DE102012205990A1 - Printhead, aerosol printer and aerosol printing process - Google Patents

Printhead, aerosol printer and aerosol printing process

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Publication number
DE102012205990A1
DE102012205990A1 DE201210205990 DE102012205990A DE102012205990A1 DE 102012205990 A1 DE102012205990 A1 DE 102012205990A1 DE 201210205990 DE201210205990 DE 201210205990 DE 102012205990 A DE102012205990 A DE 102012205990A DE 102012205990 A1 DE102012205990 A1 DE 102012205990A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
aerosol
chamber
tube
printhead
pressure nozzle
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE201210205990
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Sebastian Binder
Katja Krüger
Aleksander Filipovic
Matthias Hörteis
Sebastian Hörteis
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Angewandten Forschung eV
Original Assignee
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Angewandten Forschung eV
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Angewandten Forschung eV filed Critical Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Angewandten Forschung eV
Priority to DE201210205990 priority Critical patent/DE102012205990A1/en
Publication of DE102012205990A1 publication Critical patent/DE102012205990A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/14Structure thereof only for on-demand ink jet heads

Abstract

The invention relates to a printhead (1) comprising at least one aerosol chamber (10), at least one aerosol tube (11) having a first end (111) and a second end (112) and at least one pressure nozzle (12), wherein during operation of the printhead ( 1) of the pressure nozzle (12), an aerosol from the aerosol chamber (10) via the aerosol tube (11) can be supplied and the aerosol from the aerosol chamber (10) to the pressure nozzle (12) by means of a laminar flow is transportable. Furthermore, the invention relates to an aerosol printing method, comprising the following steps: generating an aerosol, introducing the aerosol into at least one aerosol chamber (10), introducing a laminar flow of an enveloping gas into the aerosol chamber (10) and transporting the aerosol from the aerosol chamber (10 ) to the pressure nozzle (12) through an aerosol tube (11) by means of the laminar flow.

Description

  • The invention relates to a printhead having at least one aerosol chamber, at least one aerosol tube having a first end and a second end and at least one pressure nozzle, wherein an aerosol from the aerosol chamber via the aerosol tube can be supplied during operation of the printhead of the pressure nozzle. Furthermore, the invention relates to an equipped with this printhead aerosol printer and an aerosol printing method in which an aerosol is generated and introduced into an aerosol chamber to transport it via an aerosol tube to a pressure nozzle.
  • A printhead, a printer and a method of the type mentioned above can be used, for example, to print electrical conductors on semiconductor components by means of silver-containing inks.
  • From the WO 2010/089081 A1 Such an aerosol printer is known. In this known printer, the aerosol falls by gravity to the bottom of the aerosol chamber, where the aerosol tubes, which transport the aerosol to the pressure nozzle, set with a supernatant. Since only a small proportion of the aerosol falls in a straight line in the cross-section of the aerosol tube, the greater part collects at the bottom of the aerosol chamber. From there, the aerosol must be removed and disposed of as a loss. Thus, only a fraction of the atomized ink reaches its desired location.
  • Based on this prior art, the present invention seeks to provide a printhead, an aerosol printing method and an aerosol printer, which allow lower losses of the consumable.
  • The object is achieved by a printhead according to claim 1, a method according to claim 10 and an aerosol printer according to claim 13.
  • According to the invention, it is proposed to provide a printhead with at least one aerosol chamber, at least one aerosol tube with a first and a second end and at least one pressure nozzle. During operation of the printhead, the aerosol chamber is supplied with an aerosol of the printing ink. An aerosol is understood to mean a dispersion of liquid suspended particles and a gas. The aerosol can be generated by sputtering in a gas stream or by an ultrasonic atomizer. In some embodiments of the invention, the aerosol may be compressed in an impactor, i. the proportion of suspended particles in the total volume is increased.
  • The aerosol may be introduced into the aerosol chamber through a sidewall so that the entering aerosol stream is not in the visual axis of the aerosol tubes. This can avoid that large droplets reach the first side of the aerosol tube and clog it. In other embodiments of the invention, the aerosol may be introduced into the aerosol chamber from above. By diffusion, the aerosol can spread in the aerosol chamber and fill the entire volume.
