DE102013002119A1 - explosive-free projectile for generating a thermal signature - Google Patents

explosive-free projectile for generating a thermal signature Download PDF

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Publication number
DE102013002119A1
DE102013002119A1 DE201310002119 DE102013002119A DE102013002119A1 DE 102013002119 A1 DE102013002119 A1 DE 102013002119A1 DE 201310002119 DE201310002119 DE 201310002119 DE 102013002119 A DE102013002119 A DE 102013002119A DE 102013002119 A1 DE102013002119 A1 DE 102013002119A1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
projectile
explosive
mixture
phosphorus
oxide
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Withdrawn
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DE201310002119
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German (de)
Inventor
Christopher Zimmermann
Klaus Möller
Dirk Cegiel
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Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbH
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Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbH
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Priority to DE201310002119 priority Critical patent/DE102013002119A1/en
Publication of DE102013002119A1 publication Critical patent/DE102013002119A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B12/00Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material
    • F42B12/02Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect
    • F42B12/36Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect for dispensing materials; for producing chemical or physical reaction; for signalling ; for transmitting information
    • F42B12/46Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect for dispensing materials; for producing chemical or physical reaction; for signalling ; for transmitting information for dispensing gases, vapours, powders or chemically-reactive substances
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21KNON-ELECTRIC LIGHT SOURCES USING LUMINESCENCE; LIGHT SOURCES USING ELECTROCHEMILUMINESCENCE; LIGHT SOURCES USING CHARGES OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL; LIGHT SOURCES USING SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AS LIGHT-GENERATING ELEMENTS; LIGHT SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21K2/00Non-electric light sources using luminescence; Light sources using electrochemiluminescence
    • F21K2/06Non-electric light sources using luminescence; Light sources using electrochemiluminescence using chemiluminescence
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B12/00Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material
    • F42B12/02Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect
    • F42B12/36Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect for dispensing materials; for producing chemical or physical reaction; for signalling ; for transmitting information
    • F42B12/40Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect for dispensing materials; for producing chemical or physical reaction; for signalling ; for transmitting information of target-marking, i.e. impact-indicating type

Abstract

An explosive-free projectile (100, 100 ', 100' ') is proposed for ammunition, which releases at least phosphorus (V) oxide as a hygroscopic substance when disassembled in the target and which is integrated into the ammunition by reaction with air humidity and / or another Substance in the form of 1,2-propanediol or a 1,2-propanediol-containing substance mixture which reacts with phosphorus (V) oxide or the phosphorus (V) oxide-containing substance mixture with the release of heat. The heat generated during the dismantling of the explosive-free projectile (100, 100 ', 100' ') is used for detection by means of thermal imaging devices. The proposed explosive-free projectile (100, 100 ', 100' ') contains, in addition to the component or components for generating a thermal signature, further substances or mixtures of substances spatially separated therefrom for generating a visible and / or a signature that can be perceived with night vision devices.

