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EP1476829A2 - Engineering method and system for industrial automation systems - Google Patents

Engineering method and system for industrial automation systems

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Publication number
EP1476829A2
EP1476829A2 EP20030706301 EP03706301A EP1476829A2 EP 1476829 A2 EP1476829 A2 EP 1476829A2 EP 20030706301 EP20030706301 EP 20030706301 EP 03706301 A EP03706301 A EP 03706301A EP 1476829 A2 EP1476829 A2 EP 1476829A2
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EP
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
system
objects
engineering
object
information
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Ceased
Application number
EP20030706301
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Elmar Thurner
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Siemens AG
Original Assignee
Siemens AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q10/00Administration; Management
    • G06Q10/06Resources, workflows, human or project management, e.g. organising, planning, scheduling or allocating time, human or machine resources; Enterprise planning; Organisational models
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/04Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers
    • G05B19/042Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers using digital processors
    • G05B19/0426Programming the control sequence
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/20Pc systems
    • G05B2219/23Pc programming
    • G05B2219/23292Use of model of process, divided in part models with IN, OUT and actuator
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/36Nc in input of data, input key till input tape
    • G05B2219/36121Tree oriented menu, go to root, scroll up down, select mode

Abstract

The invention relates to an engineering method and system (ES, RTS/ES) for industrial automation systems, in particular for MES systems, based on at least one computational unit with an input auxiliary device, an output auxiliary device, in addition to at least one display device (AZ1, AZ2). According to said method, the modelled objects (K1 - K4, K1' - K4') comprise installation structures or installation parts and are linked to meta information. The modelled objects are structured in the engineering method as hierarchical trees (OB1, OB2) and can be interconnected by lateral networking or by means of a cursor. The objects (K1 - K4, K1' - K4') are executed in run-time by evaluating the meta information in a target system, whereby the functions of an installation that has been modelled in the engineering method are determined from the structure of the tree and the networked connections.

Description

description

Engineering Process and Engineering System for Industrial Automation Systems

The invention relates to an engineering method as well as an engineering system for industrial automation systems, in particular for MES systems, based on at least one computer unit with input tools, auxiliary output, and at least one display device.

The invention further relates to a computer program, a data carrier and a data processing device.

From "Software for automation - transparency of the processes creating" articles by Dirk Kozian in electronics for automation 11, 17.11.1999 is known, called for the automation of production and manufacturing processes Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) use. These systems integrate the automation level

(Controls) with the ERP systems (ERP: Enterprise Resource Planning) of the corporate management level. Manufacturing Execution Systems are systems that provide, for example, information on the optimization of production processes and carry out the coordination and optimization of production processes. First, the Manufacturing must supplement the rough planning data of the ERP systems with plant-specific and current detailed planning data and forward it correspondingly to the underlying automation level execution systems, on the other hand they have the task of production-relevant information from the automation level, process them and the corporate management level weiterzu-Report. MES systems thus fulfill among others the task of vertical integration between the enterprise management level and the automation level. Typical individual tasks of MES systems are Enterprise Asset Management, Maintenance Management, Information Management, Scheduling, Dispatching and Trace & Tracking. These tasks are executed each MES components or MES applications.

In the classical programming languages ​​(eg Pascal or Fortran) that were used in the 80's for the software development, data and functions were separated. Only in the course of the paradigm of object orientation data and functions were merged into objects. Within the 90's were isolated and rudimentary metadata associated with the objects. Metadata is information about other information, such as information about existing objects themselves. These metadata are in place in the overall system or in the overall context, but they are not physically stored in an object, nor does it contain knowledge of the realizable application for an industrial plant o - to each unique about the business process.

Programmable automation and MES systems, ie systems for the control and / or regulation of automated processes or systems typically include a so-called run-time system for time-control of an automation component, a machine or a system, and a so-called engineering system for creating and editing control programs and system functions which are intended for execution in runtime system. Usually many automation and the MES system identifying information (eg. As components of the automation system, technological relationships, business process specifications, etc.) available on the engineering system or on external data stores or the know-how of employees.

The invention is based on the object of the objects created in Engineering (plant parts, plant components, automation components, etc.) prepare so and configure, so these objects (in later stages eg commissioning, operation, maintenance, modification or repair of a plant or advantageously be used. an automation system).

According to the invention the above object is solved for an engineering method by the features of claim 1. The meta-information associated with an object, for example, describe the data and functions comprising an object, but meta information can also descriptions on the implementation and operation include or comprise a user documentation or information about the entire sequence, the business or the production process. In markup languages ​​such as HTML or XML metadata can be described by so-called tags or attributes and are associated with the objects. Meta information can also be provided with a hierarchical structure. One advantage of the invention is that no explicit code generation is needed to run a plant specification created in engineering. From the structure of the tree and its networking, processing logic and the exhaust will run the sequence-represented by the tree system set. determines the run time manually or automatically changeable structure of the tree and the crosslinking of the tree elements, which are with operand functions supplied and whether functions are executed sequentially or in parallel. In industrial plants is determined by the structure of the

Tree and the cross-linking of tree elements such as determined, with which the input device sizes and supplied as the output values ​​produced by the device are further processed. At an engineering system is graphically edited by a user of the tree and networking. The presentation form of

Trees can be different and be selected by the user. Cross-linking or Verzeigerung the tree elements can be done by the hierarchical arrangement of the tree. but networks or Verzeigerungen the tree elements can also be made by edited by the user references or lateral linkages to elements of other subtrees. The entries for the creation of the tree and the establishment of cross-links can be made via input masks, drag and drop Mechanical- s or via voice input.

Each object is its implementation, that is, their co- de and meta information associated. Characterized in that the application created in the engineering is assembled at runtime from prefabricated objects (for example automatically on the basis of their meta-information) can be dispensed with an explicit Kompilierphase to generate the code to be compiled by the engineering application. Kompilierläufe or generation runs can take a long time. Because explicit Kompilierläufe or generation runs are not needed as more and the runtime system is directly modified incrementally, the time to create the installation specifications, testing and commissioning is minimized.

