DE102015222860A1 - Additive manufacturing process - Google Patents

Additive manufacturing process

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Publication number
DE102015222860A1
DE102015222860A1 DE102015222860.6A DE102015222860A DE102015222860A1 DE 102015222860 A1 DE102015222860 A1 DE 102015222860A1 DE 102015222860 A DE102015222860 A DE 102015222860A DE 102015222860 A1 DE102015222860 A1 DE 102015222860A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
building material
method according
nozzle
characterized
fibers
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE102015222860.6A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Jochen Eppinger
Uwe Grass
Thorsten Müller
Daniel Rothmaier
Bernd Schumacher
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Mahle International GmbH
Original Assignee
Mahle International GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Mahle International GmbH filed Critical Mahle International GmbH
Priority to DE102015222860.6A priority Critical patent/DE102015222860A1/en
Publication of DE102015222860A1 publication Critical patent/DE102015222860A1/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C70/00Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts
    • B29C70/04Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts comprising reinforcements only, e.g. self-reinforcing plastics
    • B29C70/06Fibrous reinforcements only
    • B29C70/10Fibrous reinforcements only characterised by the structure of fibrous reinforcements, e.g. hollow fibres
    • B29C70/12Fibrous reinforcements only characterised by the structure of fibrous reinforcements, e.g. hollow fibres using fibres of short length, e.g. in the form of a mat
    • B29C70/14Fibrous reinforcements only characterised by the structure of fibrous reinforcements, e.g. hollow fibres using fibres of short length, e.g. in the form of a mat oriented
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/10Processes of additive manufacturing
    • B29C64/106Processes of additive manufacturing using only liquids or viscous materials, e.g. depositing a continuous bead of viscous material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C70/00Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts
    • B29C70/04Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts comprising reinforcements only, e.g. self-reinforcing plastics
    • B29C70/06Fibrous reinforcements only
    • B29C70/10Fibrous reinforcements only characterised by the structure of fibrous reinforcements, e.g. hollow fibres
    • B29C70/12Fibrous reinforcements only characterised by the structure of fibrous reinforcements, e.g. hollow fibres using fibres of short length, e.g. in the form of a mat
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y10/00Processes of additive manufacturing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y80/00Products made by additive manufacturing

Abstract

The present invention relates to an additive manufacturing method for producing plastic components (2), in which by means of a print head (3) comprising at least one building material nozzle (5) for applying a building material (6) and at least one support material nozzle (7) for applying a support material ( 8), a component (2) is produced on a printing table (4) by applying construction material (6) and / or support material (8) in layers in a Z-axis, in which for producing a layer (17, 18) of Component (2) between the print head (3) and the printing table (4) relative movements in an X-axis and in a Y-axis are carried out perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the Z-axis, and in between two successive layers ( 17, 18) between the print head (3) and the printing table (4) a relative adjustment in the Z-axis is performed. An improved stability of the component (2) results when a thermoplastic material is used as the building material (6), which is reinforced with fibers (19).

Description

  • The invention relates to an additive manufacturing method for producing plastic components and a component which is produced by the method.
  • In an additive manufacturing process, a component is produced in layers. Such an additive manufacturing process is often referred to as a 3D printing process.
  • Additive manufacturing processes are increasingly used for the production of prototypes. Prototypes created by additive manufacturing can be used to illustrate complex designs. In addition, basic functions of the respective construction can be checked by means of such a prototype.
  • For tests that can be used to verify the serial suitability of a construction, prototypes that have been produced by means of conventionally used additive manufacturing processes, so far unsuitable because the material differs significantly from the series material and so on other properties (elongation at break, temperature resistance, acoustics, etc.). ). For example, the stability of an additively produced plastic component is usually too low to withstand the stresses of such an experiment.
  • The present invention addresses the problem of providing at least one way for an additive manufacturing process for producing plastic components, with the aid of which it is possible to increase the stability of the manufactured component. In particular, a stability is sought, which makes it possible to carry out tests for mass production using the component produced by the additive manufacturing process.
  • This problem is solved according to the invention by the subject matter of the independent claim. Advantageous embodiments are the subject of the dependent claims.
  • The invention is based on the general idea to use as a building material a series-like thermoplastic material which is reinforced with fibers. By using a series-like material in terms of its physical / chemical composition, the component made of the building material also receives the similar properties. Preferred is a very similar material composition, wherein the material may also be identical.
  • In this way, a component can be made additive, which consists of fiber-reinforced plastic. Fiber-reinforced plastics are characterized by high stability. Accordingly, a component made therewith also has increased stability.
  • As a thermoplastic material is, for example, PA66 into consideration. In this case, a fiber reinforcement, preferably a glass fiber reinforcement, with up to 35% by weight is conceivable. In principle, other thermoplastics come into consideration, which are suitable for mass production of the component.
  • The manufacturing method according to the invention assumes that by means of a print head having at least one building material nozzle for applying a building material and optionally at least one Stützmaterialdüse for applying a support material on a printing table, a component in a Z-axis layered application of building material and / or support material will be produced. If support material is required for producing the component, the building material nozzle and support material nozzle are preferably provided separately on the print head. Alternatively, the building material nozzle may also be identical to or integrated with the support material nozzle, whereby the support geometry is made of the same material as the component geometry. Thus, the one print head also has only the building material nozzle or no separate additional support material nozzle. The stratification thus takes place in the Z axis. Further, to make such a layer of the component between the printhead and the platen, relative adjustments are made in an X-axis and a Y-axis that are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the Z-axis. Finally, a relative adjustment in the Z-axis is performed between two successive layers between the print head and the printing table. This relative displacement in the Z-axis corresponds to a layer thickness which is measured in the Z-axis. Conveniently, to manufacture the respective layer, only the print head is moved in the X-axis and in the Y-axis, while the printing table remains stationary in this regard. When changing the layers, however, it is preferred to adjust the printing table in the Z-axis, while the printhead remains stationary in this regard.
