DE112015006166T5 - Optical computing devices comprising selective broadband angle filters - Google Patents

Optical computing devices comprising selective broadband angle filters

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Publication number
DE112015006166T5
DE112015006166T5 DE112015006166.5T DE112015006166T DE112015006166T5 DE 112015006166 T5 DE112015006166 T5 DE 112015006166T5 DE 112015006166 T DE112015006166 T DE 112015006166T DE 112015006166 T5 DE112015006166 T5 DE 112015006166T5
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electromagnetic radiation
sample
optical
ice
radiation
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DE112015006166.5T
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German (de)
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David L. Perkins
James M. Price
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Halliburton Energy Services Inc
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Halliburton Energy Services Inc
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Priority to PCT/US2015/025866 priority Critical patent/WO2016167757A1/en
Publication of DE112015006166T5 publication Critical patent/DE112015006166T5/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01VGEOPHYSICS; GRAVITATIONAL MEASUREMENTS; DETECTING MASSES OR OBJECTS
    • G01V8/00Prospecting or detecting by optical means
    • G01V8/10Detecting, e.g. by using light barriers
    • G01V8/20Detecting, e.g. by using light barriers using multiple transmitters or receivers
    • G01V8/22Detecting, e.g. by using light barriers using multiple transmitters or receivers using reflectors
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B49/00Testing the nature of borehole walls; Formation testing; Methods or apparatus for obtaining samples of soil or well fluids, specially adapted to earth drilling or wells
    • E21B49/08Obtaining fluid samples or testing fluids, in boreholes or wells
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/17Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated
    • G01N21/25Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands
    • G01N21/27Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands using photo-electric detection ; circuits for computing concentration
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/85Investigating moving fluids or granular solids
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/17Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated
    • G01N21/25Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands
    • G01N21/31Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry

Abstract

Optical computing devices including an electromagnetic radiation source for emitting electromagnetic radiation into an optical path; an integrated computing element (ICE) located in the optical path before or after a sample located in the optical path to generate modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical path; a selective broadband angle filter (BASF) located in the optical path to transmit the electromagnetic radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical path at a target angle of incidence, thereby generating a modified electromagnetic radiation (ASMR) selected by the angle and to reflect one or more stray reflections at angles that do not match the target angle of incidence; and a detector that receives the ASMR and generates an output signal that corresponds to a characteristic of the sample.

Description

  • GENERAL PRIOR ART
  • The embodiments included herein generally relate to systems and methods of optical computing and concretely optical computing devices comprising selective broadband angle filters.
  • Optical computing devices, commonly referred to as optical-analytical devices, can provide improved sensitivity and detection limits when using integrated computing elements. Such integrated computing elements may provide a relatively inexpensive, robust and accurate system for monitoring petroleum quality for the purpose of optimizing decision-making at a well location and efficiently managing hydrocarbon production. In some applications, the integrated computing elements may be used to improve detection limits when determining a particular characteristic of a sample, such as a substance, compound, or material, that is in a borehole, or useful in other areas of technology, including but not limited to foods and pharmaceutical, industrial, mining or any other area where it may be advantageous to determine in real time a characteristic of a substance, compound or material.
  • However, stray light reflections in optical computing devices may affect the measurement of the sample if the reflections are not from the sample itself but from another source. Such stray light reflections can account for a significant portion of the total light (eg, electromagnetic radiation) detected in the optical computing device. If it is not effectively reduced or otherwise prevented, the scattered light can alter the resulting sample signal, resulting in substantially reduced accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and detection limit. For example, such variations include, among others, high biases observed in a detector, lower spatial image resolution, saturation effects of the detector, combinations thereof, or the like. Conventionally, such stray light reflections are controlled or minimized using imaging lenses, antireflective coatings, physical diaphragms, and the like. However, such methods may not sufficiently remove stray light reflections, resulting in improved, but still inferior, signals with respect to the sample of interest.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The following figures are included to illustrate certain aspects of the embodiments described herein and are not to be considered as exclusive embodiments. The disclosed subject matter is capable of substantial modifications, changes, combinations and equivalents in form and function, as would be apparent to those skilled in the art having the benefit of this disclosure.
  • 1 FIG. 12 illustrates an exemplary integrated computing element according to one or more embodiments described herein.
  • 2 FIG. 12 illustrates a representative photonic heterostructure for use as a broadband angle selective filter according to one or more embodiments described herein. FIG.
  • 3A B illustrate an optical computing device comprising a selective wide band angle filter according to one or more embodiments described herein.
  • 4 FIG. 12 illustrates an exemplary system for detecting a characteristic of a sample using an optical computing device comprising a selective broadband angle filter, according to one or more embodiments.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The embodiments included herein generally relate to systems and methods of optical computing and concretely optical computing devices comprising selective broadband angle filters.
  • In the exemplary systems and methods described herein, various configurations of optical computing devices, commonly referred to as "optical analytical devices", are used, with selective broadband angle filters (BASF) for rapid analysis of a characteristic of a sample of interest, such as a sample in a Flow path, a static sample, a sample on a conveyor belt and the like, are used. The disclosed systems and methods may be suitable for use in the oil and gas industry, as the described optical computing devices provide a low cost, robust and accurate means for identifying one or more characteristics of a sample of interest to control oil and gas production and / or to facilitate the safety of oil and gas wells. For example, the optical computing devices described herein may identify a characteristic of a sample in a flow path, such as a wellbore. Such characteristics may enable monitoring of petroleum quality for the purpose of decision-making at a well location and for efficient management of hydrocarbon production. In some applications, the optical computing devices disclosed herein may be useful in improving detection limits when determining a particular characteristic of a substance, compound, or material present in a borehole by reducing or eliminating stray light reflections. It should be understood, however, that the various systems and methods disclosed are equally applicable in other fields of technology including, but not limited to, the food and pharmaceutical industries, industrial applications, mining, or any area in which it may be advantageous, in real time or near to Real time to determine a characteristic of a sample of interest, including flowing samples. As used herein, the term "flowing" refers to circulation or movement of a fluid sample with respect to the optical computing devices disclosed herein.
  • Hereinafter, one or more illustrative embodiments incorporating the disclosure contained herein are presented. For the sake of clarity, not all features of an actual implementation in this application are described or shown. It should be understood that in developing an actual embodiment incorporating the present disclosure, numerous implementation-specific decisions must be made to achieve the goals of the developer, such as compliance with systemic, business, governmental, and other constraints, as appropriate Implementation and change from time to time. Although efforts on the part of a developer may be complex and time consuming, such efforts will nevertheless be routine to one of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of this disclosure.
  • It should be noted that the term "about" herein modifies every number in the numerical list at the beginning of a numerical list. In some numerical listings of scopes, some listed lower limits may be above some listed upper limits. One skilled in the art will recognize that the selected subset requires selection of an upper limit that is above the selected lower limit. Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of components in the present specification and claims are to be understood to be modified in all instances by the term "about". Accordingly, the numerical parameters set forth in the following specification and appended claims are, unless stated otherwise, approximations that vary depending on the desired characteristics to be obtained from the exemplary embodiments described herein can. At least, and not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalent embodiments to the scope of the claim, each numerical parameter should be interpreted at least in light of the number of significant digits reported and the use of ordinary rounding techniques.
  • Although compositions and methods are described herein as comprising "various components or steps," the compositions and methods may also "consist essentially of" the various components and steps, or "consist" thereof. When "comprising" is used in a claim, this term is open.
  • As used herein, the term "fluid" refers to any substance capable of flowing, including particulate solids, liquids, gases, slurries, emulsions, powders, slurries, glass, combinations thereof, and the like. In some embodiments, the fluid may be an aqueous fluid, including water or the like. In some embodiments, the fluid may be a nonaqueous fluid, including organic compounds, specific hydrocarbons, oil, a refined component of oil, petrochemical products, and the like. In some embodiments, the fluid may be a treatment fluid or a formation fluid. Fluids may include various fluid mixtures of solids, liquids and / or gases. Illustrative gases that For example, according to the present embodiments, fluids may be considered to include air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, helium, hydrogen sulfide, mercaptan, thiophene, methane, ethane, butane, and other hydrocarbon gases and / or the like.
  • As used herein, the term "characteristic" refers to a chemical or physical property of a substance. A characteristic of a substance may include a quantitative value of one or more chemical components contained therein. Such chemical components may be referred to as "analytes". Illustrative characteristics of a substance that can be monitored with the computing devices disclosed herein include, for example, the chemical composition (identity and concentration, total or for individual components), contaminant level, pH, viscosity, density, ionic strength, the total amount of dissolved solids, salinity, porosity, opacity, bacterial content, combinations thereof and the like.
  • As used herein, the term "electromagnetic radiation" refers to infrared radiation, near infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet light, vacuum UV light, X-radiation, gamma radiation, and any combination thereof.
  • As used herein, the term "optical computing device" refers to an optical device configured to receive an input of electromagnetic radiation from a substance or sample of the substance (collectively referred to as "sample") and an output of electromagnetic radiation from one To produce processing element. The processing element may be, for example, an integrated computing element ("ICE"). The electromagnetic radiation emanating from the processing element is changed in some way to be readable by a detector so that an output signal of the detector can be correlated with at least one characteristic of the sample. The output of electromagnetic radiation from the processing element may be reflected electromagnetic radiation, transmitted electromagnetic radiation, and / or dispersed electromagnetic radiation. It should be understood that it is the object of routine experimentation to analyze whether reflected or transmitted electromagnetic radiation from the detector. In addition, emission and / or scattering of the substance, for example via fluorescence, luminescence, radiation and re-emission, Raman scattering and / or Rayleigh scattering by the optical computing devices may also be monitored.