Another important advantage is that programs and data are treated uniformly. Data object trees without functions, programs are object trees with functions. All the mechanisms present in a runtime system for composing, networking, versioning, storing, transporting, etc. of data and programs to be implemented only once and not once for data and programs. This also facilitates the handling of software developers, operators, and administrators because they need to learn these mechanisms only once.

Another advantage is that changes are very easy to perform. Subtrees can always be added, changed or removed without the entire tree structure needs to be changed. The agility of a company is increased as possible to respond more quickly to changing market needs. This is especially important if the application-created by the engineering ones are used for the control of automation systems, production or MES systems. Networking, Verzeigerung or referencing between objects can take place in a different granularity. As crosslinking for example by reference to physical address can be carried out (by pointers or pointer), whereby a high efficiency (eg, within the flow of a process) is achieved. Other crosslinking mechanisms include electronic messages (eg e-mail), telephone or fax. Depending on the requirements of the underlying application, a corresponding crosslinking mechanism may be selected by the user.

Existing systems or automation systems are characterized by a great complexity. The complexity that is responsible for the increase in Laban cycle cost, is the individual plant (eg equipment) or automation components (eg sensors and actuators) but also in the interaction of the components into an overall solution. If the knowledge about the interaction of the components linked by meta-information with the components or objects, can be a significant competitive advantage by the fact, as this can reduce the life cycle costs of automation and system components. The presence of meta information on or in objects allows automatic support staff to an Automatic execution of the following functions: commissioning, operation, maintenance, modification or repair.

A first advantageous embodiment of the present inventions fertil for an engineering process is that the objects are run-time objects. Runtime objects are objects that execute at runtime the system, the logic of the system. Examples of such runtime objects are plants and plant components, controls, orders, batches, function blocks, tags, archives, alarms, images, ads, etc. This consistency between engineering information and Laufzeitsys- system is ensured. Changes are consequently easier and less error prone feasible.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present inven- tion for an engineering process is that the objects are assembled automatically at run time to an automation system for an automation solution. The composition is performed using the associated run-time objects metadata. This allows the engineering of a system independent of the underlying

Target done. Depending on the meta coupled to the objects (objects can have different granularity (to small system components), the objects automatically set of complex plant components at runtime together to form an executable overall system. Changes can easily be introduced therefore in very late stages yet ,

A further advantageous embodiment of the present inven- tion for an engineering method is that the

Runtime objects and / or cross-linking mechanisms and / or implementations of the objects or the networking mechanisms are interchangeable. Because runtime objects formality by other objects, eg objects with extended functionalities or implementations of objects (eg the new implementations are debugged or have better performance) or Referenzierungs- and networking mechanisms can be replaced, the turnaround time is significantly reduced in changes. Thus, the flexi- is formality for the user and the operator of a facility increases and increases the agility of a company. For the evaluation of the meta not a common compiler is used, but a so-called incremental compiler or an interpreter that incumbent only at the time of replacement is jektlokal active. For the newly inserted object, when necessary incrementally generated code and the incremental compiler interpreter adds the object newly inserted (or to the referencing mechanism and / or cross-linking mechanism and / or a new implementation of objects) at run time in the tree again without other (unaffected) having to consider parts of the tree.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering process is that the function of the automation system is automatically derived from the description of the objects, the structure of the hierarchical trees and the cross-linking of the objects in the trees. This is not an explicit code generation is needed to run a modeled in engineering facility or system function. From the structure of the tree and its crosslinking, the processing logic and the execution sequence of the groups represented by the tree system is set. determines the structure of the tree and the crosslinking of the tree elements, which are with operand functions supplied and whether functions are executed sequentially or in parallel. In industrial installations is represented by the structure of the tree and the cross- linking of tree elements such as determined, with which the input device sizes and supplied as the output values ​​produced by the device are further processed. At one engineering environment is edited graphically by a user of the tree and networking.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering method is that the objects are static and / or dynamic networked. Networks (or Verzeigerungen or references) can be static at a manual creation of the tree take place, but also automatically on the basis of current information (eg, system status) or metadata is created. This increases flexibility for a user. Cross-links can be set up through different mechanisms and implementations: for example, pointers to objects, e-mail to objects or networking via OPC protocols (OPC stands for OLE for Process Control). Especially in the indus- trial environment OPC protocols are often used. Other techniques or Implemenzierungen the can be used for networking or for shortcuts such as MSMQ (Microsoft Message .Queue), HTTP, are (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) or SOAP (Simple Object Transfer Protocol).

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering process is that the objects contain the meta information physically. This supports the principle of locality in creating the system and the system specification, ie all information (including metadata) that are important for an object are also physically present on the object. Access to this information is facilitated. DA by, that the objects (for example parts of the plant or plant components) contain the meta information physically, also an object by itself can be used to organize, reorganization or reconfiguration of the plant, depending on which meta information (fang type and re-) in are the object. This is particularly advantageous for mobile objects, for example for software agents, which move in the Internet by high-performance computer to computer to collect, for example, each computer system local information (for example, for a Maintenancesystem).

