EP2756898A2 - Method for the production of castings for electrical applications - Google Patents

Method for the production of castings for electrical applications Download PDF

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Publication number
EP2756898A2
EP2756898A2 EP14000063.9A EP14000063A EP2756898A2 EP 2756898 A2 EP2756898 A2 EP 2756898A2 EP 14000063 A EP14000063 A EP 14000063A EP 2756898 A2 EP2756898 A2 EP 2756898A2
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
alloy
filling
aluminum alloy
casting mold
die
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
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EP14000063.9A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP2756898A3 (en
EP2756898B1 (en
Inventor
András Bárdos Dr.-Ing.
Bauer Steffen
Walczer Csaba
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Kienle and Spiess GmbH
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Kienle and Spiess GmbH
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D17/00Pressure die casting or injection die casting, i.e. casting in which the metal is forced into a mould under high pressure
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D17/00Pressure die casting or injection die casting, i.e. casting in which the metal is forced into a mould under high pressure
    • B22D17/08Cold chamber machines, i.e. with unheated press chamber into which molten metal is ladled
    • B22D17/10Cold chamber machines, i.e. with unheated press chamber into which molten metal is ladled with horizontal press motion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D17/00Pressure die casting or injection die casting, i.e. casting in which the metal is forced into a mould under high pressure
    • B22D17/20Accessories: Details
    • B22D17/2015Means for forcing the molten metal into the die
    • B22D17/2069Exerting after-pressure on the moulding material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D17/00Pressure die casting or injection die casting, i.e. casting in which the metal is forced into a mould under high pressure
    • B22D17/20Accessories: Details
    • B22D17/22Dies; Die plates; Die supports; Cooling equipment for dies; Accessories for loosening and ejecting castings from dies
    • B22D17/2209Selection of die materials
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D17/00Pressure die casting or injection die casting, i.e. casting in which the metal is forced into a mould under high pressure
    • B22D17/20Accessories: Details
    • B22D17/32Controlling equipment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D19/00Casting in, on, or around objects which form part of the product
    • B22D19/0054Casting in, on, or around objects which form part of the product rotors, stators for electrical motors

