EP1676152A2 - Tomographic device and method with translational movement between object and detector - Google Patents

Tomographic device and method with translational movement between object and detector

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Publication number
EP1676152A2
EP1676152A2 EP20040790005 EP04790005A EP1676152A2 EP 1676152 A2 EP1676152 A2 EP 1676152A2 EP 20040790005 EP20040790005 EP 20040790005 EP 04790005 A EP04790005 A EP 04790005A EP 1676152 A2 EP1676152 A2 EP 1676152A2
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EP
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
object
detector
characterized
preceding
device according
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP20040790005
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German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Christian Lackas
Nils Schramm
Uwe Engeland
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Scivis Wissenschaftliche GmbH
Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH
Scivis wissenschaftliche Bildverarbeitung GmbH
Original Assignee
SCIVIS GMBH WISSENSCHAFTLICHE
Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH
Scivis wissenschaftliche Bildverarbeitung GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01TMEASUREMENT OF NUCLEAR OR X-RADIATION
    • G01T1/00Measuring X-radiation, gamma radiation, corpuscular radiation, or cosmic radiation
    • G01T1/16Measuring radiation intensity
    • G01T1/161Applications in the field of nuclear medicine, e.g. in vivo counting
    • G01T1/164Scintigraphy
    • G01T1/166Scintigraphy involving relative movement between detector and subject
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/02Devices for diagnosis sequentially in different planes; Stereoscopic radiation diagnosis
    • A61B6/03Computerised tomographs
    • A61B6/037Emission tomography
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01TMEASUREMENT OF NUCLEAR OR X-RADIATION
    • G01T1/00Measuring X-radiation, gamma radiation, corpuscular radiation, or cosmic radiation
    • G01T1/16Measuring radiation intensity
    • G01T1/161Applications in the field of nuclear medicine, e.g. in vivo counting
    • G01T1/164Scintigraphy
    • G01T1/1641Static instruments for imaging the distribution of radioactivity in one or two dimensions using one or several scintillating elements; Radio-isotope cameras
    • G01T1/1642Static instruments for imaging the distribution of radioactivity in one or two dimensions using one or several scintillating elements; Radio-isotope cameras using a scintillation crystal and position sensing photodetector arrays, e.g. ANGER cameras

Abstract

The invention relates to a device for carrying out a tomographic method, in particular for carrying out single-photon tomography, with at least one multi-hole collimator and at least one detector, for recording photons which pass through the multi-hole collimator. The above is characterised in comprising means which permit a relative translational movement between an object under investigation and the detector(s) with a positional accuracy of less than 1 millimetre. The relative positional change between object and detector(s) during the execution of the method is taken into account in the subsequent reconstruction method to an accuracy of less than 1mm, in particular, less than 0.1mm. A reconstruction method is used for the above which takes into account the positional and angular information between object and detector. Said method may be controlled by and carried out on a current PC.

Description

Escription T-SPECT

The invention relates to an apparatus and a method for imaging, in particular for Einzelphotonen- (emission) tomography (SPECT).

The single-photon tomography refers together with associated devices to a method for three-dimensional representation of radiopharmaceuticals, which were placed on an object. As an object, in particular humans, animals, plants or parts thereof, can and inanimate objects can be provided.

Send products placed on the object radiopharmaceuticals of photons. The photons are construed ER from the device and evaluated. As a result of the evaluation is the situation, that the spatial distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the object is obtained. In turn, the position of radiopharmaceuticals allows conclusions about the object, such as a distribution of tissue in the object.

A known device for performing a SPECT comprises a gamma camera as a detector and a collimator connected upstream. When the collimator is generally a plate made of a material with a high absorption coefficient and a plurality of vertically passing through the plate channels. By the provision of the channels ensures that only perpendicular incident photons are detected, and thus a locally resolving measurement is possible. The SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET) provide tools for the quantitative representation and reconstruction spatial radiotracer distribution in vivo. Apart in human medicine can be of these methods in the pharmacological and preclinical research to develop and evaluate novel tracer compounds used. While various systems today are used on small laboratory animals available in the PET, there has been in the field of SPECT corresponding developments to a sufficient degree, even though TC-99m, and 1-123 -labeled radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine an incomparably have higher importance than the PET nuclides.

