EP1339154A1 - Monolithic battery protection circuit - Google Patents

Monolithic battery protection circuit Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1339154A1
EP1339154A1 EP20020368020 EP02368020A EP1339154A1 EP 1339154 A1 EP1339154 A1 EP 1339154A1 EP 20020368020 EP20020368020 EP 20020368020 EP 02368020 A EP02368020 A EP 02368020A EP 1339154 A1 EP1339154 A1 EP 1339154A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
circuit
control circuit
fet switch
fet
battery
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP20020368020
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Rolf Hulss
Michael Keller
Frank Krommuller
Achim Stellberger
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Dialog Semiconductor GmbH
Original Assignee
Dialog Semiconductor GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Dialog Semiconductor GmbH filed Critical Dialog Semiconductor GmbH
Priority to EP20020368020 priority Critical patent/EP1339154A1/en
Publication of EP1339154A1 publication Critical patent/EP1339154A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0029Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries with safety or protection devices or circuits
    • H02J7/0031Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries with safety or protection devices or circuits using battery or load disconnect circuits

Abstract

A battery protection circuit is achieved. The circuit comprises, first, a FET switch. Last, a control circuit determines the ON/OFF state of the FET switch. The FET switch and the control circuit comprise a single integrated circuit device. The control circuit may comprise over charge and over discharge detectors, a voltage reference, and a level shifter.