  • As used herein, the term "sample", or variations thereof, refers to at least a portion of a substance of interest to be tested or otherwise evaluated using the optical computing devices described herein. The sample includes the characteristic of interest as defined above and may be any fluid as defined herein or otherwise any solid substance or solid material such as, but not limited to, rock formations, concrete, other solid surfaces, etc.
  • As used herein, the term "optically interacting" or variations thereof refers to the reflection, transmission, scattering, diffraction, radiation, re-radiation or absorption of electromagnetic radiation either to, through or from (em) or several processing elements, such as integrated computing elements. Accordingly, optically interacting light refers to light that has been, for example, reflected, transmitted, scattered, diffracted or absorbed, emitted, blasted, or re-blasted using the integrated computing elements, but may also be for interaction with a sample substance.
  • Unlike conventional spectroscopic elements that measure and generate an electromagnetic spectrum of a sample that requires further interpretation to obtain a result, the final output of optical computing devices described herein is a real number that correlates in some ways with a characteristic of a sample of interest can be correlated. Additionally, significant advantages may be realized by including in the optical computing devices one or more selective broadband angle filters that reduce or eliminate stray light reflections that may interfere with the output signal with respect to a characteristic of a sample. As used herein, a "selective broadband angle filter" (or "BASF") refers to a filter that screens broadband light with respect to an angle of incidence. As used herein, the term "angle of incidence" refers to the angle that an incident beam of electromagnetic radiation normally has with respect to an area.
  • In addition, significant benefits can be realized by having the outputs of two or more integrated computing elements and / or two or more BASFs in an optical computing device in the Analysis of a sample together, as described below, are combined. In particular, in some cases, a significantly increased detection accuracy can be implemented. Any of the methods described herein may be carried out by combining the outputs of two or more integrated computing elements and / or two or more BASFs. The integrated computational elements and / or BASF's whose outputs are combined may be linked to or separate from a characteristic of interest, show a positive or negative response in the analysis of the characteristic of interest, or any combination thereof.
  • As previously mentioned, optical computing devices are robust by their operational simplicity and are well suited for field or process environments, including use in a subterranean formation. For example, the optical computing devices described herein may analyze fluids commonly found in the oil and gas industry, including during use in a subterranean formation.
  • A clear and significant advantage of the optical computing devices disclosed herein is that they may be configured to specifically detect and / or measure a characteristic of a sample, thereby enabling qualitative and / or quantitative analysis of the characteristic without requiring a time-consuming process Process must be performed for the sample processing or without the electromagnetic spectrum of the sample must be recorded and processed. With an existing rapid analysis capability, the exemplary systems and methods described herein may be capable of determining the percentage of a characteristic of a sample so that an operator can determine if the characteristic is within a certain acceptable limit. If the characteristic of the sample is outside the acceptable limit (usually too high), corrective action can be taken. The use of the optical computing devices described herein for detecting a characteristic of a sample may also be advantageous for enabling the collection and archiving of information relating to such samples for particular modes of operation in conjunction with operational information, to optimize subsequent modes of operation, and the like.
  • In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an optical computing device comprising an electromagnetic radiation source that emits electromagnetic radiation into an optical path. As used herein, the term "optical path" refers to the path that traverses electromagnetic radiation emanating from a source and terminating at a detector. In the optical path, a sample, an ICE and a BASF are positioned in any configuration. This means that the sample can come before or after the ICE, the ICE can come before or after BASF and BASF can come before or after the trial. Additionally, more than one ICE and / or more than one BASF may be in the optical path without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.
  • The exemplary systems and methods described herein include at least one optical computing device configured to measure at least one characteristic of a sample, such as in a flow path that may be in a subterranean formation (eg, a borehole). In some embodiments, the optical computing devices that are suitable for use in the exemplary systems and methods described herein may be portable or portable.
  • According to the embodiments described herein, an optical computing device may include an electromagnetic radiation source, at least one processing element (eg, an ICE), at least one BASF, and at least one detector arranged to receive optically interacting light after being coupled to the at least one an ICE that has interacted with at least one BASF and one sample in any combination. However, in at least one embodiment, the electromagnetic radiation source may be omitted, and instead the electromagnetic radiation may originate from the sample itself. Specifically, in some embodiments, the exemplary optical computing devices may be configured to detect, analyze, and quantitatively measure a particular characteristic of a sample, such as a concentration of a component of the sample or other characteristics discussed in greater detail below. In other embodiments, the optical computing devices may be universal optical devices with post-acquisition processing (eg, by computer means) that are used to specifically detect the characteristic of the sample.
  • The optical computing devices currently described combine the benefits of performance, precision and accuracy associated with laboratory spectrometers while being extremely powerful robust and suitable for field use. Further, the optical computing devices can perform calculations (analyzes) in real time or near real time without the need for time-consuming sample processing. In this regard, the optical computing devices may be specifically configured to detect and analyze certain characteristics of a sample. In some embodiments, the detected output may be converted to a current magnitude or voltage indicative of the magnitude of the characteristic of the sample.
  • The optical computing devices of the present disclosure operate by discriminating between optical (or voltage) signals with respect to a characteristic of a sample and spurious signals (e.g., stray light or "ghost" signals). Such stray light (also referred to herein as " stray light reflections " and " stray radiation reflections ") refers to an optical signal which is not related to the specimen of interest and which tends to alter the desired signal carried by the optical beam path and the specimen or specimen Characteristic of it corresponds. If not effectively reduced or otherwise prevented, the stray light may serve to adversely affect the detected electromagnetic radiation, resulting in substantially reduced accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and detection limit. Previous means of reducing stray light relied, for example, on physical masking techniques, apertures and shields. However, in the embodiments contained herein, one or more computing elements and selective broadband angle filters are synergistically combined to reduce or eliminate stray light and the sensitivity and output signal of the optical computing devices comprising them as compared to amplify previously used agents (eg to reduce the signal-to-noise ratio).
  • Not only may the optical computing devices be configured to detect the composition and concentrations of a sample, but they may also be configured to be based on their analysis of the electromagnetic radiation received from the optical beam path including the sample To determine properties and other characteristics of the sample. For example, the optical computing devices may be configured to determine the concentration of the sample using appropriate processing means and to correlate the determined concentration with a characteristic of the sample. It is understood that the optical computing devices may be configured to detect as many characteristics as desired for a given sample. All that is required to achieve the monitoring of multiple characteristics of interest is the incorporation of appropriate processing and detection means in the optical computing device for each characteristic of interest (e.g., concentration of an analyte, and the like). In some embodiments, the properties of the sample may be determined using a combination of characteristics of interest (e.g., a linear, nonlinear, logarithmic, and / or exponential combination). Accordingly, the more characteristics are detected and analyzed using the optical computing devices, the more accurately the properties of the sample are determined. For example, properties of a sample that may be determined using optical computing devices described herein may include, but are not limited to, the absolute concentration of an analyte, the respective ratios of two or more analytes, the presence or absence of an analyte, and the like, and any combination thereof.
  • In the optical computing devices described herein, electromagnetic radiation is used to perform calculations, unlike the hardwired circuits of conventional electronic processors. When electromagnetic radiation interacts with a sample, unique physical and chemical information about the sample can be encoded in the electromagnetic radiation that is reflected from or transmitted through or emanating from an optical pathway comprising the sample. The optical computing devices described herein are capable of extracting the information of the spectral fingerprint of a plurality of characteristics of a sample and converting that information into a detectable output in view of the overall characteristics of the monitored material of interest. That is, by appropriate configurations of the optical computing devices, electromagnetic radiation associated with characteristics of interest may be separated from electromagnetic radiation associated with all other components of the material of interest to enhance the properties of the monitored substance (e.g. Contamination) in real time or near real time, particularly by synergistic operation of the one or more ICEs and the one or more BASFs comprising the optical computing devices.
  • The processing elements used in the exemplary optical computing devices described herein may be characterized as integrated computing elements (ICE). Each ICE is capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation that is optical with a sample in an optical beam path has interacted to distinguish from other electromagnetic radiation. In relation to 1 becomes an exemplary ICE 100 which is suitable for use in the optical computing devices used in the systems and methods described herein. As illustrated, the ICE 100 a variety of alternating layers 102 and 104 , such as silicon (Si) and SiO 2 (quartz), respectively. In general, these layers exist 102 . 104 made of materials whose refractive index is high and low. Other examples may include niobium oxide and niobium, germanium and germanium oxide, MgF, SiO x, and other high and low index materials known in the art. The layers 102 . 104 can strategically on an optical substrate 106 be deposited. In some embodiments, the optical substrate is 106 optical BK-7 glass. In other embodiments, the optical substrate 106 another type of optical substrate such as quartz, sapphire, silicon, germanium, zinc selenide, zinc sulfide or various plastics such as polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), diamond, ceramics, combinations thereof and the like.
  • At the opposite end (eg, opposite the optical substrate 106 in 1 ) can the ICE 100 a layer 108 which is generally exposed to the environment of the device or installation. The number of layers 102 . 104 and the thickness of each layer 102 . 104 are determined from the spectral attributes acquired from a spectroscopic analysis of a characteristic of interest using a conventional spectroscopic instrument. The spectrum of interest of a given characteristic of interest usually includes any number of different wavelengths. It is understood that the exemplary ICE 100 in 1 actually does not represent a particular characteristic of interest, but is provided merely for the purpose of illustration. Consequently, the number of layers indicate 102 . 104 and their respective thicknesses, as in 1 showed no correlation to any particular characteristic of interest. The layers 102 . 104 and their respective thicknesses are not necessarily drawn to scale and therefore should not be construed as limiting the present disclosure. In addition, a person skilled in the art will readily recognize that the materials used in each layer 102 . 104 may vary (ie, Si and SiO 2 ) depending on the application, material cost, and / or applicability of the materials for the monitored substance.
