ES2234416A1 - Control system for controlling power of active power filter, has sensors estimating value of energy stored in direct current bus, where estimated value is compared with fundamental reference value of controller - Google Patents

Control system for controlling power of active power filter, has sensors estimating value of energy stored in direct current bus, where estimated value is compared with fundamental reference value of controller

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Publication number
ES2234416A1
ES2234416A1 ES200302531A ES200302531A ES2234416A1 ES 2234416 A1 ES2234416 A1 ES 2234416A1 ES 200302531 A ES200302531 A ES 200302531A ES 200302531 A ES200302531 A ES 200302531A ES 2234416 A1 ES2234416 A1 ES 2234416A1
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current
currents
reference
bus
energy
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Spanish (es)
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ES2234416B1 (en
Inventor
Ignacio Candela Garcia
Joan Montanya Puig
Rafael Pindado Rico
Josep Pou I Felix
Pedro Rodriguez Cortes
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Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya
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Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E40/00Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y02E40/20Active power filtering [APF]
    • Y02E40/22Non-specified or voltage-fed active power filters
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E40/00Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y02E40/40Arrangements for reducing harmonics

Abstract

The system has sensors estimating value of energy stored in a direct current (DC) bus, where the estimated value is compared with a fundamental reference value of a controller.

Description

Energy controller for an active filter of bypass power.

Field of the invention

The present invention is related, in a way general, with the active filters of bypass power, and of more particularly, with a control strategy based on the regulation of their energy status.

Description of the current state of the art

An active bypass power filter consists is a device intended to inject into the power grid a set of currents with the objective of compensating the distortions and / or imbalances that the currents present absorbed by non-linear and / or unbalanced loads. This way, it is possible that the feeding of the mentioned loads is produce under optimal conditions for different equipment involved in the generation, transportation and Distribution of electrical energy.

Conventional filter controllers power assets have a main control loop that calculates the currents that must be injected into the network from the determination of the load conditions, that is: the charging current is processed, through the main loop of control, to extract those distorting components and / or imbalances of the same that must be provided by the filter active power (direct control). A variant of this method it consists of processing, through the main control loop, the source side currents, and thus set the currents of active filter reference to get those mentioned currents at the source side are optimal (control feedback). The techniques used to process these currents by the main control loop are based on temporary or frequency procedures. Within Temporary procedures can be cited the determination of instantaneous powers of the load or source, or expression of load or source currents based on systems of synchronous reference. Within the frequency procedures are include all those techniques intended for characterization harmonic of the currents. In most cases, so that the controller can process load or source currents, it is necessary the sensing of the tensions the mains. With independence of the system used, all these techniques of current processing carry associated computing expense considerable.

For an active power filter to act properly it is necessary that the voltage value of your bus from Continuous static converter active filter is found within an operating margin. For this reason, all Conventional controllers include a second control loop intended to maintain the voltage of the converter continuous bus static close to a voltage value set as a reference. This second control loop measures the error between the current voltage of the static converter DC bus and the reference value, and from this information modifies the current references calculated by the main control loop so that the active filter absorbs or delivers the active power necessary to minimize such error. Given that the voltage variation in the DC bus of the static converter does not keep a linear relationship with the absorbed or delivered power because of the active filter, it is very difficult to foresee the Dynamic response of the DC bus voltage of the converter static when the different control loops are acting. By this reason, the dimensioning of said continuous bus of the Static converter is set based on conditions of permanent regime affected by different coefficients of security.

Despite the use of the aforementioned safety coefficients, the exact ignorance of the converter bus voltage evolution static causes that, faced with common situations of abrupt variation in the load to be conditioned, the voltage of said bus exceeds reference operating margins, leading to the performance of additional security systems that completely nullify the active filter conditioning action and even reach physically disconnect it from the network.

Description of the invention

In an active power filter it would be advantageous have a control system that calculates, with a low cost computational, the currents that must be injected into the network electric in order to condition the load currents, and which also allowed to anticipate and ensure the operating conditions of the active filter in case of sudden variations in said load.

