EA030859B1 - Method and device for improving stabilization and manoeuvring ability of unmanned flying vehicles (ufv) using a gyroscopic effect - Google Patents

Method and device for improving stabilization and manoeuvring ability of unmanned flying vehicles (ufv) using a gyroscopic effect Download PDF

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Publication number
EA030859B1
EA030859B1 EA201600501A EA201600501A EA030859B1 EA 030859 B1 EA030859 B1 EA 030859B1 EA 201600501 A EA201600501 A EA 201600501A EA 201600501 A EA201600501 A EA 201600501A EA 030859 B1 EA030859 B1 EA 030859B1
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Eurasian Patent Office
Prior art keywords
gyroscope
rotation
rotor
screw
uav
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EA201600501A
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Russian (ru)
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EA201600501A1 (en
Inventor
Ариф Мир Джалал оглы ПАШАЕВ
Тогрул Иса оглы КАРИМЛИ
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Национальная Академия Авиации
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Priority to EA201600501A priority Critical patent/EA030859B1/en
Publication of EA201600501A1 publication Critical patent/EA201600501A1/en
Publication of EA030859B1 publication Critical patent/EA030859B1/en

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Abstract

The present invention (method and device) relates to control systems and is intended to increase the stability and maneuverability of the UAV and can be used to control and correct various dynamic objects, including small satellites. The aim of the invention is to reduce the sensitivity of the UAV to the influence of wind and turbulence without increasing the speed of flight, as well as increasing stability and maneuverability at the same time. To improve the specified parameters of the BLA, along with the compensation of gyroscopic and reaction of the screw moments, it is necessary to increase the kinetic moment with the help of a gyroscope. This is achieved by the fact that the gyroscope is installed relative to the center of gravity of the BLA opposite the screw (when the screw is in the rear, the gyroscope is installed in the front), the gyroscope rotor rotates against the screw rotation (the axis of rotation of the gyroscope rotor and the screw are on the same line); a device with a high kinetic moment becomes less sensitive to the effects of wind and turbulence, and flight stability increases; To change the flight path, the axis of rotation of the gyroscope rotor is rotated using electric motors (stabilization motors and torques) and gears located on the axes of rotation of the swivel frames so that the directions of the generated gyroscopic moments coincide with the direction of rotation of the UAV. The coincidence of the directions of gyroscopic moments with the moments of the elevator and the rudder contributes to increasing the maneuverability of the UAV. Stabilization and change of the angular position of the roll of the UAV around the longitudinal axis is carried out by increasing or decreasing the speed of rotation of the gyroscope rotor with an adjustable inertial moment.

Description

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION TO THE EURASIAN PATENT (45) Date of publication and issuance of the patent

2018.10.31 (21) Application Number

201600501 (22) Application Date

2016.02.25 (51) Int. Cl. BC64S17 / 06 (2006.01)

W64S19 / 00 (2006.01)

В64С19 / 02 (2006.01) (54) METHOD AND DEVICE FOR INCREASING STABILIZATION AND MANOVELITY OF UNILTERLY AIRCRAFT (UAV) WITH THE USE OF GYROSCOPIC EFFECT (43) 2017.08.31 (96) 2016/005))) ()) ()) ()) (95) 2016/005 ()) ()) (95) (31) 2016/005 (31) 2016/005 (93) 2016/005 (43) 2016/005 (43) 2016/005 (43) 2016/005 Applicant and Patent Owner:

NATIONAL AVIATION ACADEMY (AZ) (72) Inventor:

Pashaev Arif Mir Jalal oglu, Karimli Togrul Isa oglu (AZ) (56) US-B2-7051608

US-B2-6729580

RU-C1-2084826

SU-A1-355494 (74) Representative:

Niftaliev G.V. (AZ)