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering process is that the objects that contain the meta information physically, are run-time objects. Runtime objects follow the logic of the system at runtime of the system. Contain runtime objects meta information that are relevant for engineering, or are created in the engineering, the consistency of the data and the objects is guaranteed. Ie consistency between creation of objects and execution of the objects is ensured. A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering process is that the meta information describes an application or a business process. If the meta-information includes not only information about the object itself, but also information about the entire system on the environment of use or the realizable business process, then by the configuration of the system, that a configuration can be done automatically is simplified by then. Also Rekonfi- gurierungen (eg after system crash or failure of parts of the system) can be done automatically without human intervention. Thus, the agility of a company is increased.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering process is that each object contains the meta information about the application or the business process. This means that in a system in each individual plant object (for example in an object "Valve" or in an object "mixer", but also in the smallest day, in any variable or in each operator, ie very fine granular in the objects), the entire description of the plant or a business process is included. With this information each individual object to a reorganization, but also self-organization of the system or of the business process can be used. This example is very beneficial system errors when large parts of the system fail. The system can regenerate from the smallest still functional part itself in full. A maintenance engineer must therefore not consuming the obtaining and reading of documentation deal.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present inven- tion for an engineering method is that in

Error occurs, the automation system itself reconfigured. In case of failure reconfigures or the automation system is repaired using meta information of copies of replicas or Clones of the disturbed or destroyed objects themselves. If in a plant in each individual plant object (for example in an object "Valve" or in an object "mixers", but also in the smallest day, in any variable or in any operator, ie the entire description of the system or a business process is also included in the finely granular objects), this information may on an automatic Reorganisati-, ie self-healing of the application of the system or of the business process to be used. User intervention is no longer required and the downtimes are minimized. A maintenance engineer must therefore not consuming the obtaining and reading documentation employment-gen.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering process is that the trees th on the display device in different Ansich- be represented. The representation of the trees may be different, for example, by a static Explorer similar notation or in the form of workflow or flow diagrams (flow charts Activity diagrams) or, for example in the form of block diagrams (such as wiring diagrams) or plant layouts. DA through the flexibility for a user greatly increased, because they can select an appropriate his knowledge notation and visualization. You can switch between the display formats.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering process is that the objects are crosslinked on the display device by a drag-and-drop mechanism. Links between objects can be taken superiors by entering masks or editing operations. but if links with a mouse (or

the efficiency of a user's light pen) is made on the display device via a drag and drop mechanism increases in the engineering process. This cost advantages surrendered.

According to the invention the above object is solved for an engineering system by the features of claim 14. The meta-information associated with an object, for example, describe the data and functions comprising an object, but meta information can also descriptions on the implementation and operation include or comprise a user documentation or information about the entire sequence, the business or the production process. In markup languages ​​such as HTML or XML metadata can be described by so-called tags or attributes and are associated with the objects. Meta information can also be provided with a hierarchic structure. One advantage of the invention is that no explicit code generation is needed to run a plant specification created in engineering. From the structure of the tree and its crosslinking, the processing logic and the execution sequence of the groups represented by the tree system is set. the to

be determined run time manually or automatically changeable structure of the tree and the crosslinking of the tree elements with which operand functions supplied and whether functions are executed sequentially or in parallel. In industrial plants, is determined by the structure of the tree and the crosslinking of the tree elements eg by what input parameters devices and supplied as the output values ​​produced by the device are further processed. At an engineering system is graphically edited by a user of the tree and networking. The form of presentation of the trees can be different and be selected by the user. The networking of o- Verzeigerung the tree elements can be done by the hierarchical arrangement of the tree. Networks or Verzeige- conclusions of the tree elements but can also be done by the user edited references or lateral linkages to elements of other subtrees. The entries for the creation of the tree and the establishment of cross-links can be made via input masks, drag-and-drop mechanisms or via voice input.

Each object is its implementation, that is, their co- de and meta information associated. Characterized in that the application created in the engineering is assembled at runtime from prefabricated objects (for example automatically on the basis of their meta-information) can be dispensed with an explicit Kompilierphase to generate the code to be compiled by the engineering application. Kompilierläufe or generation runs can take a long time. Because explicit Kompilierläufe or generation runs are not needed as more and the runtime system is directly modified incrementally, the time to create the installation specifications, testing and commissioning is minimized.

Another important advantage is that programs and data are treated uniformly. Data object trees without functions, programs are object trees with functions. All the mechanisms present in a runtime system for composing, networking, versioning, storing, transporting, etc. of data and programs to be implemented only once and not once for data and programs. This also facilitates the handling of software developers, operators, and administrators because they need to learn these mechanisms only once.

Another advantage is that changes are very easy to perform. Subtrees can always be added, changed or removed without the entire tree structure needs to be changed. The agility of a company is increased as possible to respond more quickly to changing market needs. This is especially important if the application-created by the engineering ones are used for the control of automation systems, production or MES systems. Networking, Verzeigerung or referencing between objects can take place in a different granularity. As crosslinking for example by reference to physical address can be carried out (by pointers or pointer), whereby a high efficiency (eg, within the flow of a process) is achieved. Other crosslinking mechanisms include electronic messages (eg e-mail), telephone or fax. Depending on the requirements of the underlying application, a corresponding crosslinking mechanism may be selected by the user.

Existing systems or automation systems are characterized by a great complexity. The complexity that is responsible for the increase in Laban cycle cost, is the individual plant (eg equipment) or automation components (eg sensors and actuators) but also in the interaction of the components into an overall solution. If the knowledge about the interaction of the components linked by meta-information with the components or objects, can be a significant competitive advantage by the fact, as this can reduce the life cycle costs of automation and system components. The presence of meta information on or in objects allows automatic support staff to an Automatic execution of the following functions: commissioning, operation, maintenance, modification or repair.