To improve the spatial resolution and sensitivity of SPECT, a pinhole collimator is used. On

Pinhole collimator is characterized by a single hole in the collimator through which pass the photon. the object is located closer to the hole collimator as the surface of a gamma camera or a detector, then this is an improved

Resolution of the object reached. Through the hole collimator, the photons do not occur exclusively perpendicularly therethrough. Instead, they are abgebil- det an advantageous magnifying acting central geometry. This can achieve a reconstructed resolution which is advantageously significantly less than the intrinsic resolution of the detector.

In a pinhole collimator a small passage opening, or a small hole is provided through which the photons pass to get a good spatial resolution. The smaller the hole is, the fewer photons pass through this hole. Therefore, with decreasing hole the sensitivity of the device is lowered adversely. is defined Sensitivitat as the ratio of the measured count rate to activity present in the object. If the sensitivity is too low, finally conducting a SPECT is no longer possible. With increasingly smaller holes, the spatial resolution is advantageously smaller, so that with respect to the hole size is a compromise between sensitivity and spatial resolution must be found.

From the document DE 101 42 421 Al discloses a device with a multi-hole collimator, together with a detector for detecting photons that pass through the multi-hole collimator, known. So the collimator has a plurality of through holes. Characterized the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be measured with high resolution and high sensitivity. By means of iterative reconstruction methods are adopted different distributions of the radiopharmaceuticals in the subject, calculated from this measurement results which would achieve the assumed distributions, and selected as the reconstruction result the assumed distribution of which calculated measurement result agrees best with the obtained measurement result.

The camera including a collimator for SPECT studies rotate around the object (R-SPECT). Typically, the detectors in 6 degree intervals are transferred to a predetermined radius around the object herumge- so that projections 60 are obtained for all of the detectors for a sequence. In addition to the projections and the changing relative to the object angle data of the detectors is provided as a further parameter for the reconstruction of the radius of rotation on which the detectors rotate around the object relevant. The latter is constant throughout the measurement.

In the event that small objects such. As mice are examined, it is also possible to use these to rotate about its axis and or the detectors together with their colleagues lima factors to keep stationary.

The reading accuracy of such methods is about 1 millimeter or 1.10 degrees.

By SPECT studies, one obtains a plurality of projection data. From the obtained infor- mation about around the object can be determined, then the position of the radiopharmaceuticals in the object. From the reconstructed three-dimensional patterns of activity can then be functional statements tordichte about on the blood flow to the heart muscle or the brain Rezep- derived.

A disadvantage, the mechanical system for positioning of the detectors is costly, since the mass of the detectors may be 100 kg, and more. Certain organs are difficult to access the required data can only be achieved under difficult conditions and with poor results. During rotation of small animals on its axis disadvantageous effect occurs that the animal physiological stress is added. Furthermore, you have to compensate com- shifts of soft tissues within the animal.

The object of the invention is therefore to provide a device for carrying out a tomographic procedure provided which is high resolution and -sensitive and can be easily examined with the difficult to access regions of the body.

It is a further object of the invention to provide a high resolution and highly sensitive tomographic provides methods.

The object is achieved by an apparatus having the features of the first claim and a method according to independent claim. Advantageous embodiments are evident from the claims dependent thereon.

The apparatus comprises means for forming a translational movement during the process relatively between an object to be examined and the one or more detectors (T-SPECT).

Instead of heavy detectors around the object during the process driving around, adversely requires access from all sides, is performed a translational motion through, in which either the light object through the field of view or the detectors or the one or more detectors a translational movement relative to the object carry out. Projection images are acquired and to-be a sequence summarized in a number of places. The sequence contains in addition to the Projektio- NEN also data relative position between the object and the detector, and optionally a rotation radius.

The device comprises only one detector must be accessible to the object under investigation only from one side free to-.

The apparatus comprises two in particular orthogonal aligned detectors, must be freely accessible according to the object from two sides.

Instead of the object and the detectors or the translational movements can perform relative to the object, which is advantageous for the applications, particularly for applications in human medicine.

Furthermore, combinations of both types of motion are possible, that is, translational movements and Ro tationsbewegungen of object and detector.

In contrast to the R-SPECT a sequence T-SPECT contains two parameters more per element.

