EP2847137A1 - Method and installation for the thermal hydrolysis of sludge - Google Patents

Method and installation for the thermal hydrolysis of sludge

Info

Publication number
EP2847137A1
EP2847137A1 EP13722345.9A EP13722345A EP2847137A1 EP 2847137 A1 EP2847137 A1 EP 2847137A1 EP 13722345 A EP13722345 A EP 13722345A EP 2847137 A1 EP2847137 A1 EP 2847137A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
sludge
reactor
reactors
treated
steam
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP13722345.9A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Delphine Nawawi-Lansade
Malik Djafer
Julien Chauzy
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies Support SAS
Original Assignee
Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies Support SAS
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR1254303A priority Critical patent/FR2990429B1/en
Application filed by Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies Support SAS filed Critical Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies Support SAS
Priority to PCT/EP2013/059179 priority patent/WO2013167469A1/en
Publication of EP2847137A1 publication Critical patent/EP2847137A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/18Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by thermal conditioning
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/02Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by heating
    • C02F1/025Thermal hydrolysis
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/18Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by thermal conditioning
    • C02F11/185Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by thermal conditioning by pasteurisation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/30Organic compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2103/00Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated
    • C02F2103/34Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated from industrial activities not provided for in groups C02F2103/12 - C02F2103/32
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2201/00Apparatus for treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • C02F2201/002Construction details of the apparatus
    • C02F2201/005Valves
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2209/00Controlling or monitoring parameters in water treatment
    • C02F2209/02Temperature
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2209/00Controlling or monitoring parameters in water treatment
    • C02F2209/03Pressure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2301/00General aspects of water treatment
    • C02F2301/04Flow arrangements
    • C02F2301/046Recirculation with an external loop
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2301/00General aspects of water treatment
    • C02F2301/06Pressure conditions
    • C02F2301/063Underpressure, vacuum
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2303/00Specific treatment goals
    • C02F2303/04Disinfection
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2303/00Specific treatment goals
    • C02F2303/10Energy recovery
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/30Wastewater or sewage treatment systems using renewable energies

Abstract

The invention concerns a method for the thermal hydrolysis of sludge for treatment, said method being carried out in at least two reactors operating in parallel, in each of which the sludge undergoes a complete thermal hydrolysis cycle, said cycle comprising the steps consisting of supplying said sludge for treatment into said reactor, injecting live steam to bring said sludge to a pressure P and to a temperature T allowing hydrolysis to take place, keeping said sludge at said pressure P and at said temperature T for a certain time, suddenly returning said sludge to atmospheric pressure by releasing flash vapour, and emptying said sludge hydrolysed in this way from said reactor, said cycle being offset in time from one reactor to the other so as to use the flash vapour produced in one reactor for injection into the other reactor. According to the invention, such a method comprises a step consisting of extracting a portion of the sludge present in each of the reactors and reintroducing it into the corresponding reactor.

Description

 Process and installation for the thermal hydrolysis of sludge

 1. Field of the invention

 The invention relates to the field of the treatment of sludges heavily loaded with fermentable organic materials and in particular that:

- sludge from urban or industrial wastewater remediation processes;

 bio-waste;

 mixtures of sludge from urban or industrial wastewater treatment processes and bio-waste.

 2. Prior Art

 At present, some of the sludge produced by wastewater treatment plants is used in agriculture, while another part is usually stored in landfills or incinerated. Since the production of these sludges is becoming increasingly important, it is necessary that they do not present a danger for the environment and human health. In fact, these sludges contain germs, some of which are pathogenic (coliform bacteria, salmonella, helminth eggs, etc.). Moreover, they are very fermentable and are at the origin of the production of gas (amines, hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans) which generate olfactory nuisances. These considerations explain the need to implement, on the treatment channels indicated above, at least one stage of stabilization of these sludges to obtain sludge no longer evolving, or at least evolving rapidly, both on the biological level than on the physico-chemical level. Other concerns are the desire to reduce the volume of these sludges, and to value the sludge in the form of biogas.

