EP1406345B1 - PIFA-antenna with additional inductance - Google Patents

PIFA-antenna with additional inductance Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1406345B1
EP1406345B1 EP20020016026 EP02016026A EP1406345B1 EP 1406345 B1 EP1406345 B1 EP 1406345B1 EP 20020016026 EP20020016026 EP 20020016026 EP 02016026 A EP02016026 A EP 02016026A EP 1406345 B1 EP1406345 B1 EP 1406345B1
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EP
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Prior art keywords
antenna
inductance
frequency
pifa
mhz
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Not-in-force
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EP20020016026
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1406345A1 (en )
Inventor
Sheng-Gen Dr. Pan
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BenQ Corp
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BenQ Corp
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/0407Substantially flat resonant element parallel to ground plane, e.g. patch antenna
    • H01Q9/0442Substantially flat resonant element parallel to ground plane, e.g. patch antenna with particular tuning means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/12Supports; Mounting means
    • H01Q1/22Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles
    • H01Q1/24Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set
    • H01Q1/241Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set used in mobile communications, e.g. GSM
    • H01Q1/242Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set used in mobile communications, e.g. GSM specially adapted for hand-held use
    • H01Q1/243Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set used in mobile communications, e.g. GSM specially adapted for hand-held use with built-in antennas
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q5/00Arrangements for simultaneous operation of antennas on two or more different wavebands, e.g. dual-band or multi-band arrangements
    • H01Q5/30Arrangements for providing operation on different wavebands
    • H01Q5/307Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way
    • H01Q5/314Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way using frequency dependent circuits or components, e.g. trap circuits or capacitors
    • H01Q5/335Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way using frequency dependent circuits or components, e.g. trap circuits or capacitors at the feed, e.g. for impedance matching
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q5/00Arrangements for simultaneous operation of antennas on two or more different wavebands, e.g. dual-band or multi-band arrangements
    • H01Q5/30Arrangements for providing operation on different wavebands
    • H01Q5/307Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way
    • H01Q5/342Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way for different propagation modes
    • H01Q5/357Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way for different propagation modes using a single feed point
    • H01Q5/364Creating multiple current paths
    • H01Q5/371Branching current paths
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q5/00Arrangements for simultaneous operation of antennas on two or more different wavebands, e.g. dual-band or multi-band arrangements
    • H01Q5/30Arrangements for providing operation on different wavebands
    • H01Q5/378Combination of fed elements with parasitic elements
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/0407Substantially flat resonant element parallel to ground plane, e.g. patch antenna
    • H01Q9/0421Substantially flat resonant element parallel to ground plane, e.g. patch antenna with a shorting wall or a shorting pin at one end of the element

Description

  • Die Erfindung bezieht sich auf eine PIFA-Antenne für ein mobiles Kommunikationsendgerät, nach dem Oberbegriff des Anspruchs 1. The invention relates to a PIFA antenna for a mobile communication terminal according to the preamble of claim 1.
  • Solche Antennen werden beispielsweise in Mobiltelefonen für Kommunikationsverbindungen mit zugehörigen Basisstationen eines Mobilfunknetzes verwendet. Such antennas are used for example in mobile telephones for communication connections with associated base stations of a mobile radio network. Sie sind entweder als Monoband-Antenne, zunehmend jedoch als Multiband-Antenne ausgebildet, um der Tatsache Rechnung zu tragen, dass in verschiedenen Regionen der Welt jeweilige Mobilfunkdienste verschiedene Funkfrequenz-Bereiche nutzen. They are either as a single band antenna, but are formed increasingly multi-band antenna to account for the fact that respective mobile services use different radio frequency fields in different regions of the world. Eine solche Multiband-Antenne, nämlich eine Triband-Antenne, ist beispielsweise aus der WO 02/43182 A bekannt. Such a multi-band antenna, namely a tri-band antenna is known, for example from WO 02/43182 A.