According to the materialization of the invention, The control method consists of a control loop based on the calculation of energy variation, not voltage, on the bus of the static converter of the active power filter. According to this, an energy controller for an active filter of power has the necessary voltage and / or current sensors on the continuous bus so that, from this information of voltage and / or current and knowing where appropriate the value of the reactive elements connected to said bus, the value of the energy stored in it. The fundamental variable of energy controller presented here is the variation of the power in the DC bus of the static converter. For him calculation of this energy variation in the continuous bus is use a subtractor that determines the difference between the output of the estimator of the energy in the continuous bus and a value of energy, or equivalent, provided as a reference. The error energy resulting from the aforementioned restorer constitutes the input variable to the controller of the variation of power in the DC bus of the static converter. The variable output of the bus power variation controller continuous is the average value of the instantaneous active power that should be developed by the source to compensate for any possible variation in the average value of the energy stored in the DC bus of the static converter. This controller of the power variation in the static converter DC bus it can be based on any control theory, linear or not linear, for single input and single output systems, and their fundamental objective is to get the average value of the error Energetic at its entrance be null. The output variable of controller of the continuous bus power variation of the static converter constitutes the first signal input to the current calculator that should circulate on the side of source. The other entry of this calculator of the currents of reference on the source side is obtained from the information obtained through the mains voltage sensors. Using these two input signals, in this calculator the reference currents on the source side is implemented any valid transformation from power to current in systems three-phase or single-phase, said transformation may be based in static or rotating reference systems. Depending on the desirable characteristics in the currents conditioned in the source side, the information obtained through the corresponding mains voltage sensors can be preprocessed before being provided as input to the calculator of reference currents on the source side. When you want to the circulating currents on the source side give rise to a unit power factor in it, the signals of the voltage sensors will be applied directly to the input corresponding to the reference current calculator in The source side. When you want the currents on the side of source are sinusoidal and stressed with the corresponding voltage positive sequence network, the signal obtained by means of voltage sensors will be treated by a hitch loop phase (PLL) before being provided as input to the calculator of the reference currents on the source side. Likewise, in the reference current calculator on the source side is possible to implement an algorithm that is based on knowledge of certain characteristic parameters of the network voltages, such as the effective value, the peak value, the value collective, or any other. In the latter case, the signal obtained by means of the voltage sensors it is processed with the objective of Obtain the characteristic values mentioned above. The output of the reference current calculator on the side of source is provided as the subtractor's negative input implemented in the calculator of the reference currents for The active filter. The positive input of this subtractor provides information about the currents on the load side. This information of the currents on the load side comes from the reading of the corresponding current sensors, and depending on from which components of these currents want to be compensated, the reading of these sensors can be contributed directly to the positive input of the subtractor, or it can be previously treated by an attenuator, a processor that eliminates those components that are desired to be compensated, or any other applicable procedure Finally, the calculator output of the reference currents for the static controlled converter by current it is provided as input to the controller of the current injected by static filter converter active.

It is important to note that the controller energy for an active bypass filter described previously it is fully applicable to three-phase systems of three and four wires (systems with neutral).

Also, the energy controller for a active bypass filter described above is fully applicable on any static converter topology controlled by current, already said converter based on two-level or multi-level topologies, whether the converter is based on the use of capacitive or inductive elements on the DC bus of the static converter.

The linear relationship between the variation of energy stored in the converter's continuous bus static and instantaneous active power developed by the active power filter enables more design and analysis simple predictive and / or structure control systems variable that allows you to restore the reference value of the energy stored in the DC bus of the static converter in case of temporary or unforeseen situations due to sudden load variations

Description of the drawings

They will be described in detail below. preferred embodiments of the present invention based on the attached drawings, in which:

Figure 1 shows the block diagram general energy controller of an active power filter in derivation.

Figure 2 shows, by way of example explanatory, the scheme of a particular application of energy controller of an active power filter in derivation.

Figure 3 shows in detail, and for the particular clarifying application, the variation controller of power in the DC bus of the static converter.

Figure 4 shows in detail, and for the particular clarifying application, the flow calculator of references on the source side.

Figure 5 shows in detail, and for the particular clarifying application, the flow calculator reference for the current controlled static converter of the active power filter.

The meaning of numerical references allusive to the elements of the figures appears detailed in the enumeration page of the elements represented in the figures.