Description

  • The invention relates to an explosive-free projectile for an ammunition which releases at least decomposition in the target at least phosphorus (V) oxide as hygroscopic substance and which by reaction with the humidity and / or another, integrated in the ammunition substance in the form of 1 2-propanediol or a 1,2-propanediol-containing substance mixture which reacts with phosphorus (V) oxide or the phosphorus (V) oxide-containing substance mixture with the release of heat. The heat of reaction generated during the decomposition of the explosive-free projectile is used for detection by means of thermal imaging devices. The proposed explosive-free projectile may contain, in addition to the component or the components for generating a thermal signature, further substances or substance mixtures spatially separated therefrom for producing a visible and / or a signature perceptible with night vision devices.
  • The availability of small high performance thermal imaging targeting systems is increasingly leading to their use in the field of infantry weapons such as machine guns or grenade machine guns. For the training of modern task forces this results in the corresponding need for suitable training munitions.
  • Pyrotechnic ammunitions based on lightning bang effects are suitable for practice purposes for visual-optical and acoustic perception as well as for detection by means of night-vision and thermal imaging devices. A disadvantage of such pyrotechnic ammunition is their potential danger by the explosive contained in the projectiles themselves, as well as the evacuation of contaminated by duds with explosive training areas.
  • The visual-optical perceptibility is achieved in explosive-free projectiles, inter alia, by the release of color dust in the impact breakdown. For detectability with night vision devices, the prior art shows corresponding ammunition that use chemiluminescent effects. The combination of color dusts and marker units with chemiluminescent effect finally enabled the provision of uniform training munitions with explosive-free projectiles for day and night training ( DE 10 2012 023 700.6 ).
  • The use of thermal imager detection systems also in the infantry field leads to a need for appropriate training munitions for launchers and grenades, man portable mortars and shoulder-shuttles. On the part of the task forces, such ammunitions are to be preferred in principle, in addition to an optical visibility in the visible range of the light also a detection by night vision and thermal imaging devices in distances up to 1500 m is given.
  • With US 2011/0079164 A1 respectively. WO 2011/044126 A2 For example, a 40mm practice ammo is suggested for use in, among other things, grenade-machine weapons. This is characterized by an explosive-free projectile, in which a fragile payload module is integrated in the area of the projectile hood. The payload module can be filled with different materials, or in the case of an integrated ampoule also with different material combinations to achieve different effects. The material combination of dye and pyrophoric material, a visual-optical and at least detectable by thermal imaging devices effect can be generated.
  • With WO 2011/019695 A1 Another 40 mm training ammunition is proposed, inter alia, for use in grenade-machine weapons. This is characterized by an explosive-free projectile in which, in analogy to the existing "day and night marking" munitions, a color dust for "tagging" and an encapsulated chemiluminescent effect for "night marking" is integrated.
  • With US2010 / 000839941 respectively. WO 2012/012243 A1 an ammunition with an explosive-free projectile is proposed, whereby by an optimized construction a shorter-term, but more intense chemiluminescent effect than hit-signature is to be created in comparison to existing "day and night marking" -munitions. The chemiluminescent effect can be used to produce visible light or UV or IR light, and can be combined with an additional visual-optical color dust effect like the "day and night marking" ammunition used.
  • Exercise ammunition is primarily about generating a short-term goal / hit signatures rather than a long-term marking of any targets.
  • Accordingly, there may be only overlaps with the state of the art on the topic of longer-term marking of targets.
  • With US Pat. No. 7,055,438 B1 For example, ammunitions in the caliber of 20 mm to 155 mm have been proposed, which use a flameless, heat-generating effect as an "explosive-free tracer" and / or longer-term targeting alone or in combination with a chemiluminescent effect.
  • With WO 2012/012242 A1 an ammunition with an explosive-free projectile is proposed for the marking and illumination of targets. The ammunition is characterized by fragile side walls and in the longitudinal axis parallel arranged ampoules for receiving substance solutions to produce a chemiluminescent-zenzeffektes, the cavity between the projectile wall and ampoules additionally contains a filling material. The chemiluminescence effect generated in the breakdown decomposition in the form of a solution should form an at least partially adhesive slurry by direct mixing with the filling compound, which is preferably applied radially, as a result of the design.
  • The invention has for its object to provide an explosive-free bullet for ammunition, which generates at decomposition in the target at least one detectable by thermal imaging devices heat of reaction. In addition, the projectile should additionally contain no substances or mixtures of substances which ignite spontaneously in the air and, in the temperature band of about -54 ° C. to + 71 ° C., when decomposed at the target, produce a heat tone detectable by means of thermal imaging devices.
  • The problem is solved by an explosive-free projectile according to claim 1. Advantageous embodiments in the dependent claims represent advantageous developments.