A first advantageous embodiment of the present inventions fertil for an engineering system is that the objects are run-time objects. Runtime objects are objects that execute at runtime the system, the logic of the system. Examples of such runtime objects are plants and plant components, controls, orders, batches, function blocks, tags, archives, alarms, images, ads, etc. This consistency between engineering information and Laufzeitsys- system is ensured. Changes are consequently easier and less error prone feasible.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present inven- tion for an engineering system is that the objects are assembled automatically at run time to an automation system for an automation solution. The composition is made using the the runtime objects associated metadata. This can be done the engineering of a system independent of the underlying target system. Depending on the meta coupled to the objects (objects rity different granulation have (of complex system components to small system components), the objects set at runtime automatically together to form an executable overall system. Changes can thus also in very late stages be easily incorporated.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present inven- tion for an engineering system is that the objects and / or cross-linking mechanisms and / or implementations of the objects or the networking mechanisms are interchangeable at runtime. Because runtime objects formality by other objects, eg objects with extended functionalities or implementations of objects (eg the new implementations are debugged or have better performance) or Referenzierungs- and networking mechanisms can be replaced, the turnaround time is significantly reduced in changes. Thus, the flexi- is formality for the user and the operator of a facility increases and increases the agility of a company. For the evaluation of the meta not a common compiler is used, but a so-called incremental compiler or an interpreter that incumbent only at the time of replacement is jektlokal active. , Code for the newly inserted object if necessary incrementally generated and the incremental compiler or interpreter adds the object newly inserted (or to the referencing mechanism and / or cross-linking mechanism and / or a new implementation of objects) at run time in the tree again, no other (unaffected) having to consider parts of the tree.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering system is that the function of the automation system can be derived automatically from the structure of the hierarchical trees. This is not an ex plizite code generation is needed to run a modeled in engineering facility or system function. From the structure of the tree and its crosslinking, the processing logic and the execution sequence of the groups represented by the tree system is set. determines the structure of the tree and the networking of the tree elements with which operand

are supplied functions and if functions are executed sequentially or in parallel. In industrial plants, for example, is determined by the structure of the tree and the networking of tree elements with which input variables Device comparable makes are and how the output values ​​generated by the device are further processed. At one engineering environment is edited graphically by a user of the tree and networking.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering system is that the objects are static and / or dynamic crosslinkable. Networks (or Verzeigerungen or references) can be static at a manual creation of the tree take place, but also automatically on the basis of current information (eg, system status) or metadata is created. This increases flexibility for a user. Cross-links can be set up through different mechanisms and implementations: for example, pointers to objects, e-mail to objects or networking via OPC protocols

(OPC stands for OLE for Process Control). Especially in industrial environments OPC protocols are often used. Other techniques and implementations that can be used for networking or for shortcuts such as MSMQ, are (Microsoft Message Queue), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) or SOAP (Simple Object Transfer Protocol).

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering system is that the objects contain the meta information physically. This is the principle of localization did supported, ie all information (including metadata) that are important for an object are in the modeling of systems and physically to the object (in the engineering system components are represented by objects) are present. Access to this information is facilitated. Characterized in that the Obwalden projects the meta information physically contained, and an object on its own for the organization, reorganization or reconfiguration of a plant or a plant configuration can be used, depending on which meta information (type and size) in the object are present. This is particularly advantageous for mobile objects, for example for software agents, which move in the Internet by high-performance computer to computer to collect, for example, each computer system local information (for example, for a Maintenancesystem).

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering system is that the objects that contain the meta information physically, are run-time objects. Runtime objects follow the logic of the system at runtime of the system. Contain runtime objects meta information that are relevant for engineering, or are created in the engineering, the consistency of the data and the objects is guaranteed. Ie consistency between creation of objects and execution of the objects is ensured. A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering system is that the meta information describes an application or a business process. If the meta-information includes not only information about the object itself, but also information about the entire system on the environment of use or the realizable business process, then by the configuration of the system, that a configuration can be done automatically is simplified by then. Also Rekonfi- gurierungen (eg after a system crash or failure of parts of the system) can be done automatically without human intervention. Thus, the agility of a company is increased.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering system is that each object contains the meta information about the application or the business process. This means that in a system in each individual plant object (for example in an object "Valve" or in an object "mixer", but also in the smallest day, in any variable or in each operator, ie very fine granular in the objects), the entire description of the plant or a business process is included. With this information each individual object to a reorganization, but also self-organization of the system or of the business process can be used. This example is very beneficial system errors when large parts of the system fail. The system can power itself completeness dig regenerate from the smallest still functional part .. A maintenance engineer must therefore not consuming the obtaining and reading of documentation deal.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present inven- tion for an engineering system is that in case of failure, the automation system itself is reconfigurable. In case of failure or reconfigured to repair the Au tomatisierungssystem using meta information of copies of replicas or Clones of the disturbed or destroyed objects themselves. If in a plant in each individual plant object (for example in an object "Valve" or in an object "mixer", but also in the smallest day, in any variable or in each operator, ie the entire description of the plant or a business process is also contained in the finely granular objects), this information can be an automatic reorganization, ie self-healing of the application of the system or of the business process to be used. User intervention is no longer required and the downtimes are minimized. A maintenance engineer must therefore not consuming the obtaining and reading documentation employment-gen.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering system is that on the display device, the trees can be represented in different views. The representation of the trees may be different, for example by a static Explorer similar notation or in the form of workflow or flow diagrams (flow charts, diagrams Activity) or for example in the form of block diagrams (such as wiring diagrams) or plant layouts. This increases the flexibility for a user is greatly enhanced because they can select an appropriate his knowledge notation and visualization. You can switch between the display formats.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention for an engineering system is that the objects are crosslinkable on the display device by a drag-and-drop mechanism. Links between objects can be taken superiors by entering masks or editing operations. but if links with a mouse (or

the efficiency of a user's light pen) is made on the display device via a drag and drop mechanism increases in the engineering process. This cost advantages surrendered.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present inven- tion for an engineering system is that the engineering system is integrated into the runtime system, is accessed through views of selectable functionalities. The traditional engineering system is thus reduced to representations and editors with which the Laufzeitsys- system can be viewed and modified directly. advantages of this

Design principle and this architecture in addition to the simpler changeability of the runtime system and the system and data consistency.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention is that the inventive system or method of the invention are implemented by a computer program. This enables any modifications or adjustments can be performed easily.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention is that the computer program for the inventive method on a disk is stored. Thereby, the process with respect to the logistics and distribution is lung easy to handle. Media include conventional computer program products such as floppy disks or CDs.