Definitions

  • the invention relates to a method for producing cast parts for electrical applications according to the preamble of claim 1.
  • a known method for obtaining such hardenable aluminum alloys having high tensile strengths. This requires complex process steps.
  • the aluminum alloy is heated to about 80% of its melting point, in the embodiment at 530 ° C.
  • this heating temperature is between 470 ° C and 540 ° C.
  • the workpiece must be held at this temperature until a sufficient amount of mixed crystals is formed. In the exemplary embodiment, this period is 140 min.
  • this solid solution is quenched, so that the mixed crystals remain even at low temperatures, usually at room temperature.
  • an aging is carried out in which the aluminum alloy is heated to 210 ° C. for about 50 minutes and held there for a further 70 minutes. During this process step, the Guinier-Preston zones are formed leading to a high aluminum alloy strength.
  • the invention has the object of providing the generic method in such a way that the castings can be produced in a cost effective manner with little expenditure of time.
  • the casting is produced in a die-casting mold whose material has such high thermal conductivity that the alloy melt is cooled during the die-casting process at a cooling rate of approximately x 5 ⁇ 10 2 K / s.
  • the cooling rate is not less than about ⁇ 10 3 K / s. Due to this high quenching rate, a supersaturated mixed crystal is formed which no longer requires any additional heat treatment. In this way, a high-strength hardenable aluminum alloy is formed, which is outstandingly suitable for the production of castings for electrical applications.
  • no high procedural effort is required.
  • the inventive method requires less time than the known methods described.
  • the alloy melt is shifted in a first phase at low speed in a filling chamber, in which the alloy melt is first introduced and then supplied to the corresponding cavity of the die casting mold. Due to the low displacement speed, the air contained in the alloy melt can escape well. In addition, this ensures that the alloy melt moves only slightly and accordingly forms no or only very few waves, so that the risk of air entrapment is avoided.
  • the shift speed of the alloy melt is in a range less than about 0.5 m / s.
  • the alloy melt is advantageously pressed in a second phase from the filling chamber into the downstream die casting mold at high speed. As a result, the corresponding cavity in the die casting mold is completely filled with the alloy melt.
  • the speed with which the alloy melt is pressed into the die casting mold in this second phase is advantageously in a range between approximately 1 m / s and approximately 3 m / s.
  • the alloy melt is still applied in the die casting mold with a high pressure in order to compensate for the deficit of the lower density of the alloy melt compared to the solid state of the alloy and thus avoid voids in the casting.
  • the method is suitable for hardenable aluminum alloys, which contain at least two components in addition to aluminum.
  • the method is suitable for Al-Mn-Si, Al-Zn-Mg, Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si-Mg alloys.
  • a particularly advantageous aluminum alloy is 6101.
  • the aluminum alloys have a high electrical conductivity which is higher than about 28 MS / m.
  • the molten alloy 1 is located in a filling chamber 2, in which the molten alloy is displaced by means of a piston 3 in the direction of a die-casting mold 4. It has a sprue plate 5 and a Auswerferformplatte 6, between which a cylinder plate 7 is located.
  • the cylinder plate 7 picks up a workpiece 8, which in the exemplary embodiment is a disk set, which is used for the production of, for example, rotors or stators of electric motors. At both ends of the workpiece 8 short-circuit rings 9, 10 are cast.
  • the die casting mold 4 is provided with corresponding cavities 11, 12 which are provided in the sprue mold plate 5 and in the ejector mold plate 6.
  • the short-circuit rings 9, 10 connect the (not shown) conductor bars in the plate pack 8 in a known manner.
  • the molten alloy 1 is first introduced into the filling chamber 2.
  • the piston 3 begins to push the melt slowly towards a pouring channel 13.
  • the velocity of the piston 3 in this first phase is advantageously less than about 0.5 m / s. Due to the low sliding speed, the air contained in the melt can escape well. In addition, the wave formation in the melt, which forms when moving the melt, low, so that no Matterschwapproach occurs in the melt, would be included by the air.
  • the filling chamber 2 is provided with corresponding air outlet openings in the upper region.
  • the liquid alloy 1 passes through at least one filling opening 14 in the filling chamber 2. In the starting position according to Fig. 2 the piston 3 is still in front of the filling opening 14. It is displaced at low speed in the direction of the die-casting mold 4 until it is behind the filling opening 14 ( Fig. 3 ).
  • the liquid alloy 1 is pressed with the piston 3 at high speed into the die casting mold 4.
  • the liquid alloy 1 fills the cavities 11, 12 and the pouring channel 13 completely ( Fig. 4 ).
  • the speed of the piston 3 in the second phase is product or geometry dependent. Depending on the geometry, the maximum or optimal filling time can be calculated, which includes a corresponding volume flow. The same volume flow can be small in diameter and high speed or with a large one Diameter and a low speed can be achieved. In conventional rotors, the speed is between about 1 m / s and about 3 m / s.
  • the piston 3 acts on the liquid alloy 1 still with a high pressure. This takes into account that the liquid alloy 1 has a lower density than in the solid state. Due to the high pressure this difference is compensated, whereby voids in the short circuit rings 9, 10 are avoided.
  • the height of the pressure is product / geometry dependent and is between about 80 and 600 bar.
  • the die casting mold 4 is opened, so that the workpiece 8 can be removed with the front short-circuit rings 9, 10.
  • the sprue formed by the material in the pouring channel 13 is removed from the short-circuit ring 9 in a known manner.
  • the material of the die 4 is chosen so that it can achieve a very high cooling rate which is not less than about 5x10 2 K / s, preferably not less than about 10 3 K / s.
  • a high rate of cooling permitting material is for example steel, which allows the rapid cooling of the alloy melt. Any material that has such high thermal conductivity is suitable for achieving the high cooling rate.
  • the quenching process is achieved by the mold 4 during the casting process, so that the process of solution annealing can be dispensed with. The die casting process therefore requires little time.
  • the die-cast parts 9, 10 do not have to be heat-treated because, as a result of the extremely rapid cooling by the die-casting mold during the die-casting process, the die-cast parts obtain a supersaturated mixed-crystal structure which no longer requires any heat treatment.

