DE3637549A1 - Measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues - Google Patents

Measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues

Info

Publication number
DE3637549A1
DE3637549A1 DE19863637549 DE3637549A DE3637549A1 DE 3637549 A1 DE3637549 A1 DE 3637549A1 DE 19863637549 DE19863637549 DE 19863637549 DE 3637549 A DE3637549 A DE 3637549A DE 3637549 A1 DE3637549 A1 DE 3637549A1
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DE
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Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
testing
dielectric properties
measuring device
characterized
biological tissues
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Ceased
Application number
DE19863637549
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Hans Dr Med Rosenberger
Original Assignee
Hans Dr Med Rosenberger
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/05Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves
    • A61B5/0507Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves using microwaves or terahertz waves
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B3/00Apparatus for testing the eyes; Instruments for examining the eyes
    • A61B3/10Objective types, i.e. instruments for examining the eyes independent of the patients' perceptions or reactions
    • A61B3/16Objective types, i.e. instruments for examining the eyes independent of the patients' perceptions or reactions for measuring intraocular pressure, e.g. tonometers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/026Measuring blood flow
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/05Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/41Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the immune or lymphatic systems
    • A61B5/411Detecting or monitoring allergy or intolerance reactions to an allergenic agent or substance

Abstract

Device for testing the dielectric properties of biological materials and changes in these properties, characterised in that microwaves in the range from 10 GHz to about 100 GHz are radiated on to the test field. By measuring a defined part of the reflected energy conclusions are drawn about the absorbed energy and thus about the dielectric properties of the test material. The invention describes how the device is employed for measuring changes in the surfaces of organs and how it serves to measure the intraocular pressure. Moreover, it can be employed for flow measurements in blood vessels.

Description

Beim Auftreffen elektromagnetischer Wellen auf Haut, Schleimhaut oder andere Organoberflächen wird ein Teil der eingestrahlten Energie absorbiert, ein Teil wird reflektiert. Upon impact of electromagnetic waves on skin, mucous membrane, or other organ surfaces is absorbed part of the incident energy, a part is reflected. Die reflektierte Energiemenge hängt ab von den dielektrischen Eigenschaften des untersuchten Objektes und der verwendeten Frequenzen. The reflected energy amount depends on the dielectric properties of the examined object and the frequencies used. Lit. hierzu: Lit. this:

Stüttgen G. , Flesch U.: Dermatologische Thermographie. Stüttgen G., Flesch U .: Dermatological thermography. Abb. 2.16. Fig. 2.16. Weinheim, Deerfield Beach, Florida; Weinheim, Deerfield Beach, Florida; Basel. Basel. Edition Medizin 1984. Edition Medicine 1984th

Bei konstanter Frequenz hängt der reflektierte Energieanteil direkt von den dielektrischen Eigenschaften des untersuchten Materials ab. At a constant frequency of the reflected energy content is directly related to the dielectric properties of the material investigated. Durch Wahl einer geeigneten Frequenz kann die Tiefe bestimmt werden, bis zu der hin diese Dielektrizitätseigen schaften gemessen werden sollen. By choosing a suitable frequency, the depth can be determined to be up to the properties towards this Dielektrizitätseigen measured. Sichtbares Licht und Infrarot sind wegen der zu geringen Ein dringtiefe für diese Meßaufgaben nicht geeignet. Visible light and infrared are due to too low a penetration depth not suitable for this measurement tasks. Für die Untersuchung von Organoberflächen und deren Struktur änderungen wird daher die Verwendung des Frequenzbandes von ca. 10 GigaHertz eingeführt. For investigating Organoberflächen and their structure changes is therefore the use of Frequenzbandes of approximately 10 gigahertz introduced. Die Erfindung bezieht sich auf die Konstruktion eines Meßge rätes, mit dem man unter Verwendung dieses Frequenzbandes die Oberflächeneigenschaften und die des direkt darunter liegenden Gewebes durch Meßung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften charak terisiert. The invention relates to the construction rätes, one terized by using this frequency band, the surface properties and the directly underlying tissue by measuring the dielectric properties charak a messge.