 Various processes have been proposed in the state of the art for treating these sludges, among which are:

 aerobic digestion;

 anaerobic digestion;

 chemical conditioning;

- thermal conditioning; thermal hydrolysis.

It is to this latter type of treatment that the invention relates.

 The thermal hydrolysis of the sludge consists in treating the sludge at a high temperature and under pressure so as to hygienize (that is to say to slaughter very strongly their content of microorganisms), to solubilize a significant portion of particulates and to transform the organic matter they contain into biodegradable soluble COD (alcohols, aldehydes, volatile fatty acids).

 A particularly effective sludge hydrolysis technique consists in implementing at least two reactors operating in parallel in each of which the sludge undergoes a complete cycle of thermal hydrolysis.

 Each of the thermal hydrolysis cycles implemented in a reactor comprises the steps of feeding the sludge to be treated into the reactor, injecting live steam into it to bring it to a pressure P and a temperature T allowing hydrolysis to maintain them at this pressure P and at this temperature T for a certain time, to suddenly bring the sludge back to a pressure close to atmospheric pressure by releasing flash vapor which is recycled to preheat the sludge to be treated in the reactor. parallel, and drain the reactor sludge and hydrolysed.

 According to this technique, it is expected that the cycle is shifted in time from one reactor to another to use the flash vapor produced from one reactor to inject it into the other reactor.

 Such an implementation makes it possible to take advantage of the flash vapor produced in one of the reactors for supplying the other reactor with steam.

This type of process, which eliminates the need to pass the sludge from one reactor to another to perform the various stages of thermal hydrolysis, has several advantages. It leads in particular to simplify the facilities necessary for the implementation of the process, to reduce the rate of fouling of these facilities, to minimize odors that may occur. produce sludge from one reactor to another and reduce the need for live steam. However, it has some limitations.

 3. Disadvantages of prior art

This type of thermal sludge hydrolysis process can be improved. This is particularly the case when it is implemented in small or medium-sized installations, that is to say treating a daily sludge volume of less than 10 m 3 or about 10,000 population equivalents.

 In thermal hydrolysis, the main item of cost / expense is related to the amount of steam injected into the sludge. In terms of dimensioning, this affects the size of the steam production facilities implemented for this purpose (boiler, steam generator, steam recuperator, piping, etc.). At the farm level, this affects fuel consumption to generate steam. It is therefore important to minimize the amount of steam used to treat sludge.

 The amount of steam to be injected into a sludge to bring it to the desired temperature for thermal hydrolysis is related to its concentration of solids. The sludge is indeed made of a mixture of dry matter and water. When heating sludge, it is therefore necessary to increase the temperature of both dry matter and water. As a result, the lower the concentration of the sludge, that is to say, the less its viscosity or dryness, the greater the volume of sludge to be heated and therefore the greater the amount of steam required to heat it. is important. This generates an increase in the consumption of live steam, and consequently an increase in fuel consumption (biogas, fuel, natural gas, etc.) used to produce this live steam.

 In addition, the risk of emanation of odors at any level of the sludge treatment sector is all the more important that the volume of hydrolysed sludge is high.

It is therefore necessary to treat the sludge that is as concentrated as possible, that is to say having a high viscosity or dryness, in order to limit the consumption of steam and reduce the production of hydrolysed sludge and consequently the emanations of odors.

 The transfer of steam in a highly concentrated sludge, however, is problematic. Indeed, it has been found in existing processes that the transfer of steam in highly concentrated sludge was not optimal. This problem of vapor transfer is particularly encountered during the injection of flash vapor into the sludge to be treated, at the beginning of thermal hydrolysis. This can be explained by the fact that the transfer of vapor in the sludge is related to their concentration, the transfer being all the lower as the sludge concentration is important. The concentration of the sludge to be treated must not be too high so as not to hinder the transfer of steam.

