EP0111082A1 - Aluminium alloy for casting - Google Patents

Aluminium alloy for casting Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0111082A1
EP0111082A1 EP19830109709 EP83109709A EP0111082A1 EP 0111082 A1 EP0111082 A1 EP 0111082A1 EP 19830109709 EP19830109709 EP 19830109709 EP 83109709 A EP83109709 A EP 83109709A EP 0111082 A1 EP0111082 A1 EP 0111082A1
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Prior art keywords
metal
casting
vessel
article
alloy
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German (de)
French (fr)
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John Campbell
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Cosworth Research and Development Ltd
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Cosworth Research and Development Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/02Alloys based on aluminium with silicon as the next major constituent

Abstract

An aluminium alloy for casting to produce shaped castings comprising:-

Description

  • This invention relates to aluminium alloys for casting to produce shaped castings such as sand castings or die castings.
  • SU-A-451,773 refers to a "known" casting alloy containing:-7.5-9.5% Si; 3.5-5.5% Cu; 0.5-1.5% Zn; 0.2-0.8% Mg; 0.05-0.5% Cg; 0.05-0.3 Zr; Up to 1.5 Fe; the remainder Al.
  • The specification also discloses an alloy range stated to be "according to the invention" as follows:-7.5-11.0% Si; 2.0-6.0% Cu; 0.1-0.5% Mg; 0.1-0.5% Mn; 0.1-0.5% Cd; 0.05-0.4% Zr; 0.1-0.9% Fe; the remainder AI
  • Both these alloy ranges rely on the presence of cadmium and zirconium at above impurity levels. Cadmium is known to have significant effects on the heat treatment response of many aluminium alloys but its effects are complex and not easily understood and controlled, moreover it creates problems in the field of health and safety. Zirconium in the ranges disclosed aids high temperature properties. It also acts as a grain refiner but, as an unfortunate side effect, reduces fluidity.
  • The extension of the silicon range to I I% from the upper limit of 9.5%, disclosed in the "known" alloy, raises special problems for foundrymen since the enlarged range covers hypoeutectic and eutectic types which have different founding characteristics.
  • An object of the invention is to provide a new and improved aluminium alloy for casting to produce shaped castings which is of high performance and which is economical to produce.
  • According to one aspect of the invention, we provide an aluminium alloy for casting to produce shaped castings comprising:-
    Figure imgb0001
    Figure imgb0002
  • In a preferred composition, the silicon, copper and magnesium contents may be as follows:-
    Figure imgb0003
  • According to another aspect of the -invention, we provide an article comprising a shaped casting made by casting in an alloy according to the first aspect of the invention.
  • By a shaped casting we mean a casting of more complex shape than that produced by ingot casting or continuous casting, as is produced by die costing, (such as gravity die casting, or low pressure die casting or high pressure die casting, which are generally made by casting into heated metal dies) or sand casting.
  • The article may be heat treated, for example, by being aged, for example, for one hour to eight hours at 190°-210°C or by being solution heat treated, quenched and aged for example for one hour to twelve hours at 490°C-510°C, water or polymer quenched, and aged for one hour to eight hours at 190°C-210°C.
  • The article may have the following mechanical properties:-
    Figure imgb0004
    where
  • line I is "as cast"; line 2 "as aged", line 3 as solution heat treated, quenched and aged.
  • The article may be made by low pressure casting.
  • By low pressure casting, we mean the well known process whereby liquid metal is displaced upwardly, against gravity, into a metal die, or occasionally into a sand mould. The pressures are only those required to raise liquid metal to a height of the mould, plus a little extra over-pressure. This is normally in the range of 0.1 - 0.4 atmospheres (contrasted with high pressure die casting in the range 500 - 1500 atmospheres).
  • The article may be sand cast and may be sand cast in a zircon sand mould or a silica sand mould and the sand may be resin bonded.
  • The article may be cast by a method which minimises turbulence in the melt during transfer of metal into the mould.