  • In some embodiments, the material of each layer 102 . 104 or two or more materials can be combined in a manner to achieve the desired optical characteristic. In addition to solids, the exemplary ICE 100 also containing liquids and / or gases, optionally in combination with solids, to produce a desired optical characteristic. In the case of gases and liquids, the ICE 100 a corresponding vessel (not shown) containing the gases or liquids. Exemplary variations of the ICE 100 In addition, holographic optical elements, gratings, piezoelectrics, a light tube, a digital light tube (DLP), molecular factor devices, variable optical attenuators, and / or acousto-optic elements can be used to produce, for example, transmission, reflection, and / or absorption properties of a material of interest or contaminant can.
  • The several layers 102 . 104 have different refractive indices. By the materials of the layers 102 . 104 and their respective thicknesses and distances can be selected properly, the ICE 100 be configured to selectively forward / reflect / fracture predetermined fractions of electromagnetic radiation having different wavelengths. Each wavelength is given a predetermined weighting or loading factor. The thickness and the distance of the layers 102 . 104 can be determined using a variety of approximation methods from the spectrograph of the characteristic of interest. These methods can be an inverse Fourier transform (IFT) of the optical transmission spectrum and a structuring of the ICE 100 as the physical representation of the IFT. The approximations transform the IFT into a structure based on known materials with constant refractive indices.
  • The weights that apply to the layers 102 . 104 of the ICE 100 are applied at each wavelength, are set to the regression weights described with respect to a known equation, or data or spectral signature. In short, the ICE 100 be configured to the scalar product of the input beam into the ICE 100 and a desired charged regression vector passing through each layer 102 . 104 is displayed for each wavelength. As a result, the integrated output light intensity of the ICE 100 associated with the characteristic of interest.
  • The BASF of the present disclosure can be used anywhere in the optical path, described in more detail below, to reflect scattered electromagnetic radiation, thereby improving the signal in the optical path with respect to the sample or the characteristic of interest of the sample which is received by a detector. In particular, BASF transmits electromagnetic radiation and reflects one or more scattered light reflections at angles that do not match a target angle of incidence. In addition, since the refractive index of many types of samples may not be extremely sensitive to wavelength, the target angle of incidence may be the same for a broad band of frequencies using the same BASF. BASF reflects all or substantially all of the electromagnetic radiation that propagates at angles that do not match the target angle of incidence. As used herein, the term "substantially" means mostly, but not necessarily completely.
  • Any BASF may be used in the optical path in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure. In some embodiments, the ability of a BASF to reflect stray light and transmit signals having a target angle of incidence, largely from the presence of optical band gaps in the BASF, can prevent light propagation at certain frequencies and their transmission at an angle of incidence, and the ability of photonic Heterostructures depend on expanding such bandgaps. As used herein, the term "bandgap" and grammatical variants thereof refer to regions of photon frequencies in which photons can not be transmitted through a material. As used herein, the term "photonic heterostructures" (or merely "heterostructures") refers to stacking of photonic materials (eg, photonic crystals) having different optical refractive indices. In some embodiments, the heterostructures described herein may be formed using quarter wave stacks having varying refractive indices and each corresponding in thickness to one quarter of an optical wavelength.
  • The "refractive index" of a material (eg, a sample of interest) of an optical medium is a dimensionless number that describes how much electromagnetic radiation is diffracted or refracted as it propagates through a material. The refractive index (n) of a material is given by Equation 1:
    Figure DE112015006166T5_0002
    where ε r is the relative permittivity of the material and μ r is the relative permeability of the material. The relative permittivity and the relative permeability of a material depend on the frequency and thus on the wavelength. Typically, the relative permeability of a material at optical frequencies is (although not always) substantially equal to one (the integer 1) for most naturally occurring materials, and accordingly, the variable indices of refraction of the photonic material (eg, photonic crystal) in the heterostructures described herein are substantially or entirely based on the relative permittivity of the material.
  • In relation to 2 becomes a representative photonic heterostructure 200 which may be used to form the BASFs of the present disclosure. The heterostructure 200 is made up of alternating layers of a photonic material 204 high index and a photonic material 206 shaped with low index. As by the dashed lines 208 Shown, the number of layers of a photonic material 204 high index and a photonic material 206 low index depending on the design of the heterostructure 200 vary. For example, the layers of the heterostructure 200 more than about 5 bilayers, with a bilayer comprising a layer of material 204 high index and a layer of a material 206 with low index. That is, the number of bilayers is not limited according to the methods of the present disclosure. In some embodiments, the number of bilayers in the quarter-wave stack 202 between a lower limit of about 5 bilayers, 10 bilayers, 20 bilayers, 30 bilayers, 40 bilayers, 50 bilayers, 60 bilayers, 70 bilayers, 80 bilayers, 90 bilayers, 100 bilayers, 110 bilayers, 120 bilayers, 130 bilayers, 140 bilayers, 150 bilayers, 160 bilayers, 170 bilayers, 180 bilayers, 190 bilayers, 200 bilayers, 210 bilayers, 220 bilayers, 230 bilayers, 240 bilayers and 250 bilayers and an upper limit of about 500 bilayers, 490 bilayers, 480 bilayers, 470 bilayers, 460 Double layers, 450 bilayers, 440 bilayers, 430 bilayers, 420 bilayers, 410 bilayers, 400 bilayers, 390 bilayers, 380 bilayers, 370 bilayers, 360 bilayers, 350 bilayers, 340 bilayers, 330 bilayers, 320 bilayers . There are 310 bilayers, 300 bilayers, 290 bilayers, 280 bilayers, 270 bilayers, 260 bilayers, and 250 bilayers, with any value and any subset, even or odd, trapped therebetween. In some embodiments, each of the layers or bilayers may additionally comprise bilayers to cover the band gaps for a particular BASF comprising the heterostructure 200 , are desired to refine further.
  • When an increasing number of bilayers with photonic material 204 high index and photonic material 206 with low index is added, the transmission of certain angles of incidence of electromagnetic radiation is reduced, whereby the reflection of these angles of incidence is increased. As shown, the heterostructure includes 200 alternating layers of bilayers with photonic material 204 high index and photonic material 206 with low index; however, the heterostructure may be 200 In other embodiments, layers of photonic material (or bilayers or layers comprising one or more bilayers) that represent a geometric series of refractive indices such that the refractive indices of the layers geometrically increase or decrease thereby further modifying the bandgap for particular wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation becomes.
  • As illustrated, the heterostructure excludes 200 1: 1 stacks (ie, bilayers) having an equal thickness, such as an equal optical thickness (e.g., one quarter of an optical wavelength in thickness). However, a higher order stack may also be suitable for use as the BASF of the present disclosure. For example, a 2: 1 or 3: 1 stack for photonic material 204 high index: photonic material 206 with low index or for photonic material 206 low index: photonic material 204 be suitable with a high index. Another higher order stack may also be employed without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. In addition, the double or triple stacking of one type of photonic material can be virtually a single layer of increased thickness. For these higher order stacks, the ratio between the optical thickness of high index photonic material and low index photonic material can be adjusted in integer multiples, such as by decreasing the thickness of the high index photonic material while preserving the desired spectral bandgaps become.
  • In some embodiments, the size, thickness, or shape of two adjacent photonic materials in a heterostructure that forms a BASF according to the present disclosure may be varied to achieve a desired bandgap. For example (not shown), a second layer A may be arranged to be smaller in size than a first and third layer B surrounding the layer A. The second layer A may have a photonic bandgap that is within the photonic bandgap of the first and third layers B. Accordingly, electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength outside the band gap of layer A but within the band gap of layer B is reflected by layer B and thus retained within layer A.
  • In some embodiments, the material comprising the layers of the heterostructure 200 Forming the BASF forms any photonic crystal material, including isotropic and anisotropic material, that is in relation to each other in the layers containing the heterostructure 200 forms, can be arranged alternately or otherwise. The photonic crystal layers may include, but are not limited to, a silicon-based compound (eg, silica, silicon, and the like), a tantalum-based compound (eg, tantalum pentoxide), a Group III-V compound semiconductor (eg, gallium arsenide, indium gallium arsenide, Indium phosphide and the like), a Group IVB metal compound (e.g., titanium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, and the like), a dielectric, and any combination thereof.
  • In relation to 3A Now, a block diagram will be illustrated that does not mechanistically illustrate how an optical computing device 300 is capable of discriminating electromagnetic radiation with respect to a characteristic of interest in a sample from other electromagnetic radiation, and how a BASF is capable of distinguishing electromagnetic radiation having a target angle of incidence of electromagnetic radiation other than the electromagnetic field Target incidence angle matches. As in 3A shown, generates a sample 302 after being illuminated with electromagnetic radiation, an output of electromagnetic radiation (eg, light interacting with the sample), part of which is electromagnetic radiation 304 which corresponds to the characteristic of interest and is characterized by a target angle of incidence, and part of which is background electromagnetic radiation 306 is, the other characteristics of the sample 302 or other electromagnetic background radiation.
  • The light interacting with the sample 304 and 306 may in some embodiments refer to a first BASF 308 (shown with dashed lines) meet. The first BASF 308 it can be the light interacting with the sample 304 , which corresponds to the interesting characteristic and with the target angle of incidence, allow to be transmitted therethrough while the light 306 , which does not coincide with the target angle of incidence, which reflects the reflected light 306a formed and of the optical computing device 300 is diverted away. Accordingly, the first BASF 308 in the optical computing device 300 can be used to limit the optical wavelengths and / or bandwidths of the system that do not coincide with the target angle of incidence, thereby eliminating unwanted electromagnetic radiation present in wavelength ranges that are meaningless.