 Finally, optimizing the thermal hydrolysis of sludge in terms of reducing the consumption of steam involves taking into consideration two following antagonistic factors:

- the more the sludge is concentrated, the lower the volume to be treated (the lower the risk of odor fumes) and the lower the amount of steam to be injected to heat the sludge is low

 BUT the more the sludge is concentrated, the more difficult it is to carry out the vapor transfer and thus to use a small amount of vapor: it is therefore a limit found in the processes of the prior art, according to which the sludge are not concentrated beyond a certain value at the risk of having a bad transfer and an excessive consumption of steam.

 4. Objectives of the invention

 The invention particularly aims to overcome these disadvantages of the prior art.

More specifically, an object of the invention is to provide a thermal sludge hydrolysis technique which leads to limiting, in at least one embodiment, the consumption of steam. Another objective of the invention is to implement, in at least one embodiment, such a technique that makes it possible to reduce the thermal losses in vapor, in particular flash vapor.

 The invention also aims to provide such a technique that allows, in at least one embodiment, to reduce odors emanations outside the reactors.

 Another object of the invention is to provide such a technique which allows, in at least one embodiment, to ensure efficient hydrolysis of sludge having a high dryness by ensuring efficient transfer of the steam with said sludge in a medium. confined improving the steam / sludge exchanges allowing in particular the rapid condensation of steam in the sludge, which limits the consumption of steam.

 Another objective of the invention is to improve, in at least one embodiment, the viscosity of the sludge before the injection of the steam, in particular by improving the mixture of hydrolysed sludge / fresh sludge.

 The invention also aims to provide, in at least one embodiment, such a technique that is reliable and / or cheap and / or space-saving and / or simple to implement.

5. Presentation of the invention

These objectives, as well as others which will appear later, are achieved by means of a thermal hydrolysis process of sludge to be treated, said process being carried out in at least two reactors operating in parallel in each of which sludge undergo a complete cycle of thermal hydrolysis, said cycle comprising the steps of supplying said sludge to be treated in a reactor, injecting flash vapor from the other reactor therein to preheat the sludge, injecting live steam into it; to bring them to a pressure P and a temperature T for hydrolysis, to maintain them at said pressure P and at said temperature T for a certain time, to bring back the most said sludge can be rapidly brought to a pressure close to atmospheric pressure in order to release flash vapor, which has the effect of cooling the sludge, and draining said reactor of said sludge thus hydrolysed, said cycle being offset in time from one reactor to another to use the flash vapor produced from one reactor to inject it into the other reactor.

 According to the invention, such a method comprises a step of extracting a portion of the sludge present in each of the reactors and reintroducing them into the corresponding reactor.

 Thus, the invention is based on a completely original approach which consists of extracting a portion of the sludge contained in a thermal hydrolysis reactor and then reintroducing them into this reactor. In other words, it consists in recirculating part of the contents of a thermal hydrolysis reactor in itself, that is to say, to reintroduce into a thermal hydrolysis reactor sludge that has been extracted .

 The mentioned pressures are expressed in effective pressures.

 The at least partially hydrolyzed sludge contained in a reactor has a lower dryness and a higher temperature than the sludge to be treated introduced into the reactor. Thus their viscosity is lower than that of the sludge to be treated. Thanks to this invention, the mixture of partially hydrolysed sludge with the sludge to be treated is improved, the mixture is thus perfectly homogeneous, the viscosity of the mixture is thus optimized.

 In addition, depending on the nature of the means used to recirculate the sludge (a pump for example), the viscosity of the mixture decreases during its passage through them by mechanical effect.

 The transfer of the steam into the sludge increases inversely with their viscosity. The implementation of the invention thus makes it possible to improve the transfer of the steam in the sludge. Thermal losses and steam consumption can thus be reduced.

In view of the fact that thermal losses, for example steam leakage outside the reactors, are reduced, the technique according to the invention also helps to reduce odor nuisance throughout the sludge treatment process.

 The inventors have thus succeeded in optimizing the thermal hydrolysis of sludge by circumventing two factors limiting:

- the first according to which the sludge to be treated is less important to dryness is the transfer of steam into the sludge and thus the effectiveness of the hydrolysis;

 the second according to which the less the dryness of the sludge to be treated, the higher the volume of sludge to be treated and the higher the steam consumption and therefore less the yield of hydrolysis is good.