030859 Bl (57) The present invention (method and device) relates to control systems and is intended to increase the stability and maneuverability of the UAV and can be used to control and correct various dynamic objects, including small-sized satellites. The aim of the invention is to reduce the sensitivity of the UAV to the influence of wind and turbulence without increasing the speed of flight, as well as increasing stability and maneuverability at the same time. To improve the specified parameters of the BLA, along with the compensation of gyroscopic and reaction of the screw moments, it is necessary to increase the kinetic moment with the help of a gyroscope. This is achieved by the fact that the gyroscope is installed relative to the center of gravity of the BLA opposite the screw (when the screw is in the rear, the gyroscope is installed in the front), the gyroscope rotor rotates against the screw rotation (the axis of rotation of the gyroscope rotor and the screw are on the same line); a device with a high kinetic moment becomes less sensitive to the effects of wind and turbulence, and flight stability increases; To change the flight path, the axis of rotation of the gyroscope rotor is rotated using electric motors (stabilization motors and torques) and gears located on the axes of rotation of the swivel frames so that the directions of the generated gyroscopic moments coincide with the direction of rotation of the UAV. The coincidence of the directions of gyroscopic moments with the moments of the elevator and the rudder contributes to increasing the maneuverability of the UAV. Stabilization and change of the angular position of the roll of the UAV around the longitudinal axis is carried out by increasing or decreasing the speed of rotation of the gyroscope rotor with an adjustable inertial moment.

030859 B1

The proposed inventions (method and device) relate to control systems and are intended to increase the stability and maneuverability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and can be used to control and correct various dynamic objects, including small satellites.

All airplanes in space maneuver the control surfaces by creating aerodynamic moments. To ensure maximum control moment, the control surfaces are located as far as possible at the most distant distances from the center of mass of the aircraft. Control surfaces (keel, stabilizer, rudders and heights, ailerons, slats, spoilers) are angular stabilized aircraft (A) and aerodynamic moments are created. Aircraft of certain structures can maneuver along two axes with one control surface, such as, for example, elevons (a combination of elevator and ailerons), a rudder of the V-shaped tail (directional and elevator functions), a differential stabilizer [1]. When designing a UAV and aircraft, safety and speed of maneuvering, stability and control are considered to be the main objectives.

Depending on the technical task to increase the maneuverability of the UAV, the use of various designs based on aerodynamic methods is known [2].

In many UAV designs, consisting of a glider and a power plant (aircraft engine and propeller) with horizontal takeoff and landing (PRT), the screw engine that creates thrust is located behind the center of mass. (The signs inherent in the subject matter of the claimed invention are highlighted in bold type.) If the screw rotates clockwise, the left heeling moment of equal magnitude and opposite in direction acts on the UAV; if the screw rotates counterclockwise, then the UAV is equal in magnitude and opposite in the direction of the right heeling moment of the screw’s reaction. With a low speed BLAH and high rotations of the screw, the heeling moment of the screw's reaction reaches its maximum value. In addition, if the UAV's screw rotates clockwise and is set up in front of the center of mass, then the created gyroscopic moment deflects the BLAH downward when the right turn is right and the gyroscopic moment deflects the BLAh upward when the left turn turns. When the screw is located in the tail part, the gyroscopic moment deflects the BLA in the opposite direction.

If the screw rotates counterclockwise and is set to the front of the center of mass, the gyroscopic moment created by the right bend deflects the BLAH upwards, and when the left turn is the gyroscopic moment deflects the BLAH downwards. When the screw is located in the tail part, the gyroscopic moment deflects the BLA in the opposite direction. When pitching or diving gyroscopic moments create undesirable moments of yaws BLA left or right [1]. In the conditions of take-off or landing with side wind, the screw gyroscopic moments act on the GVP BLAH, deflecting flight paths up or down, as a result of which dangerous emergency operation can occur. The disadvantage of this method and device is that BLAH, flying in wind conditions at low speeds, at low and high altitudes (close to the practical static flight ceiling), are not provided with sufficient flight stability.

Known compact aircraft with self-stabilizing aerodynamic surfaces, consisting of the fuselage, aerodynamic surfaces with the possibility of rotation relative to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and tail unit, designed to implement the stabilization of a small aircraft in the plane of the trajectory and control when flying along a ballistic trajectory, based on the aerodynamic method of control [3]. (Signs inherent in the subject matter of the claimed invention are highlighted in bold type.) The disadvantage of the known method and device is the uselessness of its use in BLAH's with screw engines flying at low speeds with critical stability modes, as during flights performed at low speeds in turbulent conditions, the efficiency of aerodynamic surfaces, creating control moments, has small values. To prevent stalling caused by a change in the horizontal position of the UAV, it is necessary to increase the flight speed, but do not exceed the allowable speed to avoid excessive overload.

Also known gas-dynamic method of controlling UAVs, flying in the altitude range of 35-45km [4]. The systems of orientation of large spacecraft (SC) use a gas-dynamic method that includes a trajectory correction engine and a stabilization micromotor system, each of which consists of 4 SC stabilization engines in a roll channel and 4 stabilization engines in the pitch and yaw channels. (The signs inherent in the subject matter of the claimed invention are highlighted in bold type.) The short-term operation mode and the impossibility of using it on small-sized GVP BLAH are disadvantages of the known method; the redundancy of structural elements and weight and size indicators are also disadvantages of the known device.