  • The rays of electromagnetic radiation 304 meet with the target angle of incidence when the first BASF 308 is used on the optical computing device 300 which is an exemplary ICE in it 310 contains. In the illustrated embodiment, the ICE 310 be configured to light interacting with the sample 304 to process and the modified electromagnetic radiation 312 and 314 to create. The modified electromagnetic radiation 312 corresponds to a target angle of incidence and the modified electromagnetic radiation 314 corresponds to electromagnetic radiation (or merely "light" as used herein) that does not match the target angle of incidence. In some embodiments, the target angle of incidence may be from the light interacting with the sample 304 and the modified electromagnetic radiation 312 may be the same or different without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. As used herein, the term "modified electromagnetic radiation" refers to electromagnetic radiation that has optically interacted with both a sample and an ICE in any order. For example, as in 3B and in continued relation to 3A shown the optical computing device 301 in some cases be configured to use the ICE 310 before the rehearsal 302 can be located in an optical beam path, wherein the electromagnetic radiation 304 first with the ICE 310 interacts optically to generate optically interacting radiation (eg, light interacting with the ICE) in an optical beam path, part of which is electromagnetic radiation 304 which corresponds to the characteristic of interest and is characterized by a target angle of incidence, and part of which is background electromagnetic radiation 306 is, the other characteristics of the sample 302 or other electromagnetic background radiation. Then the optically interacting radiation optically interacts with the sample 302 to the modified electromagnetic radiation 312 . 314 to generate in the optical beam path. One or more BASFs (two shown) 308 . 316 may additionally be positioned in the optical path to the light 306a . 314a to reflect at different points along the optical path. The modified electromagnetic radiation 312 can go to the detector 318 to get promoted. In other embodiments, as in 3A shown, the ICE 310 in the optical path after the sample 302 localized, the electromagnetic radiation 304 initially visually with the sample 302 interacts to generate optically interacting radiation (eg, light interacting with the sample) and then the optically interacting radiation with the ICE 310 optically interacts with the modified electromagnetic radiation 312 . 314 to generate in the optical beam path. That is, the arrangement of the sample 302 in relation to the ICE 310 is not limiting in the optical beam path and not the ability of the optical computing device 300 for detecting a characteristic of interest of the sample 302 impaired.
  • As in 3A In some embodiments, a second BASF 316 in the optical beam path after the ICE 310 be positioned to the modified electromagnetic radiation 312 to transmit, which has the target angle of incidence and the modified electromagnetic radiation 314 which does not coincide with the target angle of incidence, thereby reflecting the reflected light 314a formed and from a detector 318 is diverted away. The first BASF 308 and the second BASF 316 may be substantially or completely the same (eg of the same material, of the same layer size, tuned to the same target angle of incidence and the like) or substantially different without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. The type of BASF selected may depend on the target angle of incidence desired at a particular location in the optical path, which itself depends on the nature of the sample 302 , the interesting characteristic of the sample 302 , the order of contact of electromagnetic radiation with the various components of the optical computing device 300 and the like may depend. In addition, the first BASF 308 or the second BASF 316 are used in the optical beam path alone or in combination with each other. In addition, other BASFs (eg 308 . 316 ) at any location in the optical path, such as to ensure fine tuning of the transmission of the target angle of incidence, and to reflect stray light that does not coincide with the target angle of incidence. For example, a BASF in the optical path, between the electromagnetic radiation source and the sample, between the sample and the ICE, between the ICE and the detector, and any combination thereof.
  • The modified electromagnetic radiation 312 can for an analysis and quantification to the detector 318 to get promoted. In some embodiments, the detector may be 318 be configured to generate an output signal in the form of a current or voltage that a certain characteristic of the sample 302 equivalent. In at least one embodiment, the signal received from the detector 318 is generated and the characteristic of the sample 302 (eg concentration of an analyte of the sample 302 ) be directly proportional. In other embodiments, the relationship may be a polynomial function, an exponential function, and / or a logarithm function. The reflected scattered light 306a . 314a , which with other characteristics of the sample 302 or not to the test 302 related light may be from the detector 318 be diverted away. In alternative configurations (not shown), the ICE 310 and / or the BASFs 308 . 316 be configured so that the reflected optically interacting light 306a . 314a with a characteristic of the sample 302 can be related and the transmitted optically interacting and / or modified radiation 304 . 312 with another characteristic of the sample 302 , without departing from the scope of the present disclosure, and the reflected optically interacting light 306a . 314a may be conveyed to a second detector (not shown) for analysis and quantification.
  • In some embodiments, the reflected optically interacting light 306a . 314a with characteristics of the sample 302 non-interesting or, in some cases, it may concern variations in radiation, including, for example, intensity variations in electromagnetic radiation, variations in an interfering substance (eg, dust or other interfering substances passing by an electromagnetic radiation source), Coatings on windows with the optical computing device 300 are included (eg sample windows), combinations thereof or the like.
  • The characteristic of interest or characteristics of interest, using the optical computing device 300 may be further analyzed and / or analyzed to provide additional characterization information about the sample 302 or to provide an analyte thereof. In some embodiments, the identification and concentration of one or more analytes of a sample 302 used to determine certain physical characteristics of the sample 202 or the analyte thereof. For example, the amount of sample 202 for example, to determine if it is within acceptable limits. Accordingly, if one or more optical computing devices 300 according to the methods contained herein, to obtain a characteristic of interest of a sample 302 detect different acceptable limits for the one or more characteristics.
  • In some embodiments, the magnitude of the characteristic of interest may be determined using the optical computing device 300 is determined to be incorporated into an algorithm that operates under computer control. The algorithm may be configured to determine if the sample 302 or the characteristic of interest of the sample 302 within programmed acceptable limits, which may be limited depending on a particular operation. In some embodiments, the algorithm may generate an output that is readable by an operator, who may manually take appropriate action based on the reported output as needed. In some embodiments, the algorithm may instruct the operator how to take a corrective action (eg, how much of the sample 302 or the characteristic of interest of the sample 302 within acceptable limits). In other embodiments, the algorithm may perform proactive process control (eg, halt operation, a composition comprising the sample 302 or a characteristic of interest of the sample 302 , change and the like). It should be appreciated that the algorithm (eg, an artificial neural network) may be trained using samples having predetermined characteristics of interest and thereby generating a virtual collection. As the virtual collection available to the artificial neural network becomes larger, the neural network may be better able to sample 302 or the characteristic of interest of the sample 302 to predict exactly. Furthermore, even with the presence of unknown analytes, the artificial neural network can more accurately sample with sufficient training 302 or the characteristic of interest of the sample 302 predict.
  • In some embodiments, the data obtained using the optical computing devices 300 be archived together with data associated with operating parameters recorded at a jobsite. The assessment of work performance may then be assessed and improved for future modes of operation, or such information may be used to design subsequent modes of operation. Additionally, the data and information may be communicated to a remote location (wired or wireless) for further analysis by a communications system (eg, satellite communications or wide area network communications). The communication system may also allow remote monitoring to take place. Automated control with a long range communication system may also facilitate the performance of remote deployment modes. In particular, in some embodiments, an artificial neural network may be used to facilitate the performance of remote deployment modes. That is, remote deployment modes may be automatically performed in some embodiments. However, in other embodiments remote operation modes may occur under direct operator control, with the operator not on site (eg, via wireless technology).
  • In relation to 4 now becomes an exemplary system 400 to monitor or determine a particular characteristic of a sample 402 illustrated in accordance with one or more embodiments. In the illustrated embodiment, the sample may 402 in a river path 404 although the sample is 402 not in a river path 404 must be included in order to comply with the embodiments described herein. The river path 404 For example, it may be part of a sample chamber in a formation tester or part of a well and the like. The sample 402 can in the river path 404 flow or otherwise move therein and it may flow in the general direction indicated by the arrows A (ie, upstream to downstream). It is understood, however, that the river path 404 in any direction including a circular direction, without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.
  • The system 400 can be at least one optical computing device 406 which in some respects is the optical computing device 300 out 3A , B can resemble. Although not shown, the device may 406 be received in a casing or housing configured to substantially the internal components of the device 406 from damage or contamination from the outside environment. The housing can be operated to the device 406 For example, with mechanical fasteners, brazing or welding methods, adhesives, magnets, other fasteners, combinations thereof or the like mechanically to the flow path 404 to pair or otherwise place in communication.
  • As described in more detail below, the optical computing device 406 in determining a particular characteristic of a sample 402 like one inside the river path 404 , to be useful. For example, the characteristic of the sample 402 the concentration of an analyte in the sample 402 is present. In some embodiments, the device may 406 an electromagnetic radiation source 408 include, which is configured to electromagnetic radiation 410 to emit or otherwise generate. The electromagnetic radiation source 408 may be any device that is capable of emitting or generating electromagnetic radiation as defined herein. For example, the electromagnetic radiation source 408 a light bulb, a light-emitting device (LED), a laser, a black body, a photonic crystal, an X-ray source, a gamma-ray source, combinations thereof, or the like. In some embodiments, a lens 412 be configured to the electromagnetic radiation 410 to collect or otherwise receive and receive a beam 414 of electromagnetic radiation 410 to the sample 402 to direct in an optical beam path. The Lens 412 may be any type of optical device that is configured to receive the electromagnetic radiation 410 as desired, transferred or otherwise transported. For example, the lens 412 a normal lens, a Fresnel lens, a diffractive optical element, a holographic graphical element, a mirror (e.g., a focusing mirror), a type of collimator, or any other electromagnetic radiation transmitting device known to those skilled in the art. In other embodiments, the lens 412 in terms of the device 406 be omitted and the electromagnetic radiation 410 instead can be directly from the electromagnetic radiation source 408 in the optical path to the sample 402 to get promoted.
  • In one or more embodiments, the device may 406 also a sample window 416 included for the purpose of detection adjacent to the sample 402 or otherwise arranged in contact therewith. The sample window 416 may be composed of a variety of transparent rigid or semi-rigid materials that are configured to transmit electromagnetic radiation 410 through it. For example, the sample window 416 glass, plastics, semiconductors, crystalline materials, polycrystalline materials, hot or cold pressed powders, combinations thereof, or the like. Although a sample window 416 in 4 as part of the system 400 it is understood that a sample window 416 in terms of the system 400 be omitted and the electromagnetic radiation 410 directly optically with a sample 402 can interact without first passing through a sample window 416 without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.
