Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a method of allowing several people to test an
antiperspirant product. The invention is particularly valuable in a retail environment
where several potential customers may wish to test a product before purchasing.
Antiperspirant products are many and varied. They are available in a variety of product
forms such as aerosol sprays, liquid roll-ons, sticks and creams or gels. Many potential
customers for such products are familiar with only one or two product forms and, even
then, are desirous for further information about a product before committing themselves
to a purchase. It is known in the cosmetics industry, particularly for fragrances and
colour cosmetics, to use product samples or 'testers' to allow potential customers to try
a product before purchase.
An important benefit for cream or gel antiperspirant products is their application
characteristics, which can only really be appreciated by trial. There are problems
however in applying the 'tester' approach to such products. One is that they are mostly
used for the axillae. The packaging is generally designed to suit the use, typically so
that the product can be wiped onto the skin. Quite apart from many people's reluctance
to apply such a product in public, in situations where the same package might be used
by many people, many customers have a concern about hygiene. One approach has
been to have disposable product applicators which are discarded after a single use. This
is wasteful of packaging and presents greater logistical problems, such as the handling
in a retail environment of the number of testers required, including disposal of used
testers. French patent application 2 766 339 is directed towards a package for cream
antiperspirants which is designed for use as a tester. Whilst the design proffered aims to
minimise the packaging parts employed it does not address the hygiene concerns that
many people have over tester use. Similarly WO00/00056 and WO00/00059 disclose
applicator pads which are suitable as sampling devices but do not fully meet the need
for a tester device able to be used by several people.
It is an accordingly an object of the present invention to provide improved packages and
methods for demonstrating the particular advantages of cream or gel antiperspirant
It is a further object of the invention to provide packages and methods for dispensing
cream or gel antiperspirant products onto the hands of several potential customers
thereof without cross-contamination from one potential customer to the next.
Summary of the Invention
It is yet a further object of the invention to provide hygienic packages and methods for
dispensing cream or gel antiperspirant products onto the hands of several potential
customers thereof with a minimum of packages.
The present invention relates to a method of allowing several people to test a cream or
gel antiperspirant product in a hygienic manner, the method comprising:
- a) providing a dispenser containing the product to two or more people, wherein the
dispenser has a single outlet having a cross-sectional area of from 0.2 to 20 mm2
and is adapted to dispense the product in an unbroken stream;
- b) instructing or allowing each person to dispense, or have dispensed, a portion of the
product contained in the dispenser onto their own skin and thence to rub the
product onto their skin without further contact with the dispenser or the product it
In an alternative aspect, the invention relates to use of a dispenser comprising a
reservoir for a cream or gel antiperspirant product and a single outlet which has a cross-sectional
area of from 0.2 to 20 mm2, the dispenser being adapted to dispense a cream
or gel antiperspirant product in an unbroken stream, for allowing several people to test a
cream or gel antiperspirant product, wherein each of two or more people dispenses, or
has dispensed, a portion of the product contained in the dispenser onto their own skin.
In a third aspect, the invention relates to a dispenser containing a cream or gel
antiperspirant product, characterised in that the dispenser has a single dispensing outlet
having a cross-sectional area of from 0.2 to 20 mm2 and is adapted to deliver multiple
unit doses of the product of from 0.5 to 2g.
Detailed Description of the Invention
The present methods and uses provide convenient means for allowing several potential
customers to try antiperspirant creams and gels without hygiene concerns and without
the use of excessive numbers of single-use, disposable packages.
All percentages and ratios used herein are by weight of the total composition and all
measurements made are at 25°C, unless otherwise specified.
The present methods and uses relate to the dispensing of antiperspirant creams and gels.
By 'creams and gels' are meant products which do not flow rapidly like water when
applied to an open surface but instead form an essentially static mass which can
nevertheless be made to flow by the application of a light shear force, such as by
rubbing the product onto the skin.