  • The building material forms the respective plastic component after the manufacturing process. The support material is used to realize within the component gaps, gaps and the like. Can be applied to the building material. The support material is preferably a different material than the building material. For example, the support material can be chosen so that it is after completion of the application of building material and / or support material in to remove a subsequent operation. For example, it is soluble in a solvent in which the building material does not dissolve.
  • According to an advantageous embodiment it can be provided that the building material with multi-directional orientation of the fibers is applied. By a multidirectional alignment of the fibers in the building material results in a significantly improved stability in the component compared to a manufacturing process in which the fibers are unidirectional aligned. Thus, the fiber distribution of the component is similar to that of a conventional injection molded component.
  • Preferred is an embodiment in which the building material is supplied to the building material nozzle in the form of a building material filament, which consists of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic material and which is liquefied in the building material nozzle for application. Here, heating elements are expediently provided in the building material nozzle, which melt the filament. The use of a building material filament, which is supplied to the building material nozzle as a solid, and the melting of the building material only during application simplifies the construction of a device which is suitable for carrying out the method presented here or which is used for the additive production of the plastic component.
  • According to a particularly advantageous development, a building material filament can now be used, in which the fibers of the building material are aligned in a multi-directional manner. This ensures that the application of the molten building material, the multidirectional orientation is maintained, which is then present in the component thus produced then a multidirectional orientation of the fibers in the plastic.
  • Alternatively, however, a building material filament may be used in which the fibers of the building material are unidirectionally aligned. This simplifies the production of the building material filament. Suitably, all fibers are aligned parallel to the longitudinal or extension direction of the building material filament.
  • In a further development, the building material nozzle can now have an exit region from which the liquefied, fiber-reinforced construction material emerges for application. At this exit region may be provided an interference contour which deflects at least a portion of the exiting building material from a longitudinal center axis of the building material nozzle for varying the orientation of the fibers. In a conventional construction material nozzle, the exit region is shaped rotationally symmetrical to the longitudinal center axis of the building material nozzle, for example cylindrical or conical. As a result, the building material emerges uniformly from the exit area. In a fiber-reinforced building material, this also results in a constant alignment of the fibers in the building material. By proposing to divert at least one part, in particular the entire emerging building material from the longitudinal central axis, with the aid of at least one interference contour, a deflection of the entrained fibers results at the same time. For example, the interference contour can be realized by a non-circular design of the exit region. Additionally or alternatively, at the outlet region a Strömungsleitkontur, z. For example, in the form of a baffle, provided to change the orientation of the emerging from the exit area building material and the fibers contained therein. The Strömungsleitkontur may be arranged in particular embodiments also movable, in particular in the building material nozzle.
  • In another embodiment, when applying the fiber reinforced building material, the speed and / or direction of the relative adjustments between the printhead and the printing table to vary the orientation of the fibers may be varied. It has also been shown that the speed and the direction of the relative adjustments between the print head and the printing table also have an influence on the orientation of the fibers in the building material. By targeted variation of the speed and / or direction of these relative adjustments, the formation of a multidirectional alignment of the fibers in the building material can now be supported.
  • In another embodiment, it may be provided that the building material nozzle be supplied to two or more Baumaterialfilamente, each consisting of fiber-reinforced construction material with unidirectional fiber orientation. Further, the building material nozzle may include a fusion zone for liquefying the building material. In particular, the building material nozzle has at least one internal heating device with which the filament can be liquefied in the melting zone. Particularly advantageous is now an embodiment in which the two or more building material filaments are mixed in the common melting zone. By blending the fiber reinforced construction material of at least two filaments, the formation of multidirectional alignment of the fibers within the liquefied building material is promoted. Additionally or alternatively it can be provided that the at least two building material filaments are supplied to the common melting zone in or from different directions. This measure also supports a multidirectional alignment of the fibers in the molten building material.
  • In another advantageous embodiment, the printhead may also be provided with at least one fiber nozzle for applying the fibers be equipped. The building material and the fibers may be applied so that the fibers are embedded in the building material. In this embodiment, it is basically possible to supply the building material nozzle with a building material that is not reinforced with fibers. The formation of the fiber-reinforced plastic takes place in connection with the fiber nozzle only when applying building material and fibers, ie only during the production of the respective layer. In principle, however, such a fiber nozzle can also be used in conjunction with a building material nozzle, which is supplied to fiber-reinforced building material. The separate feeding of the fibers by means of the fiber nozzle makes it particularly easy to realize a multidirectional alignment of the fibers in the building material. Here, the fibers can be transported and applied for example by gravity or by a gas flow through the fiber nozzle. The application of the fibers may be to the previously prepared layer, at a location near or immediately at the point where the building material is applied. It is also possible to apply the fibers to the building material leaving the building material nozzle before it itself is applied to the previously applied layer.
  • Thus, a fiber nozzle is particularly advantageous, which is designed so that the fibers applied multidirectionally aligned.
  • Such a fiber nozzle may be configured separately with respect to the building material nozzle. Likewise, a variant is conceivable in which the fiber nozzle is formed on the building material nozzle.
