it possible to overcome the aforementioned problems, will now be described with reference to FIGS. 1 to 7. The present embodiment describes, below, a process layer transfer from an initial substrate to a final substrate. The use of the gripping method of the invention usually relates to this layer transfer process. However, the present invention is not limited to such a process, but can be applied to any process requiring the manipulation of a substrate in general, whether there is a layer transfer or not. FIGS. 1 and 2 are different views of the handle structure 1. The structure, for example composed of silicon oxide, comprises a first face 2 on which a network of ducts 3, here forming a checkerboard, and a second face 4, here the face opposite to the first face 2, on which opens an opening 5 at least connected to a portion of the duct network 3. With reference to FIG. 3, the gripping method according to the invention consists in putting in contact with the first face 2 of the handle structure 1 on the face of an initial substrate 6, here multilayer, to move, the faces being sufficiently flat so that a bonding interface molecular bonding can be performed between the two faces. Thus, the network of ducts 3 opening on the face 2 is hermetically closed by the face of the initial substrate 6. Moreover, according to some embodiments, it may be necessary to consolidate this bonding interface by a known annealing step of the prior art. The assembly thus formed is arranged in a vacuum chamber making it possible to subject the network of conduits 3 to a predetermined pressure of between 0.5 and 50 mbar. Once the predetermined pressure is reached, the opening 5, opening on the second face 4 of the handle structure 1, is closed by a shutter element 7, for example made of a photoresist, as illustrated in FIG. Embodiments, it may be necessary to consolidate the placement of the shutter member 7 on the aperture 5 by a step of curing the shutter member 7 with the aid of UV-type radiation. provoking, moreover, an increase in the volume of the shutter member 7. In such a case, the skilled person will have to ensure that this hardening step does not release gas towards the opening 5. For to do, the portion of the shutter element introduced into the opening 5 may be covered with a waterproofing layer. Thus, the low pressure manifold 3 generates a sufficient suction force on the initial substrate 6 to lift and move it. The shape and the surface of the duct network 3 opening onto the first face 2 of the structure 1 are predetermined according to the surface topology of the initial substrate 6 to be displaced. In general, the duct network 3 opening onto the first face 2 describes a pattern of regular shape, such as a checkerboard, illustrated as an example in FIG. 1, a spiral, a series of parallel or perpendicular lines, or any other forms regularly distributed over the first face 2 of the structure 1, so as to exert a homogeneous suction force on the face of the initial substrate 6. The application of a homogeneous suction force will be preferred in cases where the face of the Initial substrate 6 to be moved has a regular and flat surface topology. In the case where the face of the substrate 6 to be moved has a non-regular surface topology, the pattern of the duct network 3 opening onto the first face 2 of the structure 1 will be adapted, on the one hand, to ensure the interface of bonding by molecular adhesion to at least a portion of the faces of the handle structure 1 and the initial substrate 6, and secondly, to ensure the gripping of the initial substrate 6 according to the method of the invention, and this, to avoid an unexpected separation of the handle structure 1 and the initial substrate 6 during the displacement of the initial substrate 6. Whatever the surface topology of the face of the initial substrate 6, 5 and to limit the risks of unexpected separation of the handle structure 1 and of the initial substrate 6 during the displacement of the initial substrate 6, the surface of the duct network 3 opening onto the first face 4 of the structure 1 must be smaller than the contact surface between the first face 4 of the e the structure 1 and the face of the initial substrate 6 to move. Thus, the bonding energy between the structure 1 and the initial substrate 6 is ensured, on the one hand, by the molecular bonding bonding between the face of the handle structure 1 and that of the initial substrate 6, and on the other hand on the other hand, by the suction force applied on the face of the initial substrate 6. Once the handle structure 1 and the initial substrate 6 have been assembled, and the shutter element 7 placed on the opening 5, the assembly thus obtained is removed 15 of the vacuum chamber. The initial substrate 6 can then be easily manipulated using the handle structure 1. In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 to 4, the initial multilayer substrate 6 successively comprises a first layer of electrical components 8, a second dielectric layer 9, a third etch stop layer 10 and a fourth silicon layer 11. Before transferring a portion of the initial substrate 6 to a final substrate, an etching operation, for example a chemical TMAH type, can be performed until to the etch stop layer 10, and this, to suppress the silicon layer 11. This etching step, known from the prior art, is mentioned by way of example, and may be replaced or supplemented by any other action necessary for the treatment of the initial substrate 6 to be transferred. Once the initial substrate 6 has been treated, here purified of its silicon layer 11, the initial substrate remaining 8, 9, 10 can then be moved so that the free face of the etch stop layer 10 is bonded to the final substrate 12 As an example, the bonding may be a hydrophilic bonding using a thin oxide layer 13, such as Al 2 O 3. Once the bonding step is complete, the handle structure 1 can be removed, as illustrated in FIG. 6. For this purpose, the shutter element 7 is removed from the opening 5. The atmospheric pressure then propagates in the network of conduits 3. , causing the suppression of the suction force, and therefore the reduction of the bonding energy between the face 2 of the handle structure 1 and the face of the initial substrate remaining 8, 9, 10. The remaining bonding energy n is then assured more than by the bonding interface by molecular adhesion. Thus, to limit, as much as possible, stress, contaminations or deformations of the substrate 8, 9, 10 during the separation of the structure 1 and the initial substrate remaining 8, 9, 10, a fluid is injected, through the opening 5, and pressurized in the ductwork 3, so as to exert a thrust on the remaining initial substrate 8, 9, 10. The final product is illustrated in FIG. 7. In the present embodiment, the ductwork 3 being In the form of a checkerboard, the thrust exerted on the initial substrate remaining 8, 9, 10 is therefore homogeneous, considerably limiting the problems of the prior art. Any type of fluid can be used, such as gas or a liquid, for example water contributing to corrode the bonding interface. Thus, no heat treatment operation is necessary to separate the handle structure 1 and the substrate thus avoiding any problem related to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion of the handle structure 1 and the final substrate 12. Once separated, the Handle structure 1 can be reused for a new layer transfer process from an initial substrate to a final substrate, without any prior treatment. 20