  • In some embodiments of the invention, the aerosol tubes may be rectilinear. These can have an inside diameter of 0.1 mm to 2 mm. This geometry allows the aerosol to be passed through the aerosol tube without wall contact, so that the aerosol does not condense into large drops.
  • According to the invention it is now proposed not to direct the aerosol by diffusion or gravity to the aerosol tube, but to form a laminar flow of an enveloping gas in the aerosol chamber, which leaves the chamber through the aerosol tube. The liquid suspended particles of the aerosol are transported with the laminar envelope gas flow and also leave the aerosol chamber via the aerosol tubes. Thus, since no or only a few suspended particles sink to the ground without the positive guidance by the laminar Hüllgasstrom, these also do not store next to the aerosol tube at the bottom of the aerosol chamber. Thus, the yield of the ink used, i. the proportion of ink applied to the last use site to the total ink used may increase to over 70%, over 80%, over 90%, or over 95%.
  • At the second end of the aerosol tube sets a pressure nozzle. The aerosol transported by the laminar envelope gas flow arrives at the end of the aerosol tube at the inlet of the pressure nozzle. The cross-section of the printing nozzle can decrease along its longitudinal extent, so that the printed image is finer. For example, the diameter of the pressure nozzle at the outlet between 50 microns and 500 microns, or be between 100 microns and 250 microns. A focusing gas can be introduced into the pressure nozzle, which prevents the aerosol from coming into contact with the wall of the pressure nozzle and ensuring a controlled transport of the aerosol after leaving the pressure nozzle. Also, the focusing gas may in some embodiments of the invention flow laminar through the pressure nozzle.
  • In some embodiments of the invention, the aerosol tube may dip into the pressure nozzle such that between the outside of the Aerosol tube and the inner wall of the pressure nozzle, the focusing gas can be introduced without disturbing the aerosol flow in the aerosol tube.
  • The inventively proposed transport of the aerosol in the aerosol chamber by a laminar gas flow prevents uncontrolled losses of the ink used to a large extent. As a result, the proposed aerosol printing process can be carried out more economically.
  • In some embodiments of the invention, an ultrasonic nebulizer may be used to generate the aerosol so that a high density aerosol may be generated. In some embodiments of the invention, a pneumatic atomizer universally applicable to a variety of inks may be used to generate the aerosol.
  • In some embodiments of the invention, at least one boundary wall of the aerosol chamber may taper toward the first end of the aerosol tube. In another embodiment of the invention, two opposing boundary walls of the aerosol chamber may taper toward the first end of the aerosol tube. In yet another embodiment of the invention, the aerosol chamber may take the form of a cone or a truncated cone, at the tip of which at least one aerosol tube attaches at its first end. The proposed shape, the laminar flow, which forms in the operation of the printhead in the aerosol chamber, led to the bottom of the aerosol chamber, wherein the diameter or the width of the aerosol chamber decreases continuously and at the base of the aerosol tube in about the same cross-section as the aerosol tube , In this way, the laminar flow can be maintained as it enters the aerosol tube. Turbulences or vortices, which would lead to the unwanted separation of the aerosol in the aerosol chamber, can thus be avoided.
  • In some embodiments of the invention, a chamfer may be formed at the transition from the bottom of the aerosol chamber to the first end of the aerosol tube. This feature has the effect of avoiding the occurrence of turbulence in the laminar flow by avoiding sharp edges, so that no drops of the aerosol deposit on the wall of the aerosol tube.
  • In some embodiments of the invention, alternatively or cumulatively, a bevel may be formed at the first end of the aerosol tube. This chamfer also helps to avoid sharp edges in the flow path, which can be the cause of turbulence in the flow.
  • In some embodiments of the invention, a collection volume may be formed at the first end of the aerosol tube. The collection volume is geometrically formed so that the laminar flow guidance is maintained from the aerosol chamber to the aerosol tube on. The collection volume can have the effect of catching droplets which undesirably deposit on and run down the wall of the aerosol chamber without clogging the aerosol tubes. As a result, the reliability of the printhead can be further increased.
  • In some embodiments of the invention, the first end of the aerosol tube may protrude beyond the bottom of the collection volume. As a result, the penetration of liquid into the aerosol tube is avoided even in cases where liquid has already deposited on the bottom of the collecting volume. This feature also serves to improve the reliability.