Abstract

The method comprises melting and filling a hardenable aluminum alloy into a die casting mold (4), and cooling the melted aluminum alloy (1) by the mold made of a material having a thermal conductivity causing the melted aluminum alloy to be cooled at a cooling rate >= 5x 10 2> K/s, where the melted aluminum alloy is introduced into a filling chamber (2) and is displaced at a minimal displacement speed within the filling chamber, prior to the filling step. The molten alloy is displaced at a low speed of less than 0.5 m/s in a filling chamber in the first phase. The method comprises melting and filling a hardenable aluminum alloy into a die casting mold (4), and cooling the melted aluminum alloy (1) by the mold made of a material having a thermal conductivity causing the melted aluminum alloy to be cooled at a cooling rate >= 5x 10 2> K/s, where the melted aluminum alloy is introduced into a filling chamber (2) and is displaced at a minimal displacement speed within the filling chamber, prior to the filling step. The molten alloy is displaced at a low speed of less than 0.5 m/s in a filling chamber in the first phase. The molten alloy is moved at high speed of 1-3 m/s from the filling chamber into the die-casting mold in a second phase. The molten alloy is set after complete filling of the die under pressure.

Description

Die Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zum Herstellen von Gussteilen für elektrische Anwendungen nach dem Oberbegriff des Anspruches 1.The invention relates to a method for producing cast parts for electrical applications according to the preamble of claim 1.

Es ist bekannt, Druckgussteile für elektrische Anwendungen herzustellen, beispielsweise für elektrische Leiter, Hochspannungsschalter, Rotoren oder Statoren in elektrischen Motoren und dergleichen. Hierfür werden unter anderem Aluminiumlegierungen eingesetzt, die aushärtbar sind. Solche Aluminiumlegierungen sind beispielsweise Al-Cu, Al-Mn-Si, Al-Zn-Mg, Al-Si-Cu oder Al-Si-Mg. Die aushärtbaren Legierungen haben eine elektrische Leitfähigkeit, die üblicherweise mehr als etwa 28 MS/m beträgt. Um die mechanischen Eigenschaften der unterschiedlichen Aluminiumlegierungen zu erhöhen, ist es bekannt, im Gefüge dieser Legierungen sogenannte Guinier-Preston-Zonen vorzusehen. Es handelt sich hierbei um kohärente Ausscheidungen, durch welche die Festigkeit der Aluminiumlegierungen erhöht wird. Anhand von Fig. 1 wird ein bekanntes Verfahren beschrieben, um solche aushärtbare Aluminiumlegierungen mit hohen Zugfestigkeiten zu erhalten. Hierfür sind aufwändige Verfahrensschritte notwendig. Zunächst wird die Aluminiumlegierung einem Lösungsglüh-Vorgang unterzogen. Während des Lösungsglühens wird die Legierung langsam erhitzt. Gemäß Fig. 1, die ein Temperatur-Zeit-Diagramm für eine A356-Legierung zeigt, erfolgt diese Aufheizphase über einen Zeitraum von 100 Minuten. Die Aluminiumlegierung wird bis auf etwa 80% ihres Schmelzpunktes erwärmt, beim Ausführungsbeispiel auf 530°C. Bei Aluminiumlegierungen liegt diese Erwärmungstemperatur zwischen 470°C und 540°C. Das Werkstück muss bei dieser Temperatur so lange gehalten werden, bis eine ausreichende Menge an Mischkristallen gebildet ist. Im Ausführungsbeispiel beträgt dieser Zeitraum 140 min. Anschließend wird in einem zweiten Prozess dieser gebildete Mischkristall abgeschreckt, so dass die Mischkristalle auch bei niedrigen Temperaturen, in der Regel bei Raumtemperatur, erhalten bleiben. Anschließend wird ein Altern durchgeführt, bei dem die Aluminiumlegierung über etwa 50 min auf 210°C erwärmt und dort für weitere 70 min gehalten wird. Während dieses Prozessschrittes bilden sich die Guinier-Preston-Zonen, die zu einer hohen Festigkeit der Aluminiumlegierung führen.It is known to produce die castings for electrical applications, such as electrical conductors, high voltage switches, rotors or stators in electric motors, and the like. For this purpose, among other aluminum alloys are used, which are curable. Such aluminum alloys are, for example, Al-Cu, Al-Mn-Si, Al-Zn-Mg, Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si-Mg. The curable alloys have an electrical conductivity that is usually greater than about 28 MS / m. In order to increase the mechanical properties of the different aluminum alloys, it is known to provide so-called Guinier-Preston zones in the structure of these alloys. These are coherent precipitates which increase the strength of the aluminum alloys. Based on Fig. 1 For example, a known method is described for obtaining such hardenable aluminum alloys having high tensile strengths. This requires complex process steps. First, the aluminum alloy is subjected to a solution annealing process. During solution annealing, the alloy is slowly heated. According to Fig. 1 showing a temperature-time diagram for an A356 alloy, this heating-up phase is carried out over a period of 100 minutes. The aluminum alloy is heated to about 80% of its melting point, in the embodiment at 530 ° C. For aluminum alloys, this heating temperature is between 470 ° C and 540 ° C. The workpiece must be held at this temperature until a sufficient amount of mixed crystals is formed. In the exemplary embodiment, this period is 140 min. Subsequently, in a second process, this solid solution is quenched, so that the mixed crystals remain even at low temperatures, usually at room temperature. Subsequently, an aging is carried out in which the aluminum alloy is heated to 210 ° C. for about 50 minutes and held there for a further 70 minutes. During this process step, the Guinier-Preston zones are formed leading to a high aluminum alloy strength.