Angewendet soll das Gerät in der Allergologie zur objektiven Erfassung von Hauttestreaktionen bei Mensch und Tier, außerdem in der Dermatologie zur Messung der Hautbeschaffenheit unter normalen und pathologischen Bedingungen und zur Messung ihrer pharmakologischen Beeinflussung. Applied to the device in the Allergology for the objective assessment of skin test reactions in humans and animals, as well as in the field of dermatology for measuring the skin condition under normal and pathological conditions, and to measure their pharmacological influence. In der Angiologie können mit dem Gerät Strömungsmessungen oberflächlich verlaufender Blut gefäße durchgeführt werden. In the Angiology superficial running with the device flow measurements of blood can be vessels conducted. In der Ophthalmologie können mit dem Gerät Messungen des Augeninnendrucks erfolgen, wobei die berührungslose Messung von besonderem Vorteil ist. In ophthalmology can be made with the device measurements of intraocular pressure, wherein the non-contact measurement is of particular advantage. Die von einem Generator gelieferten Mikrowellen werden über einen Hohl-Leiter oder Fest-Leiter auf das zu untersuchende Objekt gestrahlt. The microwaves supplied by a generator are irradiated via a hollow conductor or solid conductor on the examined object. Ein zweiter Leiter nimmt einen definierten Teil der reflektierten Mikrowellen auf und führt sie einem Meßgerät zu. A second conductor increases to a defined part of the reflected microwaves and supplies it to a meter. Da für die Meßung nur geringe Energiemengen er forderlich sind und die Meßung berührungslos erfolgen kann, wird das Meßobjekt durch den Meßstrahl nicht beeinflußt. Since only small amounts of energy it is conducive for the measurement and the measurement can be performed without contact, the test object is not influenced by the measuring beam.

Claims (14)