Known power gyroscopic complexes (SGK), creating gyroscopic moments in the systems of stabilization and orientation of heavy and medium satellites. SGCs create control moments in the modes of stabilization and software rotation of the spacecraft relative to the reference coordinate system [5]. (The signs inherent in the subject matter of the claimed invention are highlighted in bold type.) The impossibility of using GVP on small-sized UAVs is a disadvantage of the known method; redundancy const

- 1 030859 ructive elements and weight and size parameters are disadvantages of the known device.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed object (method) is the method of using the gyroscopic moment to control the aircraft (vehicle) [6]. Creating gyroscopic moment, which is the basis of the method, is carried out using several gyroscopes. A gyroscopic moment occurs when a force begins to act on the axis of the gyroscope, which tends to set it in motion, i.e. creating torque relative to the center of suspension. Under the action of this torque, Coriolis forces arise, therefore the end of the gyroscope axis will deviate not in the direction of the force, but in the direction perpendicular to this force, and as a result the gyroscope will begin to rotate around the axis with a constant angular velocity. (The signs inherent in the subject matter of the claimed invention are highlighted in bold type.) Failure to take into account the direction of rotation of the screw on small-sized GVP UAVs and, as a result, failure to compensate for the reaction time and gyroscopic torque of the screw during the evolution of the UAV are a disadvantage of the known method.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed object (device) is the control device of the aircraft (vehicle) [6]. The device allows you to technically implement the method of using the gyroscopic moment to control the aircraft (vehicle) and includes a housing, a central axis with rods, gyroscopes with attachment systems to rods. The mounting system includes a frame, a system for mounting, tilting and rotating the frame, a gyroscope holder. The body and the central axis are fixed through an additional moment system. (Signs inherent in the subject matter of the claimed invention are highlighted in bold.) The presence of an additional second gyroscope to neutralize the occurring moments of inertia and reaction (reversal moment) when the gyroscope (rotor) is unwound or decelerated, relatively large weight and size parameters, excessive gyro launch and deceleration times from - due to the large moments of inertia of the gyroscopes are the disadvantages of the device.

The task of the invention is to reduce the sensitivity of the UAV to the influence of wind and turbulence without increasing the speed of flight, as well as increasing stability and maneuverability.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that the gyroscope is installed relative to the center of gravity of the BLA opposite the screw (when the screw is in the rear, the gyroscope is installed in the front), the rotation of the gyroscope rotor is directed against the rotation of the screw (the axis of rotation of the gyroscope rotor and the screw are on the same line); a device with a high kinetic moment becomes less sensitive to the effects of wind and turbulence, and flight stability increases; To change the flight path, the axis of rotation of the gyroscope rotor is rotated using electric motors (stabilization motors and torques) and gearboxes located on the axes of rotation of the swing frames in such a way that the directions of the generated gyroscopic moments coincide with the direction of rotation of the UAV. The coincidence of the directions of the gyroscopic moments with the moments of the elevators and directions promotes an increase in maneuverability and a decrease in the time of the transitional mode of piloting the BLAH. Stabilization and change of the angular position of the roll of the UAV around the longitudinal axis is carried out by increasing or decreasing the speed of rotation of the rotor (reaction time) of the gyroscope with an adjustable inertial moment.

The advantages of the method and device for increasing the stabilization and maneuverability of unmanned aerial vehicles are the gyroscopic effect:

1) an increase in the range of flight modes, limited by the low efficiency of aerodynamic control surfaces during UAV flights at low speeds in conditions of wind, turbulence and altitudes close to the practical ceiling;

2) increase the speed of maneuvering UAVs;

3) reducing sensitivity to wind and improving the stability of the trajectory of movement required for aerial photography, reducing the amplitude and time of the transitional mode of piloting a UAV, contributing to flight with economical fuel consumption.

