FR2656423A1 - Electrochemical biosensor - Google Patents

Electrochemical biosensor Download PDF

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FR2656423A1
FR2656423A1 FR8917069A FR8917069A FR2656423A1 FR 2656423 A1 FR2656423 A1 FR 2656423A1 FR 8917069 A FR8917069 A FR 8917069A FR 8917069 A FR8917069 A FR 8917069A FR 2656423 A1 FR2656423 A1 FR 2656423A1
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electrode
biosensor
reaction
electrochemical
cap
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Bardeletti Gilbert
D Urso Edith
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Rhodia Chimie SAS
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Rhodia Chimie SAS
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12QMEASURING OR TESTING PROCESSES INVOLVING ENZYMES, NUCLEIC ACIDS OR MICROORGANISMS; COMPOSITIONS OR TEST PAPERS THEREFOR; PROCESSES OF PREPARING SUCH COMPOSITIONS; CONDITION-RESPONSIVE CONTROL IN MICROBIOLOGICAL OR ENZYMOLOGICAL PROCESSES
    • C12Q1/00Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes, nucleic acids or microorganisms; Compositions therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions
    • C12Q1/001Enzyme electrodes
    • C12Q1/002Electrode membranes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N11/00Carrier-bound or immobilised enzymes; Carrier-bound or immobilised microbial cells; Preparation thereof
    • C12N11/02Enzymes or microbial cells being immobilised on or in an organic carrier
    • C12N11/08Enzymes or microbial cells being immobilised on or in an organic carrier carrier being a synthetic polymer
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12QMEASURING OR TESTING PROCESSES INVOLVING ENZYMES, NUCLEIC ACIDS OR MICROORGANISMS; COMPOSITIONS OR TEST PAPERS THEREFOR; PROCESSES OF PREPARING SUCH COMPOSITIONS; CONDITION-RESPONSIVE CONTROL IN MICROBIOLOGICAL OR ENZYMOLOGICAL PROCESSES
    • C12Q1/00Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes, nucleic acids or microorganisms; Compositions therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions
    • C12Q1/001Enzyme electrodes

Abstract

Electrochemical biosensor consisting of a single-piece electrode comprising an anode and a cathode; a cap provided with a central perforation and a neutral membrane permitting the diffusion of substrate is attached to the end of the sensor; the biosensor contains, in the space available between the cap and the body of the electrode and adjacent to the working electrode, enzymes immobilised on particles of a polymer which is non-soluble in the reaction medium. Use for the assay of organic substrates liberating hydrogen peroxide by enzymatic reaction.

Description

BIOCAPTEUR ELECTROCHIMIQUE ELECTROCHEMICAL BIOSENSOR
La présente invention a pour objet un biocapteur constitué d'une électrode enzymatique et son application pour le dosage de substrats organiques. The present invention relates to a biosensor comprises an enzyme electrode and its application for the determination of organic substrates.

I1 est connu de doser le glucose par exemple à l'aide d'un capteur ampérométrique à H202 plongé dans une cuve dans laquelle est réalisée l'oxydation enzymatique du glucose en acide gluconique avec libération de I1 is known that glucose, for example with the aid of an amperometric sensor H202 immersed in a tank in which is formed the enzymatic oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid with the release of
H202 ; H202; la quantité de H202 formée est directement proportionnelle à la quantité de glucose mise en oeuvre. the amount of H202 formed is directly proportional to the amount of glucose implementation. L'H202 est détectée ampérométri quementv : une différence de potentiel (ddp) fixe, d'environ 600 mV, entre une électrode de travail (platine) et une électrode de référence (Ag/AgCl) permet l'oxydation électrochimique de H202 sur l'anode de platine ; The H202 is detected ampérométri quementv: a potential difference (pd) fixed, of about 600 mV, between a working electrode (platinum) and a reference electrode (Ag / AgCl) allows the electrochemical oxidation of H202 on platinum anode; une variation de courant anodique proportionnelle à la concentration d'H202 formée par la réaction enzymatique peut être ainsi mise en évidence sur un enregistreur.Une telle méthode faisant intervenir un enzyme relativement peu fragile comme la glucose oxydase est particulièrement performante. a change in anode current proportional to the concentration of the formed H202 enzymatic reaction can thus be highlighted on such a enregistreur.Une method involving a relatively brittle enzyme such as glucose oxidase is particularly efficient.