Description

    Technical field
  • The invention relates to a circuit for protecting a battery, and more particularly, to a circuit for protecting a rechargeable battery wherein a control circuit and a FET switch are integrated onto a single integrated circuit device.
  • Background art
  • Rechargeable batteries are used in a variety applications of portable electronic devices. In particular, rechargeable batteries are used for portable phones. Several types of batteries are used in the art, most notably those comprising lithium ion or Li+. For optimum battery life and performance, the battery must be protected from excessive charging voltage during recharging and from over discharging while supplying the appliance.
  • Referring now to Fig. 1, an exemplary prior art battery protection circuit is shown. A rechargeable battery 10 is configured such that it can source energy to a load 34 or can be recharged by a charger source 38. Two MOSFET switches N1 18 and N2 26 are used to control the flow of current into (charging) and out of (discharging) the battery. The control circuit 14 controls the ON and OFF state of the switches 18 and 26. Typically, the switches comprise discrete devices. The control circuit 14 typically comprises a separate circuit from the switches. Each switch 18 and 26 contains a parasitic bulk-to-drain diode D1 22 and D2 30. By coupling each switch in an opposite manner, each of the parasitic diodes 22 and 30 conducts current in a different direction.
  • During normal charging or discharging of the battery 10, both of the switches are ON. However, if the control circuit 14 detects an over charging voltage from VBATT to GND, then the control circuit turns OFF the switch N1. Since the parasitic diode D1 22 also blocks current flow into the battery, the battery stops charging. In the case of an over discharging condition, the control circuit 14 would detect a too low battery voltage from VBATT to GND. The other switch N2 26 would be turned OFF. In this case, the parasitic diode D2 30 blocks current flow out of the battery 10.
  • The prior art circuit has at least two disadvantages. First, the use of discrete components 20 and 28 increases the manufacturing cost and space requirements for the protection circuit. Second, the discrete components exhibit a large ON resistance that represents a significant power loss for the circuit.
  • Several prior art inventions describe battery protection circuits. U.S. Patent 6,037,750 to Von Novak describes a battery pack controller. Von Novak places the battery charging circuits (elements 206 and 208 of Fig. 2) inside the battery pack. Such an approach creates at least two significant problems. First, power consumption and heat build up from the charger may cause the connectivity to the external FET devices (202 and 204) to fail. Second, if the ground connection to the battery pack is lost, then control of the battery is lost. Battery charging may continue without control and may then result in a battery explosion. U.S. Patent 5,781,390 to Notaro et al teaches an automotive battery protection circuit for protecting against reverse battery and over voltage. U.S. Patent 5,896,025 to Yamaguchi et al describes a battery protection circuit. U.S. Patent 5,789,900 to Hasegawa et al discloses a battery protection circuit showing two MOSFETs back-to-back. U.S. Patent 6,160,381 to Peterzell discloses a battery pack protection circuit. Two MOSFET switches are used.
  • Summary of the invention
  • A principal object of the present invention is to provide an effective and very manufacturable circuit for protecting a battery.
  • A further object of the present invention is to provide a battery protection circuit with reduced manufacturing cost.
  • Another further object of the present invention is to provide a battery protection circuit with reduced space requirements.
  • Another further object of the present invention is to provide a battery protection circuit with reduced ON resistance in the safety circuit.
  • A still further object of the present invention is to provide a circuit that protects the battery even if the ground connection to the battery pack is lost.
  • In accordance with the objects of this invention, a battery protection circuit is achieved. The circuit comprises, first, a FET switch. Last, a control circuit determines the ON/OFF state of the FET switch. The FET switch and the control circuit comprise a single integrated circuit device. The control circuit may comprise over charge and over discharge detectors, a voltage reference, and a level shifter.
  • Description of the drawings
  • In the accompanying drawings forming a material part of this description, there is shown:
  • Fig. 1 illustrates a prior art battery protection circuit.
  • Fig. 2 illustrates a first preferred embodiment of the battery protection circuit of the present invention.
  • Fig. 3 illustrates a second preferred embodiment of the battery protection circuit of the present invention.
  • Description of the preferred embodiments
  • The preferred embodiments disclose a novel circuit for protecting a battery. The circuit uses a novel, battery protection circuit. The circuit comprises a control circuit and a FET switch on a single integrated circuit. It should be clear to those experienced in the art that the present invention can be applied and extended without deviating from the scope of the present invention.
  • Referring now to Fig. 2, the first preferred embodiment of the battery protection circuit of the present invention is illustrated. Several important features of the present invention are shown. The circuit 76 protects a battery 70 and, more preferably, a rechargeable battery 70. The protection circuit 76 is preferably formed in the battery pack with the rechargeable battery 70. However, the charging circuit 90 is formed outside the battery pack. The protection circuit 76 comprises, first, a FET switch 78. Last, a control circuit 74 determines the ON/OFF state of the FET switch 78. Most importantly, the FET switch 78 and the control circuit 74 comprise a single integrated circuit device 76.
  • The FET switch 78 may comprise a single NMOS device, a single PMOS device, two or more NMOS devices, or two or more PMOS devices. In the embodiment shown, the FET switch 78 is coupled in the ground path between the negative, or GND, terminal 96 of the battery 70 and the ground output (GNDOUT) 94. In this configuration, the FET switch 78 controls current flow through the ground path to protect the battery 70 from error conditions. For a ground path protection scheme, as shown, the FET switch 78 preferably comprises one or more NMOS devices. Alternatively, the FET switch 78 may be placed in the positive, or load path, wherein the FET switch 78 would be coupled between the positive battery terminal, VBATT 92, and the LOAD pin. In the positive path configuration, the FET switch 78 may be either one or more PMOS devices or one or more NMOS devices. If NMOS devices are used in the positive protection scheme, then a charge pump will be needed for driving the transistor gates.
  • The control circuit 74 controls the ON/OFF state of the FET switch 78. To control the FET switch 78 over all conditions, the control circuit 74 preferably comprises circuits to sense error conditions, to sense the regulated voltages, and to drive the FET switch gates. Referring now to Fig. 3, a second preferred embodiment of the protection circuit is shown. The protection integrated circuit 76 is again divided into a control block 74 and a FET switch block 78. In this example, the control circuit 74 is further divided into a logic block 104, a bandgap reference block 108, over charge and over discharge voltage sensing blocks 112 and 116, a charger detection block 120, a level shifter 124, a power on reset (POR) 148, a RC oscillator 144, a one-time program (OTP) block 140, and short circuit current 136, over charge current 132, and over discharge current blocks 128. The control circuit 74 may comprise any, combinations of any, and combinations of all of the blocks shown.
  • The POR block 148 is used for initializing the control circuit 74 after a power down. The RC oscillator 144 generates a timing clock for use in the logic block 104 for determining error state status and for controlling the FET switch 78. The OTP 140 is used for configuring the device 76. The bandgap reference 108 is used to generate a temperature independent, standalone voltage reference. The over charge voltage detector 112 and over discharge voltage detector 116 preferably use the voltage reference. The charger detect circuit 120 detects the presence of a charging device across the cell terminals. Current error detection circuits, such as the short circuit current 136, over charge current 132, and over discharge current blocks 128, may also use the bandgap 108 reference. The logic circuit 104 uses all of the sensing circuits to make decisions governing the control of the FET switch 78. A level shifter 124 may be used to increase the voltage swing of the output of the logic circuit 104. The shifter 124 is especially useful if a low operating voltage is used in the logic block 104 while a larger operating voltage is needed to switch the FET switch 78.
  • It is important to note that the present invention has the advantages of reduced cost and reduced space requirements when compared to the prior art. By combining the control circuit and the FET switch onto a single IC, the cost and area of the function can be reduced substantially. In addition, the use of integrated FET switch devices results in a lower ON resistance for the FET switches. Third, the preferred embodiment of the present invention is formed on a single IC and is preferably further integrated into the battery pack. Finally, by separating the battery and protection circuit from the charging circuit, the problems of heat-induced reliability failure and of loss of charging control, during a loss of ground to the battery pack, are solved.
  • The critical advantages of the present invention over the prior art may now be summarized. First, an effective and very manufacturable circuit for protecting a battery is achieved. The battery protection circuit exhibits reduced manufacturing cost and space requirements. The monolithic battery protection circuit exhibits reduced ON resistance in the safety circuit.
    Finally, the battery is protected even if the ground connection to the battery pack is lost.
  • As shown in the preferred embodiments, the novel circuit provides an effective and manufacturable alternative to the prior art.
  • While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to the preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (20)