A further advantageous embodiment of the present invention is that it is installed, the computer program for the inventions extension method according to a data processing device. This performance is increased.

Further advantages and details of the invention will become approximately examples advantageous execution and in conjunction with the figures. Reference to the following description As far as described activities elements having the same functionalities in different figures, they are identified by the same reference numerals.

Show it:

1 shows in a schematic overview of the "enterprise pyramid" with three control levels,

2 shows a schematic illustration with an engineering system, a runtime system and to be controlled technical process,

3 shows the schematic representation of an object,

4 shows the tree structure of a system created in the engineering,

5 shows a display form of a tree,

6 shows a further representation form of a tree and

7 is a schematic representation with a runtime system and a technical process to be controlled, said functions of Engineerinsystems are integrated into the runtime system.

The illustration in FIG 1 is a basic overview of the three control levels as they are commonly found in a company producing or manufacturing sub. The pyramid shape is expressed that upward compression of the information takes place. The top level is the ERP level (enterprise resource planning. On this corporate management level, the business management and sales tasks are generally in a company performed (eg finance, sales, human resources, reporting). But production plant-wide logistical tasks (eg order and materials management) be performed at this level. the SAP R / 3 system is used very frequently on the corporate management level an ERP system.

The lowest level of the pyramid is the automation level (controls). At this level, usually come programmable logic controllers (PLC) together with Visu alisierungs- and process control systems (PCSs). actuating devices, the drives, actuators and sensors of the production and / or FER are directly connected with the systems that level.

The link between the ERP level and the automation level is formed by the MES level. The appli- cation of the MES level thus ensure vertical integration between the ERP level and the automation level. The MES applications have one hand supplement the rough planning of ERP systems with production plant-specific detailed planning and continuing terleiten to the systems of the automation level, on the other hand it is the responsibility of the MES applications to include production-relevant data of the automation level, process and the ERP level (corporate management level) forward and to optimize the processes in production.

Typical MES applications include quality management (QM), Maintenance Management (MM), Performance Analysis (PA), pro- cess management, laboratory management, asset management. By three points is expressed in FIG 1, that may be located on a plane other elements (applications, systems, etc.).

MES systems or ERP systems generally contain a so-called runtime system for time-control of the components involved (subcomponents, modules, tasks, operating system processes, etc.), as well as a so-called engineering system for creating and editing programs which are provided for execution in runtime system.

The diagram in FIG 2 shows a schematic illustration with an engineering system ES, a runtime system RTS and one to be controlled technical process TP1. The connection between the run time system RTS of the control system (or the automation system or the MES system) and the technical TP1 process happens bidirectionally via the inputs / outputs EAl. The programming of the control and setting the behavior of the runtime system RTS happens in the engineering system ES. The engineering system ES contains tools for configuring, designing and programming for machines or for the control of technological processes, such as industrial plants. created in the engineering system

Programs are transmitted via the information path I into the runtime system RTS of the target system. With respect to its hardware equipment, an engineering system usually consists of a computer system with graphics screen (eg display), input components (eg keyboard and mouse), processor, working and secondary memory, a device for recording computer readable media (eg floppy disks, CDs) and terminal units for data exchange with other systems (eg, other computer systems, control systems for technical processes) or media (eg Internet). Nowadays own engineering systems ES editors and graphical tools for object-oriented modeling of systems or controls. A typical modeling method that is supportive of these tools is as UML (Unified Model Language ling) with a number of different types of charts that allow to engineeren a plant under different points of view. This results in the engineering phase, the advantages that are known from the visual programming: higher productivity for creators and end users, as well as easy to modify, easy troubleshooting. The diagnosis and the simulation of control systems or systems is supported. Modern engineering systems ES continue to allow access to configuration management tools and change management tools.

Nowadays, modern engineering systems ES support in particular the paradigms of object orientation as the creation of objects, the creation of classes, the creation of upper classes and the presentation of inheritance relationships. Through appropriate editors, mask input or via drag & drop mechanisms, the objects are associated with meta-information, the objects are structured as hierarchical trees and well networked. The controllers or system specifications drawn with the help of the engineering system ES must be executed on a target system or on a target computer ultimately to control eg TPI a technical process. The target system usually consists of one to several processing units with processors and memory devices, as well as a run-time system RTS. The tax created by the engineering system ES erungsprogramme or system specifications are loaded via the information path I on the runtime system RTS. About I / O connections EAl the underlying technical process TPI is controlled, for example, for an automation solution or an MES solution. The runtime system RTS to technischen process TPI are influenced eg actuators on the EA connection EAl, the technical process TPI back to the runtime system RTS as sensor data is supplied via the EA connection EAl, which are then further processed in the application. A runtime system RTS can also be distributed across multiple computing devices.

If the engineering necessary for a system description or the objects used for manufacturing and assembly solution (plant parts, plant components, machinery, valves, etc.) are associated with meta information (eg references) or meta physically contained (for example, in its own memory), then the operation, maintenance, modification or repair can derive significant benefits with respect. are obtained. Meta information can be self as information about objects, such as who uses an object ?, with which other objects it interacts ?. but meta information may also include knowledge of an application, the realizable business process or the whole plant. This type of knowledge is advertising introduced in the engineering available (in functional specifications, specifications or other plant materials) and must only in the objects as meta information to. In particular, the mark-up language (Mark up Language) XML (Extended Mark up Language) is suitable to describe meta-information and link with objects.

The engineering system of the invention or engineering process of the invention are suitable for all types of Engineering: Chemical Engineering, Product Engineering, Plant Engineering, Industrial Engineering but also for software engineering. Logically, process planning, project management, quality management and production control are linked to the engineering functions. A powerful engineering system must support and integrate these functions by appropriate tool support. Particularly through the possibilities for reuse once created or modeled complex objects in engineering the processing time is shortened.