  • The method may include the steps of melting metal in a melting vessel, transferring metal from the melting vessel into a casting vessel by flow of metal under gravity and pumping metal against gravity from the casting vessel into a mould, wherein the level of the top surface of the metal as the metal leaves the melting vessel is above the top surface of the metal in the casting vessel but by not more than a maximum distance above which excessive turbulence occurs.
  • As a result, the metal flows gently from the melting vessel to the casting vessel without high metal velocities and hence without excessive turbulence.
  • By excessive turbulence we mean turbulence which leads to entrainment of a significant amount of oxide in the metal. The amount of oxide entrained increases with increase in said distance. Above 200mm, the amount of oxide is significant in that it leads to a significant, i.e. an unacceptable deterioration in the properties of castings made from the metal. At 200mm or below, whilst oxide may be entrained the amount is such that any deterioration in properties of castings made from the metal is tolerable. At 100mm and below, there is still less deterioration in the properties of the resulting castings and at 50mm and below there are no deleterious effects whatsoever on the castings in practical terms.
  • The method may include the steps of directing metal from the melting vessel into a launder and from the launder into the casting vessel and of maintaining the level of metal in the launder at a level which is below the level of the top surface of the metal as it leaves the melting vessel and is at or above the level of the top surface of the metal in the casting vessel.
  • The apparatus may include a launder having an entry end located so that metal leaving the melting vessel may enter the launder thereat and an exit end whereby the metal may flow from the launder to the casting vessel, means being provided to maintain the level of the top surface of the metal in the launder at a level which is below the level of the top surface of the metal as it leaves the melting vessel and is at or above the level of the top surface of the metal in the casting vessel.
  • The launder and casting vessel may be disposed so that the bottom of the launder is at or below the lowest level which the top surface of the metal reaches during normal operation. In this case, the launder will always contain metal and hence said level of metal in the launder will be maintained always during normal operation of the method.
  • Alternatively the bottom surface of the launder may be above the lowest level which the top surface of the metal in the casting vessel may reach during normal operation. In this case, the launder may empty of metal unless metal is fed from the casting vessel continuously.
  • The bottom surface of the launder may be horizontal or may be inclined so as to fall in the direction towards the casting vessel.
  • The launder may have a bottom surface which is curved in longitudinal section to provide an entry portion which is more inclined to the horizontal than is an exit portion. As a result, metal leaving the melting vessel engages a part of the launder which is more nearly inclined to the direction of metal fall than other parts of the launder whilst the exit portion of the launder extends horizontally or substantially horizontally. This shape of the launder facilitates non-turbulent flow of the metal.
  • The metal may be transferred from the casting vessel into the mould by an electromagnetic type of pump or a pneumatic type of pump and preferably a pump as described in the description and drawings of GB-A-2,101,132.
  • A pump of either of the above types has no moving parts and thus avoids any problem of turbulence during the transfer of metal from the casting vessel to the mould.
  • The means to maintain the metal at said levels may include a holding furnace connected in communication with the casting vessel.
  • Conveniently, the holding furnace comprises the costing vessel.
  • The larger the surface area of the liquid metal in the holding furnace, the larger the size and/or number of castings which can be produced before the casting vessel requires to be topped up from the melting furnace to prevent the distance between said levels increasing to above maximum distance. Moreover, topping up of the casting vessel can occur without interruption to the casting cycle so that production can continue without variation in the rate of production.
  • Filter means may be incorporated in the metal flow path from the melting furnace to the casting vessel.
  • Where the apparatus includes a launder, the filter means is preferably - positioned in the launder or between the launder and the casting vessel.
  • By providing a filter means any undesirable impurities in the metal may be removed from the metal before the metal enters the casting vessel.
  • Thus treatment such as degassing, fluxing, grain refining, alloying, and the like can all take place in the melting vessel since any undesirable impurities resulting from such treatments are removed by the filter means so that the volume of metal from which the castings are drawn is exceptionally clean. In addition, the casting vessel which contains this clean metal also remains clean; consequently reducing maintenance problems which are common with known installations.
  • The melting vessel may be a lip action tilting type furnace arranged so that the lip is at a distance above the liquid metal in the launder, or in the casting vessel when no launder is provided, so that the maximum fall is less than said maximum distance. Such a height difference under conditions of controlled and careful 'pouring is not seriously detrimental to metal quality and any minor oxide contaminations which are caused may be removed for practical purposes by the above referred to filter means.
