FR2465101A1 - Solar installation whose power is fully available - Google Patents

Solar installation whose power is fully available Download PDF

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Publication number
FR2465101A1
FR2465101A1 FR8019570A FR8019570A FR2465101A1 FR 2465101 A1 FR2465101 A1 FR 2465101A1 FR 8019570 A FR8019570 A FR 8019570A FR 8019570 A FR8019570 A FR 8019570A FR 2465101 A1 FR2465101 A1 FR 2465101A1
Authority
FR
France
Prior art keywords
oxygen
solar
hydrogen
gas turbine
helium
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
FR8019570A
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Hubert Grieb
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
MTU Aero Engines GmbH
Original Assignee
MTU Aero Engines GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE2936707 priority Critical
Application filed by MTU Aero Engines GmbH filed Critical MTU Aero Engines GmbH
Publication of FR2465101A1 publication Critical patent/FR2465101A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K25/00Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for
    • F01K25/005Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for the working fluid being steam, created by combustion of hydrogen with oxygen
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C1/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of hot gases or unheated pressurised gases, as the working fluid
    • F02C1/04Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of hot gases or unheated pressurised gases, as the working fluid the working fluid being heated indirectly
    • F02C1/10Closed cycles
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C3/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid
    • F02C3/04Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid having a turbine driving a compressor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C3/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid
    • F02C3/20Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid using a special fuel, oxidant, or dilution fluid to generate the combustion products

Abstract

<P> A. SOLAR INSTALLATION WHOSE POWER IS FULLY AVAILABLE. </ P> <P> B.INSTALLATION COMPRISING A SOLAR SENSOR 1 TO PHOTOPOLES PROVIDING CURRENT USED TO DECOMPOSE 2 WATER TO OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN, STORES IN RESERVOIRS 3, 4 TO BE NEW COMBINATIONS FOLLOWING NEEDS, IN WATER, THE HEAT THUS RESTITUTED BEING USED IN A TURBINE G INVOLVING A GENERATOR 16. </ P> <P> C. THE INVENTION APPLIES TO STORAGE OF SOLAR ENERGY. </ P>

Description

1 2465101

  The present invention relates to an installation

  The following concepts have been developed in the solar installations, which have been realized so far: A. Thermal installations operating on the principle of a tower, consisting essentially of a - a collector (a mirror field), - a receiver (tower), - a coolant circuit (for transferring heat from the receiver to the energy converter), - a power converter (turbomachine + generator),

  - possibly energy accumulators.

  B. - Thermal installations working on the farm principle and consisting of: - a collector (mirror field), - an evaporator (to provide saturated value), - an energy converter (steam engine or turbine and generator),

  - possibly an energy accumulator.

  C. - The direct transformation by photovoltaic cells, installation composed of: - a parallel / series assembly of cells to give direct current under a voltage usable in practice, conversion of the direct current into alternating current,

  - possibly an energy accumulator.

  Concept A is particularly suitable for

  large installations of up to

  than 20 MW. Predictable thermal efficiency, which can be obtained in the future from the available materials (efficiency between the generator terminals and the solar energy received) and which is taken on average over the course of a year and following a

  daily cycle is between 8 and 15%. This thermal efficiency

  that relatively bad affects very heavily the high costs of collector and receiver (the most expensive elements of the entire installation) because it takes

  to provide them for very important thermal powers.

  Another important drawback lies in the close coupling between the solar radiation received and the power supplied, so that this power supplied can not

2 2465101

  achieve the flexibility desired by the user. In principle, this disadvantage can be reduced by a thermal or hydraulic accumulator or by the variable contribution in time of fossil energy. In the first two cases, the costs of the installation are considerable; in the latter case, the complementary supply of fossil energy constitutes a difficulty. Design A has been considered so far for low powers, as far as performance is concerned

  temperature is extremely low and it is difficult to

  sable to collect the quantities of saturated steam,

  for a large installation. Moreover, the same remarks as those made for design A apply to the flexibility of the supply of power or

  the need to store energy.