  • According to the invention, such a projectile contains at least phosphorus (V) oxide as a hygroscopic substance which reacts by reaction with atmospheric moisture and / or the likewise encapsulated in the ammunition integrated 1,2-propanediol or a 1,2-propanediol-containing mixture under heat of reaction.
  • In comparison to the heat generation by spontaneous mixing of anhydrous inorganic salts with aqueous or aqueous solutions, the invention proposed generating a heat of reaction by spontaneous mixing of phosphorus (V) oxide with 1,2-propanediol due to the strong heat of reaction and the present throughout the temperature range as a liquid 1,2-propanediol also for the presentation of a short-term impact signature at operating temperatures down to -54 ° C. Due to the freezing of aqueous or aqueous solutions below -25 ° C their use in the temperature range down to -54 ° C due to reduced reactivity at least problematic.
  • A pyrophoric active mass applied by a breakdown decomposition can generate a heat tone detectable by means of thermal imaging devices, the detectability at larger distances (from 1,000 m) being primarily dependent on the effect balance and the reactivity of the pyrophoric material, for example pyrophoric iron.
  • As a rule or according to the state of the art, pyrophoric materials of high reactivity are required to produce a detectable heat of reaction. For example, in the spontaneous reaction of highly reactive grades, pyrophoric iron powder in amounts of one gram with air under ambient conditions produces temperatures in excess of 400 ° C. These temperatures are sufficient to safely ignite dry paper strips (as a model component for dry firing range growth). In addition, there is a risk that the simultaneous application of pyrophoric material and an organic color dust (as a visual-optical component), this is also ignited by the pyrophoric material. This increases the already existing potential fire hazard.
  • The inventively proposed generation of a heat of reaction by the spontaneous mixing of phosphorus (V) oxide with 1,2-propanediol (on the model caliber 40 mm achievable Rättein Weighing) on the one hand, at distances above 1,000 m to generate a clearly detectable by portable thermal imaging devices hit signature and, on the other hand, to ensure that an equivalent set of effects does not ignite dry paper strips (as a model component for dry firing range growth). At about 200 ° C, the short-term heat of reaction generated by spontaneous mixing of phosphorus (V) oxide with 1,2-propanediol is well below the and ignition temperatures of wood, paper or coal. solid fuel Ignition ignition temperature BIA Manual VBG [7] BIA Manual VBG [7] Wood, cereals ≥ 400 ° C 460 ° C ≥ 290 ° C 200 ° C paper ≥ 380 ° C 460 ° C ≥ 300 ° C 240 ° C Brown coal ≥ 380 ° C 420 ° C ≥ 225 ° C 160 ° C
    Table 1: Reference values for ignition and smoldering temperatures
  • The inventively proposed explosive-free projectile has the advantage that the detectable heat of reaction is generated directly at the impact separation in the target and thus largely independent of the temperature of the ammunition and the firing range. In addition, the production of a corresponding projectile is simplified, whereby in addition a comparatively higher storage stability and functional life can be achieved, since this only has to be encapsulated in a water vapor-tight manner, whereas pyrophoric active materials generally have to be gas-tight.
  • The here proposed for the first time adding a salt or salt mixture to the effect mass to produce a visual-optical effect contributes to the chemical neutralization or at least the partial chemical neutralization or the pH buffering by mixing the phosphorus (V) oxide with the 1,2-propanediol or at the 1,2-propanediol-containing mixture resulting acidic reaction products. As a result, negative environmental influences in the form of hyperacidity of shooting ranges can be extremely advantageously prevented or at least significantly reduced. As a salt additive in the effect mass to produce a visual-optical effect are carbonates or bicarbonates of alkali or alkaline earth metals, or phosphates or hydrogen phosphates or dihydrogen phosphates of ammonium or alkali or alkaline earth metals, or hydrogen sulfates or sulfates of ammonium or alkali or alkaline earth metals , or a mixture of two or more of the listed substances, without limiting the embodiments of the explosive-free projectile preferred according to the invention to these examples.
  • The solution proposed here for avoiding negative environmental influences by pH shifts on shooting ranges is also feasible in corresponding explosive-free projectiles which use other substance combinations for generating a thermal signature. For example, it was possible to buffer the acid-reacting substances from a heat-generating mixture of anhydrous calcium chloride with water or an aqueous solvent mixture.
  • Reference to an embodiment with drawing, the invention will be explained in more detail. The figures show schematically various embodiments according to the invention for an explosive-free projectile for generating a thermal signature,
  • The explosive-free projectile 100 consists of a projectile shell, at least consisting of a projectile body 1 and a projectile hood 2 into which a support structure 3 to record the inserts 5 and 7 is integrated. The supporting structure 3 to record the inserts 5 and 7 can be in the floor head- ( 1b ) or bottom side ( 1a ) can be arranged. The use 5 serves to absorb phosphorus (V) oxide or a phosphorus (V) oxide-containing substance mixture 6 , The use 7 serves to contain 1,2-propanediol or a 1,2-propanediol-containing mixture 8th , The by bullet body 1 , Projectile hood 2 , Support structure 3 and use 5 formed cavity serves to receive an active mass 4 to create an additional visual-optical effect.
