EA017829B1 - Microoptic system for visual control of product authenticity - Google Patents

Microoptic system for visual control of product authenticity Download PDF

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Publication number
EA017829B1
EA017829B1 EA201101548A EA201101548A EA017829B1 EA 017829 B1 EA017829 B1 EA 017829B1 EA 201101548 A EA201101548 A EA 201101548A EA 201101548 A EA201101548 A EA 201101548A EA 017829 B1 EA017829 B1 EA 017829B1
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Eurasian Patent Office
Prior art keywords
micro
flat
optical
type
optical element
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EA201101548A
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Russian (ru)
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EA201101548A1 (en
Inventor
Антон Александрович ГОНЧАРСКИЙ
Александр Владимирович ГОНЧАРСКИЙ
Святослав Радомирович ДУРЛЕВИЧ
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Общество С Ограниченной Ответственностью "Центр Компьютерной Голографии"
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Priority to EA201101548A priority Critical patent/EA017829B1/en
Publication of EA201101548A1 publication Critical patent/EA201101548A1/en
Publication of EA017829B1 publication Critical patent/EA017829B1/en

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Abstract

The micro-optic imaging system of the invention as claimed in the invention mainly relates to devices used to authenticate products, and can be effectively used to protect banknotes, securities, documents, plastic cards, as well as various consumer goods from counterfeiting. The micro-optical system according to the invention is divided into elementary areas, in each of which a flat phase optical element is synthesized — a multi-gradation kinoform or a flat optical element with a piecewise-smooth phase function, having an asymmetric radiation pattern, which provides the effect of changing the image during a 180 ° rotation. The claimed set of essential features of the invention has ensured the achievement of the technical result consisting in increasing the reliability of the visual control of the products protected with it due to obtaining an easily controlled effect of changing images when the micro-optical system is rotated 180 °. The implementation of a micro-optical imaging system is possible using existing standard equipment.

Description

The inventive micro-optical system for visual authentication of products relates to the field of optical protective technologies, mainly to devices, the so-called security tags used to authenticate banknotes, plastic cards, securities, etc.

Currently, holographic technologies are widely used to authenticate banknotes, plastic cards, and securities. One of the known applied effects in optical protective technologies is the image change effect, which is observed on a hologram or on a flat optical element when the angle of incident light changes. An optical element is called flat if the wavefront transformation in this element occurs as a result of light diffraction by a microrelief, the depth of which for elements operating in visible light does not exceed one micron.

There are various known technologies for recording the originals of holograms and flat optical elements, providing the creation of this effect. This is an optical recording, dot-matrix, kinemaktekhnologiya and others (ΟρΙίοηΙ Eositsp! 8esityu, Tyty Εάίΐίοη, Viyok L. Wai Veyekke. Lges11 Noike, Vok1oi, Loyoi, 2005). All of the above technologies for the manufacture of originals form a hologram or a flat optical element with a symmetrical microrelief.

Optical elements with a symmetrical microrelief profile include, for example, any binary microstructures. Optical elements with a symmetrical microrelief profile make it possible to form images symmetric with respect to the zero diffraction order.

Regardless of the original recording technologies used, when changing the angle of the micro-optical system, the following image change effect is observed: in the normal position of the hologram, the observer sees one image, and when rotated 90 °, another image appears instead of the first image. However, if you continue the rotation from 90 to 180 °, then at an angle of 180 ° you get the original image. This is due to the fact that the above-mentioned technologies for the manufacture of originals (optical recording, dot matrix, kinemax technology, etc.) form a hologram with a symmetrical microrelief.

The indicated effect is very well controlled visually, but has a drawback that is significant for protective technologies - reproducibility. This significantly reduces the protective functions of these micro-optical systems. There are a large number of manufacturing techniques for originals of flat optical elements with symmetrical micro-relief. From the point of view of protection against fakes, visual signs synthesized by flat optical elements having a more complex asymmetric microrelief are more promising.

The closest to the claimed invention, the technical solution for the totality of features is a micro-optical system described in patent I8 6417968 B1 (prototype).