  Design C has been used so far only for space applications because of the extremely low cost

  high photovoltaic cells or else called photo-

  Battery. The efficiency of the photocells depends very strongly on

  material used and according to current knowledge of the

  up to 28% (electrical power / solar radiation) seem possible. The experimental results achieved to date are at most 18%. New developments have shown that the current specific costs

  (compared to the power) of a solar cell have very large

  decreased and at the same time the efficiency of the batteries has been significantly brought closer to the potential magnitude possible. In principle, the same remarks apply to the possibility of accumulation as the remarks made for conceptions A and B; in this case, the accumulation requires a permanent conversion of the electrical energy

  in excess in the form of thermal or hydraulic energy.

  In the context of the desirable separation between solar radiation and the power supplied or the problem of the accumulation of energy, it should be known that

  On the one hand, on average, solar radiation is limited to only

  12 hours a day and on the other hand: a) the power supplied, scaled according to the known cycles, is spread over a whole day (24 hours); b) the power supplied, may be very different depending on the

3 2465101

  days of the week; c) the variations necessarily existing solar radiation (for example due to the passage of clouds) must as much as possible not to affect the power supplied.

  Starting from the fact that for a satisfactory flexibility

  making the power supplied, that is to say for a load of the installation which is totally adapted to the behavior of the user or the consumer, it is necessary to have an energy accumulator with a corresponding energy capacity substantially

  at 100 - 150% of normal daily production. The accumulation

  thermal or hydraulic energy according to the orders of

  magnitude envisaged here, would result in a cost of construction

  extremely high level and does not seem feasible in practice.

  In the known solution consisting in supplementing the solar radiation by heating fossil fuel, it is possible in principle to remedy the difference indicated above, variable in

  the time, between the radiation and the power provided. Toute-

  This is contrary to the independence of energy from fossil fuels and also requires additional infrastructure.

  for the supply of fossil fuel. Moreover, for

  the oscillations mentioned under point (c) by additional heating using fossil fuel, taking into account the non-stationary thermal load of the sensitive parts (receiver, heat transfer medium circuit,

  gas turbine), this solution is not without problems.

  The present invention aims to remedy

  disadvantages of known solutions and to create a

  solar system for optimal separation between the

  received solar radiation and the desired power, provided.

  For this purpose, the invention relates to an installation

  solar power whose power is available in a flexible manner, this installation being characterized in that it comprises a solar collector composed of solar cells divided into groups,

  giving a direct current under a voltage usable in

  which is used to decompose (reservoir) water into hydrogen and oxygen in the gaseous state, oxygen and hydrogen gas being supplied by separate pressure tanks 3, 4 serving as accumulators 0 to the combustion chamber

4 2465101

  a closed circuit and internal combustion gas turbine (hydrogen and oxygen) installation and the working fluid of the gas turbine plant is constituted by air or, if appropriate, helium, the water vapor generated by the combustion of oxygen and hydrogen is extracted again from the circuit of the gas turbine after cooling (pre-cooler) of the gaseous mixture of air (or helium) and steam of water, through

  of a capacitor, to be pumped back into the

  see in which the water is broken down again into oxygen and

in hydrogen.

  This basic installation allows various

advantageous achievements.

  With regard to known solutions, the invention has the following important advantages: The power supplied by the gas turbine can be adapted in practice, completely at the request of

  power, desired, variable in time, thanks to the accumulated

  emulsifiers or tanks of oxygen and hydrogen.

  - The reservoirs make it possible to completely compensate for short-term or non-stationary variations in solar radiation while having a capacity to accumulate

  remaining within acceptable limits.

  - For an advantageous realization of photo-

  batteries, and using the techniques available elsewhere (separation of oxygen and hydrogen, tanks, gas turbine), we can achieve a thermal efficiency virtually identical to that of the design A. - We limit to a minimum the use of highly refractory, expensive materials (combustion chamber

and turbine of the gas turbine).

  - Due to the high inlet temperature of the turbine, the heat generated by the gas turbine circuit is at a temperature that allows for still

  effectively this heat in a steam circuit.