Par contre celle-ci est mal adaptée aux dosages faisant intervenir des enzymes fragiles entraînant des phénomènes d'inactivation ou d'interaction entre substrat et produit de la réaction enzymatique. By against it is ill-suited to assays involving fragile enzymes resulting in inactivation or phenomena of interaction between substrate and product of the enzymatic reaction. I1 en est ainsi du dosage du pyruvate à l'aide de la pyruvate oxydase. I1 is so pyruvate assay with pyruvate oxidase. En effet il a été constaté que le substrat (pyruvate) et l'eau oxygénée formée interagissent avec formation d'un peracide. Indeed it was found that the substrate (pyruvate) and the formed hydrogen peroxide interact to form a peracid.

Figure img00010001

Si la pyruvate oxydase est introduite dans la cuve de mesure, l'eau oxygénée formée réagit rapidement avec le pyruvate ; If the pyruvate oxidase is introduced into the measurement vessel, the formed hydrogen peroxide rapidly reacts with pyruvate; il en résulte une diminution de la concentration des deux espèces dans la cuve ; the result is a decrease in the concentration of both species in the tank; le dosage est alors inexact. then the dosage is correct.

La demanderesse a résolu ce problème en introduisant les enzymes à l'intérieur du capteur électrochimique. The applicant has solved this problem by introducing the enzymes inside the electrochemical sensor.

Selon l'invention il s'agit d'un biocapteur électrochimique constitué d'une électrode monocorps comprenant une anode et une cathode, et se fixant à l'extrémité du capteur, d'un embout muni d'une perforation centrale et d'une membrane neutre permettant la diffusion du substrat, biocapteur caractérisé en ce qu'il renferme dans l'espace disponible entre l'embout et le corps de l'électrode et avoisinant l "'électrode de travail" des enzymes immobilisés sur des particules de polymère non soluble dans le milieu réactionnel. According to the invention it is an electrochemical biosensor comprises a unibody electrode comprising an anode and a cathode, and binding to the sensor tip, a tip with a central perforation and a neutral membrane allowing the diffusion of the substrate, biosensor characterized in that it contains in the space available between the tip and the body of the electrode and surrounding the "working electrode" immobilized enzymes on polymer particles not soluble in the reaction medium.

Le biocapteur de l'invention basé sur une détection ampérométrique est tout particulièrement intéressant pour le dosage de substrats organiques libérant par réaction enzymatique de l'eau oxygénée. The biosensor of the invention based on amperometric detection is especially interesting for the determination of organic substrates by enzymatic reaction releasing hydrogen peroxide. L'"électrode de travail", l'anode, est constituée d'un disque de platine où se réalise la réaction électrochimique. The "working electrode", the anode consists of a platinum where the electrochemical reaction is realized.

L'électrode de référence, la cathode, est constituée d'un fil spiralé d'argent recouvert de chlorure d'argent. The reference electrode, the cathode, consists of a coiled silver wire coated with silver chloride.

Un électrolyte présent dans l'espace entre l'embout et le corps de l'électrode assure la conductivité entre l'anode et la cathode ; An electrolyte present in the space between the tip and the electrode body ensures conductivity between the anode and the cathode; la présence de chlorure de potassium dans l'électolyte assure la chloruration permanente de l'électrode de référence. the presence of potassium chloride in électolyte ensures permanent chlorination of the reference electrode.

Le corps et l'embout de l'électrode sont de préférence en résine synthétique du type polychlorure de vinyle. The body and the tip of the electrode are preferably made of synthetic resin polyvinyl chloride-type.

La membrane est neutre ; The membrane is neutral; elle peut être constituée en fibres synthétiques (polyester, polyamide...) ; it may be formed of synthetic fibers (polyester, polyamide ...); son épaisseur est généralement de l'ordre de 50 à 150 micromètres avec un diamètre de pores inférieur à celui des particules de polymère et généralement de l'ordre de 0,1 à 0,8 micromètres. its thickness is generally in the range of 50 to 150 micrometers with a pore diameter smaller than that of the polymer particles and generally in the range of 0.1 to 0.8 micrometers.

Les polymères pouvant constituer les particules support dérivent de monomères non miscibles à l'eau (c'est-à-dire de solubilité dans l'eau inférieure à 5 % en poids). The polymers which may constitute the support particles are derived from non-water-miscible monomers (that is to say solubility in water of less than 5% by weight).

Parmi ces monomères on peut citer Among these monomers include
- les monomères vinylaromatiques (styrène, vinyltoluène...) - vinylaromatic monomers (styrene, vinyltoluene ...)
- les alkylesters d'acides a-ss insaturés (acrylates et méthacrylates de méthyle, éthyle...) - alkyl esters of unsaturated acids-ss (methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl ...)
- les esters d'acides carboxyliques insaturés (acetate de vinyle...) - esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids (vinyl acetate ...)
- le chlorure de vinyle ; - vinyl chloride; le chlorure de vinylidène vinylidene chloride
- les diènes (butadiène...) - dienes (butadiene ...)
- ceux présentant des fonctions nitriles (acrylonitrile...) - those having nitrile functional groups (acrylonitrile ...)
- les siloxanes. - siloxanes.