  • In an expedient embodiment, the building material nozzle and the fiber nozzle may simultaneously apply building material and fibers when forming a layer. Thus, the mixing of the building material with fibers occurs during the production of the respective layer.
  • In an alternative embodiment, which is basically also without such a fiber nozzle can be realized, it can be provided that after the production of a layer of construction material, first a layer with fibers without building material is prepared before another layer is made with building material. It is clear that the respective layer with construction material may also contain support material and / or fibers in addition to the construction material. It is also clear that the layer with fibers without building material can basically also have support material. Furthermore, it can also be provided here that the building material is designed without a fiber. Likewise, a fiber-reinforced building material can be used here. The application of a layer of fibers without building material produces an improved bond between two layers of building material, namely via the intermediate layer of fibers. This can improve the rigidity and stability of the component. The layer of fibers without building material can be applied, for example, with the above-mentioned fiber nozzle. Basically, however, any other method can be used for this purpose. For example, it is conceivable to roll over the layer with building material with a roller, on whose surface fibers adhere, wherein the fibers are transferred from the roller to the layer. Alternatively, the fibers may be disposed on a support and applied by this support to the surface of the preceding layer.
  • In another advantageous embodiment, the fibers which are applied separately during the application of the building material or which are applied after the application of a layer of building material may be covered with a sheath material which reacts on contact with the building material. The respective reaction can be chemical or physical or both and can lead to the adhesion of the building material of the next layer to the building material of the preceding layer being improved. For example, the cladding material may dissolve upon contact with the building material, thereby creating pores on the surface of the applied layer for the next layer which allow for improved bonding with the building material of the next layer. Alternatively, the sheath material can combine with the building material, creating a particularly intimate adhesion between fibers and building material.
  • In another embodiment, at least the building material nozzle can be arranged pivotable about at least one pivot axis on the nozzle head. For example, a pivot axis may be provided parallel to the longitudinal center axis of the building material nozzle to allow oscillating rotational movement of the building material nozzle about this pivot axis while the printhead is displaced relative to the printing table. The longitudinal central axis of the building material nozzle may extend in this case, for example, parallel to the Z-axis. It is also conceivable to arrange the building material nozzle so as to be pivotable about a pivot axis extending parallel to the X axis and / or about a pivot axis extending parallel to the Y axis, whereby it is likewise possible to perform oscillating movements about the respective pivot axis. Such oscillatory motions may assist in the formation of the desired multidirectional alignment of the fibers in the build material within the respective layer.
  • In another embodiment, the printhead and / or the printing table can be moved around the X- Axis and / or be arranged pivotably about the Y-axis and / or about the Z-axis. This results in an increased spatial mobility of the print head and printing table to each other, which simplifies the production of complex geometries in the component. In addition, there is another significant advantage. When applying the building material this is liquid, at least to the extent that it flows in the direction of gravity, ie vertically downwards. If, in one layer, areas without building material have to be formed, in which, however, building material is to be provided in the following layer, support material must be applied in the preceding layer in order to support the building material in the subsequent layer. Due to the flexibility of the printing table, it is now possible in many situations, spatially arranged the previously applied building material so that it runs vertically below the currently applied building material, so that can be dispensed with support material in many places. Thus, the component can be produced more cheaply overall.
  • In another embodiment, the build material in the respective layer may be applied transverse to the local direction of movement of the printhead with a material width. Advantageously, it is then provided that in two adjacent layers in the Z axis, the application of the building material is offset by half the material width. In this way, the connection of adjacent layers is improved, since two adjacent material webs of the preceding layer are additionally connected to one another with the material webs of the following layer.
  • In another embodiment, the respective layer may be made in a web-like manner in a transverse direction, wherein the webs are rectilinear parallel to a longitudinal direction extending perpendicular to the transverse direction. Further, the webs are adjacent to each other in the transverse direction. Thus, the production of the respective layer is similar to the printing of a sheet of paper in an ink jet printer.
  • According to an advantageous development, adjacent webs can be offset from one another by the aforementioned material width in the transverse direction. This ensures that in adjacent webs in areas in which web material is applied in both webs, this is directly in contact with each other in the transverse direction and is connected to each other.
  • In another embodiment, the longitudinal direction and the transverse direction may be oriented differently in two Z-axis adjacent layers to the X-axis and Y-axis. For example, it is conceivable to rotate the longitudinal direction and the transverse direction in each case by 90 ° about the Z-axis from one layer to the other layer, as a result of which the longitudinal direction and transverse direction are interchanged. In view of the aforementioned printing operation of an ink jet printer, this means that the second layer is printed at 90 ° rotated paper. This approach has the consequence that adjacent layers reinforce each other, which increases the overall stability of the component. It will be understood that any offset angle between 0 ° and 90 ° may be provided, e.g. also an angle of 45 °.
  • In another advantageous embodiment, a device comprising the print head and the print table can have a change system which provides at least one further nozzle or at least one further print head, wherein the change system is designed such that during the production of the component an automatic change of the print head or at least a nozzle is performed. It has been found that during the manufacture of a larger component it may become necessary to clean the building material nozzle and / or the support material nozzle and / or the optionally existing fiber nozzle. So that no time-consuming interruption is required during the manufacturing process, with the help of the exchange system, an exchange of each nozzle to be cleaned or of the entire print head can be carried out in order to clean the nozzle (s) which are not required. As a result, the time required to produce the component can be significantly reduced.
  • In another embodiment, the liquefied and fibrous building material in the building material nozzle may be rotated and / or mixed. This measure can also be used to improve the multidirectional orientation of the fibers.