  1. A battery protection circuit comprising:
    a FET switch; and
    a control circuit wherein said control circuit determines the ON/OFF state of said FET switch and wherein said FET switch and said control circuit comprise a single integrated circuit device.
  2. The circuit according to Claim 1 wherein said FET switch comprises a NMOS FET.
  3. The circuit according to Claim 1 wherein said FET switch comprises a PMOS FET.
  4. The circuit according to Claim 1 wherein said FET switch comprises at least two NMOS FET devices.
  5. The circuit according to Claim 1 wherein said FET switch comprises at least two PMOS FET devices.
  6. The circuit according to Claim 1 wherein said control circuit further comprises an over charge voltage detector and an over discharge voltage detector.
  7. The circuit according to Claim 1 wherein said control circuit further comprises a level shifting circuit to drive said FET switch.
  8. The circuit according to Claim 1 wherein said control circuit further comprises a short circuit detector, an over charge current detector and an over discharge current detector.
  9. The circuit according to Claim 1 wherein said control circuit further comprises a bandgap voltage reference.
  10. A battery protection circuit comprising:
    a FET switch; and
    a control circuit wherein said control circuit determines the ON/OFF state of said FET switch, wherein said FET switch and said control circuit comprise a single integrated circuit device, and wherein said protection circuit and a battery are formed in a common battery pack.
  11. The circuit according to Claim 10 wherein said FET switch comprises at least one NMOS FET device.
  12. The circuit according to Claim 10 wherein said FET switch comprises at least one PMOS FET device.
  13. The circuit according to Claim 10 wherein said control circuit further comprises a level shifting circuit to drive said FET switch.
  14. The circuit according to Claim 10 wherein said control circuit further comprises a bandgap voltage reference.
  15. The circuit according to Claim 10 wherein said control circuit further comprises an over charge voltage detector and an over discharge voltage detector.
  16. The circuit according to Claim 10 wherein said control circuit further comprises a short circuit detector, an over charge current detector and an over discharge current detector.
  17. A battery protection circuit comprising:
    a FET switch; and
    a control circuit wherein said control circuit determines the ON/OFF state of said FET switch, wherein said FET switch and said control circuit comprise a single integrated circuit device, wherein said control circuit further comprises an over charge voltage detector and an over discharge voltage detector, and wherein said control circuit further comprises a short circuit detector, an over charge current detector and an over discharge current detector.
  18. The circuit according to Claim 17 wherein said FET switch comprises at least one NMOS FET.
  19. The circuit according to Claim 17 wherein said FET switch comprises at least one PMOS FET.
  20. The circuit according to Claim 17 wherein said control circuit further comprises a bandgap voltage reference.
EP20020368020 2002-02-25 2002-02-25 Monolithic battery protection circuit Withdrawn EP1339154A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP20020368020 EP1339154A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2002-02-25 Monolithic battery protection circuit

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP20020368020 EP1339154A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2002-02-25 Monolithic battery protection circuit
JP2003046706A JP2003282153A (en) 2002-02-25 2003-02-25 Monolithic battery protection circuit
KR10-2003-0011705A KR20030070558A (en) 2002-02-25 2003-02-25 Monolithic battery protection circuit

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1339154A1 true EP1339154A1 (en) 2003-08-27

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Family Applications (1)

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EP20020368020 Withdrawn EP1339154A1 (en) 2002-02-25 2002-02-25 Monolithic battery protection circuit