 According to an advantageous characteristic, at least a part of said live steam and / or of said flash vapor is injected into the sludge extracted from the reactors before reintroduction into the corresponding reactor.

 By injecting the steam into the recirculation loop which is a confined medium, the steam / sludge exchanges are improved, in particular enabling rapid and efficient condensation of the steam in the sludge, which makes it possible to limit the consumption of steam.

 The improvement of the transfer of vapor in the sludge provided by such a steam injection in a sludge recirculation loop is such that the technique according to the invention makes it possible to efficiently hydrolyze sludge more concentrated than those conventionally treated in the sludge. processes of the prior art. The sludge to be treated by the technique of the invention has a dryness of preferably between 14 and 30%.

 Said sludge to be treated can be introduced directly into the reactors.

 According to an advantageous characteristic of the invention, said sludge to be treated is mixed with said extracted sludge before feeding the reactors.

The sludge to be treated is thus mixed with partially hydrolysed sludge, the dryness of which is lower and the higher temperature, before being introduced into the reactor. The dryness of the mixture of sludge introduced into the reactor is therefore lower than that of the sludge to be treated and the temperature of the sludge mixture introduced into the reactor is therefore higher than that of the sludge to be treated. By these two phenomena, the transfer of steam into the sludge inside the reactor is thus improved compared to the case in which the sludge to be treated is directly introduced into the reactor. This implementation thus makes it possible to improve the performance of the hydrolysis of the sludge while limiting the consumption of steam, by increasing the dryness of the sludge to be treated and by reducing the odor nuisance.

 According to a first advantageous characteristic, between 0 and 100% of the flash vapor produced in a reactor is introduced into the sludge extracted from another reactor before reintroduction thereof, preferably between 25 and 75%.

 According to a second advantageous characteristic, between 0 and 100% of the live steam necessary to conduct a cycle in a reactor is introduced into the sludge that is extracted before being reintroduced, preferably between 0 and 50%.

 According to these two variants, the rest of the flash vapor and / or live steam is then introduced directly into the reactor.

 The fact of introducing directly into the sludge extracted from a reactor such a proportion of the total quantity of flash vapor and / or the live steam necessary for carrying out the hydrolysis in it, makes it possible to obtain good results in terms of hydrolysis of sludge, reduction of steam consumption and reduction of odor nuisance, and reduction of the dryness of the sludge to be treated.

 According to a preferred feature of the invention, the injection of flash vapor and the step of supplying the sludge to be treated in the reactor take place simultaneously.

The time of a complete sludge hydrolysis cycle can thus be reduced, which contributes to improving productivity. According to an advantageous characteristic of the invention, the pressure P is between 3 and 12 bars, and said temperature T is between 140 and 180 ° C.

 According to another advantageous characteristic, the pressure of the flash vapor is between 1 and 12 bar.

 The invention also covers an installation for implementing the method according to any one of the variants presented above. Such an installation comprises at least two thermal hydrolysis reactors connected in parallel, means for supplying sludge to be treated in each of said reactors, means for discharging the hydrolysed sludge from each of said reactors, injection means for injecting live steam alternately into each of said reactors and means for conveying and injecting the flash vapor from each reactor to the other reactor.

 An installation according to the invention further comprises means for extracting a portion of the sludge present in each of the reactors, means for reintroduction into the corresponding reactor sludge that has been extracted.

 Such an installation advantageously comprises means for injecting live steam and / or flash vapor emerging between said extraction means and said reintroduction means.

 According to a variant, said sludge feed means to be treated open directly into each of said reactors.

 According to another advantageous variant, said sludge feed means to be treated open out between said extraction means and said reintroduction means.