La composition monomère dont dérive ledit polymère contient en outre jusqu'à 10 % de son poids (de préférence jusqu'à 4 % de son poids) d'au moins un monomère portant des groupes ionogènes ou réactifs tels que - S03H, - OSO3H, - NR3, - COOH, - OH, - NH2, - NR2, The monomer composition of which said polymer is derived further contains up to 10% by weight (preferably up to 4% by weight) of at least one monomer carrying ionogenic or reactive groups such as - S03H, - OSO 3 H, - NR3, - COOH, - OH, - NH2, - NR2,
CONH2, - SH, CONH2, - SH,

Figure img00030001

- COOR, - PO(OR)2, - COOR, - PO (OR) 2,
Figure img00030002

- # CH2C1, - # CH2C1,
R représentant un radical alkyle en Cl - C4, de préférence en Cl - C2 R representing an alkyl radical Cl - C4, preferably Cl - C2
A titre d'exemple on peut citer Examples include
- le vinylbenzène sulfonate, les sulfoalkylesters d'acides insaturés (2-sulfoéthylméthacrylates...) - vinylbenzene sulfonate, sulfoalkylesters the unsaturated acid (2-sulfoéthylméthacrylates ...)
- les acides carboxyliques insaturés (acide acrylique, méthacrylique, maléfique, itaconique...) - unsaturated carboxylic acids (acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, malefic acid, itaconic acid ...)
- les hydroxyalkylacrylates ou méthacrylates (acrylate d'hydroxyéthyle, hydroxypropyle...) - hydroxyalkyl acrylates or methacrylates (hydroxyethyl acrylate, hydroxypropyl ...)
- les aminoalkylesters d'acides insaturés (2-aminoéthylméthacrylate...) - the aminoalkyl esters of unsaturated acids (2-aminoethyl ...)
- l'acrylamide - acrylamide
- le chlorure de vi nyl benzène - chloride vi nyl benzene
- le méthacrylate de glycidyle. - glycidyl methacrylate.

Lesdites particules de polymère peuvent présenter une granulométrie de l'ordre de 0,2 à 20 microns et de préférence de l'ordre de 0,2 à 3 microns. Said polymer particles can have a particle size of about 0.2 to 20 microns and preferably of the order of 0.2 to 3 microns.

Une variante consiste à utiliser comme particules support des particules polymère non hydrosoluble magnétisable. A variant consists in using as carrier particles of water-insoluble polymer particles magnetizable.

Les particules de polymère magnétisable contiennent de 0,5 à 70 % en poids (de préférence de 5 à 50 %) d'une charge magnétique dont la taille est inférieure à l ian et de préférence comprise entre 0,002-0,02 ian ; The magnetizable polymer particles contain from 0.5 to 70% by weight (preferably 5 to 50%) of a magnetic charge whose size is less than the ian and preferably between 0.002-0.02 ian; la charge magnétique est bien évidemment suffisamment fine pour pouvoir être incluse dans les particules de polymère. the magnetic filler is obviously sufficiently thin to be included in the polymer particles. Cette charge magnétique peut être constituée par exemple par This magnetic filler may be constituted for example by
- des métaux ou leur alliages tels que : fer, fer-silicium, nickel, cobalt, samarium ou leurs alliages avec du molybdène, du chrome, du cuivre, du vanadium, du manganèse, de l'aluminium, du titane, neodyme... - metals or their alloys such as iron, iron-silicon, nickel, cobalt, samarium or alloys thereof with molybdenum, chromium, copper, vanadium, manganese, aluminum, titanium, neodymium .. .

- des oxydes de fer : Fe304 ou y-Fe03 pur ou en combinaison ou en mélange avec d'autres oxydes comme les oxydes de cobalt, manganèse, zinc, baryum, terres rares - iron oxides: Fe304 or pure y-FE03 or in combination or in mixture with other oxides such as oxides of cobalt, manganese, zinc, barium, rare earths
- du dioxyde de chrome. - chromium dioxide.

Les particules de polymère magnétisable peuvent être obtenues sous forme de latex selon des procédés connus par exemple selon les procédés décrits dans le brevet européen ne 38.730 ou le brevet américain n 4.157.323. The magnetizable polymer particles can be obtained in the form of latex according to methods known, for example according to the methods described in European patent 38 730 or U.S. Patent No. 4,157,323.