  • As shown, the electromagnetic radiation hits 410 after passing through the sample window 416 gone through, to the test 402 in the river path 404 visually and interacts with it. As a result, optically interacting radiation 418 through the sample 402 generated and reflected by it. However, one skilled in the art will readily recognize that there are alternative variations of the device 406 allow the optically interacting radiation 418 is generated by passing through and / or from the sample 402 or one or more analytes of the sample 402 transmitted, scattered, diffracted, absorbed, emitted or re-radiated without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.
  • The optically interacting radiation 418 by interacting with the sample 402 is generated, can become an ICE 420 that in the device 406 is arranged, directed or otherwise received by it. The ICE 420 may be a spectral component substantially similar to that previously described 1 described ICE 100 similar. Accordingly, the ICE 420 be configured in operation to the optically interacting radiation 418 to receive and the modified electromagnetic radiation 422 to generate a certain interesting characteristic of the sample 402 equivalent.
  • It should be noted, as previously discussed, that although the ICE 420 in 4 so pictured is that there is optically interacting radiation 418 from the sample 402 receives, the ICE 420 at any point along the optical path of the device 406 may be arranged without departing from the scope of the disclosure. For example, the ICE 420a (shown with dashed lines) in the optical path in front of the sample 402 and the device 406 be arranged and likewise receive substantially the same results. Accordingly, the modified electromagnetic radiation 422 by an optical interaction with at least one ICE and the sample 402 are generated in any order without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. In other embodiments, the sample window may 416 serve both as a transmission window and as an ICE (ie, a spectral component) for a dual purpose. In further embodiments, the ICE 420 the modified electromagnetic radiation 322 through reflection instead of transmission therethrough.
  • Moreover, although only one ICE is described herein 420 in the device 406 Shown is embodiments which contemplate the use of at least two ICE components in the device 406 which are configured to cooperatively determine the characteristic of interest in the sample 402 to determine. For example, two or more ICE components may be in the device 406 be arranged in series or in parallel at any point along the optical path and be configured to the electromagnetic radiation 410 or the optically interacting radiation 418 to receive sensitivities and detector limits of the device 406 to improve. In other embodiments, two or more ICE components may be disposed on a moveable assembly, such as a rotatable disk or a vibrating linear array, that moves such that the individual ICE components are capable of a different short one Period of exposure or otherwise optically with electromagnetic radiation 410 to interact. The two or more ICE components in any of these embodiments may be configured to match either the characteristic of interest in the sample 402 linked or separated from it. In other embodiments, the two or more ICE components may be configured to have a positive or negative correlation to the characteristic of interest.
  • In some embodiments, it may be desirable to have more than one characteristic of interest at one time using the device 406 to monitor. In such embodiments, various configurations may be used for multiple ICE components, with each ICE component being configured to detect a particular and / or different characteristic of interest, such as a characteristic of the sample 402 equivalent. In some embodiments, the characteristic of interest may be analyzed sequentially using multiple ICE components in which a single beam of optically interacting radiation 418 from the sample 402 reflected or transmitted thereby. In some embodiments, multiple ICE components 320 be arranged on a rotatable disc, wherein the individual ICE components with respect to the beam of optically interacting radiation 418 only exposed for a short time. Advantages of this approach may include the ability to analyze several interesting characteristics of a sample 402 (or more types of samples 402 ) using a single device 406 and include the ability to explore additional properties by merely adding additional ICE components corresponding to these additional characteristics or different types of samples 402 correspond. Again, it should be noted that the one or more ICE component (s) before, after, or before and after (ie, when multiple ICE components are used) of the sample 402 can be located without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.
  • In other embodiments, multiple devices 406 at a single point along the river path 404 be placed, with each device 406 contains a unique ICE configured to provide a particular characteristic of interest to the sample 402 to detect. In such embodiments, a beam splitter may include a portion of the optically interacting radiation 418 divert that from the sample 402 and in every device 406 reflected, emitted by or transmitted by them. As described in more detail below, a BASF according to the embodiments described herein may also be used as a beam splitter to accomplish this purpose. Every device 406 may in turn be coupled to a corresponding detector or detector array configured to provide electromagnetic radiation output from the corresponding device 406 to detect and analyze. Parallel configurations of optical computing devices 406 may be particularly advantageous for applications requiring low power inputs and / or no moving parts.
  • The modified electromagnetic radiation 422 passing through the ICE 420 can then be used to quantify the signal to a detector 424 to get promoted. The detector 424 may be any device that is capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation and may generally be characterized as an optical transducer. In some embodiments, the detector may be 424 among others, a thermal detector, such as a thermopile or a photoacoustic detector, a semiconductor detector, a piezoelectric detector, a charge coupled device (CCD) detector, a video or array detector, a split detector, a quad detector , a photon detector (such as a photomultiplier tube), photodiodes, combinations thereof, or the like, or other detectors known to those skilled in the art.
  • In some embodiments, the detector may be 424 be configured to receive an output signal 426 in the form of a voltage (or current) in real time, or near real time, that will produce the particular characteristic of interest of the sample 402 equivalent. The voltage coming from the detector 424 is essentially the scalar product of the optical interaction of the modified electromagnetic radiation 422 in relation to the ICE 420 as a function of the characteristic of interest. Therefore, the output signal 426 that from the detector 424 and the characteristic of interest may have a relationship that is directly proportional or may correspond to a polynomial function, an exponential function, a logarithm function, a combination thereof, or the like.
  • In some embodiments, the device may 406 a second detector 428 which is the first detector 424 in that it may be any device capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation. The second detector 428 can be used to detect deviations in the radiation emitted by the electromagnetic radiation source 408 come. There may be undesirable variations in the intensity of the electromagnetic radiation due to a variety of reasons 410 occur and possibly different negative effects on the output of the device 406 to have. These adverse effects may be particularly detrimental to measurements taken over a period of time. In some embodiments, the variations may be due to an accumulation of film or material on the sample window 416 occur, which may have the effect that the amount and quality of light, which is the first detector 424 finally achieved, is reduced. Without proper compensation, such variations in radiation can lead to false readings and the output signal 426 would no longer relate primarily or precisely to the characteristic of interest.
  • To compensate for these variations in light intensity, can the second detector 428 be configured to receive a compensation signal 430 generally, for the deviations in the radiation of the electromagnetic radiation source 408 is indicative, and thereby the output signal 426 normalize that by the first detector 424 is generated. As illustrated, the second detector 428 configured to be part of the optically interacting radiation 418 via a beam splitter 432 to receive to detect these variations. In other embodiments, the second detector 428 however, be arranged to receive electromagnetic radiation from any part of the optical path in the device 406 to detect variations in source intensity without departing from the scope of the disclosure.
  • In some applications, the output signal 426 and the compensation signal 430 to a signal processor 434 communicating to both detectors 424 . 428 coupled, conveyed or otherwise received therefrom. The signal processor 434 may be a computer, including a non-transitory machine-readable medium, and may be configured to compute the compensation signal 430 with the output signal 426 combine to the output signal 426 with respect to any variations of a light source intensity to be normalized by the second detector 428 be detected and a resulting output signal 436 to create. In some embodiments, computational combining of the output and compensation signals 426 . 430 calculating a ratio of the two signals 426 . 430 include. For example, the concentration or magnitude of each characteristic of interest may be determined using the optical computing device 406 is determined to be entered into an algorithm used by the signal processor 434 is performed.
  • In real time or near real time, the signal processor can 434 be configured to receive the resulting output signal 436 provide a characteristic of interest in the sample 402 equivalent. The resulting output signal 436 may be readable by an operator, the results as needed based on the output signal relative to the sample 402 (eg, a concentration of the sample 402 or a concentration of a characteristic of the sample 402 ) and make proper adjustments or take appropriate action. In some embodiments, the resulting signal output 436 either wired or wirelessly conveyed for inspection to an operator. In other embodiments, the resulting output signal 436 of the characteristic of interest from the signal processor 434 be detected to be within or beyond an acceptable limit for a particular operation and alert the operator to an out-of-range reading so that an appropriate corrective action can be taken or otherwise autonomously take the appropriate corrective action, so that the resulting output signal 436 returns to a value within the predetermined or preprogrammed range of suitable operation.
  • The potential for stray radiation is not limited to any particular location in the optical path and may occur at any point in the optical path, thereby resulting in a potential reduction in the sensitivity of the device 406 for detecting a characteristic of the sample 402 as previously discussed. For example, the sample window 416 have one or more surfaces that generate at least one or more scattered radiation reflections. Accordingly, irrespective of the particular embodiment of the device 406 , as described herein, one or more BASFs in any part of the optical path of the device 406 be placed to reflect stray light away from the optical path that does not coincide with a particular target angle of incidence (optionally including a broadband of angles) and transmit electromagnetic radiation that matches the target angle of incidence. For example, as in 4 shown with dashed lines, the BASF at one or more locations in the optical path between the electromagnetic radiation source 408 and the sample 402 be located. For example, the BASF 440a between the electromagnetic radiation source 408 and the sample 402 near the electromagnetic radiation source 408 (eg just after the optional lens 412 ). In other embodiments, BASF 440b between the electromagnetic radiation source 408 and the sample 402 near the sample 402 (eg near the sample window 416 ). The BASFs of the present disclosure may additionally use between the sample 402 and the ICE 420 , such as at a point after the sample window 416 (BASF 440c ) or right in front of the ICE 420 (BASF 440d ). In some embodiments, one or more BASFs may be between the ICE 420 and the detector 424 (BASF 440e ).