 6. List of figures

Other features and advantages of the invention will emerge more clearly on reading the following description of preferred embodiments, given as simple illustrative and non-limiting examples, and the appended drawings, among which: FIG. 1 illustrates an example of an installation comprising two reactors for the implementation of a method according to the invention, which comprises means for feeding sludge to be treated directly in the reactors; FIG. 2 illustrates an example of an installation comprising two reactors for the implementation of a method according to the invention, which comprises means for supplying sludge to be treated which opens into loops of recirculation of sludge in the reactors;

 FIG. 3 illustrates an installation implemented during tests carried out to verify the effectiveness of a technique according to the invention;

 FIG. 4 illustrates a curve representing the steam consumptions as a function of the dryness of the sludge to be treated during the implementation of a thermal hydrolysis according to the prior art and according to the invention.

 7. Description of an embodiment of the invention

 7.1. Recall of the principle of invention

 The general principle of the invention is based on the fact of recirculating in a hydrolysis reactor part of the sludge it contains. It consists in other words in extracting a portion of the sludge contained in a thermal hydrolysis reactor and then reintroducing them into it.

 Because the extracted sludge has a lower dryness, the transfer of steam into the sludge is improved.

 The invention thus makes it possible to reduce the heat losses and consequently to reduce the steam consumption, if necessary the consumption of biogas used to produce this steam, as well as the olfactory nuisances. It also allows, as the transfer of steam in the sludge is promoted, to more effectively hydrolyze sludge to be treated whose dryness is relatively important.

 7.2. Treatment facilities

7.2.1. Example of a first embodiment of an installation according to the invention In connection with FIG. 1, a first embodiment of an installation for the implementation of a method for thermal hydrolysis of sludge according to the invention is presented.

 As shown in this FIG. 1, such an installation comprises a first reactor 10 and a second reactor 20.

 The first reactor 10 includes a first sludge inlet 320, a vapor inlet 102, a recirculating sludge outlet 103, a hydrolysed sludge outlet 104 and a flash vapor outlet 105. It includes a second sludge inlet 101.

 The second reactor 20 includes a first slurry inlet 360, a steam inlet 202, a recirculating sludge outlet 203, a hydrolysed sludge outlet 204 and a flash steam outlet 205. It includes a second slurry inlet 201.

 The outlet 105 is connected to a flash steam extraction pipe 11, one outlet of which is connected to a valve 12 and the other outlet is connected to a valve 13. The outlet of the valve 12 is connected to a vent. The outlet of the valve 13 is connected to a pipe 14. The pipe 14 is connected to a pipe 15. A pipe 16 is connected at one of its ends to the pipe 14 and at the other of its ends to a valve 17 whose outlet is connected to the flash and / or hot vapor supply line 37.

 The pipe 14 is connected to another valve 18. The valve 18 is connected to another flash steam extraction pipe 19. The outlet 205 is connected to the flash steam extraction pipe 19. This pipe 19 is also connected a valve 21 whose output is connected to a vent. A pipe 22 is connected at one of its ends to the pipe 14 and at the other of its ends to a valve 23, the outlet of which is connected to the flash and / or hot vapor supply pipe 33.

The pipe 14 opens into the pipes 16 and 22. This pipe 14 is located on either side of the pipe 15. The pipe 15 is connected to a valve 24 and a valve 25 which are respectively connected to a pipe 26 and to a pipe 27.

 The pipe 26 is connected to the inlet 102 of the first reactor 10.

 The pipe 27 is connected to the inlet 202 of the second reactor 20.

 The pipe 15 is connected to a pipe for supplying live steam 28 via a valve 29.

 A sludge feed pipe 32 to be treated and a sludge feed pipe 36 to open respectively in the first 10 and in the second 20 reactors respectively through the entries 320 and 360.

 A recirculation loop comprises a pipe 30 whose inlet is connected to the outlet 103 of the first reactor 10 and the outlet opens into the inlet 101 of the first reactor 10. A pump 31 is mounted on this pipe 30. The pipe of supply of flash and / or bright vapor 33 open into the pipe 30.

 Another recirculation loop comprises a pipe 34 whose inlet is connected to the outlet 203 of the second reactor 20 and the outlet opens into the inlet 201 of the second reactor 20. A pump 35 is mounted on this pipe 34. The pipe 20 supply of flash and / or hot vapor 37 open into the pipe 34.