Country Status (3)

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EP (1) EP1339154A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2003282153A (en)
KR (1) KR20030070558A (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1531535A3 (en) * 2003-11-14 2007-01-10 Sony Corporation Battery pack, battery protection processing apparatus, and startup control method of the battery protection processing apparatus
US8264205B2 (en) 2008-02-08 2012-09-11 Sion Power Corporation Circuit for charge and/or discharge protection in an energy-storage device
US8859124B2 (en) 2008-11-21 2014-10-14 Sony Corporation Integrated circuit and battery pack using the same

Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7091697B2 (en) * 2003-11-04 2006-08-15 Sony Corporation System and method for efficiently implementing a battery controller for an electronic device
KR100601556B1 (en) * 2004-09-07 2006-07-19 삼성에스디아이 주식회사 Protect circuit for secondary battery pack
KR100873016B1 (en) * 2007-06-26 2008-12-09 천창열 Battery management system for multi cell battery pack
JP2010068637A (en) * 2008-09-11 2010-03-25 Mitsumi Electric Co Ltd Charge controlling semiconductor integrated circuit
US9444247B2 (en) 2011-05-17 2016-09-13 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Apparatus and method of protecting power receiver of wireless power transmission system
JP5999987B2 (en) * 2012-06-05 2016-09-28 ローム株式会社 Power path circuit
KR101368760B1 (en) * 2013-01-31 2014-03-04 주식회사 아이티엠반도체 Battery protection circuit package, battery having the same, and method of manufacturing the same

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5867008A (en) * 1996-06-05 1999-02-02 Double-Time Battery Corporation Overcharge protection circuitry for rechargeable battery pack
US5890780A (en) * 1996-10-07 1999-04-06 Nec Corporation Power supply switching apparatus with protection function for supplying power to an electronic circuit via an external power source or an internal power supply source
EP0982826A2 (en) * 1998-08-26 2000-03-01 Sony Corporation Battery protection circuit and electronic device
WO2000051219A1 (en) * 1999-02-26 2000-08-31 Motorola Inc. Method for li-ion safety switch fault detection in smart batteries

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5867008A (en) * 1996-06-05 1999-02-02 Double-Time Battery Corporation Overcharge protection circuitry for rechargeable battery pack
US5890780A (en) * 1996-10-07 1999-04-06 Nec Corporation Power supply switching apparatus with protection function for supplying power to an electronic circuit via an external power source or an internal power supply source
EP0982826A2 (en) * 1998-08-26 2000-03-01 Sony Corporation Battery protection circuit and electronic device
WO2000051219A1 (en) * 1999-02-26 2000-08-31 Motorola Inc. Method for li-ion safety switch fault detection in smart batteries

Non-Patent Citations (2)

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Title
FEST J-P: "SAUVEGARDE: GERER L'INTENSITE DANS LES DEUX SENS" ELECTRONIQUE, CEP COMMUNICATION, PARIS, FR, no. 91, April 1999 (1999-04), page 14 XP000896733 ISSN: 1157-1152 *
STOCKSTAD T ET AL: "A micropower safety IC for rechargeable lithium batteries" CUSTOM INTEGRATED CIRCUITS CONFERENCE, 1996., PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE 1996 SAN DIEGO, CA, USA 5-8 MAY 1996, NEW YORK, NY, USA,IEEE, US, 5 May 1996 (1996-05-05), pages 127-130, XP010167430 ISBN: 0-7803-3117-6 *

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1531535A3 (en) * 2003-11-14 2007-01-10 Sony Corporation Battery pack, battery protection processing apparatus, and startup control method of the battery protection processing apparatus
US7495416B2 (en) 2003-11-14 2009-02-24 Sony Corporation Battery pack, battery protection processing apparatus, and startup control method of the battery protection processing apparatus
CN1658469B (en) * 2003-11-14 2010-09-08 索尼株式会社 Battery pack, battery protection processing apparatus, and startup control method of the battery protection processing apparatus
US8264205B2 (en) 2008-02-08 2012-09-11 Sion Power Corporation Circuit for charge and/or discharge protection in an energy-storage device
US8859124B2 (en) 2008-11-21 2014-10-14 Sony Corporation Integrated circuit and battery pack using the same

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Publication number Publication date
JP2003282153A (en) 2003-10-03
KR20030070558A (en) 2003-08-30

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Effective date: 20040224

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Effective date: 20060829