The block diagram is shown in figure 1 of the energy controller of an active power filter in derivation. This figure shows how the energy estimator in the Continuous bus (1) receives voltage variables as input and / or current of each of the reactive elements of the bus of Continuous converter (6). The choice of the type of signals from entry in (1) depends on the algorithm used in it to estimate the energy stored in the continuous bus (7). A Once the energy stored in the continuous bus (7) is known, the energy variation calculator on the continuous bus (2), constituted by a subtractor, calculates the energy error in said bus with respect to an energy value, or equivalent, set as reference (12). The output signal of the calculator (2) constitutes the instantaneous variation of the energy in the continuous bus (8). This signal is provided as input to the controller of the variation of power on the continuous bus (3), which will determine the value medium of the instantaneous active power that the source (9) so that said energy variation is compensated. The algorithm used to implement the controller of the Power variation in the continuous bus (3) can be supported by any of the existing control theories, linear or not linear, for systems with one input and one output. The signal referring to the average value of the instantaneous active power that must be develop the source (9) is provided as input to the block current reference calculator on the source side (4). This block (4) receives as a second input a set of signals (13) obtained from reading the network voltages. At block (4) any valid transformation of current power for three-phase or single-phase systems, such transformation may be based on systems of synchronous or rotating reference. Block (4) determines the instantaneous evolution of the currents that should circulate in the source side (10) to get said source to develop the average value of instantaneous active power set by (9). In function of desirable characteristics in the streams of reference for the source side (10), the tension set (13) It will vary from case to case. So, when you want the currents on the source side give rise to a unit power factor in the latter, tensions (13) will correspond to direct reading of network tensions. When you want the currents in the source side be sinusoidal and encased with the component of positive sequence voltage, the voltages (13) will result from the application of a phase hitch loop (PLL) to the voltages read on the net. Likewise, depending on the transformation of current power used in (4) it is possible that the voltages (13) come from some other type of processing through which extracts some characteristic value from them. We must indicate, that regardless of the appearance adopted by the references of current at the source side (10), the average value of the instantaneous active power developed by the source will match with the reference value set by (9). Once the reference currents for the source side (10), the calculation of the reference currents for the static converter Current controlled (11) is performed by block (5). This block consists of a subtractor. At the entrance negative of this subtractor reference signals are provided for the source side (10), and in the positive input a game is provided of signals (14) obtained from the reading of the currents of the load. Depending on the particular characteristics of this signal set (14), the evolution of the reference currents (11) for the static converter controlled by varying current from one case to another. In this way, you can modify the conditioning percentage of load currents by the use of an attenuator in the signals captured by the sensors said currents, or also, the partial compensation of only certain characteristics of load currents through application of the appropriate processing on the output signals of the sensors of said currents.

Enumeration of elements represented in the figures:

(one)
Energy estimator stored in the continuous bus

(2)
Energy Variation Calculator on the continuous bus

(3)
Power variation controller on the continuous bus

(4)
Reference Current Calculator on the source side

(5)
Reference Current Calculator for the current controlled converter

(6)
Voltage and / or current signals of the continuous bus

(7)
Signal for energy estimation stored in the continuous bus

(8)
Signal for energy variation in the bus continues

(9)
Signal for the average value of the instant active power that the source should develop

(10)
Signal for the currents of reference on the source side

(eleven)
Signal for the currents of reference in the current controlled converter

(12)
Signal for the value adopted as reference power on the continuous bus

(13)
Signals for the game of tensions contributed to the reference current calculator on the side of source

(14)
Signals for the game of currents contributed to the calculator of the reference currents for the current controlled converter

(fifteen)
Energy filter controller bypass power asset

(16)
Static converter controlled by stream

(17)
Injected current controller by static converter

(18)
Network coupling inductances

(19)
Static converter

(twenty)
Bus Continuous Static Converter

(twenty-one)
One voltage sensor DC bus capacitor

(22)
Signal reading voltage of a DC bus capacitor

(2. 3)
Mains voltage sensor

(24)
Current sensor load

(25)
Phase Hitch Loop (PLL) with positive sequence detection of network voltages

(26)
Controllable Dimmer
Application example of the energy controller for a filter bypass power asset

An application is shown in Figure 2 particular of the energy controller of an active filter of bypass power working on a three-phase system of four wires (with neutral conductor). In this case, the Static converter controlled by current used (16) is two levels, having four semiconductor branches and connection of the network neutral to the midpoint of the bus keep going.

In this particular application, when arranging the bus of continuous (20) two capacitors, the energy stored in the Continuous bus calculated in (1) by the expression:

w_ {dc} = \ frac {1} {2} (C 1 v 2 C1 + C 2 v 2 C2)

In this particular application, the controller of the energy variation in the continuous bus (3) is implemented by linear control algorithm shown in figure 3. The Transfer functions characteristic of this control are:

H (s) = \ frac {\ omega2 {h}} (S2 + \ omega2h)} {(S2 +2 \ xi_ {h} \ omega_ {h} s + \ omega2 {h}) 2

C (s) = k

F_ {1} (s) = 1 + \ frac {\ omega2 {f}} {s (s + 2 \ omega_ {f}}

F_ {2} (s) = \ frac {\ omega2 {f}} {s + 2 \ omega_ {f}}

where, \ omega_ {s} = 2 \ cdot \ pi \ cdot50, k = \ omega_ {f} = 2 \ cdot \ pi \ cdot10, \ omega_ {h} = 2 \ cdot \ pi \ cdot100 and \ xi_ {f} = \ xi_ {h} = one.