Dispensers herein are adapted to dispense a cream or gel antiperspirant product in an
unbroken stream, by which is meant that the dispenser comprise means to deliver
product from a reservoir containing the product, via an outlet channel to a restricted
outlet having a cross-sectional area of from 0.2 to 20 mm2, preferably from 0.5 to 10
mm2, more preferably from 1 to 5 mm2 from which an aliquot of the product can be
continuously delivered onto the skin or another surface until a desired amount has been
dispensed, and that the product then separates from the dispenser or can readily be
separated from it by movement of the dispenser relative to the surface onto which the
product is dispensed. Preferably, internal cross-sectional dimensions of the outlet
channel are at least as large as that of the outlet. With dimensions as described, a
suitable quantity of product can be dispensed without unduly disturbing the product
rheology by excessive shear, such as might result from spraying.
Many different dispenser types can meet, or be adapted to meet by those of skill in the
art, this need, including, but not limited to pump dispensers, syringe pumps and
squeezable tubes. Preferred are dispensers adapted to deliver multiple unit doses of the
product of from 1 to 500 mg, preferably from 5 to 100 mg, more preferably from 15 to
50 mg. A dose of about 30 mg is particularly suitable for rubbing into the back of the
hand. Particularly preferred in this respect are pump dispensers, which are capable of
giving consistent repeat dosing and are easy to operate. A suitable pump dispenser is
described in US-A-5,803,318 assigned to Valois S.A., though the outlet of that
dispenser, which is described as and shown set up to produce a spray, requires some
modification to the outlet channel to produce an unbroken stream. Such modification is
within the means of one of ordinary skill in the art.
In order to provide a balance between a sufficient number of uses from a single
dispenser, and thus minimise pack wastage and in-store refuse, and having an easily
handled dispenser, preferred dispensers have a reservoir volume of from 10 to 150ml,
preferably from 15 to 100 ml, and more preferably from 20 to 100 ml. At the preferred
levels of product usage, a single dispenser can provide several hundred doses of product
In preferred embodiments herein, the product is a cream or gel having a rheology
characteristic selected from: a static yield stress value of at least 50 Pa, preferably at
least 200 Pa at 37°C; and a viscosity of at least 1 Pa.s, preferably at least 5 Pa.s, more
preferably at least 15 Pa.s at 25°C. It is preferred that both static yield stress and
viscosity are within the ranges cited. Preferably, the delta stress value of the
antiperspirant products is from 10 Pa to 1,000 Pa, more preferably from 100 Pa to 500
Pa at 37°C. The maximum static yield stress values for the products are preferably less
than 12,000 Pa, more preferably less than 7,000 Pa at 37°C.
Methodology: delta stress and static yield stress
Viscosity is measured on a Brookfield DV-I+ cone and plate viscometer using spindle
S52 at 1 rpm. The delta stress and static yield stress can be measured as set out below.
Delta stress and static stress yield values for the antiperspirant products are determined
using a Rheometrics Dynamic Stress rheometer with data collection and analysis
performed using Rhios software 4.2. The rheometer is configured in a parallel plate
design using a 25 mm upper plate (part no. LS-PELT-IP25). The rheometer, plate and
software are all available from Rheometrics Inc., Piscatawany, New Jersey, USA.
Temperature control is set at 37°C. Analysis of the antiperspirant product is performed
in the "Stress Sweep: steady sweep" default test mode. Rheometer settings are initial
stress 0.1 Pa (1.0 dyne/cm2), final stress 6393 Pa (63,930 dyne/cm2), stress increment
10 Pa (100 dyne/cm2), and maximum time per data point (5 seconds).
The term "static yield stress" as used herein refers to the minimum amount of stress that
must be applied to the antiperspirant product to move the upper plate of the Rheometrics
Dynamic Stress Rheometer a distance of about 4.2 micro radians, in accordance with the
analysis methods described herein. In other words, static yield stress represents the
point in a stress sweep analysis (described herein) of a product at which point the
rheometer is first capable of measuring product viscosity.
The term "delta stress" as used herein is determined by subtracting the static yield stress
from the dynamic yield stress of a composition. The dynamic yield stress is the point at
which the measured viscosity begins to rapidly decline. This can be easily determined
by finding the last stress value where the increment between stress values is 10 Pa (100
dynes/cm2). In other words, the delta stress of the composition represents the
incremental amount of stress that must be applied to the composition, beyond the static
yield stress of the composition, to substantially liquefy the composition.