  • In another advantageous embodiment, magnetically attractable particles can be supplied to the fibrous building material. For example, in the production of the filament, such particles may be added to the thermoplastic in addition to the fibers. It is also conceivable to admit the particles only when applying the building material. According to a development it can now be provided that in a flowable state of the building material within the building material nozzle or outside thereof, in particular after application of the building material, the particles are moved in the building material for multidirectional alignment of the fibers by means of magnetic forces. For example, a rotating magnetic field can be generated which causes the particles to rotate within the flowable building material, thereby simultaneously twisting the fibers as well.
  • The magnetically attractable particles may already be contained in the building material within the filament, possibly with the fibers. Likewise, it is conceivable to mix the particles only during application of the liquefied building material. For this purpose, for example, a particle nozzle suitable for this purpose can be provided for applying the particles. The building material melted in the building material nozzle is then already expediently fiber-reinforced. In principle, however, it is also conceivable to supply both the fibers and the particles during application of the liquefied building material via an additional nozzle. This would then be a particle-fiber nozzle.
  • In another advantageous embodiment, a gas may be added to the liquid fibrous building material in the building material nozzle which expands upon application of the building material. The expanding gas leads in the applied building material to a pore formation, which generates a movement of the fibers to each other in the building material. This causes mixing of the fibers, which aligns them multidirectionally. In addition, depending on the thermoplastic, the expanding gas can lead to an intensive structure stiffening. Particularly advantageous is the supply of the gas in a supercritical state, whereby microscopically small gas bubbles arise in the building material, and indeed with extremely high density. As a result, it is possible, in particular, to select a layer thickness or material thickness measured in the Z axis during application comparatively small. This measure also leads to an intensive stiffening of the component.
  • In another advantageous embodiment, the building material nozzle may be supplied with the building material in solid form, the building material in the building material nozzle being liquefied by means of an internal heating device. Particularly advantageous is now an embodiment in which the liquefied building material is heated during application by means of an external heater to a predetermined target temperature. With the help of such an additional external heating device, the desired target temperature for the application of the building material can be set much more precisely than is possible only with a conventional internal heating device. At optimum temperature results in an improved fusion bond in the building material of the layers applied to each other. Such an external heating device can, for example, by means of infrared, laser, hot gas, heating mirrors, etc. work. The heating device may in particular be formed by a laser, infrared radiator, hot gas, a heating mirror or the like.
  • In another embodiment, when producing a new layer by applying building material and / or supporting material to the previously prepared old layer, the building material of the old layer can be heated by means of an external heater at least in areas where building material of the new layer is applied. This measure means that the freshly applied building material bonds better with the previously applied building material, which increases the stability of the component.
  • According to another embodiment, the already produced layers of the component can be heated by means of a heating device. In other words, the entire component, as far as it is already produced layer by layer, is brought to a predetermined temperature. This measure also leads to an improved connection of the freshly applied building material with the building material of the previously applied layer. For example, this can be assigned to the entire printing table a corresponding heater. Likewise, the printing table may be associated with a cover which covers the entire printing area with the printhead and the component to be produced in order to reduce the emission of heat into the environment.
  • Another embodiment provides, after producing a layer, to subject this layer to a subsequent treatment before the next layer is produced thereon. In connection with such a post-treatment can also improve the quality of the additive production and in particular the connection between the building material of adjacent layers. For example, the aftertreatment can be configured as a mechanical aftertreatment and / or as a chemical aftertreatment. In both cases, for example, a roughening of the outer layer of the last layer applied for the application of the next layer can take place.
  • Other important features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the dependent claims, from the drawings and from the associated figure description with reference to the drawings.
  • It is understood that the features mentioned above and those yet to be explained below can be used not only in the particular combination given, but also in other combinations or in isolation, without departing from the scope of the present invention. In particular, the abovementioned embodiments and the embodiments to be mentioned below can virtually be combined with one another as desired, as long as they do not contradict one another.
  • Some embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the drawings and are explained in more detail in the following description, wherein like reference numerals refer to the same or similar or functionally identical components.
  • Show, in each case schematically,
  • 1 a greatly simplified isometric view of an apparatus for carrying out an additive manufacturing process,
  • 2 a simplified sectional view of a building material nozzle in producing a layer of the component,
  • 3 a simplified view of a printhead with a change system, in two states, namely A before a nozzle change and B after a nozzle change,
  • 4 a highly simplified sectional view of a building material nozzle to which a plurality of filaments are fed,
  • 5 a sectional view A of a building material nozzle, in which a fiber nozzle is integrated, and an enlarged detail view B in another embodiment,
  • 6 a cut building material nozzle with different filaments, namely A with unidirectionally oriented fibers and B with multidirectionally oriented fibers,
  • 7 a sectional view of the component in two embodiments, namely A in non-staggered layers and B in staggered layers,
  • 8th Side views of the device in two embodiments, namely A at non-pivotable printing table and B at pivotable printing table,
  • 9 simplified plan views of trajectories of the printhead at two successive layers A and B,
  • 10 to 12 each a simplified sectional view of a building material nozzle with external heating device, in various embodiments,
  • 13 a sectional view of a building material nozzle with an aftertreatment device,
  • 14 a simplified sectional view of the building material nozzle with integrated particle nozzle and magnetic device.