  • In some embodiments of the invention, the walls of the aerosol chamber enclose an angle of less than 45 ° or less than 30 ° or less than 10 ° to the longitudinal extent of the aerosol tube. This allows a gradual and continuous transition of the cross section of the aerosol chamber to the cross section of the aerosol tubes, without the formation of sharp edges, the laminar flow is disturbed by formation of turbulence. By the longitudinal extent of the aerosol tube, a curved aerosol tube means the tangent to the first end of the aerosol tube, i. the area which is in contact with the aerosol chamber.
  • In some embodiments of the invention, the proposed printhead further includes an envelope gas inlet by means of which the laminar gas flow may be formed along the wall of the aerosol chamber. For this purpose, the Hüllgaseintritt is shaped so that the formation of turbulence is avoided.
  • In some embodiments of the invention, the sheath gas inlet may include a boundary wall extending in a longitudinal section parallel to the wall of the aerosol chamber. As a result, gas entering through the Hüllgaseintritt is deflected in the direction of the boundary wall, that forms a laminar, along the boundary wall stroking gas stream.
  • In some embodiments of the invention, the sheath gas and / or the focusing gas may be Be inert gas. For the purposes of the present invention, an inert gas is understood to mean an inert gas which does not react chemically or negligibly with the aerosol during operation of the print head. In some embodiments of the invention, the sheath gas and / or the focusing gas may contain nitrogen and / or argon and / or xenon and / or helium. In some embodiments of the invention, the sheath gas and / or the focusing gas may be a mixture of a plurality of gases, for example, compressed air or synthetic air.
  • Although the description is generally explained by way of clarity only with reference to an aerosol tube and a pressure nozzle, in some embodiments of the invention the printhead may contain between 10 and 180 pressure nozzles. In other embodiments of the invention, the printhead may contain between 60 and 100 printing nozzles. As a result, the performance of the printhead can be improved and / or the printing speed can be increased.
  • The invention will be explained in more detail with reference to an embodiment. Showing:
  • 1 an illustration of a printhead according to a first embodiment of the invention.
  • 2 shows a quarter section through the printhead according to 1 ,
  • 3 shows the transition of the aerosol tubes to the pressure nozzles in detail.
  • 4 shows the transition of the aerosol chamber into the aerosol tubes in detail.
  • 5 shows an exploded view of the printhead according to the preceding figures.
  • 6 shows a cross section through the printhead according to the first embodiment of the invention.
  • 7 shows a cross section through a printhead according to a second embodiment of the invention.
  • 8th shows a cross section through a printhead according to a third embodiment of the invention.
  • 9 shows a cross section through a printhead according to a fourth embodiment of the invention.
  • Based on 1 to 5 a first embodiment of the invention will be explained. The printhead 1 includes a multi-part housing. According to the function, the individual components of this housing are explained from top to bottom, ie from the aerosol chamber to the pressure nozzle.
  • The aerosol chamber 10 is as a cavity in an aerosol chamber housing 105 educated. The aerosol chamber housing 105 has a substantially rectangular outer cross-section. The aerosol chamber 10 is by two opposite side walls 102 limited. The side walls 102 are inclined at an angle of less than 45 °, less than 30 ° or less than 10 ° to the vertical and taper conically from top to bottom. At the bottom of the side walls 102 borders the ground 103 the aerosol chamber 10 ,
  • At the upper end is the aerosol chamber 10 through a lid 16 locked.
  • During operation of the printhead 1 the aerosol enters the aerosol chamber through an aerosol entry 10 one. In the illustrated embodiment, the aerosol entry 101 used simultaneously for the supply of the envelope gas, which is a laminar flow in the aerosol chamber 10 forms and the aerosol chamber through the aerosol tubes 11 leaves. Thus, the sheath gas corresponds to the carrier gas with which the aerosol from the aerosol generator to the aerosol chamber 10 is transported. Other embodiments of the invention with a separate Hüllgaseintritt 101 be based on the 8th and 9 explained in more detail.