  • Alternatively, the melting furnace may be of the dry sloping hearth type heated by a radiant roof. In this case metal ingots or scrap placed upon the hearth melt and the liquid metal flows into the launder or into the casting vessel, the position at which the metal leaves the furnace being less than said maximum distance above the level of metal in the launder or casting vessel but preferably the furnace includes a portion which extends to said metal level so that the metal does not suffer any free fall through air.
  • If desired, more than one melting vessel may be provided to feed metal to the casting vessel either by each melting vessel feeding into a single launder or by feeding into separate launders or by feeding into a composite launder having a number of entry channels feeding to a common exit channel or,by the melting vessels feeding directly, except for a filter means when provided, into the casting vessel.
  • It is desirable that all the heating means of the apparatus be powered by electricity since the use of direct heating by the burning of fossil fuels creates water vapour, which in turn can react with the melt to create both oxides on the surface and hydrogen gas in solution in the metal. Such a combination is troublesome by producing porous castings. Such electrical heating means includes the heating means of the melting and holding furnaces, and all the auxiliary heaters such as those which may be required for launders, filter box units, and associated with the pump.
  • It is also desirable that the melting vessels are of such a type as to reduce turbulence to a minimum. Resistance heated elements arranged around a crucible fulful this requirement well. It is possible that induction heating, possibly using a conductive crucible, with sufficiently high frequency might also be suitable.
  • The control of turbulence at all stages in the life of the liquid metal from melting, through substantially horizontal transfer and holding, to final gentle displacement into the mould is found to reduce the nuclei for porosity (whether shrinkage or gas) to such an extent that the metal becomes effectively tolerant of poor feeding. Isolated bosses are produced sound without special extra feeding or chilling requirements.
  • The invention achieves the objectives stated above in the following way.
  • An examination of the costs of the production of secondary aluminium alloys reveals thqt each element exhibits a minimum cost at that level at which it normally occurs in scrap melts. The cost rises at levels above (since more has to be added, on average) and below (since the alloy has to be diluted with 'purer' scrap or with expensive 'virgin' or 'primary'aluminium metal or alloy). The approximate minima for lowest cost are:-
  • Figure imgb0005
    Figure imgb0006
  • It will be seen that the levels of the constituents of an alloy according to the invention are substantially at the above indicated minimum cost level thereby achieving the objective of being economical to produce. The only major exception is silicon which is at higher percentages for reasons explained below. However, because its cost is so similar to that of secondary (re-cycled) aluminium, the cost of the alloy is not sensitive to this increase.
  • The principal alloying elements in an alloy embodying the invention are silicon which mainly confers castability with some strength, and copper and magnesium which can strengthen by precipitation hardening type of heat treatments.
  • To obtain the desired ageing response on ageing, copper must be in excess of approximately 2.5%. An undesirable extension of the freezing range occurs with copper contents above 3.5 to 4.0% which detracts from castability and the incidence of shrinkage defects, porosity and hot tearing increases.
  • A useful gain in strength is derived from controlling magnesium levels optimally in the range 0.3 - 0.5%. Below this range strength falls progressively with further decrease in magnesium. Above this range the rate of gain of strength starts to fall significantly and at the same ductility continues to decrease rapidly, increasing the brittleness of the alloy.
  • Iron may be present in an amount between 0.8% and 0.25%. Above 0.8% the alloy becomes too brittle whilst to reduce the iron content below 0.25% would require dilution of the recycled metal with expensive virgin metal to a commercially unacceptable level.
  • Titanium is normally added to increase mechanical properties in aluminium alloys but we have found unexpectedly that titanium is deleterious above 0.08%.
  • The other alloying constituents are not detrimental in any significant way to the properties of the alloy within the range specified, the present invention thus achieves the objective of high performance.
  • A further objective is that the alloy should have good castability.