  • Aus der EP 0 993 070 A1 geht eine PIFA-Antennenstruktur mit schaltbarer Impedanz hervor, wobei die Impedanz zwischen einem Masseanschluss der Antennenstruktur und einer Masseebene zuschaltbar ist. From EP 0993070 A1 a PIFA antenna structure shows with switchable impedance, the impedance between a ground terminal of the antenna structure and a ground plane can be connected. Aus der JP-A-10190345 ist eine Antennenstruktur bekannt, bei der eine Antennenfläche durch Ansteuern einer Diode einer Haupt-Antennenfläche zuschaltbar ist. From JP-A-10190345, an antenna structure is known in which an antenna surface is switched by driving a diode of a main antenna surface. Durch die Zuschaltung wird das Resonanzverhalten der Einheit aus zuschaltbarer Antennenfläche und Hauptantenennfläche so geändert, dass ein gegenüber der Haupt-Antennenfläche geänderter Frequenzbereich unterstützt werden kann. By connecting the resonance behavior of the unit of switchable antenna space and main Ante nominal area is changed such that a relative to the main antenna surface modified frequency range can be supported.
  • Daher besteht für Hersteller von Mobiltelefonen Bedarf, diese mit Antennen auszurüsten, die im wesentlichen ungeändert weltweit benutzt werden können. Therefore, there is for mobile phone manufacturers need this to be equipped with antennas that can be used worldwide essentially unchanged. Beispielsweise sind im Stand der Technik bereits sowohl Dualband- als auch Triband-Antennen entwickelt worden, die in der Lage sind, mehrere, durch Mobilfunk-Standards in jeweilige Regionen festgelegte Frequenzbereiche zu bedienen. For example, both dual-band and tri-band antennas have been developed in the prior art already, which are capable of multiple, defined by cellular standards in respective regions of frequency bands to use.
  • Beispielsweise wird für die Mobiltelefonie in Nordamerika ein Frequenzband bei 850 MHz und ein Frequenzband bei 1.900 MHz verwendet, während in Europa Frequenzbänder bei 900 MHz (GSM) und 1.800 MHz im Einsatz sind. For example, a frequency band at 850 MHz and a frequency band at 1900 MHz is used for mobile telephony in North America, whereas in Europe the frequency bands at 900 MHz (GSM) and 1,800 MHz in use. Da eine Antenne ein frequenzabhängiges Gerät ist, wird eine besondere Gestaltung der Antenne für jede mögliche Kombination von Frequenzbändern benötigt. Since an antenna is a frequency-dependent device, a special design of the antenna for each possible combination of frequency bands is required. Sofern die Antenne als interne Antenne ausgebildet ist, wie dies bei der PIFA-Antenne der Fall ist, erfordern verschiedene Größen und Volumina der Antennen verschiedene Gehäuse, so dass für die jeweiligen Frequenzbänder, in denen ein Mobiltelefon nutzbar sein soll, häufig Anpassungen erforderlich sind. Provided that the antenna is formed as an internal antenna, as is the case with the PIFA antenna, different sizes and volumes of the antennas require different housing so that for the respective frequency bands in which a mobile telephone is to be used, frequent adjustments are needed.
  • Ausgehend hiervon liegt der Erfindung die Aufgabe zugrunde, eine PIFA-Antenne zu schaffen, die auf einfache Art und Weise hinsichtlich wenigstens eines ihrer Resonanzfrequenz-Bereiche veränderbar ist. Based on this, the invention has for its object to provide a PIFA antenna, which is variable with respect to at least one of its resonant frequency ranges in a simple manner.
  • Diese Aufgabe wird bei der eingangs genannten PIFA-Antenne durch die kennzeichnenden Merkmale des Anspruchs 1 gelöst. This object is achieved by the characterizing features of claim 1 in the above-mentioned PIFA antenna.