The known micro-optical system is a surface structure that includes surface elements that are arranged in a mosaic pattern and which have microscopic relief structures and many divided elements, the surfaces of which are divided into at least the first and second parts of the surface and the divided surface elements include asymmetric diffraction gratings that have an optical diffraction effect, in which subdivided divided surface elements are adjacent the first parts of the surface are separated by the second parts of the surface, and the asymmetric diffraction grating vectors of the first surface parts and the second surface parts differ in azimuth, in which the asymmetric diffraction gratings of the first surface parts of all separated surface elements have the same first azimuth value and asymmetric diffraction gratings from the second parts of the surface of all separated surface elements have the same second azimuth value and The addition of the sum of all the first surface parts of the Νth element of the divided surface to the total area of the Νth element of the divided surface forms the value of the surface ratio соотношения Ν of the specific for the элементаth element of the divided surface, and along the pre-marked axis all the elements of the divided surface are arranged according the value of the surface ratio ΑΝ between the elements of the divided surface with the proportional value of the surface Α Ν = 0 and Α Ν = 1 in the mosaic of all elements.

In other words, the said patent describes a micro-optical system consisting of elementary sections, in each of which an asymmetric diffraction grating is recorded with different orientation of the grating strokes and, accordingly, with different azimuthal angles at which incident light is reflected.

The surface structure of the known micro-optical system provides the effect of changing the intensity of reflected light from areas of the hologram filled with diffraction gratings with an asymmetric microrelief profile when observing the hologram at different angles.

The disadvantages of the known micro-optical system (prototype) are associated with the use of rather simple diffraction gratings as the basic optical element, which are limited in the possibility of generating a radiation pattern of the scattered radiation. So, when lighting the famous

- 1 017829 of a microoptical system by a point source of light, a change in the intensity of the scattered light from elementary regions can be observed with only one eye, since the directivity diagram of the light scattered from the diffraction grating is a point.

The objective of the present invention is a micro-optical system with a higher degree of protection against fakes and imitations.

In accordance with the invention, a micro-optical imaging system is described, the structure of which is a diffractive optical element consisting of elementary regions of three different types. These elementary regions are formed using, together or separately, two types of flat phase optical elements with an asymmetric radiation pattern. The elementary regions of the first type contain exclusively planar phase optical elements of the first type, which have a radiation pattern concentrated in a rectangle covering the viewing angles of the micro-optical system by an observer, and the elementary regions of the second type contain planar phase optical elements of exclusively the second type, whose radiation pattern differs from the radiation pattern of a flat phase optical element of the first type by rotation and 180 °, the elementary regions of the third kind consist of two parts of approximately equal area, one of which contains a flat phase optical element of the first type, and the second a flat phase optical element of the second type, while an image is formed in the standard position of the microoptical system for the observer, consisting of luminous elementary regions of the first and third types, and when the micro-optical system is rotated 180 ° - of the second and third types, which provides the effect of changing the image when rotated by 180 °.

In the particular case of the implementation of the claimed micro-optical system, flat optical elements are formed using multi-gradation kinoforms.

In another particular case of the implementation of the claimed micro-optical system using flat optical elements with a smooth phase function.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, in the elementary regions of the first and second kind of micro-optical system, a planar phase optical element occupies approximately half of the elementary region. This provides the formation of the effect of the change of two images with uniform brightness in rotation by 180 °.

The central point of the claimed invention is the use of flat phase optical elements. Each flat phase optical element is characterized by its phase function, and vice versa, knowing the phase function, one can calculate the microrelief of a flat phase optical element.

Flat optical elements were proposed by Fresnel more than 200 years ago and solved the problem of focusing radiation to a point. Currently, planar optics can solve a wide range of radiation generation problems. One of the classical problems is the synthesis of an optical element to form a uniformly illuminated rectangular region in the focal plane. This problem can be solved within the framework of plane optics. The problem of synthesis of planar optical elements can be divided into two components: calculation of the phase function and synthesis of the microrelief of a planar phase optical element.