In this particular application, the calculator the reference currents on the source side (4) are implemented according to the diagram shown in figure 4. In this diagram, block (25) symbolizes a phase hitch loop (PLL) with positive sequence detection of network voltages. By means of the  Using this PLL, you get that currents on the side source are purely active sinusoids of positive sequence, and will result in the average value of the active power snapshot developed by the source matches the value of reference provided by the block (3).

The algorithm implemented in the calculator of the reference currents on the source side (4) is the next:

i * Si = \ frac {p_ {S-med}} {\ sum \ limits_ {j = a, b, c} (v_ {Si-img}) ^ {2}} \ \ cdot \ v_ {Si-img_ {| _ {i = a, b, c}}}

where p S-med represents the average value of the instantaneous power that must be developed by the source, and v Si-img represents the signal of phase i provided as voltage input in the calculator of the reference currents on the source side (4).

In this particular application, the calculator the reference currents for the converter controlled by current (5) is implemented as specified in the Figure 5. In this case, the set of currents that are supplied to the positive input of the subtractor comes from an attenuator controllable (26). Through the control signal of this attenuator, the which can take values between 0 and 1, you can set the percentage of harmonic and distorting components of load currents that you want to compensate.

References

[one]
V. Cardenas , L. Moran , A. Bahamondes , J. Dixon , "Comparative analysis of real time reference generation techniques for four wire shunt active power filters", Proceedings of IEEE 34th Annual Conference on Power Electronics Specialist, PESC'03 , June 2003 , Vol. 2, pp. 791-796.

[2]
MJ Newman , DN Zmood , DG Holmes , "Stationary frame harmonic reference generation for active filter systems", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications , Nov-Dec 2002 , Vol. 38, pp. 1591-1599.

[3]
M. Labben-Ben Braiek , F. Fnaiech , K. Al-Haddad , L. Yacoubi , "Comparison of direct current control techniques for a three-phase shunt active power filter", Proceedings IEEE International Industrial Electronics, ISIE '02 , July 2002 , Vol. 4, pp: 1217-1222.

[4]
S. Rechka , T. Ngandui , Xu Jianhong , P. Sicard , "A comparative study of harmonic detection algorithms for active filters and hybrid active filters", Proceedings of IEEE 33rd Annual Conference on Power Electronics Specialist, PESC '02 , June 2002 , Vol. 1, pp. 357-363.

[5]
M. Aredes , LFC Monteiro , "A control strategy for shunt active filter", Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, ICHQP'02 , 2002 , Vol. 2, pp. 472-477.

[6]
PS Sensarma , KR Padiyar , V. Ramanarayanan , "A comparative study of harmonic filtering strategies for a shunt active filter", Proceedings of IEEE Industry Applications Conference , Oct. 2000 , Vol. 4, pp. 2509-2516.

[7]
G. Bonifacio , A. Lo Schiavo , P. Marino , A. Testa , "Comparative analysis of shunt active filters in nonideal operating conditions", Proceedings of IEEE 9th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, ICHQP '00 , Oct. 2000 , Vol. 1, pp. 226-231.

[8]
GD Marques , "A comparison of active power filter control methods in unbalanced and non-sinusoidal conditions", Proceedings of the 24th Annual Industrial Electronics Society, IECON '98 , Aug. - Sept. 1998 , Vol. 1, pp. 444-449.