  • For good castability it is desirable that the alloy is of eutectic composition which provides a zero or narrow freezing range. Thus silicon must be in the region of 10 - 11.5%. The reasons for this include:-
    • (a) lower costing temperatures, reducing hydrogen pick-up, oxidation and metal losses, and raising productivity by increasing freezing rate of the casting in the mould;
    • (b) increased fluidity, enabling thinner sections to be cast over larger areas, without recourse to very high casting temperatures;
    • (c) because of the 'skin-freezing' characteristics of solidification of eutectic alloys (as contrasted with pasty freezing of long freezing range alloys), any porosity is not usually linked to the surface and so castings are leak-tight and pressure-tight. This is vital for many automobile and hydraulic components. The concentrated porosity which might be present in the centre of an unfed or poorly fed section can be viewed as usually relatively harmless, or can in any case be relatively easily removed by the foundryman. The castings in such alloys tend therefore to be relatively free from major deleterious defects.
  • In an alloy according to the present invention, a copper content lying in the range 2.5 to 4% and a silicon content of 10 to 11.5% provides a eutectic or substantially eutectic composition.
  • As a result the casting temperatures are low, and fluidity excellent, giving easy gating and feeding conditions which result in the trauma-free production of high quality castings.
  • At lower silicon levels, hypoeutectic alloys occur which have a characteristic long freezing range during solidification, and the foundryman adjusts his feeding conditions and chilling requirements accordingly. Furthermore, the alloy may have sufficient ductility and strength for him to make no sodium or strontium modifying additions (phosphorus would be harmful to the fineness of the silicon dispersion in these alloys, and works against the effects of sodium).
  • At higher silicon levels hypereutectic alloys occur and primary silicon particles appear which adversely affect machinability. As a result, the addition of phosphorus or sulphur becomes essential to control the primary silicon particle size, and segregation of silicon primaries starts to become a problem, so that feeding and gating requirements have to be different again. The high casting temperatures of the high silicon alloys poses problems to solve the heat concentration and silicon segregation around gates and heavy sections.
  • Thus the objective of good castability is achieved.
  • Cadmium and zirconium are absent as alloying constituents, thus the problems created in the field of health and safety by cadmium and the reduced fluidity caused by zirconium are avoided.
  • The invention will now be described in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:-
    • FIGURE I is a diagrammatic cross-sectional view through an aluminium/aluminium alloy melting and casting apparatus embodying the invention;
    • FIGURES 2 to 6 are simplified diagrammatic cross-sectional views through modifications of the apparatus shown in Figure I and in which the same reference numerals are used as are used in Figure I but with the subscript a to e respectively.
  • An alloy embodying the invention having the following composition was made and tested:-
  • Figure imgb0007
  • This alloy was found to have excellent castability and it was found possible to make castings containing 3mm thin webs and heavy unfed sections, all with near perfect soundness (less than 0.01 volume percent porosity) in cylinder head castings, cast at temperatures as low as 630°C. At these temperatures, power for melting is minimised and oxidation of the melt surface is so slight as to cause little or no problems during production.
  • The tolerance of the alloy towards large amounts of Zn, and comparatively high levels of Pb and Sn is noteworthy. Tolerance towards Fe at the relatively high level of 0.8%, without excessive embrittlement, is again a surprising capability of the alloy and materially contributes towards its economy, since alloys low in Fe, particularly wrought alloys, are costly as. a result.
  • The machinability of the alloy when sand cast by the process described hereinafter is found to be very satisfactory. Surface finish levels of 0.3um are obtained in one pass with diamond tools. It qualifies for a Class B rating on the ALAR/LMFA Machinability Classification 1982. No edge degradation by cracking or crumbling was observed: edges were preserved sharp and deformed in a ductile manner when subjected to abuse.
  • A modified shaped DTD sand cast test bar of the above described alloy was made, by the process described hereinafter, and when tested was found to have the properties listed in Table under the heading "Cosalloy 2" where Line I gives the properties when the test bar was "as cast", Line 2 when aged only at 205°C for two hours and Line 3 when solution treated for one hour at 510°C, quenched and aged for 8 hours at 205°C.
  • This casting has been modified compared with a standard DTD casting bar to suit the low pressure sand casting technique; thus uphill gates are attached and the gouge length and shoulders of the test piece are shaped, only requiring minimal machining.