Currently, there are effective algorithms for solving inverse problems of the synthesis of plane optical elements. There are two approaches. The first makes it possible to calculate a smooth phase function (Sohril Eg11C8 & Sohril Ehlodgar LU A.U. Oopsbagku, A.A. Oopsbagku, Moksote Ishuegku Rgeck, Mozote, 2004). In the second approach, the phase function is not smooth; it can oscillate rapidly. Such elements are called kinoforms.

Kinoform as an optical element was presented in the work of L.V. Lekesh, R.M. HxGX, TA. 1g 1yyap, Thye kshoGogsh: and you sing teaueGgop! gesopigisyop yeuyu, 1VM 1. Century. Eee., 13 (1969), 105-155. In the present invention, it is necessary to form an asymmetric radiation pattern of a planar phase optical element. Such tasks are solved by multi-gradation kinoform. Multi-gradation kinoform forms a given image, but unlike thin holograms recorded by recording an interference pattern, multi-gradation kinoform forms only one image at a given wavelength, and all the light incident on it diffracts into one diffraction order. Thus, multi-gradation kinoform has maximum theoretical efficiency in the formation of arbitrary images. Unlike volume phase holograms, which also have 100% diffraction efficiency, multi-gradation kinoforms can be mass-replicated from the original, while the energy efficiency of printed copies is also theoretically close to 100%.

Existing algorithms make it possible to calculate the microrelief of a diffractive optical element, a multi-gradation kinoform, if geometric parameters, characteristics of light sources, and a radiation pattern to be formed are specified.

For a wide class of radiation formation problems, a smooth phase function can be calculated

- 2017829 tion, solving the synthesis problem. Such tasks include the task of forming a focal plane using flat optics, uniformly illuminated by a rectangular region, which is used in the present invention. Having set the geometric parameters and characteristics of the light sources, it is possible to calculate the phase function of a planar phase optical element that forms a uniformly illuminated rectangle in the focal plane (Goncharsky A.A., Tunitsky D.V. On the inverse problem of the synthesis of optical elements for laser radiation. Computational methods and programming , v. 7, No. 2). As in the case of kinoform, and in the case with a smooth phase function, at the stage of synthesis of a planar optical element, it is necessary to form a microrelief with high accuracy, which for the optical range is about 20 nm, which places high demands on the technology of forming a microrelief (On one problem of nano synthesis -optical elements A. A. Goncharsky, Computational Methods and Programming, 2008, v. 9, No. 2).

The basic technology for the formation of a microrelief of flat optical elements in the optical range can be electron beam lithography technology (Erases Orisk and SosrSsg No1odtaryu LU ν.ν. Oopsbatkku, A.A. Oopsbatkku, Mozote Ishuegayu Rge55. Mo5 \\ 2004. . The specified technology allows you to form the microrelief of a flat optical element with the accuracy necessary for the synthesis of the claimed micro-optical systems. Equipment for electronic lithography is very expensive, technology is knowledge-intensive and has limited distribution. All this creates a reliable barrier to protect the claimed system from fakes.

For mass replication of flat optical elements forming the effect of changing the image by 180 °, standard equipment for holographic technologies can be used: electroplating, animation plants, equipment for rolling, applying adhesive coatings, etc. It should be noted that at all stages of replication accuracy is ensured sufficient for stable reproduction of the claimed effect.

In the claimed micro-optical system, the effect of image change is observed with two eyes. The visual effect of the change of images is more stable compared to the prototype relative to changes in the position of the light source or micro-optical system. The claimed micro-optical system has a higher degree of protection against fakes and imitations. The manufacturing technology of originals of micro-optical systems is not publicly available, while the technology of mass replication of micro-optical systems is affordable and cheap, which ensures a low price for mass production.

In FIG. Figure 1 shows a pattern of observing the effect of changing images when rotating through 180 °.

In FIG. Figure 2 shows a flat phase optical element consisting of diffraction gratings with an asymmetric microrelief profile.

In FIG. Figure 3 shows the directivity pattern of a planar phase optical element — a diffraction grating with an asymmetric microrelief profile.

In FIG. Figures 4 and 5 show radiation patterns of planar optical elements of the first and second types, respectively.

In FIG. Figure 6 shows a fragment of the phase function of a flat optical element of a multi-gradation kinoform.