  • Corresponding 1 includes a device 1 by means of which the additive manufacturing method described above for producing a plastic component 2 can be used a printhead 3 as well as a printing table 4 , The printhead 3 has at least one building material nozzle 5 for applying a building material 6 and at least one support material nozzle 7 for applying a support material 8th on. The component 2 is using the printhead 3 on the printing table 4 made by laminating it in a Z-axis by applying building material 6 and / or support material 8th is produced. For this purpose, it is expedient to produce a layer of the component 2 the printhead 3 relative to the printing table 4 relatively displaced in an X-axis and in a Y-axis. Here, the relative movement by a movement of the print head 3 and / or the printing table 4 respectively. The X-axis extends perpendicular to the Y-axis. In addition, the X-axis and the Y-axis extend perpendicular to the Z-axis. Between two consecutive layers of the component is then useful the printing table 4 relative to the printhead 3 adjusted in the direction of the Z-axis.
  • The building material 6 becomes the building material nozzle 5 supplied in solid form, namely in the form of a building material filament 9 , The building material filament 9 can z. Example of a construction material role 10 be made available almost endlessly. Also the support material 8th is suitably in solid form, namely advantageous in the form of a Stützmaterialfilaments 11 the support material nozzle 7 fed. Again, the provision of Stützmaterialfilaments done 11 expediently by means of a support material roll 12 almost endless.
  • The respective nozzle 5 . 7 is for melting or liquefying the building material 6 or the support material 8th each with an internal heater 13 respectively. 14 fitted. The liquefaction takes place so far that the respective order process can be performed. For this purpose, a comparatively high viscosity may suffice.
  • In 2 is exemplary for the building material nozzle 5 a possible structure reproduced. Inside the building material nozzle 5 are two feed rollers 15 recognizable, the building material filament 9 in the building material nozzle 5 involve. The internal heater 13 is in the example in an exit area 16 the building material nozzle 5 arranged from which the liquefied building material 6 to apply exits. In 2 is a layer 17 indicated on a previous layer 18 of the component 2 is produced.
  • Appropriate is the building material 6 in the building material filament 9 with in the 5 and 6 shown fibers 19 reinforced, which in a simple embodiment in the building material filament 9 can be unidirectionally aligned. To within the respective layer 17 . 18 or within the component 2 a multidirectional alignment of the fibers 19 to can achieve the exit area 16 with a disturbing contour 20 equipped, which is arranged and / or configured so that they at least a part of the exiting building material 6 from a longitudinal central axis 21 the building material nozzle 5 distracting. The deflection causes a change in the orientation of the currently applied in building material 6 contained fibers 19 , Overall, it can thus be within the respective layer 17 . 18 or within the component 2 a multidirectional alignment of the fibers 19 achieve.
  • In the example of 3 is the device 1 with a change system 22 equipped, which is another building material nozzle 5 ' provides. The change system 22 allows a change of building material nozzles 5 . 5 ' during the manufacture of the component 2 , Is recognizable in 3A the one building material nozzle 5 active to the current layer 17 to create. An arrow 23 indicates a change of building material nozzles 5 . 5 ' at. In 3B is now the other building material nozzle 5 ' active to the current layer 17 to create. The respective non-active building material nozzle 5 . 5 ' can be cleaned in inactive state.
  • 4 shows a building material nozzle 5 , which simultaneously contains several building material filaments 9 be supplied. In the example of 4 become the building material nozzle 5 exactly four building material filaments 9 fed. In other embodiments, but also more or less Baumaterialfilamente 9 be supplied. The construction material nozzle 5 contains in its interior a melting zone 24 for liquefying the building material 6 , The different building material filaments 9 become this melting zone 24 fed in different directions. In the example of 4 is provided for this purpose that already the various building material filaments 9 from different directions of the building material nozzle 5 be supplied. This results within the melting zone 24 a multidirectional alignment of the fibers 19 in the building material 6 the building material filaments 9 are included. This multidirectional alignment of the fibers 19 in the liquefied building material 6 also occurs when the fibers 19 within the individual building material filaments 9 unidirectionally aligned. Corresponding heating devices are in 4 also with 13 designated.
  • In the in the 5A and 5B The embodiment shown is the printhead 3 also with a fiber nozzle 25 equipped, with whose help the fibers 19 can be applied. In the example of 5A is this fiber nozzle 25 structurally in the building material nozzle 5 integrated or attached to it.
  • Visible in the example of the 5A the fibers 19 when creating the current layer 17 immediately before the liquid building material 6 on the previous layer 18 applied. Thus, the building material can 6 with the fibers 19 unite, causing the fibers 19 in the building material 6 be embedded.
  • Alternatively, according to the 5B the fibers 19 also on the liquid or flowing building material 6 be applied, with preference to the areas of the building material 6 is applied to the previous layer 18 incident. For example, the fibers 19 between the building material nozzle 5 and the previous layer 18 So after the exit of the building material 6 from the building material nozzle 5 and before the impact of the building material 6 on the previous layer 18 , on the flowing building material 6 applied.
  • If according to the 5A and 5B such a fiber nozzle 25 is used, the building material filament 9 made of building material 6 be made, no fibers 19 contains. In the example of 5A but is for the building material filament 9 one with fibers 19 reinforced building material 6 used.
  • By a suitable design of the fiber nozzle 25 it is possible to use the separately supplied fibers 19 Apply multidirectionally aligned, so that this multidirectional orientation also subsequently in the building material 6 or in the layer 17 is available. To expel the fibers 19 from the fiber nozzle 25 or for applying the fibers 19 on the building material 6 can be a gas stream 37 be used.
  • 6A shows the use of a building material filament 9 in which the fibers 19 are aligned unidirectionally, namely expedient parallel to a longitudinal direction of the building material filament 9 , In contrast, shows 6B the use of a building material filament 9 in which the fibers 19 already aligned multidirectionally. This multidirectional alignment remains when applying the molten building material 6 receive.