The illustration in FIG 3 shows the schematic representation of an object with an object interface 01. Such objects may in all types of engineering (chemical engineering, product engineering, systems engineering, industrial- engineering, software engineering) can be used. An object is generally an object or an element of a domain or a universe of discourse. In object-oriented software development an object is an individual copy of things or things (eg, robots, auto, machine), persons (eg customer, employee, patent attorney) or terms of the real world (eg purchase order) or the imagination (eg legal and individuals or organizations). An object has a certain defined state and responds with a defined behavior on his ambient. In addition, each object has an object identity that distinguishes it from all other objects and that allows access to a particular object. An object can have one or know of several other objects. Between objects that know each other, there are links or Verzeigerungen or networking. The state of an object is determined by its data or attribute values ​​and respective links to other objects. The behavior of an object is defined by its set of methods or operations. In the object orientation, the type of an object is described by a class. From this type description can concrete incarnations or instances, which then represent a specific programming-language object can be generated. Using object diagrams, objects and their compounds can be represented graphically. The editors for object diagrams are part of the engineering system (ES, Figure 2). UML (Unified Modeling Language) provides a set of notations for graphical display of object-oriented concepts (business process diagram, state diagram, activity diagram, collaboration diagram, sequence diagram, class diagrams, etc.). These diagrams can by a user in an engineering system (ES, Figure 2) can be edited and processed.

The left part of Figure 3 shows the information or elements that contains an object normally. Data are as simple things such as a numerical value or complex structures such as prescriptions, orders or archives. Methods (often referred to as operations) represent executable activities referred to an algorithm. The amount of the methods determines the behavior of an object class and an instantiated from this class object. The methods of an object can a client-server architecture used by other objects comparable or be called. Furthermore nen objects kön- include so-called sub-objects, they need to realize their methods. By the sub-objects, a structure of a structural object is determined.

In the illustration of FIG 3, a so-called container is shown on the right-hand side hatched. By this container Metainformations- mechanisms for attitude and the mechanisms for the access to be realized in this meta-information. The containers provide an encapsulating layer around the object is, and all accesses to an object can only be made via the interface 01. Via the interface 01 is accessed, the methods and data and the meta information of the object. When accessing the data, the methods or the meta information a user can thus abstract from the realization of data methods and meta. All accesses to an object through the interface 01. Thus reusability and interchangeability of objects is very easy. In a complex system and, for example, software system, thus can always be accessed in the same way to objects. In particular, the so-called container provide infrastructure functions such as data networking, data storage, data visualization in a uniform way for all kinds of objects (eg Business Objects, investment properties) are available. In the container a double structure of a DNA of a human cell is schematically represented helix comparable. This should be made clear that an object part or all of meta-information, that also includes the construction of information and logic puts process-for example, in a business. Characterized the entire system or the entire application can be organized or reorganized from an object. This downtime can be minimized and a system maintenance is performed very efficiently.

Meta information can be obtained by the use of markup languages ​​(Markup Language) very skilled and turn times on objects and systems to tie or contribute. In particular, XML (Extended Markup Language) provides ways to easily formulate meta information and to link to objects. Meta information can be used as elements in XML, for example (enclosed by a start tag and an end tag) or as attributes (directly integrated into a start tag) will be deposited.

Among the infrastructure functions that provides a container for supply Verfü- belong eg trace functions, ie who and how long does an object used. As already mentioned, includes the container meta, self-description information for the object. This also measurements, but also security mechanisms can be inserted.

The illustration in FIG 4 shows the tree structure of a plant structure or the structure for an automation solution. The objects are shown as double circles. The inner circle schematically represents the structure of an object as it is known from FIG. 3 The left part of an object is thereby again the methods and data sub-objects is, the right hatched portion represents the so-called container, which contains meta information and provides the infrastructure information for an object. The container is a capsule layer on the object. Access to the property is only possible via the object interface 01, which is provided by containers. Infrastructure functions include data networking, data storage and data visualization. By the container, these functions are provided in a uniform field for all other objects.

The outer circles around the objects represent that the objects are embedded ultimately into the infrastructure of a system. One aspect of the infrastructure is networking. Crosslinking or Verzeigerung can be very fine-grained, eg via memory pointer. but they can also be done over the Internet, through e-mail or telephone connections.

In the illustration in FIG 4 is represented by the bold submitted showing the connecting lines between the objects, these objects are laterally interconnected. So a lateral connection can connect via OPC his (OLE for Procress Control) in industrial environments, eg. As a connection or an infrastructure service can also be realized via message queue mechanisms. Access to infrastructure services or functionality is presented on the container and is for all objects in a tree the same no matter whether it is a B & B device (operation and monitoring) or a programmable logic controller (PLC). Therefore it is also very easy to change the implementation of an infrastructure service, as the specification remains unchanged. The outer circle of an object thus represents a collection of infrastructure services or infrastructure functions that can be used for a container. A once realized infrastructure service can be used by all objects in the same way.

The illustration in FIG 4 shows a system structure in which the objects are structured as a hierarchical tree. The realizable system or control task includes a HMI unit with a database DB, wherein the B & B-unit of a programmable logic controller (PLC) is supplied. The PLC accesses via input / output functions on actuators and sensors. The results of the control and observability device are further processed by an object "Execution". The algorithm is carried out for this further processing in the object "Execution" is represented by the partial tree hanging below the object "Execution". A value XI is processed with egg ner function F, said function F receives as input the value of X2. After executing this Execution- component further post-processing are carried out, represented by the objects "Post Processing 1" and "2 Post Processing". It may be, for example compression or display functions. In FIG 4 it is shown that the results of the post-processing of "Post Processing 1" by the object "processing" are subjected to a further processing step. A plant described in this way can of course be part of an overall world further described in this manner plants here in FIG 4 by the object "World".