  The present invention will be further described

  detail with the aid of an exemplary embodiment represented diagrammatically

  only the attached figure which represents an installation

  solar power whose power is available in a flexible manner that is to say whose input energy is separated or decoupled

2 465101

energy supplied.

  According to the figure, the installation consists of a collector 1 consisting of groups of solar cells not referenced to a reservoir 2 for decomposing the water into hydrogen and oxygen, supplying an oxygen reservoir 3 and a reservoir. The hydrogen and oxygen tanks supply their respective gas to the combustion chamber 5 of the gas turbine. The outlet of the turbine 6 itself is connected to the heat exchanger 7, the inlet cooler 8, the capacitor 9 and the compressor 10; the condensate is discharged by the condensate pump or feed pump 11. The circuit also comprises reservoirs 12 for the regulation of the pressure level and a compressor 13 and the valves 14 and a cooling water pump 15 Finally, the turbine 6 is connected to the generator 16. The various circuits

  are constituted by the pipes a - m.

  In more detail, the solar collector 1 composed of solar cells divided into groups, supplies direct current under a voltage that can be used in practice, to decompose water contained in the tank 2 and to give hydrogen and oxygen; these two fuels feed through the pipes a, b two separate pressure tanks 3, 4, which serve at the same time as accumulators. The two reservoirs 3, 4 supply hydrogen and oxygen by two other separate conduits c, d to the combustion chamber 5 of a closed-circuit and internal combustion gas turbine engine G (hydrogen and oxygen); the outlet of the combustion chamber and the inlet of the turbine 6 are connected by the pipe k. The working fluid of the installation of the gas turbine G may be air or, if appropriate, helium. For this, unlike closed circuit gas turbine and external heating installations with heat exchangers,

  we can arrive at turbine inlet temperatures, extreme

high.

  The gas turbine plant G comprises, as indicated, a compressor 10 and a turbine 6 which are connected by a common shaft W and in their circuit, these two

  elements comprise a heat exchanger 7, integrated.

  A reducer, not shown in the figure, makes it possible to supply the power of the installation G via the output shaft

  W 'to the electricity generator 16.

  According to the invention, the water vapor generated by the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen is again extracted from the gas turbine circuit after cooling (by the pre-cooler 8) of the air (or helium) mixture. and water vapor, and passage in the capacitor 9; this

  evacuation is done by the return pipe e between the cooling

  prior deur 8 and the capacitor 9; the condensate thus evacuated is pumped into the tank 2 through the pipe f:

  in this tank 2, the water is again decomposed into hydro-

  gene and oxygen. So in practice, we keep the water

contained in the circuit.

  According to the figure in which the pre-cooler 8 is mounted downstream of the heat exchanger 7 connected by a line 1, the mixture of air (or helium) and water vapor leaves the turbine 6 to pass by a line g and enter first into the heat exchanger 7; a part of the heat of the mixture is thus used to complete the heating of the working fluid, compressed (air or helium) before entering the combustion chamber 5. The pipes h and i of the working fluid connect the compressor 10 and the heat exchanger 7 and on the other hand the heat exchanger 7 and the

combustion chamber 5.

  According to another variant not shown in the figure, the heat energy extracted from the mixture of air (or helium) and water vapor, after passage of the heat exchanger, can be used in a steam circuit provided for in FIG. the continuation of the circuit of the gas turbine; in this case, it is advantageous to replace the pre-cooler with a

steam generator.

  According to the figure, the tanks 12 are inte-

  to the return line e between the pre-cooler 8 and the condenser 9, to adjust the pressure level, and this with the interposition of the compressor 13 and the valves of

security 14.

  The working fluid circulating in a cir-

  baked closed the installation of the gas turbine G goes through the

  conduct m from capacitor 9 to compressor 10.