  • 7 shows how the building material 6 in the individual successive layers transverse to a local direction of movement of the print head 3 , in the 7 perpendicular to the drawing plane, with a material width 26 is applied. Recognizable are in 7 individual tracks 27 made of web material 6 , each in the direction of movement of the printhead 3 extend and transverse to within the respective layer 17 . 18 adjacent to each other. Accordingly, the individual tracks 27 in adjacent layers 17 . 18 which follow each other in the Z-axis, also adjacent.
  • 7A shows a simple embodiment in which the layers 17 . 18 be applied to each other so that the individual tracks 27 at adjacent layers 17 . 18 exactly superimposed in the Z-axis. In contrast, shows 7B a preferred embodiment, wherein two adjacent in the Z-axis layers 17 . 18 be made so that in it the individual tracks 27 to each other an offset 28 have, which expedient half a material width 26 equivalent. This will be in the in 7 Sectional view created a kind of wall bond.
  • At the in 8th the embodiment shown is the printing table 4 around at least one pivot axis, z. For example, about the X-axis relative to the printhead 9 pivotable. The X-axis extends in 8th perpendicular to the plane of the drawing. In 8A a situation is shown where a component 2 is constructed, which has a tilt angle α relative to the Z-axis. To this component 2 To build up, comparatively much support material 8th be used to one during the manufacture of the component 2 forming vertical cavity between the printing table 8th and the component 2 fill. In contrast, according to 8B the inclination of the component 2 relative to the vertical direction by a corresponding pivoting of the printing table 4 eliminated around the X axis. In other words, the printing table 4 is inclined by the angle α in the opposite direction, so that the inclination of the component 2 is virtually neutralized. This makes it possible on the support material 8th to renounce.
  • According to 9 becomes the respective layer 17 . 18 produced in a transverse direction Q by the web, so that in this transverse direction Q individual tracks 27 within each layer 17 . 18 lie next to each other. Furthermore, the individual tracks run 27 in a straight line parallel to a longitudinal direction L which extends perpendicular to the transverse direction Q. In 9 are not really the individual tracks 27 made of applied building material 6 shown, but trajectories 36 of the printhead 3 to create these tracks 27 made of building material 6 , These trajectories 36 follows the printhead 3 when applying the webs 27 during the production of the respective layer 17 . 18 , Preferred is now an embodiment in which the longitudinal direction L and the transverse direction Q in two adjacent layers in the Z-axis 17 . 18 are oriented differently to the X-axis or to the Y-axis. Purely exemplary is in 9A a previously prepared layer 18 shown, in which the longitudinal direction L extends parallel to the X-axis, while the transverse direction Q is parallel to the Y-axis. In 9B is a subsequently prepared layer 17 shown. Recognizable extends the longitudinal direction L now at an angle of 45 ° to the X-axis, while the transverse direction Q extends at an angle of 45 ° to the Y-axis. Basically, any angle between 0 ° and 90 ° are conceivable here.
  • According to the 10 to 12 is the respective building material nozzle 5 each with an internal heater 13 equipped with the inside of the building material nozzle 5 the building material supplied in solid form 6 can be liquefied. In the example, the building material 6 again in the form of a building material filament 9 fed, the expedient in Baumaterialfilament 9 with fibers 19 reinforced, the unidirectional or multidirectional in building material filament 9 can be aligned.
  • In the examples shown here is the building material nozzle 5 also with an external heater 29 equipped with their help outside the building material nozzle 5 the building material 6 can be heated. In these examples, the external heater is 29 designed to be a laser beam 30 for heating the building material 6 generated.
  • At the in 10 the embodiment shown is the laser beam 30 on the from the building material nozzle 5 leaking liquid building material 6 directed so that the building material 6 can be heated to a predetermined target temperature before it on the old layer 18 meets. Thus, the new layer 17 especially intense on the old layer 18 be connected.
  • At the in 11 the embodiment shown is the laser beam 30 on the building material 6 the old layer 18 aligned, and expediently shortly or immediately before the point on which the building material nozzle 5 the building material 6 for the new shift 17 applying. Thus, with the help of the laser beam 30 the already solidified building material 6 heated to a target temperature, which is also an intensive connection of the new layer 17 to the old layer 18 allows.
  • At the in 12 The preferred example shown is the laser beam 30 directed to the place of impact, in which the liquefied building material 6 the new layer 17 on the building material 6 the old layer 18 meets. In this embodiment it is achieved that both the fresh building material 6 As well as the old building material are heated to a target temperature, which is in particular for an intense connection between the new layer 17 and the old layer 18 suitable.
  • The target temperatures in the 10 to 12 shown embodiments may be the same or different.
  • At the in 13 The embodiment shown is the building material nozzle 5 with an aftertreatment device 31 equipped after making the older layer 18 This undergoes a post-treatment, before the new layer 17 is applied. In 13 In this case, a simple mechanical after-treatment is indicated, for example in the form of a roller 32 which the old layer 18 roughen to connect the new layer 17 to improve.
  • 14 shows an embodiment in which the building material nozzle 5 also with a particle nozzle 33 equipped, over the magnetically attractable particles 34 when applying the building material 6 can be fed to this. In principle, a separate particle nozzle can also be used 33 on the printhead 3 be provided.