 A hydrolysed sludge extraction pipe 38 is connected to the outlet

104 of the first reactor 10. A hydrolysed sludge extraction pipe 39 is connected to the outlet 204 of the second reactor 20.

 The pipes 28, 33 and 37 are connected to means for producing live steam, such as a boiler, not shown.

 Control means (not shown) make it possible to control the valves, the injection of steam and sludge into the reactors as well as the extraction of the hydrolysed sludge from the reactors.

7.2.2. Example of a second embodiment of an installation according to the invention In connection with FIG. 2, a second embodiment of an installation for the implementation of a method for thermal hydrolysis of sludge according to the invention is presented.

 As shown in this FIG. 1, such an installation differs from that according to the first embodiment in that the sludge feed lines 32, 36 which open respectively into the first 10 and second 20 reactors are here deleted and replaced by the sludge feed line 32 ', 36' which open respectively in the recirculation pipes 30, 34.

 7.3. Treatment processes

 7.3.1. Example of a method implementing an installation according to the first embodiment

 During the implementation of a method according to the invention, thermal hydrolysis cycles are implemented successively in each of the first 10 and second 20 reactors.

 Each cycle of thermal hydrolysis comprises:

 a step of supplying sludge to be treated in a reactor,

 an injection step in this flash steam reactor from the other reactor to preheat the sludge therein and cool the latter reactor. This step can be performed simultaneously with the sludge feeding step or successively.

 a step of injection of live steam to bring the sludge to be treated at a pressure P of between 3 and 12 bar and at a temperature T between 140 and 180 ° C for hydrolysis;

a step of maintaining the sludge at the pressure P and at the temperature T for a time Tps of between 10 and 60 minutes; a step of returning the sludge to a pressure close to atmospheric pressure by releasing flash steam. This step takes place simultaneously with the step of injecting flash vapor into the other reactor; a reactor emptying step of the sludge thus hydrolysed.

 The cycles are implemented in each of these reactors in a time-shifted manner in order to inject into a reactor the flash vapor produced in the other reactor at the end of the cycle.

 In a first step, sludge to be treated is introduced via line 32 into the first reactor 10.

 The pump 31 is used to extract a portion of the sludge contained in the first reactor 10 through the outlet 103 and reintroduce them via the pipe 30 and the inlet 101.

 Flash steam from the reactor 20 is injected simultaneously with the sludge feed of the reactor 10:

 either in the pipe 30 via the pipes 19, 14, 22 and 33;

 either at the inlet 102 of the reactor 10 via the pipes 19, 14, 15 and 26.

After the sludge feed of the first reactor 10 is completed, the arrival of sludge to be treated via the pipe 32 is stopped.

 When the sludge feed and flash steam injection steps are complete, live steam is injected:

 either in the first reactor 10 via the pipes 28, 26 and the inlet 102; either in the pipe 30 via the pipe 33.

 The pump 31 continues to be implemented so that a portion of the sludge contained in the first reactor 10 is extracted via the outlet 103 and recirculated in the first reactor 10. Where appropriate, the live steam is injected into these sludges. via line 33.

 In parallel, the injection of live steam continues until the sludge is progressively brought to a pressure P and a temperature T: either in the first reactor 10 via the pipes 28, 26 and the inlet 102; either in the pipe 30 via the pipe 33.

When these conditions are reached, the injections of live steam are stopped, and the pump 31 is stopped so that the recirculation of sludge via the line 30 is stopped. The sludge is then maintained at pressure P and temperature T for a time Tps to allow thermal hydrolysis.

 When the thermal hydrolysis is completed in the first reactor 10, the pressure of the hydrolysed sludge is rapidly released until a pressure close to atmospheric pressure is reached, thereby producing flash vapor.

 At the same time, sludge to be treated is introduced into the second reactor 20 via the pipe 36. The pump 35 is used to extract a portion of the sludge contained in the second reactor 20 through the outlet 203 and to reintroduce via Line 34 and Entry 201.