Dieses Verfahren in drei Prozessschritten ist aufwändig und sehr zeitintensiv.This process in three process steps is complex and very time consuming.

Der Erfindung liegt die Aufgabe zugrunde, das gattungsgemäße Verfahren so auszubilden, dass die Gussteile in kostengünstiger Weise mit geringem Zeitaufwand hergestellt werden kann.The invention has the object of providing the generic method in such a way that the castings can be produced in a cost effective manner with little expenditure of time.

Diese Aufgabe wird beim gattungsgemäßen Verfahren erfindungsgemäß mit den kennzeichnenden Merkmalen des Anspruches 1 gelöst.This object is achieved in the generic method according to the invention with the characterizing features of claim 1.

Beim erfindungsgemäßen Verfahren wird das Gussteil in einer Druckgussform hergestellt, deren Material eine so hohe Wärmeleitfähigkeit hat, dass die Legierungsschmelze während des Druckgießvorganges mit einer Abkühlgeschwindigkeit von etwa ≥ 5x102 K/s abgekühlt wird. Vorzugsweise ist die Abkühlgeschwindigkeit nicht geringer als etwa ≥ 103 K/s. Durch diese hohe Abschreckgeschwindigkeit wird ein übersättigter Mischkristall gebildet, der keiner zusätzlichen Wärmebehandlung mehr bedarf. Auf diese Weise wird eine hochfeste aushärtbare Aluminiumlegierung gebildet, die hervorragend zur Herstellung von Gussteilen für elektrische Anwendungen geeignet ist. Zur Durchführung des erfindungsgemäßen Verfahrens ist kein hoher verfahrenstechnischer Aufwand erforderlich. Zudem benötigt das erfindungsgemäße Verfahren weniger Zeit als die beschriebenen bekannten Verfahren.In the method according to the invention, the casting is produced in a die-casting mold whose material has such high thermal conductivity that the alloy melt is cooled during the die-casting process at a cooling rate of approximately x 5 × 10 2 K / s. Preferably, the cooling rate is not less than about ≥ 10 3 K / s. Due to this high quenching rate, a supersaturated mixed crystal is formed which no longer requires any additional heat treatment. In this way, a high-strength hardenable aluminum alloy is formed, which is outstandingly suitable for the production of castings for electrical applications. For carrying out the method according to the invention no high procedural effort is required. In addition, the inventive method requires less time than the known methods described.

Vorteilhaft wird die Legierungsschmelze in einer ersten Phase mit geringer Geschwindigkeit in einer Füllkammer verschoben, in die die Legierungsschmelze zunächst eingebracht und dann dem entsprechenden Hohlraum der Druckgussform zugeführt wird. Aufgrund der geringen Verschiebegeschwindigkeit kann die in der Legierungsschmelze enthaltene Luft gut entweichen. Außerdem wird dadurch sichergestellt, dass sich die Legierungsschmelze nur wenig bewegt und dementsprechend keine oder nur sehr wenige Wellen bildet, so dass die Gefahr des Lufteinschlusses vermieden wird.Advantageously, the alloy melt is shifted in a first phase at low speed in a filling chamber, in which the alloy melt is first introduced and then supplied to the corresponding cavity of the die casting mold. Due to the low displacement speed, the air contained in the alloy melt can escape well. In addition, this ensures that the alloy melt moves only slightly and accordingly forms no or only very few waves, so that the risk of air entrapment is avoided.