L'immobilisation des enzymes sur les particules de polymère magnétisable ou non magnétisable peut être réalisée par adsorption ou bien par couplage, la réaction de couplage faisant intervenir les groupes superficiels réactifs ou fonctionnels du polymère et les groupements fonctionnels de l'enzyme à fixer. The immobilization of enzymes on the polymer particles magnetizable or non-magnetizable can be achieved by adsorption or by coupling, the coupling reaction involving the reactive or functional surface groups of the polymer and the functional groups of the enzyme to be determined.

La réaction de couplage peut être réalisée selon des méthodes bien connues par exemple en faisant appel le plus souvent à l'activation des fonctions du polymère en utilisantdes agents de couplage (diazotation, bromure de cyanogène, chlorure de tosyle, glutaraldehyde, carbodiimide hydrosoluble, The coupling reaction can be carried out by methods well known for example by the most often involves the activation of the functions of polymer utilisantdes coupling agents (diazotization, cyanogen bromide, tosyl chloride, glutaraldehyde, water-soluble carbodiimide,
N-hydroxybenzotriazole...) avec ou sans l'utilisation de spacers du type 1-6 diaminohexane, polysaccharide..., puis réaction avec l'enzyme à fixer. N-hydroxybenzotriazole ...) with or without the use of spacers of the type 1-6 diaminohexane, ... polysaccharide and then reacting with the enzyme to be determined.

Des exemples de réactions de couplage sont donnés dans les brevets américains ne 3.857.931, 4.045.384, 4.140.662, 4.046.723, 4.421.896, anglais n0 2.004.892, français n" 2.331.567, 2.345.459, 2.378.094, européen ne 15.841... Examples of coupling reactions are given in US patents 3,857,931, 4,045,384, 4,140,662, 4,046,723, 4,421,896, 2,004,892 N0 English, French n "2331567, 2345459, 2,378,094, European only 15,841 ...

Le protocole d'immobilisation doit être adapté en fonction des caractéristiques propres de l'enzyme utilisé (pH optimum, activité spécifique...) The immobilization protocol should be adapted to the specific characteristics of the enzyme used (pH optimum, specific activity ...)
La quantité d'enzyme immobilisée sur les particules de polymère est généralement de l'ordre de 10 à 500 unités d'enzyme par gramme de polymère (de préférence de 100 à 200). The amount of enzyme immobilized on the polymer particles is generally in the range of 10 to 500 units of enzyme per gram of polymer (preferably 100 to 200).

Le biocapteur faisant l'objet de l'invention étant particulièrement intéressant pour les dosages de substrats organiques libérant par réaction enzymatique de l'eau oxygénée, les enzymes mis en oeuvre sont en particulier les oxydases comme par exemple The biosensor which is the subject of the invention being particularly useful for assays of organic substrates by releasing enzymatic reaction of hydrogen peroxide, the enzymes used are in particular oxidases such as
- la lactate oxydase pour doser le L-lactate - lactate oxidase for assaying L-lactate
- la glucose oxydase pour doser le glucose - the glucose oxidase for assaying glucose
- la pyruvate oxydase pour doser le pyruvate - pyruvate oxidase for assaying pyruvate
- l'alcool oxydase pour doser les alcools courts (methanol, ethanol, propanol...) - alcohol oxidase to be assayed short alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol ...)
Lors de son utilisation, le biocapteur relié à un polarostat imposant une différence de potentiel entre l'anode et la cathode, est plongé dans une cuve thermostatée (généralement vers 30') contenant le substrat à doser. In use, the biosensor connected to a polarostat imposing a potential difference between the anode and the cathode, is immersed in a thermostatically controlled vessel (usually around 30 ') containing the substrate to be assayed.

Les enzymes immobilisés à l'intérieur du biocapteur ne pouvant diffuser à l'extérieur de l'électrode, l'eau oxygénée se forme au voisinage de l'anode. The immobilized enzymes within the biosensor can not diffuse out of the electrode, the hydrogen peroxide is formed in the vicinity of the anode.

Dans le cas du pyruvate le schéma réactionnel est le suivant pyruvate+O2+phosphate In the case of pyruvate The reaction scheme is as follows pyruvate + O2 + phosphate

Figure img00050001

<tb> pyruvate <SEP> oxydase, <Tb> pyruvate <September> oxidase,
<tb> acetylphosphate+C02+H202 <Tb> acetyl phosphate + C02 + H202
La quantité de H202 formée est directement proportionnelle à celle du pyruvate présent. The amount of H202 formed is directly proportional to that of the present pyruvate.