In addition to the hierarchical structure, as dictated by the structure of the tree, the objects may also be laterally or horizontally networked together reflexiert or verzeigert. This is illustrated in FIG 4 by the bold lines. Such Verzeigerungen can be modeled using input masks or produced via drag & drop mechanisms.

The function which is realized by a system or control results from the structure of the hierarchy and from the network of tree objects. Depending on one is to be based traversal the tree elements, ie the objects processed, and executed. The execution of an application for a plant or a

Control is comparable to the functioning of the nervous system of a human where the individual neurons on dendrites and synapses are connected to one another and mutually exchange their activities, wherein a stimulus triggers a pulse train by the body and depending on the crosslinking of the neurons such a pulse train is running. In the present invention the engineering system, a PLC is further delivers an event by the structure and the cross-linking of the objects that are comparable to the neurons in the human body, an incentive in FIG 4 for example, when a transmitter sor and this event is detected by the B & B device and then an Execution is started, which abuts in turn "post processing 1" and "post-processing 2" to a further processing, while still initiated "post processing 1" after further processing further processing. created in this way systems or controls have ten very advantageous Eigenschaf-. Thus, the objects that are required for an application will only be assembled at run-time, which increases maintainability and flexibility of these applications is very large. If changes an object must not be compiled only. A newly introduced into the system object that replaces another, is very easy to integrate, if it has the same interface, the same specification as the object to be replaced, and only changes in implementation, for example through better performance.

The illustration in FIG 5 is an illustration of the form of a tree. The tree represents a plant or a part of a plant or a solution that is to be implemented with the components of the system. In FIG 5, a display device as AZL with the two areas of the screen is shown BB1 and BB2. A display device AZL can be eg a monitor or display. The display device AZL is usually a member of a member of an engineering system (ES, Figure 2). With the help of display devices and input aids such as keyboard or mouse objects are created on the screen, hierarchically structured as a tree, networked or verzeigert, but provided with metadata or other information. It is conceivable that a display device AZL contains additional screen areas for the display of trees, but also to realize entries (eg, menu bars). A concrete solution has to be implemented with the modeled objects task is assembled at runtime from the objects of the tree. For the execution of the objects, the structure is important, but also the networking of objects. When a user wants to introduce changes (such as a system integrator or maintenance engineer), then he needs a representation of the tree, the gen its respective requirements and accommodates needs. In the illustration, as shown in the screen area BB1 on the left side of Figure 5, a tree with the tree OB1 elements Kl, K2, K3, K4 is shown, namely tion in a similar notaries explorer. The representation of a tree, as shown in the screen area BB2, corresponds to a notation as is used for example for circuit diagrams. The elements Kl and K2 Λ Λ shown in the screen area BB2 are input (xl, x2) and output variables (rl, r2) which are connected to each other with Li Britain, represented in a tree structure. A representation in this form of current flow planning is especially interesting for electricians, for electricians think in wiring plan. About input tools, it is possible to change the representation of a tree and to choose in each case for the User Group the most practical representation. User groups include maintenance engineers, system integrators, developers, as well as marketing and sales people.

The illustration in FIG 6 shows another way in which a tree (with the created in the engineering system components) on a display device AZ2 an engineering system (ES, Figure 2) can be represented. The left portion of FIG 6 shows a screen area BB1 Λ with an object tree OB2 in an explorer-like structure. The right portion of FIG 6 shows a screen area BB2, where a notation is used for the representation of a tree, which is very advantageous, in particular for the representation of business processes. People in accounting or management of the company to think in such a business process workflows (business processes). The ease of use and efficiency when creating trees or changing of trees, is greatly increased by the possibility that you can switch between different display formats. A user can thus from the internal representation or implementation of a

abstract tree. When creating a tree or in the change of a tree, nothing needs to be reprogrammed, but all can be configured. This is advantageous for the efficiency in the creation of applications, for example for the solution of MES tasks (order processing, etc.) or for solutions of automation tasks.

The diagram of FIG 7 shows a schematic view with an extended run time system RTS / ES, and a technical process to be controlled TP2, wherein functions of the engineering system in the extended run time system RTS / ES are integrated. Overviews (so called. Views) will each benotigten the

Functions are accessed. In FIG 7 overviews for engineering (ES-view) for operation (operator view) and for maintenance (maintenance view) are shown. Three dots indicated that further views can be present. The extended runtime system RTS / ES includes the infrastructure for the development and change of the runtime system. The connection to the technical process to be controlled TP2 via input / output connections EA2.

It is a significant effect of the invention that the functionality of a conventional engineering system (ES, Figure 2) is covered to a large extent by the run-time system RTS / ES. Metadata is data largely incurred in the development anyway. Thus, runtime system and engineering system, so to speak melt together and need not be designed as separate components. A system that is changeable, includes at runtime many aspects today only in development environments are available (modeling, versioning, compilation, etc). The traditional engineering system is reduced to representations and editors with which the runtime system can be viewed and modified directly.

Advantages of this design principle and this architecture in addition to the simpler Anderbarkeit the runtime system and the system consistency. All components, which include the metadata or reference, describe itself. The composition of the components result in a total system description. Ie whatever the system (eg stuck. Or removing boards) changed the views (Engineering Views) are always to be able to show the currently existing system. UML diagrams, business process maps, circuit diagrams, system diagrams are always up to date.

In summary, the invention relates to an engineering process and engineering system for industrial automation systems, in particular for MES systems, based on at least one computer unit with input tools, output auxiliaries, and at least one display device, wherein the modeled objects comprise plant structures or parts of the plant and linked to meta information. The model- profiled objects are structured in engineering as hierarchical trees and can be with each other and laterally crosslinked or verzeigert. Objects are run-time, place under utilization of meta-information on a target system for execution, the functionality of a neering modeled in engi- system from the structure of the tree and crosslinks is determined.