  • In some embodiments, one or more BASFs may be added before or after the optional beam splitter 432 localized (eg BASF 440c . 440d ) or the beam splitter 432 As such, BASF may be in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure such that the BASF beam splitter 432 is designed to transmit certain target angles of incidence and to reflect others that do not agree with a target angle of incidence, as previously described. One or more BASFs may also be in the optical path after the beam splitter 432 and in front of the second detector 428 without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.
  • In any case, in which a BASF in the optical beam path of the device 406 is positioned, it can serve to transmit or reflect certain electromagnetic radiation at certain angles of incidence. That is, a characteristic of interest of a sample 402 or a specific ICE 420 As previously discussed, BASF may be designed to reflect or reflect light at a particular angle of incidence and to reflect or reflect this angle of incidence, with angles of incidence that do not match the target angle reflected or transmitted inversely, respectively. In any case, in the selection and design of the BASF, depending on its position in the optical beam path can also be considered whether the electromagnetic radiation first with the ICE 420 or the sample 402 reacts, neither with the sample 402 still with the ICE 420 has reacted, both with the ICE 420 as well as the sample 402 has reacted and the like. In such a way, only or substantially only the electromagnetic radiation of interest remains 410 in the optical beam path or otherwise controlled to remain in the optical path so as to determine the output signal 422 . 430 can be taken into account.
  • In some embodiments, BASF of the present disclosure may be a stand-alone filter. As used herein, the term "standalone filter" and grammatical variants thereof refer to a selective broadband angle filter, as described herein, that is not integral with any component of the optical computing devices described herein. If BASF is a self-contained filter as described above, it can be located anywhere in the optical path including, inter alia, between the electromagnetic radiation source and the sample, between the sample and the ICE, between the ICE and the detector and any combination of them. He can then use one or more of the electromagnetic radiation 410 , the optically interacting radiation 418 (or optically interacting radiation that has interacted with an ICE and not yet with the sample), the modified electromagnetic radiation 422 (which interacted with at least one ICE and the sample in any order) and any combination thereof. After the electromagnetic radiation 410 the optically interacting radiation interacts or interacts 418 and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation 422 visually with the BASF, he can generate according to the angle selected modified electromagnetic radiation (ASMR), by the detector 424 (and or 428 ), which can then generate output signals representative of a characteristic of the sample 402 correspond.
  • As described herein, BASF 440a F additionally be a multilayer film stack resting on a component of the device 406 as a film is deposited. Such multilayer film-stock BASFs can be deposited on a component including inter alia the ICE 420 , the detector 424 . 428 , the sample window 416 , and any combination thereof, if it is in the optical path. Standard thin film deposition techniques may be used to deposit the multi-stack film layer on one or more components of the device 406 may be used without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. In some embodiments, the deposition may be accomplished by fabrication of the BASF from an optical substrate, which may then be referred to as the ICE 420 can work. In other embodiments, the multilayer film stack may be on one or more components of the device 406 using reactive magnetron sputtering, electron beam evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, and the like, and any combination thereof.
  • It is well known that the various embodiments contained herein, which are directed to computer control and artificial neural networks including various blocks, modules, elements, components, methods, and algorithms, are implemented using computer hardware, software, combinations thereof, and the like can be. To illustrate this interchangeability of hardware and software, various illustrative blocks, modules, elements, components, methods and algorithms have been generally described in terms of their functionality. Whether such functionality is implemented as hardware or software depends on the particular application and any design constraints imposed. At least for this reason, it is known that one of ordinary skill in the art can implement the described functionality for a particular application in a variety of ways. Further, various components and blocks may, for example, be arranged in a different order or otherwise partitioned without departing from the scope of the expressly described embodiments.
  • Computer hardware used to implement the various illustrative blocks, modules, elements, components, methods, and algorithms described herein may include a processor configured to execute one or more instruction sequences, programming settings, or code is stored on a non-transitory, computer-readable medium. The processor may be, for example, a general purpose microprocessor, a microcontroller, a digital signal processor, an application specific integrated circuit, a field programmable gate array, a programmable logic device, a controller, a state machine, a gated logic, stand-alone hardware components artificial neural network or any similar suitable unit that can perform calculations or other data manipulation operations. In some embodiments, computer hardware may further include elements such as memory (e.g., random access memory (RAM), flash memory, read only memory (ROM), programmable read only memory (PROM), erasable memory). Read-only memory (EPROM)) include directories, hard disks, removable media, CD-ROMs, DVDs, or any other similar suitable storage device or storage device, or any other similar suitable storage medium.
  • Executable sequences described herein may be implemented with one or more sequences of code contained in a memory. In some embodiments, such code in the memory may be read by another machine-readable medium. The execution of the instruction sequences contained in the memory may result in a processor executing the process steps described herein. One or more processors in a multi-processing arrangement may also be employed to execute instruction sequences in the memory. Additionally, hardwired circuitry may be used in place of or in combination with software instructions to implement various embodiments described herein. Thus, the present embodiments are not limited to a specific combination of hardware and / or software.
  • As used herein, a machine-readable medium refers to any medium that directly or indirectly provides instructions for a processor to execute. A machine-readable medium can take many forms, including, for example, nonvolatile media, volatile media and transmission media. Non-volatile media may include, for example, optical and magnetic disks. For example, volatile media may include dynamic memory. Transmission media may include, for example, coaxial cable, wire, fiber, and wires that form a bus. Typical forms of machine-readable media may include, for example, floppy disks, flexible disks, hard disks, magnetic tapes, other similar magnetic media, CD-ROMs, DVDs, other similar optical media, punched cards, punched tape and similar physical media with hole patterns, RAM, ROM, PROM, EPROM and include flash EPROM.
  • It should also be noted that the various drawings provided herein are not necessarily to scale and, strictly speaking, are not also optically correctly imaged, as will be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art. Instead, the drawings are merely illustrative and are generally used herein to assist in understanding the systems and methods provided herein. Although the drawings may not be optically accurate, the conceptual interpretations depicted herein in fact accurately reflect the exemplary nature of the various disclosed embodiments.
  • Embodiments included herein include:
    Embodiment A: An optical computing device comprising: an electromagnetic radiation source for emitting electromagnetic radiation into an optical beam path; an integrated computing element (ICE) located in the optical path before or after a sample located in the optical path to generate modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical path; a selective broadband angle filter (BASF) located in the optical path to transmit the electromagnetic radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical path at a target angle of incidence, thereby generating a modified electromagnetic radiation (ASMR) selected by the angle and to reflect one or more stray reflections at angles that do not match the target angle of incidence; and a detector that receives the ASMR and generates an output signal that corresponds to a characteristic of the sample.
  • Embodiment A may have one or more of the following additional elements in any combination:
    Element A1: Where the ICE is located after the sample so that the electromagnetic radiation first interacts optically with the sample to generate optically interacting radiation in the optical path, and then the optically interacting radiation optically interacts with the ICE to form the optical Beam path to generate the modified electromagnetic radiation, and wherein the BASF is located in the optical beam path to convert the electromagnetic radiation, the optically interacting radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation with a target angle of incidence in the optical beam path.
  • Element A2: Where the ICE is located in front of the sample so that the electromagnetic radiation first interacts optically with the ICE to generate optically interacting radiation in the optical path, and the optically interacting radiation then optically interacts with the sample to enter the optical path Beam path to generate the modified electromagnetic radiation, and wherein the BASF is located in the optical beam path to convert the electromagnetic radiation, the optically interacting radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation with a target angle of incidence in the optical beam path.
  • Element A3: BASF being an independent filter.
  • Element A4: wherein the BASF is a self-contained filter disposed in the optical path at a position selected from the group consisting of between the electromagnetic radiation source and the sample, between the sample and the ICE, between the ICE and the detector and any combination thereof.
  • Element A5: wherein the BASF is a multilayer film stack deposited on a component selected from the group consisting of the ICE, the detector, and any combination thereof.
  • Element A6: wherein a sample window is disposed adjacent to the sample in the optical path, the sample window having one or more surfaces to generate at least one of the one or more of the scattered radiation reflection (s).
  • Element A7, wherein a sample window is disposed adjacent to the sample in the optical path, the sample window having one or more surfaces to generate at least one of the one or more of the scattered radiation reflection (s), and wherein BASF is a multilayer film stack deposited on a component selected from the group consisting of the ICE, the detector, the sample window, and any combination thereof.
  • Element A8: Where BASF is composed of photonic crystal layers.
  • Element A9: wherein BASF is composed of photonic crystal layers selected from the group consisting of a silicon-based compound, a tantalum-based compound, a Group III-V compound semiconductor, a Group IVB metal compound, a dielectric, and any of them Combination of it.
  • Element A10: wherein the electromagnetic radiation source is selected from the group consisting of a light bulb, a light-emitting device, a laser, a black body, a photonic crystal, an x-ray source, a gamma-ray source, and any combination thereof.
  • Element A11: wherein the electromagnetic radiation source is at least one selected from the group consisting of infrared radiation, near infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet light, vacuum ultraviolet light, x-ray radiation, gamma radiation, and any combination thereof.
  • As a non-limiting example, exemplary combinations applicable to A include: A with A1 and A2; A with A1 and A3; A with A1 and A4; A with A1 and A5; A with A1 and A6; A with A1 and A7; A with A1 and A8; A with A1 and A9; A with A1 and A10; A with A1 and A11; A with A2 and A3; A with A2 and A4; A with A2 and A5; A with A2 and A6; A with A2 and A7; A with A2 and A8; A with A2 and A9; A with A2 and A10; A with A2 and A11; A with A3 and A4; A with A3 and A5; A with A3 and A6; A with A3 and A7; A with A3 and A8; A with A3 and A9; A with A3 and A10; A with A3 and A11; A with A4 and A5; A with A4 and A6; A with A4 and A7; A with A4 and A8; A with A4 and A9; A with A4 and A10; A with A4 and A11; A with A5 and A6; A with A5 and A7; A with A5 and A8; A with A5 and A9; A with A5 and A10; A with A5 and A11; A with A6 and A7; A with A6 and A8; A with A6 and A9; A with A6 and A10; A with A6 and A11; A with A7 and A8; A with A7 and A9; A with A8 and A9; A with A8 and A10; A with A8 and A11; A with A9 and A10; A with A9 and A11; A with A10 and A11; A with A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A8, A9, A10 and A11; A with A1, A3, A5 and A8; A with A1, A2, A6 and A9; A with A5, A7 and A8; A with A1, A2, A10 and A11.