  1. 1. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß elektro magnetische Wellen im Frequenzbereich von ca 10 GHz bis ca 100 GHz auf das zu untersuchende Gewebe gestrahlt werden und aus der reflektierten Energie oder Teilen davon auf die dielektrischen Eigenschaften des Gewebes geschlossen wird. 1. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of about 10 GHz to about 100 GHz are irradiated to the examined tissue and from the reflected energy or parts thereof on the dielectric properties of the tissue closed becomes.
  2. 2. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß zur Erzeu gung der Mikrowellen sowohl klassische Bauelemente infrage kommen wie auch Halbleiterbauteile, z. 2. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that for the generation supply microwaves both classical components suitable: as well as semiconductor components such. B. Gunn-Dioden oder Impatt-Dioden oder ähnliche. B. Gunn diodes or IMPATT diodes or similar. Als Detektoren dienen Bolo meter oder Dioden. The detectors are used Bolo meter or diodes. Der Schaltungsaufbau kann konventionell mit Fest- oder Hohl-Leitern erfolgen oder in Mikrostreifen technik. The circuit configuration can be done conventionally with solid or hollow conductors or technology in microstrip.
  3. 3. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Gerät ein elektrisches Ausgangssignal liefert, das einer elektronischen Datenverarbeitungsanlage zugeführt wird, welche einmalig oder fortlaufend Ist- und Soll-Wert vergleicht und mit weiteren Daten verknüpft und das Ergebnis speichert und ausdruckt. 3. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that the apparatus provides an electrical output signal which is fed to an electronic data processing system which, once or continuously compares the actual and desired value and associated with other data and stores the result, and prints.
  4. 4. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Gerät im Bereich der Allergologie Hauttest-Reaktionen objektiv meßbar macht. 4. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that the device makes objectively measurable skin test reactions in the field of Allergology.
  5. 5. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß damit bei Wahl einer geeigneten Frequenz der Augeninnendruck berührungs los gemessen werden kann. 5. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that in order to be contactless los measured at choice of a suitable frequency of the intraocular pressure.
  6. 6. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß durch ge eignete Frequenzwahl Strömungsmessungen in oberflächlich verlaufenden Blutgefäßen erfolgen können. 6. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that may take place in the surface extending blood vessels by ge suitable frequency selection flow measurements.
  7. 7. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Frequenz des Oszillators wahlweise fest oder aber variabel eingestellt werden kann, so daß mit einem einzigen Gerät unterschiedliche Meßaufgaben durchgeführt werden können. 7. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that the frequency of the oscillator can be varied optionally fixed or so that different measurement tasks can be performed with a single device.
  8. 8. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biolo gischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Energieabgabe des Oszillators durch Vorschalten eines Abschwächers regelbar ist. 8. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biolo Gischer tissue, characterized in that the energy output of the oscillator by inserting an attenuator is adjustable.
  9. 9. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Meßung einmalig oder fortlaufend (dynamisch) erfolgen kann. 9. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that the measurement once or continuously (dynamic) can be carried out.
  10. 10. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Messung aufgrund der starken Bündelung der verwendeten elektro magnetischen Strahlung berührungslos erfolgen kann. 10. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that the measurement result of the strong focusing the electro used can be made magnetic radiation without contact.
  11. 11. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die geome trische Anordnung von biologischem Gewebe, Meßstrahl und reflektiertem Strahl fest vorgegeben werden kann oder variabel ist. 11. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that the geometric figures trical array of biological tissue, measuring beam and the reflected beam may be fixed or variable.
  12. 12. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß durch Wahl verschiedener Meßpunkte im Abtastverfahren eine Fläche bildlich dargestellt werden kann. 12. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that an area can be depicted by selecting different measuring points in the scanning process.
  13. 13. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß durch Wahl verschiedener Frequenzen und damit unterschiedlicher Eindringtiefen nicht nur ein flächenhaftes, sondern auch ein dreidimensionales Bild der untersuchten Strukturen möglich ist. 13. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that is possible by choosing different frequencies and thus different depths of penetration not only a planar, but also a three-dimensional image of the examined structures.
  14. 14. Meßgerät zur Prüfung der dielektrischen Eigenschaften biologischer Gewebe, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß im Falle der Verwendung von Hohl-Leitern der zum Empfänger führende Hohl-Leiter vom Sende-Hohlleiter unabhängig ist oder aber daß Sende- und Empfangs-Hohlleiter durch das elektrische Feld gekoppelt sind. 14. measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues, characterized in that in the case of use of hollow conductors leading to the receiver hollow conductor from the transmission waveguide is independent, or that transmit and receive waveguide coupled by the electric field are.
DE19863637549 1986-11-04 1986-11-04 Measuring device for testing the dielectric properties of biological tissues Ceased DE3637549A1 (en)