  • Also shown in Table I are the mechanical properties of DTD sand cast test bars of a number of known Si, Cu, Mg type alloys namely those known as LM13, LM27, LM21 and LM4 in British Standard BS1490.
  • Table I also shows the mechanical properties of DTD chill test cast bars of a number of other known Si Cu Mg type alloys, i.e. LM2, LM24 and LM26 which are available only as either pressure die casting or gravity die casting alloys.
    Figure imgb0008
  • It will be seen that only the chill cast test bars approach the results achieved by the alloy embodying the invention which, it is to be emphasised, was cast in sand. The test results stated in Table I with the alloy embodying the invention were achieved without recourse to modification, that is treatment with small additions of alkali or alkaline-earth elements, such as sodium or strontium, to refine the silicon particle size in the casting. This treatment usually confers appreciable extra strength and toughness, although is difficult to control on a consistent basis. The properties of the known gravity die cast and sand casting alloys given in Table have been achieved by this troublesome and unreliable method. The properties of the alloy embodying the invention were achieved without such recourse, and so having the advantages of being more reliable, easier and cheaper.
  • It is believed that even better properties may be achieved with an alloy embodying the invention if modified.
  • Table 2 shows results of further tests as follows:
    • Group I:-
      • Modified DTD test bars produced by casting uphill into zircon sand moulds.
      • Line I a(i) Cosalloy 2 - as cast.
      • Line 1a(ii) Cosalloy 2 - aged.
      • Line I b(i) LM25 - as cast.
      • Line 1b(ii) LM25 - solution treated and aged.
    • Group 2:-
      • Modified DTD test bars produced by gravity die casting by hand into zircon sand moulds.
      • Line 2a(i) Cosalloy 2 - as cast.
      • Line 2a(ii) Cosalloy - aged.
      • Line 2b(i) LM25 - as cast.
      • Line 2b(ii) LM25 - solution treated and aged.
    • Group 3:-
      • Modified DTD test bars produced by gravity die casting by hand into silica sand moulds.
      • Line 3a(i) Cosalloy 2 - as cast.
      • Line 3a(ii) Cosalloy 2 - aged.
      • Line 3b(i) LM25 - as cast
      • Line 3b(ii) LM25 - solution treated and aged.
  • In all groups, Cosalloy 2 was aged for four hours at 200°C and LM25 was solution treated for twelve hours at 530°C, polymer quenched and aged for two hours at 190°C.
  • The results given in Table 2 are the average of a number of individual tests. When the tests which led to the results given in Group I were made, a standard mean deviation of less than 3% or 4% was observed.
  • The tests of Groups 2 and 3 were intended to simulate conventional sand casting techniques and a standard mean deviation of up to 10% was observed. The figures given in Groups 2 and 3, because of the very great variability, are the average of tests which were performed with extreme care being taken during casting, and thus are indicative of the best results attainable by casting by hand.
    Figure imgb0009
  • These figures demonstrate:
    • (a) the considerably better properties achieved by an alloy embodying the invention compared with a comparable known alloy as will be seen by comparing the figures in Lines 1a(i)(ii); 2a(i)(ii); 3a(i)(ii) with the remaining figures;
    • (b) the considerably better properties achieved by the method described hereinafter compared with conventional methods as will be seen by comparing the figures in Group I with those in Groups 2 and 3;
    • (c) the pre-eminence of the properties achieved using both on alloy embodying the invention and the method/apparatus described hereinafter as will be seen by comparing the figures in Lines la(i)(ii) with the remaining figures.
  • The test bars of the alloy embodying the invention and the test bars of LM25 referred to as made by "casting uphill" were cast using the following method and apparatus which will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
  • Referring to Figure I, the apparatus comprises a melting vessel 10 comprising a conventional lip action tilting type furnace. The furnace is mounted for tilting movement about a horizontal axis 11 coincident with a pouring lip 12 of the furnace. Metal M is melted and maintained molten within a refractory lining 13 within an outer steel casing 14. The furnace is heated electrically by means of an insulation coil 15 and has an insulated lid 16.