  • Upon impact of the projectile on a possible target this decomposes at least under fragmentation of the projectile hood 2 as well as the inserts 5 and 7 , wherein by mixing of 6 and 8th together with the humidity of the ambient air, a thermal signature is generated. Simultaneously with the impact decomposition becomes an active mass 4 applied to produce a visual-optical effect in the form of a color dust cloud. The effective mass 4 to produce a visual-optical effect consists of at least one organic dye and a salt or salt mixture. In a secondary reaction, this reacts in the active material 4 salt or salt mixture contained in the reaction mixture to produce a visual-optical effect 6 With 8th incurred acidic reaction products under at least partial chemical neutralization or pH buffering.
  • 2 schematically shows a further preferred embodiment according to the invention for an explosive-free projectile 100 ' for generating a thermal signature. The explosive-free projectile 100 ' consists from a projectile shell, at least consisting of a projectile body 1 and a projectile hood 2 into which a support structure 3 to record the inserts 5 and 7 is integrated. The use 5 serves to absorb phosphorus (V) oxide or a phosphorus (V) oxide-containing substance mixture 6 , The use 7 serves to contain 1,2-propanediol or a 1,2-propanediol-containing mixture 8th , The by bullet body 1 , Projectile hood 2 , Support structure 3 and use 5 formed cavity serves to receive an active mass 4 to create an additional visual-optical effect. Upon impact of the projectile on a possible target this decomposes at least under fragmentation of the projectile hood 2 as well as the inserts 5 and 7 , wherein by mixing of 6 and 8th together with the humidity of the ambient air, a thermal signature is generated. Simultaneously with the impact decomposition becomes an active mass 4 applied to produce a visual-optical effect in the form of a color dust cloud. The effective mass 4 to produce a visual-optical effect consists of at least one organic dye and a salt or salt mixture. In a secondary reaction, this reacts in the active material 4 salt or salt mixture contained in the reaction mixture to produce a visual-optical effect 6 With 8th incurred acidic reaction products under at least partial chemical neutralization or pH buffering. In the projectile body 1 and the support structure 3 is located on the bottom side a centrally arranged recess for receiving a deformable and translucent plastic insert with a first chemiluminescent component 9 , In this plastic insert with a first chemiluminescent component 9 is an ampoule of brittle, transparent material, preferably glass, with a second chemiluminescent component 10 integrated. The pressure at the bottom of the projectile when shooting down deforms the translucent plastic insert with the first chemiluminescent component 9 such that the ampoule of brittle, transparent material contained therein, with the second chemiluminescent component 10 breaks down and both chemiluminescent components 9 . 10 be mixed together by the bullet rotation.
  • 3a , b show schematically further preferred embodiments according to the invention for an explosive-free projectile 100 '' for generating a thermal signature. The explosive-free projectile 100 '' consists of a projectile shell, at least consisting of a projectile body 1 and a projectile hood 2 into which a support structure 3 is integrated. The by bullet body 1 , Projectile hood 2 and support structure 3 formed cavity serves to receive an active mass 4 to create an additional visual-optical effect. In the effective mass 4 to create an additional visual-optical effect are located one above the other in each case arranged in pairs inserts 5 and 7 in the form of ampoules, with the inserts 5 and 7 are preferably arranged rotated by about 90 ° to each other. The stakes 5 are used to absorb phosphorus (V) oxide or a phosphorus (V) oxide-containing substance mixture 6 , The stakes 7 serve to contain 1,2-propanediol or a 1,2-propanediol-containing mixture 8th , Upon impact of the projectile on a possible target this decomposes at least under fragmentation of the projectile hood 2 as well as the inserts 5 and 7 , wherein by mixing of 6 and 8th together with the humidity of the ambient air, a thermal signature is generated. Simultaneously with the impact decomposition becomes an active mass 4 applied to produce a visual-optical effect in the form of a color dust cloud. The effective mass 4 to produce a visual-optical effect consists of at least one organic dye and a salt or salt mixture. In a secondary reaction, this reacts in the active material 4 salt or salt mixture contained in the reaction mixture to produce a visual-optical effect 6 With 8th incurred acidic reaction products under at least partial chemical neutralization or pH buffering. 3b schematically shows a further preferred embodiment of the invention according to the in 3a illustrated variant. Additionally located in the projectile body 1 and the support structure 3 on the bottom side, a centrally arranged recess for receiving a deformable and translucent plastic insert with a first chemiluminescent component 9 , In this plastic insert with a first chemiluminescent component 9 Again, an ampoule of brittle, transparent material, preferably glass, with a second chemiluminescent component 10 integrated. The pressure at the bottom of the projectile when shooting down deforms the translucent plastic insert with the first chemiluminescent component 9 such that the ampoule of brittle, transparent material contained therein, with the second chemiluminescent component 10 breaks down and both chemiluminescent components 9 . 10 be mixed together by the bullet rotation.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • DE 102012023700 [0004]
    • US 2011/0079164 A1 [0006]
    • WO 2011/044126 A2 [0006]
    • WO 2011/019695 A1 [0007]
    • US 2010/000839941 [0008]
    • WO 2012/012243 A1 [0008]
    • US 7055438 B1 [0011]
    • WO 2012/012242 A1 [0012]