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Cited By (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1993018395A1 (en) * 1992-03-10 1993-09-16 Christopher Barnes Apparatus for determining the physical and/or chemical properties of a sample, particularly of blood
US5583432A (en) * 1994-04-11 1996-12-10 Sci-Nostics Limited Electrical method and apparatus for non-contact determination of physical and/or chemical properties of a sample, particularly of blood
DE19705769A1 (en) * 1997-02-14 1998-08-20 Siemens Ag Monitoring device for radial and axial clearance between blades and housing of turbo engine
EP1460936A2 (en) * 2002-01-04 2004-09-29 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Method and system for examining tissue according to the dielectric properties thereof
WO2005115235A1 (en) * 2004-05-26 2005-12-08 Medical Device Innovations Limited Tissue detection and ablation apparatus and apparatus and method for actuating a tuner
US7355420B2 (en) 2001-08-21 2008-04-08 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Membrane probing system
US7420381B2 (en) 2004-09-13 2008-09-02 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Double sided probing structures
US7492172B2 (en) 2003-05-23 2009-02-17 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Chuck for holding a device under test
US7656172B2 (en) 2005-01-31 2010-02-02 Cascade Microtech, Inc. System for testing semiconductors
US7681312B2 (en) 1998-07-14 2010-03-23 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Membrane probing system
US7688062B2 (en) 2000-09-05 2010-03-30 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Probe station
US7688091B2 (en) 2003-12-24 2010-03-30 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Chuck with integrated wafer support
US7688097B2 (en) 2000-12-04 2010-03-30 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Wafer probe
US7720532B2 (en) 2004-03-23 2010-05-18 Dune Medical Ltd. Clean margin assessment tool
US7723999B2 (en) 2006-06-12 2010-05-25 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Calibration structures for differential signal probing
US7750652B2 (en) 2006-06-12 2010-07-06 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Test structure and probe for differential signals
US7759953B2 (en) 2003-12-24 2010-07-20 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Active wafer probe
US7764072B2 (en) 2006-06-12 2010-07-27 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Differential signal probing system
US7809425B2 (en) 2003-07-24 2010-10-05 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Method and apparatus for examining a substance, particularly tissue, to characterize its type
US7876114B2 (en) 2007-08-08 2011-01-25 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Differential waveguide probe
US7888957B2 (en) 2008-10-06 2011-02-15 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Probing apparatus with impedance optimized interface
US7893704B2 (en) 1996-08-08 2011-02-22 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Membrane probing structure with laterally scrubbing contacts
US7898273B2 (en) 2003-05-23 2011-03-01 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Probe for testing a device under test
US7898281B2 (en) 2005-01-31 2011-03-01 Cascade Mircotech, Inc. Interface for testing semiconductors
US7904145B2 (en) 2004-03-23 2011-03-08 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Clean margin assessment tool
US7969173B2 (en) 2000-09-05 2011-06-28 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Chuck for holding a device under test
US8019411B2 (en) 2002-01-04 2011-09-13 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Probes, systems, and methods for examining tissue according to the dielectric properties thereof
US8032211B2 (en) 2002-01-04 2011-10-04 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Probes, systems, and methods for examining tissue according to the dielectric properties thereof
US8069491B2 (en) 2003-10-22 2011-11-29 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Probe testing structure
US8147423B2 (en) 2007-03-01 2012-04-03 Dune Medical Devices, Ltd. Tissue-characterization system and method
US8195282B2 (en) 2001-11-19 2012-06-05 Dune Medical Devices Ltd Method and apparatus for examining tissue for predefined target cells, particularly cancerous cells, and a probe useful in such method and apparatus
US8319503B2 (en) 2008-11-24 2012-11-27 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Test apparatus for measuring a characteristic of a device under test
US8768485B2 (en) 2002-11-27 2014-07-01 Medical Device Innovations Limited Tissue ablation apparatus and method of ablating tissue
US9750425B2 (en) 2004-03-23 2017-09-05 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Graphical user interfaces (GUI), methods and apparatus for data presentation