  • In the example, the building material 6 again over a building material filament 9 fed in the fibers 19 are contained with unidirectional orientation. When applying the new layer 17 this mixes with the fibers 19 interspersed building material 6 with the particles 34 , With the help of a magnetic device 35 that in the example of the 14 also at the building material nozzle 5 is arranged, can now be generated magnetic forces acting on the particles 34 to act before the solidification of the freshly applied building material 6 a movement of the particles 34 within the building material 6 to create. Through this movement of the particles 34 also become the fibers 19 emotional. Overall, this allows a multidirectional alignment of the fibers 19 in the building material 6 the new layer 17 to reach.
  • It is clear that the magnet device 35 instead of in 14 symbolically shown permanent magnets may also have an electromagnet to generate the required magnetic forces. Likewise, the magnetic device 35 Instead of a linear magnetic field also produce a varying, in particular a rotating, magnetic field to the desired movement of the particles 34 as well as the fibers 19 to reach.
  • The exemplary examples of different embodiments described above can in principle be combined as desired.

Claims (31)

  1. Additive manufacturing process for producing plastic components ( 2 ), - in which by means of a printhead ( 3 ), the at least one building material nozzle ( 5 ) for applying a building material ( 6 ), on a printing table ( 4 ) a component ( 2 ) by applying in a Z-axis layer by layer of building material ( 6 ) and / or support material ( 8th ), in which for producing a layer ( 17 . 18 ) of the component ( 2 ) between the printhead ( 3 ) and the printing table ( 4 ) Relative movements are carried out in an X-axis and in a Y-axis which are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the Z-axis, - in which between two successive layers ( 17 . 18 ) between the printhead ( 3 ) and the printing table ( 4 ) a relative adjustment in the Z-axis is carried out, - in which as building material ( 6 ) a thermoplastic used with fibers ( 19 ) is or will be strengthened.
  2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the building material ( 6 ) with multidirectional orientation of the fibers ( 19 ) is applied.
  3. Method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the building material ( 6 ) of the building material nozzle ( 5 ) in the form of a building material filament ( 9 ) is supplied from fiber-reinforced thermoplastic material in the building material nozzle ( 5 ) is liquefied for application.
  4. Method according to claim 3, characterized in that a building material filament ( 9 ) is used, in which the fibers ( 19 ) of the building material ( 6 ) are aligned multidirectionally.
  5. Method according to claim 3, characterized in that a building material filament ( 9 ) is used, in which the fibers ( 19 ) of the building material ( 6 ) are unidirectionally aligned.
  6. Method according to claim 5, characterized in that - the building material nozzle ( 5 ) an exit area ( 16 ) from which the liquefied building material ( 6 ) exits for application, - that at the exit area ( 16 ) an interference contour ( 20 ) is provided, the at least a part of the exiting building material ( 6 ) from a longitudinal central axis ( 21 ) of the building material nozzle ( 5 ) for changing the orientation of the fibers ( 19 ) distracts.
  7. Method according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that during the application of the building material ( 6 ) the speed and / or direction of the relative adjustments between printhead ( 3 ) and printing table ( 4 ) for changing the orientation of the fibers ( 19 ) is / are varied.
  8. Method according to one of claims 5 to 7, characterized in that - the building material nozzle ( 5 ) several building material filaments ( 9 ), - that the building material nozzle ( 5 ) a fusion zone ( 24 ) for liquefying the building material ( 6 ), that the several building material filaments ( 9 ) in the melting zone ( 24 ) and / or the melting zone ( 24 ) are fed in different directions.
  9. Method according to one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that - the print head ( 3 ) at least one fiber nozzle ( 25 ) for applying the fibers ( 19 ), - that the building material ( 6 ) and the fibers ( 19 ) are applied so that the fibers ( 19 ) in the building material ( 6 ) are embedded.
  10. Method according to claim 9, characterized in that the fiber nozzle ( 25 ) the fibers ( 19 ) applies multidirectionally aligned.
  11. A method according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the building material nozzle ( 5 ) and the fiber nozzle ( 25 ) when making a layer ( 17 . 18 ) simultaneously building material ( 6 ) and fibers ( 19 ) Instruct.
  12. Method according to one of claims 1 to 11, characterized in that after the production of a layer ( 17 . 18 ) with building material ( 6 ) only one layer ( 17 . 18 ) with fibers ( 19 ) without building material ( 6 ) is prepared before another layer ( 17 . 18 ) with building material ( 6 ) will be produced.
  13. Method according to one of claims 1 to 12, characterized in that fibers ( 19 ) when applying the building material ( 6 ) can also be applied separately, or after application of a layer ( 17 . 18 ) with building material ( 6 ) are coated with a sheath material, which in contact with the building material ( 6 ).
  14. A method according to claim 13, characterized in that the shell material dissolves or with the building material ( 6 ) connects.
  15. Method according to one of claims 1 to 14, characterized in that at least the building material nozzle ( 5 ) pivotable about at least one pivot axis on the print head ( 3 ) is arranged.
  16. Method according to one of claims 1 to 15, characterized in that the print head ( 3 ) and / or the printing table ( 4 ) is arranged pivotably about the X-axis and / or about the Y-axis and / or about the Z-axis is / are.
  17. Method according to one of claims 1 to 16, characterized in that - the building material ( 6 ) in the respective layer ( 17 . 18 ) transverse to the local direction of movement of the print head ( 3 ) with a material width ( 26 ) is applied, that in two layers adjacent in the Z-axis ( 17 . 18 ) the application of the building material ( 6 ) by half the width of the material ( 26 ) is offset.