Die Verschiebegeschwindigkeit der Legierungsschmelze liegt in einem Bereich kleiner etwa 0,5 m/s.The shift speed of the alloy melt is in a range less than about 0.5 m / s.

Die Legierungsschmelze wird vorteilhaft in einer zweiten Phase aus der Füllkammer in die nachgeschaltete Druckgussform mit hoher Geschwindigkeit gepresst. Dadurch wird der entsprechende Hohlraum in der Druckgussform vollständig mit der Legierungsschmelze gefüllt.The alloy melt is advantageously pressed in a second phase from the filling chamber into the downstream die casting mold at high speed. As a result, the corresponding cavity in the die casting mold is completely filled with the alloy melt.

Die Geschwindigkeit, mit der die Legierungsschmelze in dieser zweiten Phase in die Druckgussform gepresst wird, liegt vorteilhaft in einem Bereich zwischen etwa 1 m/s und etwa 3 m/s.The speed with which the alloy melt is pressed into the die casting mold in this second phase is advantageously in a range between approximately 1 m / s and approximately 3 m / s.

Bei einer vorteilhaften Ausführungsform wird die Legierungsschmelze in der Druckgussform noch mit einem hohen Nachdruck beaufschlagt, um das Defizit der geringeren Dichte der Legierungsschmelze gegenüber dem festen Zustand der Legierung auszugleichen und auf diese Weise Lunker im Gussteil zu vermeiden.In an advantageous embodiment, the alloy melt is still applied in the die casting mold with a high pressure in order to compensate for the deficit of the lower density of the alloy melt compared to the solid state of the alloy and thus avoid voids in the casting.

Der Anmeldungsgegenstand ergibt sich nicht nur aus dem Gegenstand der einzelnen Patentansprüche, sondern auch durch alle in den Zeichnungen und der Beschreibung offenbarten Angaben und Merkmale. Sie werden, auch wenn sie nicht Gegenstand der Ansprüche sind, als erfindungswesentlich beansprucht, soweit sie einzeln oder in Kombination gegenüber dem Stand der Technik neu sind.The subject of the application results not only from the subject matter of the individual claims, but also by all the information and features disclosed in the drawings and the description. They are, even if they are not the subject of the claims, claimed as essential to the invention, as far as they are new individually or in combination over the prior art.

Weitere Merkmale der Erfindung ergeben sich aus den weiteren Ansprüchen, der Beschreibung und den Zeichnungen.Further features of the invention will become apparent from the other claims, the description and the drawings.

Die Erfindung wird anhand eines in den Zeichnungen dargestellter Ausführungsbeispieles näher erläutert. Es zeigen

Fig. 1
in einem Temperatur-Zeit-Diagramm eine Wärmebehandlung einer Aluminiumlegierung nach dem Stand der Technik,
Fig. 2 bis Fig. 4
in schematischer Darstellung einen Druckgießvorgang nach dem erfindungsgemäßen Verfahren.
The invention will be explained in more detail with reference to an embodiment shown in the drawings. Show it
Fig. 1
in a temperature-time diagram, a heat treatment of an aluminum alloy according to the prior art,
Fig. 2 to Fig. 4
a schematic representation of a Druckgießvorgang according to the inventive method.

Mit dem im Folgenden beschriebenen Verfahren ist es möglich, eine härtbare Aluminiumlegierung herzustellen, bei dem zumindest der Schritt des Lösungsglühens, vorzugsweise auch des Abschreckens, nicht erforderlich ist. Die Legierung lässt sich dadurch einfach, kostengünstig und innerhalb kurzer Zeit herstellen. Das Verfahren zeichnet sich durch eine einfache Prozessführung aus.With the method described below, it is possible to produce a hardenable aluminum alloy in which at least the step of solution annealing, preferably also quenching, is not required. The alloy can be produced easily, inexpensively and within a short time. The process is characterized by simple process control.

Das Verfahren ist für aushärtbare Aluminiumlegierungen geeignet, die außer Aluminium noch wenigstens zwei Komponenten enthalten. Beispielsweise eignet sich das Verfahren für Al-Mn-Si-, Al-Zn-Mg-, Al-Si-Cu- oder Al-Si-Mg-Legierun-gen. Eine besonders vorteilhafte Aluminiumlegierung ist 6101. Die Aluminiumlegierungen haben eine hohe elektrische Leitfähigkeit, die höher als etwa 28 MS/m liegt.The method is suitable for hardenable aluminum alloys, which contain at least two components in addition to aluminum. For example, the method is suitable for Al-Mn-Si, Al-Zn-Mg, Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si-Mg alloys. A particularly advantageous aluminum alloy is 6101. The aluminum alloys have a high electrical conductivity which is higher than about 28 MS / m.