Claims (9)

  1. REVENDICATIONS1. Method for gripping a substrate (6) using a structure (1), called a handle or a temporary structure, which comprises at least one duct forming a network (3) emerging, on one side, on a first face (2) of the structure (1), and the other, opening on at least one opening (5) located on another face (4) of the structure (1), the method being characterized by the following steps: in contact with the first face (2) of the structure (1) with a surface of the substrate (6), so that the network (3) opening on the first face (2) of the structure (1) is sealed by the substrate surface (6); subjecting the network (3) to a depression, maintained by a shutter member (7) disposed on the opening (5), so that the network (3) can exert a suction force sufficient to at least lift the weight of the substrate (6) using the structure (1).
  2. 2. Method according to claim 1, wherein the structure (1) is made of silicon oxide.
  3. 3. Method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the surface of the network (3) opening on the first face (2) of the structure (1) is less than the contact surface between the first face (2) of the structure (1) and the surface of the substrate (6).
  4. 4. Method according to claim 1 or 3, wherein the network (3) opening on the first face (2) of the structure (1) forms a regular pattern, such as a checkerboard or a spiral.
  5. 5. Method according to claim 1, wherein the bringing into contact of the first face (2) of the structure (1) with the face of the substrate (6) forms a bonding interface by molecular adhesion.
  6. 6. Method according to claim 1, wherein the vacuum of the network (3) is carried out by arranging the structure (1) and the substrate (6) in a vacuum chamber, the network (3) being then, a side, hermetically sealed by the face of the substrate (6), and on the other, sealed by the shutter member (7) on the second opening (5).
  7. 7. The method of claim 1 or 6, wherein the shutter member (7) is a photoresist.
  8. The method of claim 7, wherein the resin is cured by UV radiation.
  9. 9. Method according to one of claims 1, 6 or 7, wherein the separation of the substrate (6) and the structure (1) is achieved by the introduction of a pressurized fluid in the network (3) so to exert a thrust on the substrate (6).
FR1302451A 2013-10-21 2013-10-21 Process for prehending a substrate Withdrawn FR3012257A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR1302451A FR3012257A1 (en) 2013-10-21 2013-10-21 Process for prehending a substrate

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR1302451A FR3012257A1 (en) 2013-10-21 2013-10-21 Process for prehending a substrate

Publications (1)

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FR3012257A1 true FR3012257A1 (en) 2015-04-24

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FR (1) FR3012257A1 (en)

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4009540A (en) * 1974-04-01 1977-03-01 U.S. Philips Corporation Method of working flat articles
US6342434B1 (en) * 1995-12-04 2002-01-29 Hitachi, Ltd. Methods of processing semiconductor wafer, and producing IC card, and carrier

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4009540A (en) * 1974-04-01 1977-03-01 U.S. Philips Corporation Method of working flat articles
US6342434B1 (en) * 1995-12-04 2002-01-29 Hitachi, Ltd. Methods of processing semiconductor wafer, and producing IC card, and carrier

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Effective date: 20150630