Claims (14)

1. An energy controller for a filter bypass power asset. This controller comprises:
An estimator of the energy stored in the bus DC converter;
An energy variation calculator in the continuous bus with respect to a reference value;
A controller of energy variation in the continuous bus, in which the algorithm of control that determines the average value of the instantaneous power that must be developed by the source based on the variation of power experienced by the converter's continuous bus;
A calculator of the reference currents in the source side, on which the algorithm for determine the currents that must flow through the source based on the average value of the instantaneous active power that must develop the source and in the network tensions;
A calculator of the reference currents for the current controlled converter based on the currents that must circulate on the source side and in the currents that circulate on the load side.
2. The device claimed in 1, where the estimator of the energy stored in the continuous bus is implemented from the voltage reading in the Continuous bus power storage devices.
3. The device claimed in 1, where the estimator of the energy stored in the continuous bus is implemented from the current reading in the Continuous bus power storage devices.
4. The device claimed in 1, where the estimator of the energy stored in the continuous bus is implemented from the joint reading of the tension and the current in the bus energy storage devices of continuous.
5. Any of the claimed devices in 2, 3 or 4, where the output of the energy estimator offers a variable without physical meaning but that turns out to be proportional to the energy stored in the continuous bus.
6. The device claimed in 1, where the energy variation calculator on the continuous bus is constituted by a subtractor between the output variable of the estimator of the energy stored in the continuous bus and a value of energy, or equivalent, provided as a reference.
7. The device claimed in 1, where the controller of the power variation in the continuous bus will implement using any linear control theory or not linear, and whose ultimate goal is to get the average value of your input variable, associated with the variation of energy on the bus Continuous converter, be null.
8. The device claimed in 1, where the controller of the power variation in the continuous bus will implement using any linear control theory or not linear, and whose objective is also to achieve that the average value of the variable associated with the variation of energy in the continuous bus  be null, to ensure the return of the reference energy in the bus continues when due to transient situations or unforeseen the current value of said energy stored in the bus continually go outside the operating limits.
9. The device claimed in 1, where the reference current calculator on the source side is support any transformation from power to current in three-phase systems, whether this system-based transformation reference static or rotating, and use as a second input the direct reading of the network voltages, with the objective of getting a compensation strategy based on the concept of unit power factor.
10. The device claimed in 1, where the reference current calculator on the source side is support any transformation from power to current in three-phase systems, whether this system-based transformation reference static or rotating, and use as a second input a set of direct sequence sinusoidal tensions, from the performance of a phase hitch loop (PLL) on the direct reading of the network voltages, with the objective of getting a compensation strategy based on the concept of sinusoidal current on the source side.
11. The device claimed in 1, where the reference current calculator on the source side is support any transformation from power to current in three-phase or single-phase systems, and use as a second input a set of characteristic values of the network voltages in order to get a set of currents conditioned on the source side.
12. The device claimed in 1, where the reference current calculator for the converter controlled by current is constituted by a subtractor in the that, in its negative input the reference currents are applied on the source side, and in its positive input the reading is applied Direct load currents.
13. The device claimed in 1, wherein the reference current calculator for the converter controlled by current is constituted by a subtractor in the that, in its negative input the reference currents are applied on the source side, and in its positive entry a set of  currents from the performance of a controlled attenuator about direct reading of load currents.
14. The device claimed in 1, where the reference current calculator for the converter controlled by current is constituted by a subtractor in the that, in its negative input the reference currents are applied on the source side, and in its positive entry a set of  signals from the performance of a signal processor that eliminates those components of the current read by the sensors of charging current and that is not wanted to be compensated.
ES200302531A 2003-10-17 2003-10-17 Energy controller for an active filter of power in derivation. Active ES2234416B1 (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5751138A (en) * 1995-06-22 1998-05-12 University Of Washington Active power conditioner for reactive and harmonic compensation having PWM and stepped-wave inverters
US6249108B1 (en) * 1999-08-31 2001-06-19 The Regents Of The University Of California Unified constant-frequency integration control of active power filters
US6297980B1 (en) * 1999-08-06 2001-10-02 The Regents Of The University Of California Unified constant-frequency integration control of three-phase power corrected rectifiers, active power filters, and grid-connected inverters
WO2002062000A2 (en) * 2001-02-01 2002-08-08 Northeastern University Adaptive controller for d-statcom in the stationary reference frame to compensate for reactive and harmonic distortion under unbalanced conditions

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5751138A (en) * 1995-06-22 1998-05-12 University Of Washington Active power conditioner for reactive and harmonic compensation having PWM and stepped-wave inverters
US6297980B1 (en) * 1999-08-06 2001-10-02 The Regents Of The University Of California Unified constant-frequency integration control of three-phase power corrected rectifiers, active power filters, and grid-connected inverters
US6249108B1 (en) * 1999-08-31 2001-06-19 The Regents Of The University Of California Unified constant-frequency integration control of active power filters
WO2002062000A2 (en) * 2001-02-01 2002-08-08 Northeastern University Adaptive controller for d-statcom in the stationary reference frame to compensate for reactive and harmonic distortion under unbalanced conditions

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