In FIG. Figure 7 shows a fragment of the microrelief of a flat optical element — a multi-gradation kinoform.

In FIG. Figure 8 shows a fragment of the phase function of a planar optical element that solves the synthesis problem with a smooth phase function.

In FIG. Figure 9 shows a fragment of the microrelief of a planar optical element with a smooth phase function.

In FIG. 10 shows a diagram of the partition of a micro-optical system into elementary regions.

In FIG. 11 shows a dark color region G A, C, D AB, O A / B and C / A.

The optical scheme for observing the effect of image change is shown in FIG. 1. Here L and P are the positions of the left eye and the right eye of the observer, respectively. The micro-optical system is located in the plane ζ = 0 and is illuminated by a light source located on the axis 0ζ. Flat optical elements located in elementary regions have a radiation pattern of scattered radiation, depending on the angles in the spherical coordinate system (θ, φ), the angle in (0 <θ <π) is counted from the ζ axis, and the angle φ (0 <φ <2π ) is counted from the axis 0x, θ 0 , φ 0 is the direction to the observer. Without loss of generality, FIG. 1 is satisfied for φ 0 = 0.

The inventive micro-optical system for visual verification of the authenticity of the product (Fig. 1) has the following differences from the prototype. In the known micro-optical system, asymmetric diffraction gratings are used, which consist of straight parallel strokes with a fixed distance between the strokes (Fig. 2). The radiation pattern of a diffraction grating is strictly defined and represents a point, i.e. the grating reflects the incident light at a fixed distance in fact into a small spot on the focal plane (Fig. 3), which provides the effect of changing the intensity of elementary regions filled with gratings with an asymmetric profile, when

- 3 017829 observing the hologram from different angles. In the inventive micro-optical system, flat phase optical elements are used that have a complex, precisely calculated microrelief structure. Flat phase optical elements make it possible to form any radiation pattern of the scattered radiation. The asymmetry of the radiation pattern of multi-gradation flat phase optical elements provides the effect of image change when rotating through 180 °. Using a flat phase optical element, any radiation pattern can be formed, for example, a rectangle with a given position in space and dimensions. In FIG. Figures 4 and 5 show radiation patterns of planar optical elements of the first and second types, respectively. In the inventive micro-optical system, a rectangle formed by a flat optical element covers both eyes of the observer so that, unlike the prototype, the optical effect will be observed immediately with both eyes. The optical effect synthesized using a planar phase optical element is more stable compared to diffraction gratings. Relatively small changes in the direction of the incident light and the orientation of the micro-optical system itself do not affect the visual effect formed.

Flat optical elements of the first and second type can be kinoforms and have a discontinuous (rapidly oscillating) phase function (Fig. 6). A fragment of the multi-gradation kinoform is shown in FIG. 7. The height of the microrelief at each point of FIG. 7 is proportional to the darkening at this point.

The same problem can be solved using smooth phase functions. In FIG. 8 shows a fragment of a piecewise smooth phase function that solves the problem of generating the radiation pattern of the scattered radiation shown in FIG. 4, 5. A fragment of a planar phase optical element with a smooth phase function is shown in FIG. 9. The depth of the microrelief is proportional to the darkening at each point of FIG. nine.

The claimed micro-optical system for visual authentication authenticity consists of elementary regions (Fig. 10) of three different types, which are formed using, together or separately, multi-gradation flat phase optical elements of two types with an asymmetric microrelief, providing an asymmetric radiation pattern, while elementary areas of the first kind contain exclusively flat phase optical elements of the first type, which have a radiation pattern scattered radiation concentrated in the rectangle θ 0 - Δθ <θ <θ 0 + Δθ, φ 0 - Δφ <φ <φ 0 + Δφ, covering the viewing angles of the micro-optical system by the observer (Fig. 4). The elementary regions of the second type contain flat phase optical elements exclusively of the second type, the radiation pattern of the scattered radiation as a function of the angles θ, φ in the spherical coordinate system (the angle θ is counted from the axis 0ζ, the angle φ is counted from the axis 0x), which are concentrated in the rectangle θ 0 - Δθ <θ <θ 0 + Δθ, π + φ 0 - Δφ <π + φ 0 + Δφ, where (θ0, φ0) is the direction to the observer, and Δθ, Δφ are some given parameters (Fig. 5). The elementary regions of the third kind consist of two approximately equal in area parts, one of which contains a flat phase optical element of the first type, and the second a flat phase optical element of the second type, while in the standard position of the microoptical system for the observer an image is formed consisting of luminous elementary areas of the first and third types, and when the micro-optical system is rotated through an angle φ by 180 °, the second and third types. In the standard position (Fig. 1) of the micro-optical system, an image is formed for the observer, consisting of luminous elementary regions of the first and third types, and when rotated 180 °, of the second and third types. The latter provides a new security feature for visual inspection, namely the effect of changing the image when rotated 180 °.