  • Embodiment B: A method comprising: providing an electromagnetic radiation source that emits electromagnetic radiation into an optical path; optically interacting the electromagnetic radiation with a sample located in the optical path and an integrated computing element (ICE) located in the optical path before or after the sample to generate electromagnetic radiation in the optical path; Transmitting the electromagnetic radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation through a selective broadband angle filter (BASF) located in the optical beam path with a target angle of incidence, thereby generating a modified electromagnetic radiation (ASMR) selected by the angle; Reflecting one or more stray reflections with the BASF in the optical beam path at angles that do not match the target angle of incidence; Receiving ASMR with a detector; and generating an output signal that corresponds to a characteristic of the sample.
  • Embodiment B may have one or more of the following additional elements in any combination:
    Element B1: Where the ICE is located after the sample so that the electromagnetic radiation first interacts optically with the sample to generate optically interacting radiation in the optical path and the optically interacting radiation then optically interacts with the ICE to enter the optical path Beam path to generate the modified electromagnetic radiation, and wherein the BASF is located in the optical beam path to convert the electromagnetic radiation, the optically interacting radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation with a target angle of incidence in the optical beam path.
  • Element B2: Where the ICE is located in front of the sample so that the electromagnetic radiation first interacts optically with the ICE to generate optically interacting radiation in the optical path, and the optically interacting radiation then optically interacts with the sample to be detected in the optical path Beam path to generate the modified electromagnetic radiation, and wherein the BASF is located in the optical beam path to convert the electromagnetic radiation, the optically interacting radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation with a target angle of incidence in the optical beam path.
  • Element B3: BASF being an independent filter.
  • Element B4: where the BASF is a stand-alone filter, and further comprising placing the stand-alone BASF filter at a location selected from the group consisting of between the electromagnetic radiation source and the sample, between the sample and the ICE the ICE and the detector and any combination thereof.
  • Element B5: where the BASF is a multilayer film stack, and further comprising depositing the BASF multilayer film on a component selected from the group consisting of the ICE, the detector, and any combination thereof.
  • Element B6: further comprising arranging a sample window adjacent to the sample and transmitting the electromagnetic radiation therethrough to optically interact with the sample, the sample window having one or more surfaces containing at least one of the one or more of the scattered radiation reflection (s) ) to generate.
  • Element B7: Where the BASF is a multilayer film stack deposited on one selected from the group consisting of the ICE, the detector, the sample window, and any combination thereof.
  •  Element B8: Where BASF is composed of photonic crystal layers.
  • Element B9: where BASF is composed of photonic crystal layers selected from the group consisting of a silicon-based compound, a tantalum-based compound, a Group III-V semiconductor compound, a Group IVB metal compound, a dielectric, and any combination thereof.
  • Element B10: wherein the electromagnetic radiation source is selected from the group consisting of a light bulb, a light-emitting device, a laser, a black body, a photonic crystal, an X-ray source, a gamma-ray source, and any combination thereof.
  • Element B11: Wherein the electromagnetic radiation source is at least one selected from the group consisting of infrared radiation, near infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet light, vacuum UV light, X-ray, gamma radiation, and any combination thereof.
  • As a non-limiting example, exemplary combinations that are applicable to B include: B with B1 and B2; B with B1 and B3; B with B1 and B4; B with B1 and B5; B with B1 and B6; B with B1 and B7; B with B1 and B8; B with B1 and B9; B with B1 and B10; B with B1 and B11; B with B2 and B3; B with B2 and B4; B with B2 and B5; B with B2 and B6; B with B2 and B7; B with B2 and B8; B with B2 and B9; B with B2 and B10; B with B2 and B11; B with B3 and B4; B with B3 and B5; B with B3 and B6; B with B3 and B7; B with B3 and B8; B with B3 and B9; B with B3 and B10; B with B3 and B11; B with B4 and B5; B with B4 and B6; B with B4 and B7; B with B4 and B8; B with B4 and B9; B with B5 and B6; B with B5 and B7; B with B5 and B8; B with B5 and B9; B with B5 and B10; B with B5 and B11; B with B6 and B7; B with B6 and B8; B with B6 and B9; B with B6 and B10; B with B6 and B11; B with B7 and B8; B with B7 and B9; B with B7 and B10; B with B7 and B11; B with B8 and B9; B with B8 and B10; B with B8 and B11; B with B9 and B10; B with B9 and B11; B with B10 and B11; B with B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, B10 and B11; B with B1, B2, B7 and B9; B with B1, B3, B6 and B8; B with B4, B7 and B9; B with B1, B10 and B11.
  • Embodiment C: A system comprising: a sample disposed in an optical path; and an optical computing device disposed in the optical beam path to optically interact with the sample, the optical computing device comprising: an electromagnetic radiation source for emitting electromagnetic radiation into the optical beam path; an integrated computing element (ICE) located in the optical path before or after the sample, which is located in the optical path to generate in the optical path modified electromagnetic radiation; a selective broadband angle filter (BASF) located in the optical path to transmit the electromagnetic radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical path at a target angle of incidence, thereby generating a modified electromagnetic radiation (ASMR) selected by the angle and to reflect one or more stray reflections at angles that do not match the target angle of incidence; and a detector that receives the ASMR and generates an output signal that corresponds to a characteristic of the sample.
  • Embodiment C may have one or more of the following additional elements in any combination:
    Element C1: Where the ICE is located after the sample so that the electromagnetic radiation first interacts optically with the sample to generate optically interacting radiation in the optical path, and then the optically interacting radiation optically interacts with the ICE to form the optical Beam path to generate the modified electromagnetic radiation, and wherein the BASF is located in the optical beam path to convert the electromagnetic radiation, the optically interacting radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation with a target angle of incidence in the optical beam path.
  • Element C2: Where the ICE is located in front of the sample so that the electromagnetic radiation first interacts optically with the ICE to generate optically interacting radiation in the optical path, and then the optically interacting radiation optically interacts with the sample to be detected in the optical path Beam path to generate the modified electromagnetic radiation, and wherein the BASF is located in the optical beam path to convert the electromagnetic radiation, the optically interacting radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation with a target angle of incidence in the optical beam path.
  • Element C3: where the sample is in a flow path.
  • Element C4: Where the sample is located in a flow path that is located in a borehole in a subterranean formation.
  • Element C5: BASF being an independent filter.
  • Element C6: wherein the BASF is a self-contained filter disposed in the optical path at a location selected from the group consisting of between the electromagnetic radiation source and the sample, between the sample and the ICE, between the ICE and the detector and any combination thereof.
  • Element C7: wherein the BASF is a multilayer film stack deposited on a component selected from the group consisting of the ICE, the detector, and any combination thereof.
  • Element C8: wherein a sample window is disposed adjacent to the sample in the optical path, the sample window having one or more surfaces to generate at least one of the one or more of the scattered radiation reflection (s).
  • Element C9: wherein a sample window is disposed adjacent to the sample in the optical path, the sample window having one or more surfaces to generate at least one of the one or more of the scattered radiation reflection (s), and wherein BASF is a multilayer film stack deposited on a component selected from the group consisting of the ICE, the detector, the sample window, and any combination thereof.
  • Element C10: where BASF is composed of photonic crystal layers.
  • Element C11: wherein BASF is composed of photonic crystal layers selected from the group consisting of a silicon-based compound, a tantalum-based compound, a Group III-V semiconductor compound, a Group IVB metal compound, a dielectric, and any of them Combination of it.
  • Element C12: wherein the electromagnetic radiation source is selected from the group consisting of a light bulb, a light-emitting device, a laser, a black body, a photonic crystal, an X-ray source, a gamma-ray source, and any combination thereof.
  • Element C13: Wherein the electromagnetic radiation source is at least one selected from the group consisting of infrared radiation, near infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet light, vacuum UV light, X-ray, gamma radiation, and any combination thereof.
  • As a non-limiting example, exemplary combinations that are applicable to C include: C with C1 and C2; C with C1 and C3; C with C1 and C4; C with C1 and C5; C with C1 and C6; C with C1 and C7; C with C1 and C8; C with C1 and C9; C with C1 and C10; C with C1 and C11; C with C1 and C12; C with C1 and C13; C with C2 and C3; C with C2 and C4; C with C2 and C5; C with C2 and C6; C with C2 and C7; C with C2 and C8; C with C2 and C9; C with C2 and C10; C with C2 and C11; C with C2 and C12; C with C2 and C13; C with C3 and C4; C with C3 and C5; C with C3 and C6; C with C3 and C7; C with C3 and C8; C with C3 and C9; C with C3 and C10; C with C3 and C11; C with C3 and C12; C with C3 and C13; C with C4 and C5; C with C4 and C6; C with C4 and C7; C with C4 and C8; C with C4 and C9; C with C4 and C10; C with C4 and C11; C with C4 and C12; C with C4 and C13; C with C5 and C6; C with C5 and C7; C with C5 and C8; C with C5 and C9; C with C5 and C10; C with C5 and C11; C with C5 and C12; C with C5 and C13; C with C6 and C7; C with C6 and C8; C with C6 and C9; C with C6 and C10; C with C6 and C11; C with C6 and C12; C with C6 and C13; C with C7 and C8; C with C7 and C9; C with C7 and C10; C with C7 and C11; C with C7 and C12; C with C7 and C13; C with C8 and C9; C with C8 and C10; C with C8 and C11; C with C8 and C12; C with C8 and C13; C with C9 and C10; C with C9 and C11; C with C9 and C12; C with C9 and C13; C with C10 and C11; C with C10 and C12; C with C10 and C13; C with C11 and C12; C with C11 and C13; C with C12 and C13; C is C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11, C12 and C13; C with C1, C3, C7 and C8; C with C1, C4, C6 and C9; C with C5, C7, and C8; C with C1, C4 and C10; C with C7, C8 and C11; C with C1, C5, C12 and C13.