 The flash vapor thus produced in the first reactor 10 is extracted from the outlet 105 and is introduced simultaneously with the sludge feed of the second reactor 20:

 either in the second reactor 20 via the pipes 11, 14, 15, 27 and the inlet 202;

 either in the pipe 34 via the pipes 11, 14, 16 and 37.

 When all of the flash vapor from the first reactor 10 is injected into the second reactor 20, the hydrolysed sludge is extracted from the first reactor 10 via the outlet 104 and the pipe 38.

 After the supply of the second reactor 20 is complete, the arrival of sludge to be treated via the pipe 36 is stopped.

 When the steps of feeding and flash firing are complete, live steam is injected:

 either in the second reactor 20 via the pipes 28, 27 and the inlet 202;

 either in line 34 via line 37.

The pump 35 continues to be implemented so that a portion of the sludge contained in the second reactor 20 is extracted via the outlet 203 before being recirculated. If necessary, live steam is injected into these sludge via line 37. In parallel, the injection of live steam continues until the sludge is progressively brought to a pressure P and a temperature T: either in the second reactor 20 via the pipes 28, 27 and the inlet 202;

or in line 34 via line 37.

 When these conditions are reached, the injections of live steam are stopped, and the pump 35 is stopped so that the recirculation of sludge via the pipe 34 is stopped. The sludge is then maintained at pressure P and temperature T for a time Tps to allow thermal hydrolysis.

 Each cycle therefore comprises a recirculation step of extracting a portion of the sludge present in the sludge feed reactor to be treated and reintroducing them into it. This recirculation step is preferably carried out during the step of supplying sludge to be treated in this reactor and during the flash vapor injection step in this reactor. It may also be implemented from the feeding step to the beginning of the step of maintaining the sludge at the pressure P and the temperature T, also called the holding step. In general, the recirculation step can therefore be implemented between the beginning of the feeding step and the holding step.

 When the thermal hydrolysis is completed in the second reactor 20, the pressure of the hydrolysed sludge is rapidly released until a pressure close to atmospheric pressure is reached, thereby producing flash vapor.

 At the same time, a new feed step of the first reactor 10 is implemented. Sludge to be treated is introduced via line 32 into the first reactor. The pump 31 is implemented in order to circulate the sludge inside the pipe 30 and to introduce them into the first reactor 10 via the inlet 101. Flash vapor from the second reactor is injected into the first reactor 10 or in line 30.

The cycle then continues in the first reactor 10. A plurality of cycles is thus implemented staggered in each of the reactors.

 In the case of starting the installation, and in the absence of available flash steam - all the reactors are stopped - all the steam injected into the first reactor is live steam.

 7.3.2. Example of a Method Implementing an Installation According to the Second Embodiment

 A method implementing an installation according to the second embodiment is identical to that implementing an installation according to the first embodiment, except that the sludge to be treated is no longer injected directly into the reactors but into the recirculation loops. This injection can take place upstream or downstream of the pumps 31, 35.

 7.4. variants

 In a variant, it may be provided that the injection of flash vapor does not take place simultaneously with the supply of sludge to be treated, but subsequently.

 An installation used to carry out a process according to the invention may comprise more than two reactors within each of which thermal hydrolysis cycles are successively implemented, the cycles being shifted from one reactor to another to inject. the flash vapor produced in a reactor in another reactor in which the cycle has arrived at this stage.

 7.5. testing

 Comparative tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the technique according to the invention in terms of steam consumption.

 A first series of tests was to treat sludge by thermal hydrolysis in the prior art installation illustrated in Figure 3, which is comparable to that illustrated in Figure 1 except that the sludge recirculation means and steam injection into the sludge extracted and then reintroduced into the reactors were not implemented.

The steam consumption as a function of the dryness of the sludge during these first tests is represented by the squares of Figure 4. A second series of tests consisted in treating sludge by thermal hydrolysis in an installation comparable to that illustrated in Figure 2.

 The steam consumption as a function of the dryness of the sludge during these second tests is represented by the diamonds of FIG.