L'eau oxygénée, au fur et à mesure de sa formation, est oxydée à l'anode selon la réaction Hydrogen peroxide, as and when it is formed, is oxidized at the anode according to the reaction
ddp (+ 500 mV) H2O2 ddp (+500 mV) H2O2

Figure img00050002

02 + 2H+ + 2e 02 + 2H + + 2e
Ag/Ag Cl/C1 Ag / Ag Cl / C1
Un enregistreur relié au polarostat permet de lire la variation du courant en fonction du temps. A recorder connected to polarostat used to read the change in current over time.

La même opération réalisée avec un biocapteur classique (ne renfermant pas l'enzyme immobilisé) plongé dans une cuve contenant du pyruvate et de la pyruvate oxydase immobilisée sur des particules de polymère ne peut conduire à un dosage satisfaisant du substrat car ce dernier intéragit sur l'eau oxygénée formée. The same operation performed with a conventional biosensor (not containing the immobilized enzyme) immersed in a tank containing pyruvate and pyruvate oxidase immobilized on polymer particles can lead to a satisfactory dosage of the substrate because the latter interacts on 'formed hydrogen peroxide.

La mise en oeuvre de ce biocapteur est aisée et rapide ; The implementation of this biosensor is quick and easy; celui-ci peut être réutilisé. it can be reused.

Claims (8)

    REVENDICATIONS
  1. 1) Biocapteur électrochimique constitué d'une électrode monocorps comprenant une anode, une cathode, et se fixant à l'extrémité du capteur, d'un embout muni d'une perforation centrale et d'une membrane neutre permettant la diffusion du substrat, biocapteur caractérisé en ce qu'il renferme dans l'espace disponible entre l'embout et le corps de l'électrode et avoisinant l'électrode de travail des enzymes immobilisés sur des particules de polymère non soluble dans le milieu réactionnel. 1) The electrochemical biosensor consists of a unibody electrode comprising an anode, a cathode, and binding to the sensor tip, a tip with a central perforation and a neutral membrane allowing the diffusion of the substrate, biosensor characterized in that it contains in the space available between the tip and the body of the electrode and surrounding the immobilized enzyme working electrode on particles of polymer insoluble in the reaction medium.
  2. 2) Biocapteur selon la revendication 1 caractérisé en ce que l'électrode de travail est l'anode et en ce qu'elle est constituée d'un disque de platine. 2) A biosensor according to claim 1 characterized in that the working electrode is the anode and in that it consists of a platinum.
  3. 3) Biocapteur selon la revendication 1 ou 2 caractérisé en ce que l'électrode de référence est la cathode et en ce qu'elle est constituée d'un fil d'argent recouvert de chlorure d'argent. 3) A biosensor according to claim 1 or 2 characterized in that the reference electrode is the cathode and in that it consists of a silver wire coated with silver chloride.
  4. 4) Biocapteur selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes caractérisé en ce que les particules de polymère sur lesquelles sont immobilisés les enzymes dérivent d'une composition monomère non miscible à l'eau contenant jusqu'à 10 % de son poids d'au moins un monomère portant des groupes ionogènes ou réactifs. 4) A biosensor according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the polymer particles on which are immobilized enzymes derived from an immiscible monomer composition with water containing up to 10% of its weight of at least a monomer carrying ionogenic or reactive groups.
  5. 5) Biocapteur selon la revendication 4 caractérisé en ce que les particules de polymère ont une granulométrie de l'ordre de 0,2 à 20 microns. 5) A biosensor according to claim 4 characterized in that the polymer particles have a particle size of about 0.2 to 20 microns.
  6. 6) Biocapteur selon la revendication 5 caractérisé en ce que les particules de polymère contiennent de 0,5 à 70 % de leur poids d'une charge magnétisable. 6) A biosensor according to claim 5 characterized in that the polymer particles contain from 0.5 to 70% of their weight of a magnetizable filler.
  7. 7) Biocapteur selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes caractérisé en ce que la quantité d'enzyme immobilisée sur les particules de polymère estde l'ordre de 10 à 500 unités d'enzyme par gramme de polymère. 7) A biosensor according to any one of the preceding claims characterized in that the amount of enzyme immobilized on the polymer particles estde the order of 10 to 500 units of enzyme per gram of polymer.
  8. 8) Utilisation du biocapteur faisant l'objet de l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes pour le dosage de substrats organiques libérant par réaction enzymatique de l'eau oxygénée. 8) Use of the biosensor which is the subject of any one of the preceding claims for the determination of organic substrates by releasing enzymatic reaction of hydrogen peroxide.
FR8917069A 1989-12-22 1989-12-22 Electrochemical biosensor Withdrawn FR2656423A1 (en)

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