The claimed micro-optical system allows for simple and reliable visual control for the observer. The manufacturing technology of the originals of flat optical elements with an asymmetric radiation pattern is not publicly available, which provides reliable protection of the claimed micro-optical systems from fakes. The technology of mass replication is available and provides a low price for micro-optical systems for mass replication.

An important parameter that determines, first of all, the quality of the generated images in the effect of image change is the angle of deviation of the rays. The larger this angle, the more pure the effect can be obtained. The basic technology for the formation of the microrelief of a flat phase optical element can be electron beam technology. The higher the resolution in the technology of microrelief formation, the greater the angle of deviation of the rays. Electron beam technology is unique in that it provides a very high resolution. Modern lithographs make it possible to form a microrelief with stamps of the order of 0.1 by 0.1 microns, the best of them have stamp sizes up to 20 nm at 20 nm. In reality, the resolution is not limited by the size of the stamp, but by the properties of the electronic resist on which the microrelief is formed. The accuracy of the formation of the microrelief in height is also about 10-20 nm. At a depth of the microrelief of a flat optical element of the order of 300 nm (Soshrieg Orbsk & Sogrieg Hoiodtaruu U.u. Soisbatku, A.A. Soisyatkku, Moksote Ishuegku Rgekk, Moksote, 2004), the electron beam technology makes it possible to produce asymmetric

- 4 017829 microrelief for the synthesis of micro-optical systems for the formation of the effect of image change when turning 180 °. The visual effect is easily controlled, the micro-optical system is well protected from fakes.

The following example of a specific implementation of the invention confirms the possibility of carrying out the invention without limiting its scope.

Example.

As an example, a micro-optical system was designed and manufactured for the formation of the effect of changing images when rotating through 180 °. In the normal position of the micro-optical system, the observer sees image A, while rotating through 180 ° - image B. For the synthesis of the original flat optical element, electron-beam technology was used. The original has been multiplied. Using the multiplicated matrices, micro-optical systems were made in the form of stickers, demonstrating the effect of changing images when rotating through 180 °.

The problem of synthesizing a planar optical element that forms the effect of changing images when rotated through 180 ° was solved with the help of planar phase optical elements of two types: type 1, which has a radiation pattern, as in FIG. 4 and type 2 having a radiation pattern as in FIG. 5. The flat optical element measuring 10 mm by 10 mm was divided into elementary regions measuring 50 μm by 50 μm, as was done in FIG. 10. For the synthesis of a planar optical element, three types of elementary regions were used.

1. The regions of the first type contain only planar phase optical elements of the first type.

2. The regions of the second type contain only planar phase optical elements of the second type.

3. Areas of the third type consist of two parts of equal size, one of which contains flat phase optical elements of the first type, and the other contains flat phase optical elements of the second type.

In the normal position of the micro-optical system, an image was formed for the observer, consisting of bright luminous elementary regions of the first and third types, and when rotated 180 ° - from bright luminous elementary regions of the second and third types.

Flat phase optical elements of the first and second type were made both in the form of kinoforms and with a piecewise-smooth phase function. Flat phase optical elements of the first type have a radiation pattern concentrated in the rectangle θ 0 Δθ <θ <θ 0 + Δθ, φ 0 - Δφ <φ <φ 0 + Δφ, which covers the viewing angles of the micro-optical system by the observer. Flat phase optical elements of the second type have a radiation pattern of scattered radiation, as a function of angles θ, φ in a spherical coordinate system, which is concentrated in the rectangle θ 0 - Δθ <θ <θ 0 + Δθ, π + φ 0 - Δφ <φ <π + φ 0 + Δφ. The parameters θ 0 , φ 0 , Δθ, Δφ were chosen so that θ 0 = 30 °, φ 0 = 180 °, Δθ = 3 °, Δφ = 15 °.