  • A ceramic launder 17, provided with a lid i8 having electric radiant heating elements 19 therein, extends from the lip 12 to a casting vessel 20. The casting vessel 20 comprises a holding furnace having a lid 21 with further electric radiant heating elements 22 therein and has a relatively large capacity, in the present example I ton. The casting vessel is of generally rectangular configuration in plan view but has a sloping hearth 23 (to increase the area for a given value extending towards the launder 17.
  • Interposed between the launder 17 and the filling spout 23 is a filter box 24 provided with a lid 25 having electric radiant heater elements 26. A weir 27 extends between side walls of the filter box 24 and has a bottom end 28 spaced above the bottom 29 of the filter box. A replaceable filter element 30 is positioned between the weir 27 and the downstream end wall 31 of the filter box and is made of a suitable porous refractory material.
  • A pump 32 is positioned in relation to the casting vessel 20 so that an inlet 33 of the pump will be immersed in molten metal within the casting vessel and has a riser tube 34 which extends to a casting station so as to permit of uphill filling of a mould 35 thereat.
  • When the apparatus is in use, as metal is pumped by the pump 32 to make casting, the level L2 of the top surface of the metal in the casting vessel 20 falls from a maximum height L2 max. to a minimum height L2 min. Metal M melted in the melting furnace 10 is poured therefrom into the launder 17 and hence via the filter 30 into the casting vessel 20 so as to maintain the level L2 of the top surface of the metal in the casting vessel between the above described limits L2 max. and L2 min. The level L of the top surface of the molten metal in the launder 17 is maintained at the same height as the level L2 as is the level L3, in the filter box. The axis 11 about which the melting furnace vessel is tilted is positioned so that, in the present example, the top surface of the metal as it leaves the melting vessel is 100mm above the minimum height to which it is intended that the levels L 1 min. - L3 min., should fall in use, so that even when the levels L1- L3 fall to the minimum predetermined value, the distance through which the metal falls freely is limited to 100mm.
  • Whilst a height of 100mm is the distance in the above example, if desired, the distance may be such that during pouring the level of the top surface of the metal leaving the furnace is at a maximum distance of 200mm above the levels L 1 min. - L3 min. but with some deterioration in casting quality whilst still presenting improved quality compared with known methods in general use.
  • By providing the casting vessel with a relatively large surface area, the levels L1 - L3 can be maintained within t 50mm of a predetermined mean height approximately 50mm below the axis 11 since filling of a predetermined number of moulds, such as the mould 35, by the pump 32, does not cause the levels L1 - L3 to fall outside the above mentioned range. In the present example, where the casting vessel has a capacity of I ton 20 moulds each of 10 kilos capacity can be filled with a fall in level so that said distance increases from a minimum at 50mm above the mean height to said maximum distance at 50mm below said mean height before it is necessary to top up the casting vessel from the melting vessel 10. In the present example, approximately 1.5 hours of casting of an automobile engine cylinder head can be performed before top up is necessary. Topping up of the casting vessel from the melting vessel 10 can be performed without interruption of the casting operation.
  • The above described example is a process which is capable of high and continuous productive capacity in which turbulence and its effects are substantially eliminated and from which high quality castings are consistently produced. This is because the only free fall of metal through the atmosphere occurs over the relatively small distance from the lip 12 of the melting vessel into the launder 17 and in the present example, the maximum distance through which the metal can fall is 100mm, although as mentioned above in other examples the maximum distance may be up to 200mm which is a relatively small distance in which relatively little oxide is created and such oxide that is created is filtered out by the filter element 30.
  • As mentioned above, the element 30 is removable and in the present example is replaced approximately at every 100 tons of castings, but of course the filter element may be replaced more of less frequently as necessary.
  • In the present example the pump 22 is a pneumatic type pump as described and illustrated in the description and drawings of GB-A-2, 101, 132 to which reference is directed for a description of the pump.
  • If desired, the pump may be of the electromagnetic type or any other form of pump in which metal is fed against gravity into the mould without exposing the metal to turbulence in an oxidising atmosphere.