Particularly advantageous is the use of canted holes, since as the object of each detector is already seen from different directions, without requiring a complete rotation is performed. This provides different perspectives and, consequently, more accurate depth information, even when using a single detector. With means all parts of a tomograph are meant to allow a translational motion of the object and or or the detectors.

In one embodiment of the invention, the device enables a translational movement relatively between the object to be examined and the one or more detectors with a positioning accuracy of less than 1 millimeter, in particular with a precision less than 0.1 millimeters. Thus, a high-resolution, high-sensitivity imaging is made possible with a simplified structure also otherwise very difficult to access Kδrperregionen in connection with a suitable reconstruction methods.

Because of the strong dependence on distance and angle of the imaging system of the central geometry in Multipinhole- system a simple translational movement ranges from relatively between the object and the detector to provide sufficient information for a reconstruction.

Further advantageously, the means make translational movements in more than one spatial direction, optionally in all three spatial directions, i.e. in X, Y and Z directions. The means can be designed such that they perform a translational motion simultaneously in all directions. Thus, a saving of time during the positioning of the object is effected relative to the detectors or advantageous. Particularly advantageously, the means are automatically positioned. A PC can thereby control the translational movement of the or of the means of coordinating with the measurement process and if necessary to evaluate the information obtained for reconstruction calculations.

It is possible to design one or optionally a plurality of detectors so by suitable means that the detectors perform the translational motion itself. Means are so then, for example Detektorhai- Chippings the translational movement of the detectors permit. In one embodiment of the invention, the one or more detectors may additionally also perform rotational movements.

It is possible, in a further advantageous embodiment of the invention to design a support for a subject to be examined object as a means so that it executes translational motion. The holder may comprise a table which can be moved on rails.

The object is moved on the table by three linear axes through the field of view or of the detectors. The acceleration of motion can thereby realize so gentle that tissue shifts in the object does not matter.

At certain positions along the path, the

Translational movement stopped and carried out a measurement. At the same time stationary detectors is dispensed with the apparatus technically complicated positioning of the heavy detectors according to the prior art and there are mized with the simpler device construction costs minimal.

It is possible that such. B. the support for the object performs a translational movement and execute a coupled translatory and / or rotational movement of the even or the detectors. Then may particularly advantageously also be difficult to access regions of the body, such as the thyroid, by positioning the center of a tomographic examination in one operation, that is ULTRASONIC be subjected without manual repositioning of the detectors or the Ti.

Each projection is stored with the relative position of the object to the detectors and a possible angle of rotation and associated with the projection image. The number of necessary projection data and the measurement time of T-SPECT system is still comparable to those of R-SPECT system according to the prior art. The period by the translational movement is executed is low compared to the measurement period.

The holder for the object to be examined advantageously comprises a 3-axes table or couch, which is capable of performing translational movements during the inspection process. The table is for. B. on rails movably arranged. On the table is the object to be examined. The rails are arranged so that the movement of the object on the table on linear axes through the field of the camera, optionally allows in all three spatial directions.

Particularly advantageously, the holder is configured tiltable. The bracket is tilted parallel to the surface of one or more detectors. Thereby, the object can be slightly changed in its orientation to the collimator and to the camera. This gives additional information from a different direction in the projections, which results in an improved depth information.

A rotational movement of the holder or of the or of the detectors can thus also exist in a tilting operation.

The distance between the object and multi-hole collimator may advantageously be smaller than the distance between the multi-hole collimator and the detector surface to an enlargement on the upper detector to achieve Smile Friend.

Advantageously, the device comprises two detectors which are arranged orthogonal to each other. This both detectors provide maximum different information. Thus, a very well reconstructed resolution and high Sensitivitat is achieved with extremely simple brass device design. This cost is reduced.

The multi-hole collimators have biconical inwardly directed holes. The holes have Particularly advantageously a so-called keel-edge design on, with a Publ ungswinkel, which is taken into account in the subsequent reconstruction algorithm. Keel- edge-holes are parallel to each other a short cylindrical channel between the cones.

Typically, seven to ten holes or pin holes are each multi-pinhole collimator used. Each hole provides a portion or the entire object. All holes together cover the entire volume to be examined in the object. The axes of the holes it particularly advantageous in the axial and / or in transaxial

Direction tilted so that the object of each detector without rotation is seen from slightly different directions.