We formulate an algorithm for the synthesis of a flat optical element that forms the effect of changing images with a rotation of 180 °. Suppose we want the image of the letter A after turning through 180 ° to turn in the same place into the image of the letter B. Let O denote the set of all points (x, y) on the plane ΟΧΥ that form the image A, for O the set of all points (x, y) on the plane ΟΧΥ that form the image B, we denote by O Av the intersection of O A and O c , and C L. - c = C A / C c . The set With A. c consists of those points of the set A that do not belong to the image B. Denote by C c . L = C in / C L. O / A consists of image points B, which are not image points A. FIG. 8 presents From Av . About A / V and O / A. If the region О А / в is filled with elementary regions of type 1, О в / А - 2 types, and О Ав - 3 types, then in the normal position of the hologram the observer will see the letter A, and when rotated 180 °, the letter B.

Studies have shown the high efficiency of the solutions proposed in the application. The effect of changing images when rotating through 180 ° was observed with two eyes when illuminating the micro-optical system with both monochromatic and white light.

Claims (4)

1. A micro-optical system for visual verification of the authenticity of a product based on a diffractive optical element, characterized in that said element has elementary regions of three different types, which are formed, together or separately, by two types of flat phase optical elements with an asymmetric microrelief providing an asymmetric radiation pattern scattered radiation, while the elementary regions of the first kind contain exclusively flat phase optical elements of the first type, which Some have a directivity pattern of scattered radiation, concentrated in a rectangle covering the viewing angles of the micro-optical system by an observer, and elementary regions of the second type contain flat phase optical elements of only the second type, the directivity pattern of the scattered radiation of which differs from the directivity pattern of a flat phase optical element of the first type by 180 °, elementary regions of the third kind consist of two approximately equal in
- 5 017829 areas of parts, one of which contains a flat phase optical element of the first type, and the second a flat phase optical element of the second type, while in the standard position of the microoptical system for the observer an image is formed consisting of luminous elementary regions of the first and third types, and when the micro-optical system is rotated 180 ° - the second and third types, which ensures the effect of image change when rotated 180 °.
2. The micro-optical system according to claim 1, characterized in that the flat optical elements are formed using multi-gradation kinoforms.
3. The micro-optical system according to claim 1, characterized in that flat optical elements with a smooth phase function are used.
4. The microoptical system according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that in the elementary regions of the first and second type, a planar phase optical element occupies approximately half of the elementary region.
EA201101548A 2011-09-26 2011-09-26 Microoptic system for visual control of product authenticity EA017829B1 (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EA030504B1 (en) * 2016-03-01 2018-08-31 Общество С Ограниченной Ответственностью "Центр Компьютерной Голографии" Microoptical imaging system for visual and instrumental control of product authenticity

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5886798A (en) * 1995-08-21 1999-03-23 Landis & Gyr Technology Innovation Ag Information carriers with diffraction structures
US6417968B1 (en) * 1998-01-27 2002-07-09 René Staub Diffractive surface pattern
US20090162756A1 (en) * 2006-04-06 2009-06-25 Rene Staub Multi-Layer Body With Volume Hologram
US7680274B2 (en) * 2002-04-05 2010-03-16 Ovd Kinegram Ag Security element comprising micro- and macrostructures

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5886798A (en) * 1995-08-21 1999-03-23 Landis & Gyr Technology Innovation Ag Information carriers with diffraction structures
US6417968B1 (en) * 1998-01-27 2002-07-09 René Staub Diffractive surface pattern
US7680274B2 (en) * 2002-04-05 2010-03-16 Ovd Kinegram Ag Security element comprising micro- and macrostructures
US20090162756A1 (en) * 2006-04-06 2009-06-25 Rene Staub Multi-Layer Body With Volume Hologram

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