  • Although the melting vessel 10 has been described as being of the lip action tilting type furnace, other forms of furnace may be provided if desired, for example of the dry sloping hearth type heated by a radiant roof. In this case, metal ingots or scrap placed upon the hearth melt and the molten metal trickles down into the launder 17 and thus never suffer free fall through the atmosphere since the hearth extends to the minimum height L min. of the level L ( . If desired the hearth may terminate at a distance above said minimum height which is less than said maximum distance so that although some free fall through the atmosphere occurs, it is not sufficient to create excessive turbulence.
  • Irrespective of the nature of the melting vessel, if desired more than one melting vessel may be arranged to feed into the casting vessel either by feeding into individual launders or into a multi-armed launder. Further alternatively, the melting vessel or vessels may be arranged to discharge directly into the casting vessel the metal being directed through a replaceable filter element during its passage from the or each melting vessel to the casting vessel.
  • In the example described above and illustrated in Figure I, the launder has a bottom surface B which is below the lowest level L2 min. to which the top surface of the metal in the casting vessel will fall in use and thus the launder 17 is maintained full of metal at all times during normal operation of the method and apparatus.
  • However, if desired, and as illustrated diagrammatically in Figure 2, the launder 17G may have a bottom surface Ba which is above the lowest level L2 min. to which the top surface of the metal in the casting vessel 20a may fall. In this case, assuming that the metal is poured from the melting vessel 10a batchwise, then the launder will empty of metal after pouring of a batch of molten metal.
  • In a further example illustrated in Figure 3, the launder 17b has a bottom surface Bb which whilst being rectilinear in longitudinal cross-section is inclined to the horizontal. The launder 17b may be arranged so that the whole of the bottom surface Bb is above the lowest level L2 min. to which the top surface of the metal in the casting vessel 20b falls in use, or as shown in Figure 4 only part of the bottom surface Bc may be above this level L2 min.
  • In a still further alternative, the launder 17d may be of such configuration that the bottom surface Bd is curved in longitudinal cross-section to present an entry part which is more inclined to the horizontal and an exit part which lies nearly horizontal as shown in Figure 5 (or horizontal if desired). In this case, metal leaving the melting vessel first engages a part of the launder 17d which is more aligned with the direction of metal fall than other parts of the launder 17d, or is the case with the launders illustrated in the previous Figures, whilst the exit part of the launder lies substantially horizontal thus contributing to a relatively low metal velocity as metal leaves the launder-and enters the casting vessel. The exit part of the launder 17d may be above the minimum level L2 min. of the top surface of the metal in the casting vessel 20d as shown in Figure 5 or, as shown in Figure 6, below the level L2 min. in the costing vessel 20e.
  • In this specification compositions are expressed in % by weight.

Claims (14)

  1. I. An aluminium alloy for casting to produce shaped castings comprising:-
    Figure imgb0010
  2. 2. An alloy according to Claim I wherein the silicon, copper and magnesium contents are as follows:-
    Figure imgb0011
  3. 3. An article comprising a shaped casting made by casting in an alloy according to Claim I or Claim 2.
  4. 4. An article according to Claim 3 wherein the alloy has been aged.
  5. 5. An article according to Claim 3 wherein the alloy has been solution heat treated, quenched and aged.
  6. 6. An "as cast" article according to Claim 3 having the following mechanical properties:-
    Figure imgb0012
  7. 7. An "aged" article according to Claim 4 having the following mechanical properties:-
    Figure imgb0013
  8. 8. A "solution heat treated, quenched and aged" article according to Claim 5 having the following mechanical properties:-
    Figure imgb0014
  9. 9. An article according to any one of Claims 3 to 8 wherein the article is made by low pressure casting.
  10. 10. An article according to Claim 9 wherein the article is sand cast.
  11. II. An article according to Claim 10 wherein the article is sand cast in a zircon sand mould or a silica sand mould and the sand is resin bonded.
  12. 12. An article according to any one of Claims 3 to I when made by a method including the steps of melting metal in a melting vessel, transferring metal from the melting vessel into a casting vessel by flow of metal under gravity and pumping metal against gravity from the casting vessel into a mould, wherein the level of the top surface of the metal as the metal leaves the melting vessel is above the top surface of the metal in the casting vessel but by not more than a maximum distance above which excessive turbulence occurs.