  • Es ist somit vorgesehen, einen Resonanzfrequenz-Bereich einer PIFA-Antenne, der beispielsweise einem ersten Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereich entspricht, mittels einer zusätzlichen Induktivität so zu ändern, dass die PIFA-Antenne einen Resonanzfrequenzbereich aufweist, der für einen zweiten Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereich geeignet ist. There is thus provided to change a resonance frequency region of a PIFA antenna, which for example corresponds to a first mobile radio standard frequency range by means of an additional inductance such that the PIFA antenna having a resonant frequency range that is suitable for a second mobile radio standard frequency range. Dies hat den Vorteil, dass am Antennenvolumen oder einer räumlichen Anordnung einzelner Antennenelemente, insbesondere bei Multiband-Antennen, keine Änderungen vorgenommen werden müssen, um ein weiteres Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzband zu bedienen. This has the advantage that the antenna volume or a spatial array of individual antenna elements, particularly in multi-band antennas, no changes need to be made to serve another mobile radio standard frequency band.
  • Insbesondere bei niedrigen Frequenzbändern, wie diejenigen für GSM 850 und EGSM 900, ist es schwierig, allein mit Hilfe einer Änderung der Antennenkonfiguration von einem ersten Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereich zu einem zweiten Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereich umzuschalten. Especially at low frequency bands, such as those for GSM 850 and GSM 900, it is difficult to switch solely by means of a change of the antenna configuration of a first mobile radio standard frequency range to a second mobile radio standard frequency range. Insofern weist die zusätzliche Induktivität beim Wechsel zwischen zwei Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereichen erhebliche Vorteile auf. To this extent, the additional inductance when switching between two mobile radio standard frequency ranges considerable advantages. Außerdem ist es aufgrund der zusätzlichen Induktivität nicht erforderlich, verschiedene Werkzeuge zur Herstellung verschiedener Antennen vorsehen zu müssen, um zwischen Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereichen wechseln zu können. Moreover, it is not necessary due to the additional inductance having to provide different tools for the production of various antennas to switch between mobile radio standard frequency ranges. Vielmehr gestattet es die Erfindung, eine vorgegebene PIFA-Antennenkonfiguration beizubehalten und im Bedarfsfall um eine Induktivität geeigneter Größe zu ergänzen, so dass der Resonanzfrequenzbereich auf einen anderen Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereich verschoben wird. Rather, the invention allows to maintain a predetermined PIFA antenna configuration and to supplement, if necessary, to an inductor suitable size so that the resonance frequency range is moved to another mobile radio standard frequency range.
  • Eine elektrische Verbindung zwischen der Induktivität und dem Hochfrequenz-Zuführungspunkt ist derart ausgebildet, dass die Induktivität von der PIFA-Antenne abkoppelbar ist. An electrical connection between the inductance and the high frequency feed point is formed such that the inductance of the PIFA antenna is uncoupled. Auf diese Weise lässt sich ein einfaches Umschalten zwischen zwei Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereichen erreichen. In this way, a simple switching between two mobile radio standard frequency ranges can be achieved.
  • Die Erfindung wird nachfolgend anhand von Ausführungsbeispielen noch näher erläutert. The invention is explained in more detail below with reference to embodiments. Es zeigen: Show it:
  • Figur 1 Figure 1
    eine Monoband-PIFA-Antenne mit einer zusätzlichen Induktivität, a mono-band PIFA antenna with an additional inductance,
    Figur 2 Figure 2
    ein Ersatzschaltbild der Monoband-PIFA-Antenne von Figur 1, an equivalent circuit diagram of the mono-band PIFA antenna of Figure 1,
    Figur 3 Figure 3
    eine Multiband-PIFA-Antenne mit zusätzlicher Induktivität und a multi-band PIFA antenna with additional inductance, and
    Figur 4 Figure 4
    eine grafische Darstellung des Reflektionskoeffizienten S11 der PIFA-Antenne von Figur 3 im Frequenzbereich von 800 bis 1.000 MHz. a graphical representation of the reflection coefficient S11 of the PIFA antenna of Figure 3 in the frequency range of 800 to 1,000MHz.