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Cited By (44)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1993018395A1 (en) * 1992-03-10 1993-09-16 Christopher Barnes Apparatus for determining the physical and/or chemical properties of a sample, particularly of blood
US5583432A (en) * 1994-04-11 1996-12-10 Sci-Nostics Limited Electrical method and apparatus for non-contact determination of physical and/or chemical properties of a sample, particularly of blood
US7893704B2 (en) 1996-08-08 2011-02-22 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Membrane probing structure with laterally scrubbing contacts
DE19705769A1 (en) * 1997-02-14 1998-08-20 Siemens Ag Monitoring device for radial and axial clearance between blades and housing of turbo engine
US7681312B2 (en) 1998-07-14 2010-03-23 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Membrane probing system
US7761986B2 (en) 1998-07-14 2010-07-27 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Membrane probing method using improved contact
US7969173B2 (en) 2000-09-05 2011-06-28 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Chuck for holding a device under test
US7688062B2 (en) 2000-09-05 2010-03-30 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Probe station
US7688097B2 (en) 2000-12-04 2010-03-30 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Wafer probe
US7761983B2 (en) 2000-12-04 2010-07-27 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Method of assembling a wafer probe
US7355420B2 (en) 2001-08-21 2008-04-08 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Membrane probing system
US7492175B2 (en) 2001-08-21 2009-02-17 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Membrane probing system
US8195282B2 (en) 2001-11-19 2012-06-05 Dune Medical Devices Ltd Method and apparatus for examining tissue for predefined target cells, particularly cancerous cells, and a probe useful in such method and apparatus
US9226979B2 (en) 2001-11-19 2016-01-05 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Method and apparatus for examining tissue for predefined target cells, particularly cancerous cells, and a probe useful in such method and apparatus
EP1460936A2 (en) * 2002-01-04 2004-09-29 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Method and system for examining tissue according to the dielectric properties thereof
US8019411B2 (en) 2002-01-04 2011-09-13 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Probes, systems, and methods for examining tissue according to the dielectric properties thereof
EP1460936A4 (en) * 2002-01-04 2005-04-13 Dune Medical Devices Ltd Method and system for examining tissue according to the dielectric properties thereof
US8032211B2 (en) 2002-01-04 2011-10-04 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Probes, systems, and methods for examining tissue according to the dielectric properties thereof
US7184824B2 (en) 2002-01-04 2007-02-27 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Method and system for examining tissue according to the dielectric properties thereof
US8768485B2 (en) 2002-11-27 2014-07-01 Medical Device Innovations Limited Tissue ablation apparatus and method of ablating tissue
US7492172B2 (en) 2003-05-23 2009-02-17 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Chuck for holding a device under test
US7876115B2 (en) 2003-05-23 2011-01-25 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Chuck for holding a device under test
US7898273B2 (en) 2003-05-23 2011-03-01 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Probe for testing a device under test
US7809425B2 (en) 2003-07-24 2010-10-05 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Method and apparatus for examining a substance, particularly tissue, to characterize its type
US8069491B2 (en) 2003-10-22 2011-11-29 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Probe testing structure
US7759953B2 (en) 2003-12-24 2010-07-20 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Active wafer probe
US7688091B2 (en) 2003-12-24 2010-03-30 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Chuck with integrated wafer support
US7720532B2 (en) 2004-03-23 2010-05-18 Dune Medical Ltd. Clean margin assessment tool
US7904145B2 (en) 2004-03-23 2011-03-08 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Clean margin assessment tool
US9750425B2 (en) 2004-03-23 2017-09-05 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Graphical user interfaces (GUI), methods and apparatus for data presentation
WO2005115235A1 (en) * 2004-05-26 2005-12-08 Medical Device Innovations Limited Tissue detection and ablation apparatus and apparatus and method for actuating a tuner
US8805480B2 (en) 2004-05-26 2014-08-12 Medical Device Innovations Limited Tissue detection and ablation apparatus and apparatus and method for actuating a tuner
US8013623B2 (en) 2004-09-13 2011-09-06 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Double sided probing structures
US7420381B2 (en) 2004-09-13 2008-09-02 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Double sided probing structures
US7898281B2 (en) 2005-01-31 2011-03-01 Cascade Mircotech, Inc. Interface for testing semiconductors
US7940069B2 (en) 2005-01-31 2011-05-10 Cascade Microtech, Inc. System for testing semiconductors
US7656172B2 (en) 2005-01-31 2010-02-02 Cascade Microtech, Inc. System for testing semiconductors
US7764072B2 (en) 2006-06-12 2010-07-27 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Differential signal probing system
US7750652B2 (en) 2006-06-12 2010-07-06 Cascade Microtech, Inc. Test structure and probe for differential signals
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