The projections of the object through the holes like superimposed on the underlying detector and so lead to an information multiplexing. In addition to areas with simple superposition occurs depending on the design of collimators also multiple overlays. This procedure allows an improved utilization of the very limited detector surface. Ond overlaps thereby be avoided excessive Ü since any overlap onsbilder resulting in a loss of clarity in the assignment of projective to holes and in a loss of resolution. For a 7-hole collimator is carried out usually with overlaps between 30-50%.

The algorithm for the reconstruction method works with any multi-pinhole projections and can reconstruct the activity distribution sought from them. Here, the relative position and the relative angle between the object and the detectors is always considered as known reconstruction methods always work with fixed rotational radii. The inventive method thus also takes into account possible changes in position between the object and detectors.

In addition to a simpler mechanical design, the T-SPECT system according to the invention can also be used in situations where the object is not accessible from all sides. A detector system which z. B. comprises two orthogonally arranged detectors, the object must be able to see only from two sides.

For thyroid examinations of the upper body of the patient can be bypassed in an ellipse to getting as close as possible to be in the thyroid gland, or take the patient only from two sides. T-SPECT studies with only one detector here provide As far back images, the results concerning the depth information is significantly better than comparable planar pictures without that information. With two orthogonally oriented detectors thereof, are further equalized and the resolution increases, as well as obtain a further improved depth information.

To further increase the sensitivity and the resolution of t may be used three detectors in a 120 degree geometry, or other configurations. It should be noted that the resolution and Sensitivitat on the facing sides of the detectors German lent is higher than on the opposite sides. Reconstructed resolutions of less than 2 millimeters in medium sensitivities of 800 cps / MBq be realized.

During implementation of the method, the position relatively between the object and detector (s) with an accuracy of less than 1 millimeter, in particular with a precision less than 0.1 millimeters is changed.

The projections are measured with an iterative reconstruction algorithm, for example. B. based on the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) processed. To determine the system matrix of the imaging system is a model for ray tracing technique used based to determine the mapping function for each voxel of the object volume and each hole. In this case, is sampled by each voxel from a small surrounding area of ​​each hole, and calculates the sensitivity, taking into account the absorption of the cover and in the crystal, and the imaging geometry, with the each pixel on the detector, the corresponding voxel sees. Analog is determined, the half width of the spot on the detector. These values ​​are pre-calculated in tables and used in the reconstruction program. By the translational movement, the effective volume for increasing the Abbildungsfunk- tion is to be calculated, so that the tables are optional calculated only on a coarser grid and are then determined in the reconstruction by trilinear interpolation for all voxels. Typical values ​​are Voxelkantenlängen of 0.3 mm in the object volume and 0.6 mm in the tables here. The data volume is thus reduced here by a factor of 8, in barely detectable deterioration of the result so that the algorithm can efficiently come on standard PCs used.

A device according to the invention comprises for this purpose a data processing unit, eg. As a PC. The PC processes the data, and is designed programmable. A computer program product then enables the execution of the process in the apparatus.

The calculation can be done by way shown below:

1. Calculation of Sensitivitat means of ray tracing technique and the half-value width of the images for each voxel in the target volume.

2. Calculation of the forward projection of the data for the sensitivity and half-value width for the currently adopted object through each hole, taking into account the position and angle at which the projection was recorded.

3. Calculation of correction values ​​from the comparison between measured and calculated projections.

4. Application of the correction values ​​to the current object and repeating steps 2 and 3, or abort if gewünschtes- result is achieved.

The control of the translational movement and / or the reconstruction process can be particularly advantageously carried out on a PC.

If necessary, an attenuation correction and an acceleration of the iteration through restriction on subsets of projections (ordered subsets) may be performed.

To calculate the Sensitivitat is scanned by each voxel of the region of each hole with rays (preferably 100) and therefore the cutting length thereby calculates the length of the material passage in the aperture for the photons on their way to the detector. The holes are modeled as keel-edge form, i.e. having two double cones and channel therebetween. all cuts with the two detector surfaces, the two conical surfaces and the channel so it will be considered. It can be any AXI al and transaxial tilted the axis of the hole.

The half-width is estimated on the imaging geometry, it being understood that the voxels represent Gaussian. This assumption is true for voxels near the center perpendicular of the detector. For voxels that are displayed under larger angles, which is sufficiently accurate. Here, the intrinsic resolution of the detector, so the resolution without collimator considered.