  • In der Figur 1 ist eine Monoband-PIFA-Antenne dargestellt, die nicht Teil der Erfindung ist und die eine Antennefläche P1, einen Massekontaktpunkt G1 und einen Hochfrequenz-Zuführungspunkt S1 aufweist, über den ein Hochfrequenzsignal zugeleitet wird, dass über die Antenne abgestrahlt wird. In the figure, 1 is a mono-band PIFA antenna is illustrated which is not part of the invention and which has an antenna surface P1, a ground contact point G1 and a high-frequency supply point S1, via which a high-frequency signal is supplied that is radiated through the antenna. Zwischen den Hochfrequenz-Zuführungspunkt S1 und Masse ist eine Induktivität L_p geschaltet, wobei die Masse mit dem Massepunkt G1 elektrisch leitend verbunden ist. Between the high-frequency supply point S1 and the ground, an inductance L_p is connected, wherein the mass is electrically conductively connected to the ground point G1. Die Induktivität L_p ist so bemessen, dass in dem Fall, wenn die Induktivität L_p vorhanden ist, die PIFA-Antenne für einen ersten Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereich angepasst ist. The inductance L_p is dimensioned such that in the case where the inductance L_p is present, the PIFA antenna is adapted for a first mobile radio standard frequency range. Soll ein Mobiltelefon, das mit der Antenne ausgestattet ist, in einem anderen Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereich betrieben werden, wird die Antenne mit der Induktivität L_p ausgestattet, wodurch ein Resonanzfrequenzbereich der Antenne wie gewünscht verschoben wird. If a mobile phone that is equipped with the antenna to be operated in a different mobile radio standard frequency range, the antenna is equipped with the inductance L_p, whereby a resonant frequency range of the antenna is shifted as desired. Die Größe der Induktivität lässt sich empirisch ohne weiteres ermitteln und liegt grundsätzlich im Bereich von einigen nH. The size of the inductor can be empirically readily determined and is generally in the range of a few nH.
  • Figur 2 zeigt ein Ersatzschaltbild der in Figur 1 dargestellten Monoband-PIFA-Antenne. 2 shows an equivalent circuit of the embodiment shown in Figure 1 Mono-band PIFA antenna. In diesem Schaltbild wird die PIFA-Antenne ohne die Induktivität L_p durch die Parallelschaltung einer Induktivität L_a und einer Kapazität C_a wiedergegeben. In this diagram, the PIFA antenna is reproduced without the inductance L_p by the parallel connection of an inductance and a capacitance L_a C_a. Parallel zu der Induktivität L_a und der Kapazität C_a ist in Figur 2 die zusätzliche Induktivität L_p dargestellt, die Einfluss auf den Resonanzfrequenzbereich der Monoband-PIFA-Antenne nimmt. Parallel to the inductance and the capacitance L_a C_a the additional inductance L_p is shown in Figure 2, taking the influence on the resonance frequency range of the mono-band PIFA antenna.