 The analysis of the curves of FIG. 4 shows that whatever the value of the dryness of the sludge to be treated, the implementation of the technique according to the invention makes it possible to reduce the consumption of steam. It also makes it possible to reduce the steam consumption when the dryness of the sludge to be treated increases.

 The technique according to the invention thus makes it possible to reduce the consumption of steam and to effectively ensure the thermal hydrolysis of sludge to be treated having a relatively high dryness, in any case greater than the processes of the prior art. .

 The technique according to the invention also makes it possible to avoid the implementation of a preheating reactor upstream of the reactors in which the thermal hydrolysis cycles are implemented. The invention thus makes it possible to treat sludge in more compact and inexpensive installations.

Claims

 1. A method for thermal hydrolysis of sludge to be treated, said method being conducted in at least two reactors operating in parallel in each of which the sludge undergoes a complete thermal hydrolysis cycle, said cycle comprising the steps of supplying said sludge to be treated. in a reactor, to inject flash vapor from the other reactor to preheat the sludge, to inject live steam to bring them to a pressure P and a temperature T for hydrolysis, to maintain at said pressure P and at said temperature T for a certain time, to bring said sludge back to a pressure close to atmospheric pressure in order to release flash vapor and cool the sludge, and to empty said reactor of said sludge thus hydrolysed, said cycle being shifted in time from one reactor to another to use the flash vapor produced from a reactor to inject it into the reactor. reactor, characterized in that it comprises a step of extracting a portion of the sludge present in each of the reactors and reintroducing them into the corresponding reactor.
 2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that at least a portion of said live steam and / or said flash vapor is injected into the sludge extracted from the reactors before reintroduction into the corresponding reactor.
3. Method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that said sludge to be treated are introduced directly into the reactors.
 4. Method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that said sludge to be treated are mixed with said extracted sludge before feeding the reactors.
5. Method according to any one of claims 2 to 4, characterized in that between 0 and 100% of the flash vapor produced in a reactor is introduced into the sludge extracted from another reactor before reintroduction into it .
6. Method according to any one of claims 2 to 5, characterized in that between 0 and 100% of the live steam necessary to conduct a cycle in a reactor is introduced into the sludge that is extracted before being there. reintroduced.
 7. Method according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the injection of flash vapor and the step of feeding the sludge to be treated in the reactor take place simultaneously.
8. Method according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the pressure P is between 3 and 12 bar.
 9. Process according to any one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that said temperature T is between 140 and 180 ° C.
 10. Method according to any one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that the pressure of the flash vapor is between 1 and 12 bar.
 11. Installation for carrying out the method according to any one of claims 1 to 10, comprising at least two thermal hydrolysis reactors (10, 20) connected in parallel, supply means (32, 32 ', 36, 36 ') of sludge to be treated in each of said reactors (10, 20), means (38, 39) for discharging the hydrolysed sludge from each of said reactors (10, 20), injection means (28, 26, 27) for injecting live steam alternately into each of said reactors (10, 20) and means for conveying and injecting (15) flash vapor from one reactor to the other reactor ,
characterized in that it comprises extraction means (103, 203) of a part of the sludge present in each of the reactors (10, 20), and reintroduction means (30, 34) in the corresponding sludge reactor which have been extracted.
 12. Installation according to claim 11, characterized in that it comprises means for injecting live steam and / or flash vapor (33, 37) opening between said extraction means (103, 203) and said means reintroduction (30, 34).
13. Installation according to claim 11 or 12, characterized in that said means for supplying sludge to be treated (32, 36) open directly into each of the reactors (10, 20).
14. Installation according to claim 11 or 12, characterized in that said means for supplying sludge to be treated (32 ', 36') open between said extraction means (103, 203) and said reintroduction means (30, 34).
EP13722345.9A 2012-05-10 2013-05-02 Method and installation for the thermal hydrolysis of sludge Withdrawn EP2847137A1 (en)

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US20150122746A1 (en) 2015-05-07
FR2990429A1 (en) 2013-11-15

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