24.65101

Claims (1)

  1. R E V E N D I C A T I 0 N S
      ) Solar installation whose power is available in a flexible manner, characterized in that it comprises: a solar collector (1) composed of solar cells divided into groups, giving a direct current under a voltage that can be used in practice, and which is used to decompose (tank 2) water in hydrogen and oxygen in the gaseous state, oxygen and hydrogen gas being supplied by separate pressure tanks (3, 4) serving as accumulators, to the combustion chamber (5) of a closed circuit and internal combustion gas turbine (hydrogen and oxygen) installation and the working fluid of the gas turbine plant is constituted by air or, if appropriate, by helium, the water vapor generated by the combustion of oxygen and hydrogen being extracted again from the circuit of the gas turbine after cooling (pre-cooler 8) of the mixture
      gaseous form of air (with helium) and water vapor, by means of
      intermediate of a capacitor (9), to be pumped back into the tank (2) in which the water is decomposed again
    in oxygen and hydrogen.
      Solar plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture of air or helium and water vapor leaving the turbine (6) of the gas turbine plant (G) passes through first a heat exchanger (7) which extracts a part of the heat of the mixture to ensure the complementary heating of the compressed working fluid (air or helium) before this fluid enters the chamber
    of combustion (5).
      ) Solar installation according to any
      than claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the energy
      heat extracted from the mixture of air (or helium) and water vapor when passing through the heat exchanger is used in a steam circuit provided downstream of the gas turbine circuit, the pre-cooler ( 8) being replaced by a steam generator
      ) Solar installation according to any
      claims 1 to 3p characterized in that the reservoirs
      see (12) as well as a compressor (13) and safety valves
      (14) are connected in the return circuit (conduct e)
      to adjust the pressure level.
FR8019570A 1979-09-11 1980-09-10 Solar installation whose power is fully available Withdrawn FR2465101A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE2936707 1979-09-11

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
FR2465101A1 true FR2465101A1 (en) 1981-03-20

Family

ID=6080568

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
FR8019570A Withdrawn FR2465101A1 (en) 1979-09-11 1980-09-10 Solar installation whose power is fully available

Country Status (3)

Country Link
FR (1) FR2465101A1 (en)
GB (1) GB2058935B (en)
NO (1) NO802672L (en)

Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2236808B (en) * 1989-08-19 1994-05-11 James Gavin Warnock Energy storage/transfer system
GB9403592D0 (en) * 1994-02-22 1994-04-13 Univ Cranfield Power management
US5697218A (en) * 1995-06-07 1997-12-16 Shnell; James H. System for geothermal production of electricity
DE69623773D1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2002-10-24 James H Shnell A method for converting electricity in erdwarme
US5644911A (en) * 1995-08-10 1997-07-08 Westinghouse Electric Corporation Hydrogen-fueled semi-closed steam turbine power plant
CN104234955A (en) * 2013-06-20 2014-12-24 王刚 Technical scheme for converting heat energy of normal-temperature air and heat energy of normal-temperature water into electric energy and mechanical energy
GB201701368D0 (en) * 2017-01-27 2017-03-15 Univ Newcastle Heat engine

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3328957A (en) * 1966-01-03 1967-07-04 Curtiss Wright Corp Ratio control for closed cycle propulsion systems
DE2510226B1 (en) * 1975-03-08 1976-05-26 Eduard Gubo Solar power station with energy storage - electrolysis sea water into hydrogen and oxygen for later combustion to drive turbine-generator set
US4087976A (en) * 1976-08-13 1978-05-09 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Electric power plant using electrolytic cell-fuel cell combination
US4161657A (en) * 1975-02-21 1979-07-17 Shaffer Marlin R Jr Hydrogen supply and utility systems and components thereof

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3328957A (en) * 1966-01-03 1967-07-04 Curtiss Wright Corp Ratio control for closed cycle propulsion systems
US4161657A (en) * 1975-02-21 1979-07-17 Shaffer Marlin R Jr Hydrogen supply and utility systems and components thereof
DE2510226B1 (en) * 1975-03-08 1976-05-26 Eduard Gubo Solar power station with energy storage - electrolysis sea water into hydrogen and oxygen for later combustion to drive turbine-generator set
US4087976A (en) * 1976-08-13 1978-05-09 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Electric power plant using electrolytic cell-fuel cell combination

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB2058935A (en) 1981-04-15
NO802672L (en) 1981-03-12
GB2058935B (en) 1983-05-05

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