  • Aus Figur 3 geht eine Triband-PIFA-Antenne hervor, die eine erste Antennenfläche P1 aufweist, die im wesentlichen entsprechend einer Rechtecklinie geformt ist, jedoch im Bereich einer Ecke des Rechtecks eine Öffnung O aufweist und eine rechtwinklig geformte zweite Antennenfläche P2 im wesentlichen umschließt. From Figure 3 is a tri-band PIFA antenna shows that has a first antenna surface P1, which is substantially shaped according to a square-line but has an opening O in the region of a corner of the rectangle, and a rectangular shaped second antenna surface P2 substantially encloses. Sowohl die Antennefläche P2 als auch die Antennenfläche P1 weisen zugehörige Massekontaktpunkte G1, G2 auf. Both the antenna area P2 as well as the antenna area P1 have associated ground contact points G1, G2. Die zweite Antennenfläche P2 ist elektromagnetisch an die Antennefläche P1 gekoppelt. The second antenna surface P2 is electromagnetically coupled to the antenna surface P1. Am äußeren Rand der Antennenfläche P1 ist ein Hochfrequenz-Zuführungspunkt S1 vorgesehen, von dem aus sich die Antennenfläche P1 zur einen Seite hin über zwei Ecken und zur anderen Seite hin über eine Ecke der Rechtecklinie erstreckt. At the outer edge of the antenna surface P1 is a high-frequency supply point S1 is provided from which the antenna surface P1 extends to one side about two corners and toward the other side on a corner of the rectangular line. Ein in bezug auf den Hochfrequenz-Zuführungspunkt S1 langer Arm der Antennenfläche P1 ist für den Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereich bei 850 MHz (nordamerikanischer GSM-Standard) oder für den Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereich bei 900 MHz (europäischer GSM-Standard) vorgesehen. A long with respect to the high frequency feed point S1 arm of the antenna surface P1 is for the mobile radio standard frequency range at 850 MHz (North American GSM standard), or for the mobile radio standard frequency range at 900 MHz (the European GSM standard) is provided. Der in bezug auf den Hochfrequenz-Zuführungspunkt S1 kurze Arm der Antennenfläche P1 bedient gemeinsam mit der zweiten Antennenfläche P2 die GSM-Frequenzbänder bei 1.800 MHz (europäischer GSM-Standard) und 1.900 MHz (nordamerikanischer GSM-Standard). The S1 short arm of the antenna surface P1 with respect to the high frequency feed point operated together with the second antenna surface P2, the GSM frequency bands at 1800 MHz (the European GSM standard) and 1,900 MHz (North American GSM standard).
  • Wie im Beispiel der Figur 1 für eine Monoband-PIFA-Antenne ist bei der Triband-PIFA-Antenne der Figur 3 zwischen dem Hochfrequenz-Zuführungspunkt S1 und Masse eine Induktivität L_p vorgesehen, wobei grundsätzlich in den Figuren 3 und 1 ähnliche Bauelemente mit denselben Bezugszeichen bezeichnet werden. As in the example of Figure 1 for a mono-band PIFA antenna in the tri-band PIFA antenna of Figure 3 between the high-frequency supply point S1 and the ground is an inductance L_p provided, in principle in the figures 3 and 1 similar components the same reference numerals are called.
  • Wenn die zusätzliche Induktivität L_p nicht vorgesehen ist, bedient der lange Arm der Antennenfläche P1 den Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereich bei 900 MHz. If the additional inductor L_p is not provided, the long arm of the antenna surface P1 operates the mobile radio standard frequency range at 900 MHz. Wird die Induktivität L_p zugeschaltet, wird der Resonanzfrequenzbereich des langen Arms der Antennenfläche P1 um 50 MHz auf 850 MHz verschoben. Is the inductance L_p switched on, the resonant frequency range of the long arm of the antenna surface P1 is shifted by 50 MHz to 850 MHz. Dies geht besonders deutlich aus der Figur 4 hervor. This is particularly clearly from FIG. 4 Bei diesem Beispiel kann der Wert der Induktivität L_p im Bereich zwischen 8 und 35 nH liegen, um zwischen den beiden niederfrequenten GSM-Standardfrequenzbändern bzw. -bereichen umzuschalten. In this example, the value of inductance L_p may be in the range between 8 and 35nH to switch -regions low frequency between the two frequency bands or GSM standard.
  • Es ist hervorzuheben, dass eine Zuschaltung der Induktivität L_p so gewählt werden kann, dass Auswirkungen auf die Resonanzfrequenzeigenschaften des kurzen Arms der Antennefläche P1 und der Antennenfläche P2 nur in zu vernachlässigendem Maße zu erwarten sind. It should be noted that a connection of the inductance L_p can be selected so that effects on the resonance frequency characteristics of the short arm of the antenna surface P1 and P2 of the antenna area are to be expected only in negligible degree. Aufgrund dessen kann durch Zuschaltung der Induktivität L_p die in Figur 3 dargestellte Triband-PIFA-Antenne einfach durch Zuschalten oder Fortlassen der Induktivität L_p hinsichtlich ihres niedrigsten Mobilfunk-Standardfrequenzbereiches verändert werden. Because of this, shown in Figure 3 tri-band PIFA-antenna can be changed by switching on or omitting the inductance L_p respect to their lowest mobile radio standard frequency range by connecting the inductance L_p simple.