To store the two tables in the memory efficiently, for each of one or more look-up tables is applied. Here the possible values ​​are indexed and in one byte (8 bits) coded.

In the reconstruction of the data is then interpolated for the object volume trilinear from the tables. This can happen either when a user accesses the table or alternatively once before for the entire target volume.

For the reconstruction of the tables for these sensitivity tivity and half-value width for all apertures and holes and also the projection and the measurement data that include the position and angle of the object or the detector are loaded.

It is a starting object (z. B. homogeneously filled with radiopharmaceuticals cylinder) is determined and selected as the first object volume and carried out an iteration.

The iterations are terminated when the desired result is achieved.

The algorithm guarantees that the likelihood function is increased with every step, so the chance that the calculated object volume generated the measured projections to rise.

Instead always apply the same time, the iterations on all projections, they can also be applied to a subset. For example, 60 projections are divided into 12 groups of 5, and projections respectively carried out with only one 5 subiterations projections. This correction is performed more frequently and the object volume therefore faster approaches the end result. The number and size of the groups can be varied, in particular it is advantageous to let the number of groups to be smaller in later iterations, so that more projections contribute at the same time towards the end of the reconstruction of the correction values.

By orthogonal permutation of the groups, the result can be further improved.

The invention with reference to some embodiments and the attached figures and a source code is explained in detail.

The basic construction of a device with two orthogonally aligned detectors, each consisting of multi-hole collimator 2, 5 and detector surface of the gamma camera 3, 6 is illustrated with reference to FIG. 1

The object 1 is not located closer to the multi-hole collimators 2, 5 than the detector surfaces 3, 6. The multi-hole collimators 2, 5 have holes, which open on both sides in a funnel shape in the collimator 2, 5 ( shown) so as to allow passage of obliquely incident photons through the holes. Depending collimator two holes are shown (unnumbered) through which the photons pass. 8

The design of the holes is designed in the keel-edge shape. From the object exiting photons 8 of the collimators 2, 5 as enlarged in the direction of the detector surfaces 3, 6. The object 1 is on the detector surface 3, 6 contact reproduced through the holes.

Between the individual cones which are formed overall by the photons 8 according to the translation movement (.DELTA.s) of the object 1, there are overlapping areas 4, 7 on the detector surfaces 3,. 6

Fig. 2 shows coronal (top row) and Sagittalschnit- te (bottom row) of a phantom (a), a reconstruction with only one detector and a hole in the Blen- de (b) and with a detector and seven holes (c ).

The numbers in the phantom are a measure of the activity in the hot spots. The Phantom is a homogeneously filled cylinder with rounded caps containing 12 hot springs with increased activity.

The coronal sections provide better results because the detector is perpendicular to this plane, and here contains as maximum information. In the section of Fig. 2 (b) depth information is missing because the hole provides for the phantom only of exactly one side. Therefore, the sagittal section is distorted and individual points can be dissolved poorly in the sagittal direction. In coronal sources from other planes through the smearing in the sagittal direction shine through.

The seven tilted holes in FIG. 2 (c) however provide with only one detector favorable earnings se in the coronal plane. Sagittal section of all the hot points in the phantom are already visible and separate, but the reconstruction still shows distortion artifacts. T-SPECT with seven tilted holes and a detector useful 3-D provides thus already information on the distribution of activity, making it particularly simple planar images prior art far superior.

3 shows reconstructions of the same phantom as that in Figure 2. All recordings of FIG. 3 taken aperture with the same 7-hole, but with a different number of detectors. Figure 3 (a) shows, for comparison with the result of common R-SPECT, represented by the symbol rotation.

The result of FIG. 3 (a) is in this case very good, except for the two tapered cap. This artifact is typical of R-SPECT, because the object is not moved in the direction of the rotation axis (Z-axis). Figure 3 (b) shows that of Fig. 2 (c) Coronal and sagittal known with only one detector.

Figures 3 (c) to 3 (e) show respective coronal and sagittal sections with two orthogonally aligned (Fig. 3 (c)), having three 120 ° spaced aligned (Fig. 3 (d)) and four at a 90 ° distance from each other aligned detectors.