Claims (8)

  1. Explosive-free projectile ( 100 . 100 ' . 100 '' ), characterized by a projectile casing, at least consisting of a projectile body ( 1 ) and a projectile hood ( 2 ) into which a support structure ( 3 ) for holding inserts ( 5 . 7 ), whereby the inserts ( 5 . 7 ) for the absorption of phosphorus (V) oxide or of a phosphorus (V) oxide-containing substance mixture ( 6 ) and 1,2-propanediol or a 1,2-propanediol-containing mixture ( 8th ) serve.
  2. Projectile according to claim 1, characterized in that the supporting structure ( 3 ) for holding the inserts ( 5 . 7 ) in the floor ( 100 ) can be arranged on the top and / or bottom side.
  3. Projectile according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that a projectile body ( 1 ), Projectile hood ( 2 ), Supporting structure ( 3 ) and use ( 5 ) formed cavity for receiving an active mass ( 4 ) can serve to produce an additional visual-optical effect.
  4. Projectile according to claim 3, characterized in that the active material ( 4 ) of at least one organic dye in amounts of from 50% to 98% by weight of a salt or salt mixture in amounts of from 0.5% to 50% by weight and an inorganic anti-caking agent in the form of silica or alumina in amounts of 0 wt .-% to 5 wt .-% consists.
  5. Projectile according to claim 4, characterized in that the salt in the active material ( 4 to produce a visual-optical effect, a carbonate or bicarbonate of the alkali metals or alkaline earth metals, or a phosphate or hydrogen phosphate or dihydrogen phosphate of ammonium or alkali metals or alkaline earth metals, or a hydrogen sulfate or sulfate of ammonium or alkali metals or alkaline earth metals, or a mixture of two or more of the listed substances.
  6. Projectile according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the projectile body ( 1 ) and the supporting structure ( 3 ) have a centrally disposed recess in which a deformable and translucent plastic insert with a first chemiluminescent component ( 9 ) is integrated.
  7. Projectile according to claim 6, characterized in that in the deformable and translucent plastic insert with the first chemiluminescent component ( 9 ) a fragile ampule having a second chemiluminescent component ( 10 ) is placed.
  8. Ammunition with a projectile according to one of claims 1 to 7.
DE201310002119 2013-02-08 2013-02-08 explosive-free projectile for generating a thermal signature Withdrawn DE102013002119A1 (en)

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DE201310002119 DE102013002119A1 (en) 2013-02-08 2013-02-08 explosive-free projectile for generating a thermal signature

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DE201310002119 DE102013002119A1 (en) 2013-02-08 2013-02-08 explosive-free projectile for generating a thermal signature
PCT/EP2014/050327 WO2014121971A1 (en) 2013-02-08 2014-01-09 Explosive-free projectile for generating a thermal signature
EP14700576.3A EP2954280B1 (en) 2013-02-08 2014-01-09 Explosive-free projectile for generating a thermal signature

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WO2019162451A1 (en) 2018-02-26 2019-08-29 Rwm Schweiz Ag Projectile having a pyrotechnic explosive charge

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US20100282118A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2010-11-11 Jacques Ladyjensky Chemiluminescent impact activated projectile
WO2011019695A1 (en) 2009-08-11 2011-02-17 Kms Consulting, Llc Projectile with a multi-spectral marking plume
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2019162451A1 (en) 2018-02-26 2019-08-29 Rwm Schweiz Ag Projectile having a pyrotechnic explosive charge

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WO2014121971A1 (en) 2014-08-14
EP2954280B1 (en) 2017-03-22
EP2954280A1 (en) 2015-12-16

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