Anhand der Fig. 2 bis 4 wird das Verfahren näher erläutert. Die geschmolzene Legierung 1 befindet sich in einer Füllkammer 2, in der die geschmolzene Legierung mittels eines Kolbens 3 in Richtung auf eine Druckgussform 4 verdrängt wird. Sie hat eine Angussformplatte 5 und eine Auswerferformplatte 6, zwischen denen sich eine Zylinderplatte 7 befindet. Die Zylinderplatte 7 nimmt ein Werkstück 8 auf, das im Ausführungsbeispiel ein Lamellenpaket ist, das zur Herstellung beispielsweise von Rotoren oder Statoren von Elektromotoren verwendet wird. An beide Stirnseiten des Werkstückes 8 werden Kurzschlussringe 9, 10 angegossen. Hierfür ist die Druckgussform 4 mit entsprechenden Hohlräumen 11, 12 versehen, die in der Angussformplatte 5 und in der Auswerferformplatte 6 vorgesehen sind. Die Kurzschlussringe 9, 10 verbinden die (nicht dargestellten) Leiterstäbe im Lamellenpaket 8 in bekannter Weise.Based on Fig. 2 to 4 the procedure is explained in more detail. The molten alloy 1 is located in a filling chamber 2, in which the molten alloy is displaced by means of a piston 3 in the direction of a die-casting mold 4. It has a sprue plate 5 and a Auswerferformplatte 6, between which a cylinder plate 7 is located. The cylinder plate 7 picks up a workpiece 8, which in the exemplary embodiment is a disk set, which is used for the production of, for example, rotors or stators of electric motors. At both ends of the workpiece 8 short-circuit rings 9, 10 are cast. For this purpose, the die casting mold 4 is provided with corresponding cavities 11, 12 which are provided in the sprue mold plate 5 and in the ejector mold plate 6. The short-circuit rings 9, 10 connect the (not shown) conductor bars in the plate pack 8 in a known manner.

Die geschmolzene Legierung 1 wird zunächst in die Füllkammer 2 verbracht. In der ersten Phase gemäß Fig. 2 beginnt der Kolben 3, die Schmelze langsam in Richtung auf einen Gießkanal 13 zu schieben. Die Geschwindigkeit des Kolbens 3 in dieser ersten Phase ist vorteilhaft kleiner als etwa 0,5 m/s. Aufgrund der geringen Schiebegeschwindigkeit kann die in der Schmelze enthaltene Luft gut entweichen. Außerdem ist die Wellenbildung in der Schmelze, die sich beim Bewegen der Schmelze bildet, gering, so dass auch keine Überschwappbewegung in der Schmelze auftritt, durch die Luft eingeschlossen würde. Zum Entweichen der Luft ist die Füllkammer 2 mit entsprechenden Luftaustrittsöffnungen im oberen Bereich versehen. Die flüssige Legierung 1 gelangt über wenigstens eine Füllöffnung 14 in die Füllkammer 2. In der Ausgangsstellung gemäß Fig. 2 befindet sich der Kolben 3 noch vor der Füllöffnung 14. Er wird so lange mit geringer Geschwindigkeit in Richtung auf die Druckgussform 4 verschoben, bis er sich hinter der Füllöffnung 14 befindet (Fig. 3).The molten alloy 1 is first introduced into the filling chamber 2. In the first phase according to Fig. 2 the piston 3 begins to push the melt slowly towards a pouring channel 13. The velocity of the piston 3 in this first phase is advantageously less than about 0.5 m / s. Due to the low sliding speed, the air contained in the melt can escape well. In addition, the wave formation in the melt, which forms when moving the melt, low, so that no Überschwappbewegung occurs in the melt, would be included by the air. To escape the air, the filling chamber 2 is provided with corresponding air outlet openings in the upper region. The liquid alloy 1 passes through at least one filling opening 14 in the filling chamber 2. In the starting position according to Fig. 2 the piston 3 is still in front of the filling opening 14. It is displaced at low speed in the direction of the die-casting mold 4 until it is behind the filling opening 14 ( Fig. 3 ).