The method or engineering system described above according to the invention can be implemented as a computer program in for the known languages. A computer program implemented may be stored in a likewise known manner via electronic data paths and transported.

Claims

claims
1. Engineering method for industrial automation systems, in particular for MES systems, based on at least one computer unit with input tools, auxiliary output, and at least one display device (AZL, AZ2), characterized by the following steps:
- modeling and / or Creating Objects (Cl - K, Kl Λ - K4) each represent sub-tasks of a Automatisierungslö- solution, with the input aids, and the display device (AZL, AZ2),
- Mapping of model information and / or meta-information about the objects (Cl - K4 class Λ - Λ K4) to the input components (eg input forms) and the Anzeigevorrich- device (AZL, AZ2)
- patterning the objects (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - K4 Λ) as hierarchical trees (OB1, OB2) with the input tools in a first area of the screen of the display device (AZL, AZ2), - crosslinking the objects (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - K4) to the input tools in a second screen area of ​​the display device, said cross-linking mechanisms can be used.
2. Engineering method according to claim 1, characterized in that the objects (Kl - K4, Kl '- K4) run-time objects.
3. Engineering Process according to claim 1 or 2 ,, characterized in that the objects (Kl - K4 Λ - K4, Kl λ) are automatically combined at run time to an automation system for an automation solution.
4. Engineering method of claim 1, 2 or 3, characterized in that at runtime the objects (Kl - K4, Kl λ - λ K4) and / or cross-linking mechanisms and / or implementations of the objects or the cross-linking mechanisms are interchangeable.
5. Engineering Process according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the function of the automation system automatically from the description of the objects (Kl - K4 - K4, Kl) (the structure of the hierarchical trees (OB1, OB2) and the cross-linking of the objects K4) is derived in the trees - Kl - K4, Kl Λ.
6. Engineering Process according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the objects (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - K4 λ) are cross-linked statically and / or dynamically.
7. Engineering Process according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the objects (Kl - K4, Kl λ - Λ K4) contain the meta-information physical Kalisz.
8. Engineering Process according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the objects (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - K4) which contain physically the meta information, run-time objects.
9. Engineering Process according to one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the meta-information describes an application or a Geschäftspro- process.
10. Engineering A method according to any one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that each object (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - Λ K4) includes the entire meta information about the application or the business process.
11. Engineering A method according to any one of claims 1 to 10, characterized in that the automation system reconfigures itself in case of errors.
12. Engineering A method according to any one of claims 1 to 11, characterized in that on the display device (AZL, AZ2) the trees are displayed in different views.
13. Engineering A method according to any one of claims 1 to 12, characterized in that the objects (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - Λ K4) on the display device (AZL, AZ2) are cross-linked by a drag and drop mechanism.
14. engineering system for industrial automation systems, in particular for MES systems, based on at least one computer unit with input tools, auxiliary output, and at least one display device (AZL, AZ2), characterized by the following features:
- means for modeling and / or creating objects
(Kl - K4, Kl Λ - Λ K4), each representing part of functions of an automation solution,
- means for assigning model information and / or meta-information about the objects (Cl - K4 class Λ - K4 ')
- means for structuring of objects (Kl - K4, Kl '- K4 Λ) as hierarchical trees (OB1, OB2) in a first area of the screen of the display device (AZL, AZ2),
- means for cross-linking of the objects (Kl - K4, Kl λ - λ K4) in a second area of the screen of the display device
(AZL, AZ2), said cross-linking mechanisms can be used.
15. Engineering system according to claim 14, characterized in that the objects (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - K4) are run-time objects.
16. Engineering system according to claim 14 or 15, characterized in that the objects (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - K4 λ) can be assembled automatically at runtime to an automation system for an automation solution.
17. Engineering system according to one of claims 14 to 16, characterized in that the objects at run time and / or crosslinking mechanisms and / or implementations of the objects (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - K4) or the cross-linking mechanisms are interchangeable.
18. Engineering system according to one of claims 14 to 17, characterized in that the function of the automation system automatically from the description of the objects (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - K4), of the structure of the hierarchical trees (OB1, OB2) and the cross-linking of the objects (Kl - K4 - K4, Kl λ) can be derived.
19. Engineering system according to one of claims 14 to 18, characterized in that the objects (Kl - K4, Kl x - K4 Λ) are statically and / or dynamically crosslinkable.
20. Engineering system according to one of claims 14 to 19, characterized in that the objects (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - Λ K4) contain the meta information physically.
21. Engineering A method according to any one of claims 14 to 20, characterized in that the objects (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - Λ K4) containing the meta information physically, are run-time objects.
22. Engineering system according to one of claims 14 to 21, characterized in that the meta-information describes an application or a business process.
23. Engineering system according to one of claims 14 to 22, characterized in that each object (Kl - K4, Kl Λ - Λ K4) contains all the meta information about the application or the business process.
24. Engineering system according to one of claims 14 to 23, characterized in that in the event of a fault, the automation system itself reconfiguration is gurable.
25. Engineering system according to one of claims 14 to 24, characterized in that on the display device (AZL, AZ2) the trees (OBL, OB2) can be represented in different views.
26 Engineering system according to one of claims 14 to 25, characterized in that the objects (Kl - K4, Kl - K4 *) on the display device (AZL, AZ2) are cross-linkable by a drag and drop mechanism.
27 Engineering system according to one of claims 14 to 26, characterized in that the engineering system (ES) into the runtime system (RTS, RTS / ES) is integrated, wherein accessed through views of selectable functionalities.
28. A computer program which implements a method to any one of claims 1 to 13 or a system according to any one of claims 14 to 27th
29, data medium on which a computer program is stored according to claim 28th
30, data processing device, on which a computer program is installed as claimed in claim 28th
EP20030706301 2002-02-19 2003-02-07 Engineering method and system for industrial automation systems Ceased EP1476829A2 (en)

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