  18. Method according to one of claims 1 to 17, characterized in that - the respective layer ( 17 . 18 ) in a transverse direction (Q) is produced by the web, - that the webs ( 27 ) parallel to a longitudinal direction (L) extending perpendicular to the transverse direction (Q), - that the tracks ( 27 ) are adjacent to each other in the transverse direction (Q).
  19. A method according to claim 18, characterized in that in the transverse direction (Q) adjacent tracks ( 27 ) by one material width ( 26 ), in which the building material ( 6 ) is applied, offset from one another.
  20. A method according to claim 18 or 19, characterized in that the longitudinal direction (L) and the transverse direction (Q) in two layers (Z) adjacent in the Z-axis ( 17 . 18 ) are oriented differently to the X-axis and Y-axis.
  21. Method according to one of claims 1 to 20, characterized in that - a print head ( 3 ) and the printing table ( 4 ) device ( 1 ) a change system ( 22 ), the at least one further nozzle ( 5 ' ) or at least one further printhead ( 3 ), that during the manufacture of the component ( 2 ) an automatic change of the print head ( 3 ) or at least one nozzle ( 5 . 5 ' ) is carried out.
  22. Method according to one of claims 1 to 21, characterized in that the liquefied fibrous building material ( 6 ) in the building material nozzle ( 5 ) is rotated and / or mixed.
  23. Method according to one of claims 1 to 22, characterized in that the fibrous building material ( 6 ) magnetically attractable particles ( 34 ) are mixed.
  24. A method according to claim 23, characterized in that in a flowable state of the building material ( 6 ) in the building material nozzle ( 5 ) or after application by magnetic forces the particles ( 34 ) in the building material ( 6 ) for the multidirectional alignment of the fibers ( 19 ) are moved.
  25. Method according to one of claims 1 to 24, characterized in that the liquid fibrous building material ( 6 ) in the building material nozzle ( 5 ) a gas is admixed, which during application of the building material ( 6 ) expands.
  26. Method according to one of claims 1 to 25, characterized in that - the building material nozzle ( 5 ) the building material ( 6 ) is supplied in solid form, - that the building material ( 6 ) in the building material nozzle ( 5 ) by means of an internal heating device ( 13 ) is liquefied, - that the liquefied building material ( 6 ) when applied by means of an external heating device ( 29 ) is heated to a predetermined target temperature.
  27. Method according to one of claims 1 to 26, characterized in that when producing a new layer ( 17 ) by applying building material ( 6 ) and / or support material ( 8th ) on the previously prepared old layer ( 18 ) the building material ( 6 ) of the old layer ( 18 ) at least in areas where construction material ( 6 ) of the new layer ( 17 ) is applied by means of a heating device ( 29 ) is heated.
  28. Method according to one of claims 1 to 27, characterized in that the already produced layers ( 18 ) of the component ( 2 ) are heated by means of a heater.
  29. Method according to one of claims 1 to 28, characterized in that after the production of a layer ( 18 ) is subjected to a post-treatment before the next layer ( 17 ) will be produced.
  30. A method according to claim 29, characterized in that the post-treatment is designed as a mechanical and / or chemical aftertreatment.
  31.  A component made by a method according to any one of the preceding claims.
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Cited By (1)

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DE102017216496A1 (en) 2017-09-18 2019-03-21 Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft Method for producing a motor vehicle component from fiber-reinforced plastic

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US6214279B1 (en) * 1999-10-02 2001-04-10 Nanotek Instruments, Inc. Apparatus and process for freeform fabrication of composite reinforcement preforms
US20020147521A1 (en) * 2001-03-14 2002-10-10 Milling Systems And Concepts Pte Ltd. Prototype production system and method
US20120159785A1 (en) * 2009-09-04 2012-06-28 BayerMaerialScience LLC Automated processes for the production of polyurethane wind turbine blades
US20130056672A1 (en) * 2011-09-01 2013-03-07 The Boeing Company Method, Apparatus and Material Mixture for Direct Digital Manufacturing of Fiber Reinforced Parts
US20140291886A1 (en) * 2013-03-22 2014-10-02 Gregory Thomas Mark Three dimensional printing
WO2014193505A1 (en) * 2013-05-31 2014-12-04 United Technologies Corporation Continuous fiber-reinforced component fabrication
WO2015065936A2 (en) * 2013-10-30 2015-05-07 Boyd Iv R Platt Additive manufacturing of buildings and other structures

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6214279B1 (en) * 1999-10-02 2001-04-10 Nanotek Instruments, Inc. Apparatus and process for freeform fabrication of composite reinforcement preforms
US20020147521A1 (en) * 2001-03-14 2002-10-10 Milling Systems And Concepts Pte Ltd. Prototype production system and method
US20120159785A1 (en) * 2009-09-04 2012-06-28 BayerMaerialScience LLC Automated processes for the production of polyurethane wind turbine blades
US20130056672A1 (en) * 2011-09-01 2013-03-07 The Boeing Company Method, Apparatus and Material Mixture for Direct Digital Manufacturing of Fiber Reinforced Parts
US20140291886A1 (en) * 2013-03-22 2014-10-02 Gregory Thomas Mark Three dimensional printing
WO2014193505A1 (en) * 2013-05-31 2014-12-04 United Technologies Corporation Continuous fiber-reinforced component fabrication
WO2015065936A2 (en) * 2013-10-30 2015-05-07 Boyd Iv R Platt Additive manufacturing of buildings and other structures

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DE102017216496A1 (en) 2017-09-18 2019-03-21 Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft Method for producing a motor vehicle component from fiber-reinforced plastic

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