In der zweiten Phase (Fig. 3) wird die flüssige Legierung 1 mit dem Kolben 3 mit hoher Geschwindigkeit in die Druckgussform 4 gepresst. Die flüssige Legierung 1 füllt die Hohlräume 11, 12 sowie den Gießkanal 13 vollständig aus (Fig. 4). Die Geschwindigkeit des Kolbens 3 in der zweiten Phase ist produkt- bzw. geometrieabhängig. Abhängig von der Geometrie kann die maximale bzw. optimale Füllungszeit berechnet werden, wozu ein entsprechender Volumenstrom gehört. Der gleiche Volumenstrom kann mit einem kleinen Durchmesser und einer hohen Geschwindigkeit oder mit einem großen Durchmesser und einer geringen Geschwindigkeit erreicht werden. Bei üblichen Rotoren liegt die Geschwindigkeit zwischen etwa 1 m/s und etwa 3 m/s.In the second phase ( Fig. 3 ), the liquid alloy 1 is pressed with the piston 3 at high speed into the die casting mold 4. The liquid alloy 1 fills the cavities 11, 12 and the pouring channel 13 completely ( Fig. 4 ). The speed of the piston 3 in the second phase is product or geometry dependent. Depending on the geometry, the maximum or optimal filling time can be calculated, which includes a corresponding volume flow. The same volume flow can be small in diameter and high speed or with a large one Diameter and a low speed can be achieved. In conventional rotors, the speed is between about 1 m / s and about 3 m / s.

Der Kolben 3 beaufschlagt die flüssige Legierung 1 noch mit einem hohen Nachdruck. Dadurch wird berücksichtigt, dass die flüssige Legierung 1 eine geringere Dichte als im festen Zustand hat. Durch den hohen Nachdruck wird dieser Unterschied ausgeglichen, wodurch Lunker in den Kurzschlussringen 9, 10 vermieden werden. Die Höhe des Druckes ist produkt/geometrieabhängig und liegt zwischen etwa 80 und 600 bar.The piston 3 acts on the liquid alloy 1 still with a high pressure. This takes into account that the liquid alloy 1 has a lower density than in the solid state. Due to the high pressure this difference is compensated, whereby voids in the short circuit rings 9, 10 are avoided. The height of the pressure is product / geometry dependent and is between about 80 and 600 bar.

Sobald die Legierung 1 abgekühlt und verfestigt ist, wird die Druckgussform 4 geöffnet, so dass das Werkstück 8 mit den stirnseitigen Kurzschlussringen 9, 10 entnommen werden kann. Der durch das Material im Gießkanal 13 gebildete Anguss wird vom Kurzschlussring 9 in bekannter Weise entfernt.Once the alloy 1 is cooled and solidified, the die casting mold 4 is opened, so that the workpiece 8 can be removed with the front short-circuit rings 9, 10. The sprue formed by the material in the pouring channel 13 is removed from the short-circuit ring 9 in a known manner.

Das Material der Druckgussform 4 ist so gewählt, dass mit ihm eine sehr hohe Abkühlrate erreicht werden kann, die nicht geringer als etwa 5x102 K/s, vorzugsweise nicht geringer als etwa 103 K/s, beträgt. Eine solch hohe Abkühlrate zulassendes Material ist beispielsweise Stahl, der die rasche Abkühlung der Legierungsschmelze ermöglicht. Es eignet sich jedes Material, das eine so hohe Wärmeleitfähigkeit hat, dass die hohe Abkühlgeschwindigkeit erreicht wird. Der Abschreckprozess wird durch die Gussform 4 während des Gießverfahrens erreicht, so dass auf den Prozess des Lösungsglühens verzichtet werden kann. Das Druckgießverfahren benötigt darum nur wenig Zeit.The material of the die 4 is chosen so that it can achieve a very high cooling rate which is not less than about 5x10 2 K / s, preferably not less than about 10 3 K / s. Such a high rate of cooling permitting material is for example steel, which allows the rapid cooling of the alloy melt. Any material that has such high thermal conductivity is suitable for achieving the high cooling rate. The quenching process is achieved by the mold 4 during the casting process, so that the process of solution annealing can be dispensed with. The die casting process therefore requires little time.