A method for increasing the stabilization and maneuverability of unmanned aerial vehicles using the gyroscopic effect, which consists in using the gyroscopic moment, is shown in the diagram (Fig. 1). The scheme consists of gyroscope body 1, fuselage 2, gyroscope rotor 3, gyroscope inner frame 4, gyroscope outer frame 5, electric motors 6, gearboxes 7, rudder 8 and elevator 9, creating aerodynamic moments of ailerons 10. Additional aerodynamic moments are added created gyroscopic moments. The housing of the gyroscope 1 is rigidly connected at point A of the fuselage 2 in line with the axis of the screw. Opposite the screw in the movable (up or down) inner frame 4, the rotor of the gyroscope 3 is set to rotate at high speed. The inner frame is installed in the outer frame 5. This frame can be rotated to the left or right and installed in the gyroscope case. On the outer frame there is an electric motor 6 (engine of stabilization and torque) and gearbox 7, which rotates the axis of rotation of the inner frame. For example, if the gyro rotor rotates clockwise (against the direction of rotation of the screw), then when the internal frame is deflected by the electric motor and gearbox, the created gyroscopic moment deflects the BLAH to the right, and if the internal frame is deflected downward, it deflects

- 2 030859 the effectiveness of the rudder 8, especially at low flight speeds and in critical modes of stability. The electric motor 6 installed in the gyroscope case (engine of stabilization and torque), gearbox 7 and the turning axis of rotation of the outer frame provide stabilization and moment of control of the BLA pitch. For example, if the gyroscope rotor rotates clockwise (against the direction of rotation of the screw), then when the external frame is deflected by the electric motor and gearbox to the left, the created gyroscopic moment deflects the BLAH upwards, and when the external frame is deflected to the right, deflects the elevator 9, especially at low flight speeds and in critical stability modes. If the directions of rotation of the rotor and screw are opposite, and the moments of inertia of the rotor of the gyroscope and screw are equal and the positions of the ailerons are neutral, then the UAV does not roll. To stabilize the flight path of the UAV in roll and create a heeling moment due to an increase (clockwise) rotor speed of the gyroscope with an adjustable inertial moment the UAV rolls to the left, and due to a decrease in the rotor speed, the UAV rolls to the right. Thus, an improvement in the efficiency of the ailerons 10 is achieved, especially at low flight speeds and in critical stability modes.

FIG. Figure 2 shows the directions of the created control gyroscopic moments (if the screw is installed in the tail section and the gyroscope in the nose section) by changing the plane of rotation of the gyroscope rotor. When the gyro rotor deviates (Fig. 2a) to the right, the gyroscopic moment creates a dive moment of the UAV. When the gyroscope rotor deviates (Fig. 2b) to the left, the gyroscopic moment creates a coupling moment of the BLAH. When the rotor of the gyroscope (Fig. 2c) is deflected downward, the gyroscopic moment deflects the BLAH to the left. When the gyroscope rotor deviates (Fig. 2d), the gyroscopic moment upwards rejects the BLAH to the right. These control gyroscopic moments are added to the aerodynamic moments of the rudders of direction 8 and height 9 and contribute to an increase in the maneuvering speed of the BLAH.

FIG. 3 shows a device for improving the stabilization and maneuverability of unmanned aerial vehicles using a gyroscopic effect on the basis of a gyroscope with an adjustable inertial moment of the rotor.

The device consists of an axis 11, an internal disk 12, guide tubes 13, springs 14, heavy balls 15, adjustment screws 16 and an external disk 17. Mounted on an axis, the rotor consists of an internal disk 12, guide tubes 13 inside which are springs 14 contributing increasing the rotor dynamism, moving depending on the controlled speed of the axis, the moving balls 15 and the adjusting screws 16 intended for balancing the rotor. The guide tubes along the radius are fixed on the outer disk 17. The rotor axis is rotated out with the help engine with adjustable speed (not shown in the diagram). Adjusting screws can also adjust the moment of inertia of the rotor. When starting the rotor of the gyroscope with an adjustable inertial moment due to the location of heavy balls of mass m near the radius Ri, the minimum value of the moment of inertia J (J = mR 1 2 ) increases the acceleration of the rotor, i.e. decreases the start time of the gyro rotor. As the gyroscope rotor increases under the action of centrifugal forces, heavy balls made from tantalum or from heavy alloys of steel, overcoming the elastic force of the springs, move to the external disk, increasing the moment of inertia of the rotor. Simultaneously with an increase in the rotor revolutions, the increase in mass in the external disk increases the increase in the reaction time of the rotor. With an increase in the moment of inertia, depending on the rotor revolutions, its kinetic moment increases, and you can get a large controlling gyroscopic moment of the gyroscope rotor (created by electric motors 6 and gearboxes 7). At the maximum rotor speed, due to the location of the balls near the outer disk, the controlling gyroscopic moment and the moment of the rotor back reaction have maximum values (J = mR2 2 ), which is important at low flight speeds and critical stability modes of BLAH [7]. With a decrease in rotor speed, the spring force of the spring, dominating over the centrifugal force, promotes the movement of the balls to the center of the rotor. As a result, the moment of inertia of the rotor decreases, which causes rapid deceleration of the rotor. Rapid acceleration and rapid deceleration of the rotor make it possible to control the rotor moment of reaction, which is opposed in the direction, which is used to control the BLAH by tilting around the X axis. Gyroscopic device with adjustable moment of inertia.