The antiperspirant cream composition is evaluated for rheology characteristics after the
composition has been packaged in the applicator device of the present invention. A
section of the composition is carefully removed from the applicator so that the product
is subjected to minimal shear, and especially so that it is not permitted to curl or
otherwise reconfigure to a shape other than that of the section as it was removed from
the composition. The section is carefully placed flat on the lower plate of the rheometer
taking care to minimise the application of shear stress on the section during the
placement. The area of the placed section is at least about the size of the upper plate to
assure proper contact between the two plates during testing. The upper plate is then
lowered toward the bottom plate, and positioned about 2 mm above the lower plate, and
therefore about 1 mm from the product section which is positioned flat on the lower
plate. The upper plate is further lowered at a minimal rate toward the lower plate, and
positioned about 1.000 (±0.002) mm above the lower plate, at which point the product is
gently positioned between and contacting each of the lower and upper plates. Excess
product extending away from and around the parallel positioned plates is gently
removed using a spatula, and taking care to subject the product positioned between
plates to minimal or no further shear from the spatula. The solvent guard pad on the
rheometer is saturated with the type of liquid carrier corresponding to that in the test
product. The solvent guard is lowered over the parallel plates to prevent solvent loss
from the test product that is positioned between the plates during analysis. The product
is now ready for determination of dynamic stress, static yield stress, and delta stress.
The chemical characteristics of the products herein are not critical provided that they are
safe and effective for antiperspirant use, and are compatible with the dispenser.
Preferred products are anhydrous antiperspirant creams comprising from 40 to 70%
volatile silicone, such as cyclomethicone, from 10 to 30% antiperspirant active,
preferably an aluminium salt, more preferably an aluminium zirconium salt, and from 1
to 10%, more preferably from 3 to 8% gellant. More preferred products further include
an emollient, especially a non-volatile silicone emollient. Suitable gelling agents for
use herein include fatty alcohols, esters of fatty alcohols, fatty acids, hydroxy fatty
acids, esters and amides of fatty acids or hydroxy fatty acids, ethers of fatty acids,
ethoxylated fatty alcohols, ethoxylated fatty acids, waxes, cholesterolic materials,
dibenzylidene alditols, lanolinolic materials, other amide and polyamide gellants, and
corresponding salts thereof. All such gellants preferably have a fatty alkyl moiety
having from about 14 to about 60 carbon atoms, more preferably from about 20 to about
40 carbon atoms, and which may be saturated or unsaturated, branched or linear or
Exemplary products for use herein are described in WO97/17942, incorporated herein
by reference in its entirety, which describes in more detail preferred product rheologies
for use herein.
In use, each person wishing to test the product is instructed or allowed to dispense, or
have dispensed (e.g. by an assistant in a store), a portion of the product contained in the
dispenser onto their own skin. The person can then rub the product onto their skin
without further contact with the dispenser or the product it contains.
In this way the dispenser can be made available to five or more people, preferably to
twenty or more people, more preferably to fifty or more people, each of whom tests the
product. By use of dispensers of this type, no product is transferred from one person's
skin to the next.
A 30 ml pump dispenser, manufactured by Valois S.A. of Le Neubourg France with a
single outlet having a rectangular cross-section of about 2 mm by 1mm in cross-section
is filled with an antiperspirant cream. The cream contains 0.75% fragrance, 5%
dimethicone, 6.3% triglyceride gellants, 25% aluminium zirconium trichlorohydrex gly
(commonly known as IZAG), the balance being cyclopentasiloxane. It has a viscosity
of about 100 Pa.s in pack and about 40 Pa.s when dispensed. The dispenser is finger-actuated
and a single depression of the pump delivers a dose of about 30 mg in an
unbroken stream which separates cleanly from the outlet. The dispenser is provided to a
retail store for the purpose of demonstrating the product to customers. In the store,
people expressing an interest in the product are invited to dispense an aliquot of the
product onto the back of their hand and rub it in.