Mit dem beschriebenen Verfahren lässt sich eine übersättigte feste Lösungsstruktur im Druckgussteil 9, 10 erzeugen, wobei die Druckgussform 4 beim Druckgießvorgang optimal gefüllt wird. Für das beschriebene Verfahren können alle Aluminiumlegierungen eingesetzt werden, die aushärtbar sind.With the method described, it is possible to produce a supersaturated solid solution structure in the die casting 9, 10, the die casting mold 4 being optimally filled during the die casting process. For the method described all aluminum alloys can be used, which are curable.

Die Druckgussteile 9, 10 müssen nicht wärmebehandelt werden, da infolge der extrem raschen Abkühlung durch die Druckgussform während des Druckgießvorganges die Druckgussteile eine übersättigte Mischkristall-Struktur erhalten, die keiner Wärmebehandlung mehr bedarf.The die-cast parts 9, 10 do not have to be heat-treated because, as a result of the extremely rapid cooling by the die-casting mold during the die-casting process, the die-cast parts obtain a supersaturated mixed-crystal structure which no longer requires any heat treatment.

Claims (7)

Verfahren zum Herstellen von Gussteilen für elektrische Anwendungen, bei dem aushärtbare Aluminiumlegierungen verwendet werden, die geschmolzen und in eine Druckgussform eingebracht werden,
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Druckgussform (4) aus einem Material besteht, das eine solche Wärmeleitfähigkeit hat, dass die Legierungsschmelze (1) in der Druckgussform (4) mit einer Abkühlgeschwindigkeit von etwa ≥5x102 K/s abgekühlt wird.
Method for producing castings for electrical applications, using hardenable aluminum alloys, which are melted and introduced into a die-casting mold,
characterized in that the die casting mold (4) is made of a material having such heat conductivity that the alloy melt (1) in the die casting mold (4) is cooled at a cooling rate of about ≥5x10 2 K / sec.
Verfahren nach Anspruch 1,
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Abkühlgeschwindigkeit etwa ≥103 K/s beträgt.
Method according to claim 1,
characterized in that the cooling rate is about ≥10 3 K / s.
Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2,
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Legierungsschmelze (1) in einer ersten Phase mit geringer Geschwindigkeit in einer Füllkammer (2) verschoben wird.
Method according to claim 1 or 2,
characterized in that the alloy melt (1) is displaced in a first phase at low speed in a filling chamber (2).
Verfahren nach Anspruch 3,
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Geschwindigkeit in der ersten Phase kleiner als etwa 0,5 m/s ist.
Method according to claim 3,
characterized in that the velocity in the first phase is less than about 0.5 m / s.
Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4,
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Legierungsschmelze (1) in einer zweiten Phase aus der Füllkammer (2) in die Druckgussform (4) mit hoher Geschwindigkeit verschoben wird.
Method according to one of claims 1 to 4,
characterized in that the alloy melt (1) in a second phase from the filling chamber (2) in the die-casting mold (4) is moved at high speed.
Verfahren nach Anspruch 5,
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Geschwindigkeit in der zweiten Phase zwischen etwa 1 m/s und etwa 3 m/s liegt.
Method according to claim 5,
characterized in that the speed in the second phase is between about 1 m / s and about 3 m / s.
Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6,
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Legierungsschmelze (1) nach dem vollständigen Füllen der Druckgussform (4) unter Überdruck gesetzt wird.
Method according to one of claims 1 to 6,
characterized in that the alloy melt (1) after the complete filling of the die casting mold (4) is pressurized.
EP14000063.9A 2013-01-17 2014-01-09 Method for the production of castings for electrical applications Active EP2756898B1 (en)

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US9839959B2 (en) 2014-12-17 2017-12-12 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Center circular gating design for squeeze casting induction rotor core
CN105598414B (en) * 2016-01-15 2018-03-23 江苏飞亚金属制品有限公司 Surface anti-skidding type aluminium alloy step pedal preparation technology
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JPH05293622A (en) * 1992-04-21 1993-11-09 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Device for casting iron-core in rotor
US5522448A (en) * 1994-09-27 1996-06-04 Aluminum Company Of America Cooling insert for casting mold and associated method
JPH0941064A (en) * 1995-07-28 1997-02-10 Mitsubishi Alum Co Ltd Production of aluminum alloy for casting and aluminum alloy casting material
JPH11293375A (en) * 1998-04-14 1999-10-26 Hitachi Metals Ltd Aluminum alloy die casting with high toughness and its production
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DE102013000746A1 (en) 2014-07-17
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