Claims (2)

  1. PIFA antenna for a mobile communication terminal having an earth point (G1; G2) and a radio-frequency supply point (S1) and an antenna surface (P1), which has a short arm and a long arm, and is designed both to support a mobile radio standard frequency range at 850 MHz and to support a mobile radio standard frequency range at 900 MHz,
    characterized in that
    an inductance (L_p) is connected between the radio-frequency supply point (S1) and the earth point (G1; G2) in order to vary the resonant frequency of the PIFA antenna, and is of such a magnitude that the lowest resonant frequency of the PIFA antenna with the inductance (L_p) is essentially at 850 MHz, and without the inductance (L_p) is essentially at 900 MHz, and an electrical connection is formed between the inductance (L_p) and the radio-frequency supply point (S1) in such a way that the inductance (L_p) can be decoupled from the PIFA antenna.
  2. PIFA antenna according to Claim 1,
    characterized in that
    the value of the inductance (L_p) is in the range from 8 to 35 nH.
EP20020016026 2002-07-18 2002-07-18 PIFA-antenna with additional inductance Not-in-force EP1406345B1 (en)

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DE2002506584 DE50206584D1 (en) 2002-07-18 2002-07-18 PIFA antenna with additional inductance
DK02016026T DK1406345T3 (en) 2002-07-18 2002-07-18 PIFA antenna with tillægsinduktans
EP20020016026 EP1406345B1 (en) 2002-07-18 2002-07-18 PIFA-antenna with additional inductance

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US8564485B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2013-10-22 Pulse Finland Oy Adjustable multiband antenna and methods
US8786499B2 (en) 2005-10-03 2014-07-22 Pulse Finland Oy Multiband antenna system and methods
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US8466756B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2013-06-18 Pulse Finland Oy Methods and apparatus for matching an antenna
US8629813B2 (en) 2007-08-30 2014-01-14 Pusle Finland Oy Adjustable multi-band antenna and methods
US9461371B2 (en) 2009-11-27 2016-10-04 Pulse Finland Oy MIMO antenna and methods
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US9246210B2 (en) 2010-02-18 2016-01-26 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna with cover radiator and methods
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US8648752B2 (en) 2011-02-11 2014-02-11 Pulse Finland Oy Chassis-excited antenna apparatus and methods
US8618990B2 (en) 2011-04-13 2013-12-31 Pulse Finland Oy Wideband antenna and methods
US8866689B2 (en) 2011-07-07 2014-10-21 Pulse Finland Oy Multi-band antenna and methods for long term evolution wireless system
US9450291B2 (en) 2011-07-25 2016-09-20 Pulse Finland Oy Multiband slot loop antenna apparatus and methods
US9123990B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2015-09-01 Pulse Finland Oy Multi-feed antenna apparatus and methods
US9531058B2 (en) 2011-12-20 2016-12-27 Pulse Finland Oy Loosely-coupled radio antenna apparatus and methods
US9484619B2 (en) 2011-12-21 2016-11-01 Pulse Finland Oy Switchable diversity antenna apparatus and methods
US8988296B2 (en) 2012-04-04 2015-03-24 Pulse Finland Oy Compact polarized antenna and methods
US9590308B2 (en) 2013-12-03 2017-03-07 Pulse Electronics, Inc. Reduced surface area antenna apparatus and mobile communications devices incorporating the same
US9350081B2 (en) 2014-01-14 2016-05-24 Pulse Finland Oy Switchable multi-radiator high band antenna apparatus

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DE50206584D1 (en) 2006-06-01 grant
EP1406345A1 (en) 2004-04-07 application

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