  • Thus, the embodiments described herein are well suited to achieving the stated objects and advantages, as well as those associated therewith. The particular embodiments disclosed above are merely illustrative, as the embodiments described herein may be modified and implemented in various, but equivalent, manners which will be apparent to those skilled in the art to which the teachings contained in this specification benefit. Furthermore, no limitations on the details of construction or design shown herein are intended, except as described in the following claims. Accordingly, it should be understood that the particular illustrative embodiments disclosed above may be modified, combined, or modified, and all such modifications are considered within the scope and spirit of the present disclosure. The embodiments illustratively disclosed herein may be conveniently carried out in the absence of any element not specifically disclosed herein and / or any optional element disclosed herein. While compositions and methods are described as comprising "comprising," "containing," or "including" various components or steps, the compositions and methods may also "consist essentially of" the various components and steps, or "consist" thereof. All numbers and ranges disclosed above may vary to some extent. In any case where a numerical range having a lower bound and an upper bound is disclosed, all numbers and all trapped regions falling within the range are specifically disclosed. In particular, each range of values disclosed herein (in the form "from about a to about b" or also "from about a to b" or also "about a-b") should be understood to include all numbers and ranges as set forth in U.S. Pat the broader range of values. In addition, the terms used in the claims have their usual, conventional meaning unless expressly and otherwise clearly defined by the assignee. Further, the indefinite article "a" or "an" as used in the claims are defined herein to mean one or more than one of the element they introduce.
  • As used herein, by the phrase "at least one of" preceded by a series of elements having the terms "and" or "or" to separate any of the elements, the list as a whole and not every link the list (ie each element). The phrase "at least one of" does not require selection of at least one item; rather, the phrase allows a meaning including at least one of any of the elements and / or at least one of any combination of the elements and / or at least one of each of the elements. For example, the phrases "at least one of A, B, and C" or "at least one of A, B, or C" refer to only A, B only, or C only; any combination of A, B and C; and / or at least one of each of A, B, and C.

Claims (26)

  1. Optical computing device comprising: an electromagnetic radiation source for emitting electromagnetic radiation into an optical path; an integrated computing element (ICE) located in the optical path before or after a sample located in the optical path to generate modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical path; a selective broadband angle filter (BASF) located in the optical path to transmit the electromagnetic radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical path at a target angle of incidence, thereby generating a modified electromagnetic radiation (ASMR) selected by the angle and to reflect one or more stray reflections at angles that do not match the target angle of incidence; and a detector that receives the ASMR and generates an output signal that corresponds to a characteristic of the sample.
  2. The optical computing device of claim 1, wherein the ICE is located after the sample such that the electromagnetic radiation first optically interacts with the sample to generate optically interacting radiation in the optical beam path and then optically interacts with the optically interacting radiation to form the ICE to generate the modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical beam path, and wherein the BASF is localized in the optical beam path in order to transfer the electromagnetic radiation, the optically interacting radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation with the target angle of incidence into the optical beam path.
  3. The optical computing device of claim 1, wherein the ICE is located in front of the sample so that the electromagnetic radiation first interacts optically with the ICE to generate optically interacting radiation in the optical beam path, and then the optically interacting radiation with the ICE Probe interacts optically to generate the modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical path, and wherein the BASF is located in the optical path to the electromagnetic radiation, the optically interacting radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation with the target angle of incidence in the optical path to convict.
  4. Optical computing device according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the BASF is a self-contained filter.
  5. The optical computing device of claim 4, wherein the self-contained BASF filter is disposed in the optical path at a location selected from the group consisting of between the electromagnetic radiation source and the sample, between the sample and the ICE, between the ICE and the detector and any combination thereof.
  6. The optical computing device of claim 2 or 3, wherein the BASF is a multilayer film stack deposited on a component selected from the group consisting of the ICE, the detector, and any combination thereof.
  7. The optical computing device of claim 2 or 3, wherein a sample window is disposed adjacent the sample in the optical path, the sample window having one or more surfaces to generate at least one of the one or more of the scattered radiation reflection (s).
  8. The optical computing device of claim 7, wherein the BASF is a multilayer film stack deposited on a component selected from the group consisting of the ICE, the detector, the sample window, and any combination thereof.
  9. Optical computing device according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the BASF is composed of photonic crystal layers.
  10. The optical computing device of claim 9, wherein the photonic crystal layers are selected from the group consisting of a silicon-based compound, a tantalum-based compound, a Group III-V compound semiconductor, a Group IVB metal compound, a dielectric, and any combination thereof.
  11. The optical computing device of claim 2 or 3, wherein the electromagnetic radiation source is selected from the group consisting of a light bulb, a light emitting device, a laser, a black body, a photonic crystal, an x-ray source, a gamma ray source, and any combination thereof.
  12. The optical computing device of claim 2 or 3, wherein the electromagnetic radiation source is at least one selected from the group consisting of infrared radiation, near infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet light, vacuum UV light, X-ray, gamma radiation, and any combination thereof ,
  13. Method, comprising: Providing an electromagnetic radiation source which emits electromagnetic radiation in an optical beam path; optically interacting the electromagnetic radiation with a sample located in the optical path and an integrated computing element (ICE) located in the optical path before or after the sample to generate electromagnetic radiation in the optical path; Transmitting the electromagnetic radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation through a selective broadband angle filter (BASF) located in the optical beam path with a target angle of incidence, thereby generating a modified electromagnetic radiation (ASMR) selected by the angle; Reflecting one or more stray reflections with the BASF in the optical beam path at angles that do not match the target angle of incidence; Receiving ASMR with a detector; and Generating an output signal that corresponds to a characteristic of the sample.
  14. The method of claim 13, wherein the ICE is located after the sample such that the electromagnetic radiation first interacts optically with the sample to generate optically interacting radiation in the optical path, and then optically interacts with the optically interacting radiation with the ICE interacts to generate the modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical path, and wherein the BASF is located in the optical path to transfer the electromagnetic radiation, the optically interacting radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation with the target angle of incidence into the optical path ,
  15. The method of claim 13, wherein the ICE is located in front of the sample such that the electromagnetic radiation first optically interacts with the ICE to generate optically interacting radiation in the optical path, and then optically interacts with the optically interacting radiation to form the ICE modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical beam path to generate, and wherein the BASF is located in the optical beam path in order to convert the electromagnetic radiation, the optically interacting radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation with the target angle of incidence in the optical beam path.
  16. The method of claim 14 or 15, wherein the BASF is a self-contained filter, and further comprising disposing the self-standing BASF filter at a location selected from the group consisting of between the electromagnetic radiation source and the sample, between the sample and the ICE, between the ICE and the detector, and any combination thereof.
  17. The method of claim 14 or 15, wherein the BASF is a multilayer film stack, and further comprising depositing the BASF multilayer film on a component selected from the group consisting of the ICE, the detector, and any combination thereof.
  18. The method of claim 14 or 15, further comprising arranging a sample window adjacent to the sample and transmitting the electromagnetic radiation therethrough to optically interact with the sample, the sample window having one or more surfaces including at least one of the one or more generate the scattered radiation reflection (s).
  19. The method of claim 18, wherein the BASF is a multilayer film stack deposited on one selected from the group consisting of the ICE, the detector, the sample window, and any combination thereof.
  20. The method of claim 14 or 15, wherein the BASF is composed of photonic crystal layers.
  21. The method of claim 20, wherein the photonic crystal layers are selected from the group consisting of a silicon-based compound, a tantalum-based compound, a Group III-V compound semiconductor, a Group IVB metal compound, a dielectric, and any combination thereof.
  22. System comprising: a sample disposed in an optical path; and an optical computing device disposed in the optical beam path for optically interacting with the sample, the optical computing device comprising: an electromagnetic radiation source for emitting electromagnetic radiation into the optical path; an integrated computing element (ICE) located in the optical path before or after the sample, which is located in the optical path to generate in the optical path modified electromagnetic radiation; a selective broadband angle filter (BASF) located in the optical path to transmit the electromagnetic radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical path at a target angle of incidence, thereby generating a modified electromagnetic radiation (ASMR) selected by the angle and to reflect one or more stray reflections at angles that do not match the target angle of incidence; and a detector that receives the ASMR and generates an output signal that corresponds to a characteristic of the sample.
  23. The system of claim 22, wherein the ICE is located after the sample such that the electromagnetic radiation first optically interacts with the sample to generate optically interacting radiation in the optical beam path and then optically interacts with the optically interacting radiation with the ICE to form the to generate modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical beam path, and wherein BASF is localized in the optical beam path in order to convert the electromagnetic radiation, the optically interacting radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation with the target angle of incidence into the optical beam path.
  24. The system of claim 22, wherein the ICE is located in front of the sample such that the electromagnetic radiation first optically interacts with the ICE to generate optically interacting radiation in the optical path, and then optically interacts with the optically interacting radiation to form the ICE modified electromagnetic radiation in the optical beam path to generate, and wherein the BASF is located in the optical beam path in order to convert the electromagnetic radiation, the optically interacting radiation and / or the modified electromagnetic radiation with the target angle of incidence in the optical beam path.
  25. The system of claim 23 or 24, wherein the sample is in a flow path.
  26. The system of claim 25, wherein the flowpath is located in a borehole in a subterranean formation.
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GB2554548A (en) 2018-04-04
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