Comparison of these figures shows that suffice 2 detectors (Fig. 3 (c)) in order to obtain sufficient Tiefenin- formations in order to reconstruct the phantom in very good quality. increase more detectors so that shorter measuring times are the sensitivity of the system here, with the same expected result possible.

Depending on the application and purpose, in particular resolution and measurement time, therefore, the inventive devices can be customized.

For the Figure 3 (a) a total of 60 R-SPECT projections were recorded with a rotation radius of 50 mm with a camera.

For the T-SPECT imaging has been used the same number of projections, that is, with a detector, 60 projections, with two detectors 30 depending projections, with three 20 and four detectors was added per 15 projections. The position of the object by translational movement in a distance of 50 mm in X / Y direction is moved by up to 10 millimeters, and in the Z direction by a maximum of 5 millimeters.

Claims

P atentanspr ü che
1. Apparatus for carrying out a tomographic procedure with at least one collimator and at least one detector for detecting photons that pass through the collimator, characterized by means for forming a translational movement relatively between an object to be examined and the one or more detectors during the process.
2. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the means with an accuracy of less than 0.1 millimeters are positioned.
3. A device according to any preceding Ansprü- before, characterized in that the means are automatically positioned.
4. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized by a holder for a subject to be examined object as the agent.
5. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the holder is parallel to the detector surface (s) is tiltable.
6. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the distance between the object and multi-hole collimator is less than the distance between the multi-hole collimator and the surface of the detector.
7. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that said exactly two stationary orthogonally aligned detectors comprises.
Comprise 8. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the multi-hole Kollimatore 'n conically configured holes.
9. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the holes have a keel-edge design.
10. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the holes of the collimator are transaxial and / or axially tilted in the direction of the object.
11. Device according to one of the preceding claims, comprising a data processing unit for performing a reconstruction method.
12. A method for carrying out a tomographic procedure with a device according to one of the preceding claims 1 to 11, characterized in that the position relatively between the object and detector (s) by means for formation of a translational motion of the object and / or detector (s) currencies - is changed rend the procedure.
13. The method according to the preceding claim 12, characterized in that the relative position between the object and detector (s) with an accuracy of less than 1 millimeter, in particular with a precision less than 0.1 millimeters is changed.
14. A method according to any one of the preceding claims 12 to 13, characterized in that the or perform the detectors and / or the object translational movements and / or rotational movements during the procedure.
15. The method according to any one of the preceding claims 12 to 14, wherein the distances of the individual holes in the multi-hole collimator and the size and location of the object are selected so that the images generated by photons overlap on the surface of the detector partly ,
16. The method according to any one of the preceding claims 12 to 15, characterized in that a reconstruction method is used, the positional and angular information between the detector (s) and object considered.
17. The method according to any one of the preceding claims 12 to 16, characterized in that the reconstruction method is modeled on a PC.
So cooperate 18. Computer program product which is adapted to a data processing unit that the data processing unit performs a reconstruction method according to claim 16 or 17th
EP20040790005 2003-10-21 2004-10-18 Tomographic device and method with translational movement between object and detector Withdrawn EP1676152A2 (en)

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US7786444B2 (en) * 2006-11-17 2010-08-31 Gamma Medica-Ideas, Inc. Multi-aperture single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging apparatus
US20120265050A1 (en) * 2011-04-04 2012-10-18 Ge Wang Omni-Tomographic Imaging for Interior Reconstruction using Simultaneous Data Acquisition from Multiple Imaging Modalities
KR101865245B1 (en) 2016-09-19 2018-06-07 고려대학교 산학협력단 Method and apparatus for detecting radiation

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GB1137018A (en) * 1967-06-15 1968-12-18 Mullard Ltd Improvements in or relating to image intensifiers
US4144457A (en) * 1976-04-05 1979-03-13 Albert Richard D Tomographic X-ray scanning system
US4419585A (en) * 1981-02-26 1983-12-06 Massachusetts General Hospital Variable angle slant hole collimator
US5107121A (en) * 1989-10-27 1992-04-21 Trionix Research Laboratory, Inc. Gantry and pallet assembly used in nuclear imaging
US6031892A (en) * 1989-12-05 2000-02-29 University Of Massachusetts Medical Center System for quantitative radiographic imaging
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