Information sources

1. Principles of Flight. JAA ATPL. Theoretical knowledge manual. Oxford Aviation, Frankfurt, Germany, 2001. p.366, p.561.

2. Unmanned aircraft systems. UAVS design, development and deployment. Reg Austin. 2010 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, United Kingdom, p. 34-37, figure 3.7.

3. Patent RU No. 2489313, IPC: В64С 5/00, F42B 10/62. Borisenko AB, Lazarenkov SM., Nikitenko A.V. Small-sized aircraft with self-stabilizing aerodynamic surfaces. 08/10/2013, Byul. No. 22

4. Lebedev A.A., Chernobrovkin L.S. Flight dynamics of unmanned aerial vehicles. Textbook for universities. M., Mechanical Engineering, 1973. p. 44-47.

- 3 030859

5. Onboard spacecraft control systems. Tutorial. Brovkin A.G., Burdygov B.G., Gordiyko S.V. and others. Edited by Syrova A.S. M. MAI, 2010. p. 80-98.

6. Patent RU No. 2495789, IPC: VS64 17/06. Tarasov A.A. The method of using gyroscopic moment to control the aircraft (vehicle) and the control device of the aircraft. 10/20/2013, Bull. №29.

7. The course of physics. Textbook for universities. Trofimova T.I. 11th edition. M., Academy, 2006. p. 34-35.

Claims (2)

  1. CLAIM
    1. A method of increasing the stabilization and maneuverability of an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a rotation screw using a gyroscopic effect consisting of a body, a gyroscope, a frame, an inclination and rotation system of frames, including an internal and external frame, stabilization engines and moments, wherein stabilization and control is carried out by a single gyroscope, and the directions of the axes of rotation of the rotor of the gyroscope and propeller of the aircraft coincide, and the direction of rotation of the specified screw and rotor of the gyroscope is false, the stabilization and control of the aircraft (the angle of roll) is performed by creating an additional moment of inertia by increasing or decreasing the gyro rotor speed by adjusting the moment of inertia.
  2. 2. Device to increase the stabilization and maneuverability of unmanned aerial vehicles using a gyroscopic effect, which is carried out using the method according to claim 1 and using a gyro rotor with an adjustable moment of inertia, consisting of a disk rotor, characterized in that the rotor guides are radially placed tubes in the disk, each tube contains a movable ball, a spring and an adjusting screw installed in the plane of rotation of the rotor to change the moment of inertia of the mouth ora
    y 1
    FIG. one
    - 4 030859 a b c
    FIG. 2
    FIG. 3
    ABOUT
EA201600501A 2016-02-25 2016-02-25 Method and device for improving stabilization and manoeuvring ability of unmanned flying vehicles (ufv) using a gyroscopic effect EA030859B1 (en)

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SU355494A1 (en) * Б. Вересова, А. П. Гурь нов, М. К. Петрочук , Б. В. Уткин Double hose stabilizer
RU2084826C1 (en) * 1992-04-13 1997-07-20 Олег Петрович Домашкевич Gyroscopic centrifugal device
US6729580B2 (en) * 2001-04-05 2004-05-04 Northrop Grumman Corporation Method and system for directing an object using gyroscopes
US7051608B2 (en) * 2001-10-17 2006-05-30 Ingenieria, Diseno Y Analisis, S.L. Gyroscopic actuator

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SU355494A1 (en) * Б. Вересова, А. П. Гурь нов, М. К. Петрочук , Б. В. Уткин Double hose stabilizer
RU2084826C1 (en) * 1992-04-13 1997-07-20 Олег Петрович Домашкевич Gyroscopic centrifugal device
US6729580B2 (en) * 2001-04-05 2004-05-04 Northrop Grumman Corporation Method and system for directing an object using gyroscopes
US7051608B2 (en) * 2001-10-17 2006-05-30 Ingenieria, Diseno Y Analisis, S.L. Gyroscopic actuator

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