  13. 13.. A method of making an article as claimed in any one of Claims 3 to 12 comprising the steps of casting an alloy according to Claim I or Claim 2 into a mould cavity defining the shape of the article.
  14. 14. A method according to Claim 13 wherein the method includes the steps of melting metal in a melting vessel, transferring metal from the melting vessel into a casting vessel by flow of metal under gravity and pumping metal against gravity from the casting vessel into a mould, wherein the level of the top surface of the metal as the metal leaves the melting vessel is above the top surface of the metal in the casting vessel but by not more than a maximum distance above which excessive turbulence occurs.
EP19830109709 1982-10-16 1983-09-28 Aluminium alloy for casting Withdrawn EP0111082A1 (en)

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DE102006057661A1 (en) * 2006-12-07 2008-06-12 Bayerische Motoren Werke Ag Procedure for die casting of thin walled non-ferrous e.g. aluminum component, by introducing melted material under pressure into die, remolding the component after solidification of material and then transferring into annealing furnace
EP2865774A1 (en) * 2013-10-23 2015-04-29 Befesa Aluminio, S.L. Aluminium casting alloy
CN109321789A (en) * 2018-12-26 2019-02-12 江苏奋杰有色金属制品有限公司 A kind of aluminium ingot and its production technology of dense internal organization
CN109536788A (en) * 2018-12-04 2019-03-29 合肥江淮铸造有限责任公司 Lightweight pack alloy cylinder body moulding process
CN110453115A (en) * 2019-09-04 2019-11-15 东莞理工学院 A kind of automotive speed changer die casting for shell aluminium alloy and its preparation process
CN110735072A (en) * 2019-11-06 2020-01-31 帅翼驰新材料集团有限公司 High-strength cast aluminum alloy without heat treatment strengthening and preparation method thereof

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JPH0621478U (en) * 1992-02-06 1994-03-22 力也 工藤 Mayonnaise stand
CN108118211A (en) * 2017-12-20 2018-06-05 浙江万丰摩轮有限公司 A kind of processing technology of Motorcycle Aluminum Alloy wheel hub
JP2019173078A (en) * 2018-03-28 2019-10-10 ダイハツ工業株式会社 Manufacturing method of aluminum alloy casting member
CN110317983A (en) * 2019-08-16 2019-10-11 吉林大学 The Compound Extrusion casting method of high-quality Al alloy automobile gear box casing

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SU451773A1 (en) * 1973-04-20 1974-11-30 Предприятие П/Я Р-6209 Aluminum based foundry alloy
GB1506425A (en) * 1974-04-20 1978-04-05 Hitachi Ltd Aluminium alloys having mechanical properties and workability and method of making same
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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102006057661A1 (en) * 2006-12-07 2008-06-12 Bayerische Motoren Werke Ag Procedure for die casting of thin walled non-ferrous e.g. aluminum component, by introducing melted material under pressure into die, remolding the component after solidification of material and then transferring into annealing furnace
DE102006057661B4 (en) * 2006-12-07 2019-07-11 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft Method for die casting of components
EP2865774A1 (en) * 2013-10-23 2015-04-29 Befesa Aluminio, S.L. Aluminium casting alloy
CN109536788A (en) * 2018-12-04 2019-03-29 合肥江淮铸造有限责任公司 Lightweight pack alloy cylinder body moulding process
CN109321789A (en) * 2018-12-26 2019-02-12 江苏奋杰有色金属制品有限公司 A kind of aluminium ingot and its production technology of dense internal organization
CN110453115A (en) * 2019-09-04 2019-11-15 东莞理工学院 A kind of automotive speed changer die casting for shell aluminium alloy and its preparation process
CN110453115B (en) * 2019-09-04 2021-11-19 东莞理工学院 Novel automobile transmission shell die-casting aluminum alloy and preparation process thereof
CN110735072A (en) * 2019-11-06 2020-01-31 帅翼驰新材料集团有限公司 High-strength cast aluminum alloy without heat treatment strengthening and preparation method thereof

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