  • On the ground 103 the aerosol chamber 10 are aerosol tubes 11 with her first end 111 fitted. As based on 4 it can be seen standing the aerosol tubes 11 with her first end 111 not over the ground 103 defined level above. To avoid turbulence in the laminar flow of the envelope gas, are at the transition of the aerosol chamber 10 into the aerosol tubes 11 optional bevels 113 arranged. Thus, the sheath gas leaves the aerosol chamber 10 through the aerosol tubes 11 and transports the aerosol through the aerosol tubes 11 from. Due to the laminar flow of the envelope gas on the wall 102 the aerosol chamber 10 and the wall of the aerosol tubes 11 Condensation of the aerosol is avoided at these parts, so that no large drops form in the aerosol, which could clog the subsequent pressure nozzle.
  • The aerosol tubes 11 are in a housing part 135 which also has a focusing gas chamber 13 receives. The focusing gas chamber 13 serves for the intermediate storage and the distribution of a focusing gas, which aerosol in the pressure nozzle 12 or after exiting the pressure nozzle 12 encapsulates and leads to the impact on the substrate to be printed.
  • The transition of the pressure tubes 11 in the pressure nozzles 12 is determined by 2 and 3 explained in more detail. In the illustrated embodiment, the second end 112 the aerosol tube 11 opposite and in extension to the first end 121 the pressure nozzle 12 arranged. Thus, the aerosol flows with the Hüllgasstrom from the aerosol tube 11 into the pressure nozzle 12 and will be from the first end 121 the pressure nozzle 12 to the second end 122 transported.
  • Because the first end 121 the pressure nozzle 12 at the bottom of the focusing gas chamber 13 is arranged, also flows the focusing gas, which is the Fokussiergaskammer 13 via the focusing gas inlet 131 was fed through the pressure nozzles 12 out.
  • The pressure nozzles 12 are in a base plate 14 Held and from a surrounding frame 15 Protected to prevent inadmissible mechanical stress on the pressure nozzles 12 to avoid.
  • The lid 16 , the housing parts 105 . 135 . 14 and 15 are over dowel pins 171 as well as screw connections 161 . 162 and 163 put together, as based on 5 explained. Out 5 It can also be seen that the first embodiment of the invention 78 Includes nozzles arranged in a row to increase the printing performance and the throughput, respectively. In other embodiments of the invention, the number of nozzles may be larger or smaller and, for example, between 1 and 180. The nozzles can also be arranged in multiple rows in a grid
  • 6 again shows a schematic cross section through a single pressure nozzle 12 , a single aerosol tube 11 and the aerosol chamber 10 according to the first embodiment of the invention. Out 6 it can be seen that the aerosol chamber with oblique boundary walls 102 which is opposite to the longitudinal extension of the aerosol tube 11 are inclined by an angle α. The angle α is in this case between about 25 ° to about 30 °.
  • Furthermore, it is off 6 seen that through the inclined boundary walls 102 the cross section of the aerosol chamber 10 at its lower end to the cross section or the diameter of the aerosol tube 11 reduced. As a result, a laminar flow can be formed without the first end 111 of the aerosol tube 11 Turbulence would occur, which would lead to undesirable deposits of the aerosol on the boundary walls.
  • Furthermore, it is off 6 seen as the aerosol tube 11 in the focusing gas chamber 13 opens and the aerosol, the sheath gas and the focusing gas in the pressure nozzle 12 enter. The second end 122 the pressure nozzle 12 is tapered to allow a precise printed image or a deposition of the aerosol to a defined location.
  • 7 shows the cross section through a second embodiment of the invention. The same components are provided with the same reference numerals, so that the following description is limited to the differences. According to 7 is at the bottom of the aerosol chamber 10 a catchment volume 18 arranged. The collection volume 18 is designed so that aerosol, which at the boundary walls 102 is deposited in an undesirable manner, at the boundary walls 102 run down and in the collection volume 18 is collected. This can cause clogging of the aerosol tube 11 be avoided by large aerosol drops. So that the aerosol from the ground 183 of the collection volume 18 not in the first end 111 of the aerosol tube 11 can penetrate, shows the aerosol tube 11 a supernatant 115 on.
  • To ensure laminar flow, the width or diameter of the aerosol chamber is the diameter of the aerosol tube 11 and the distance 118 so dimensioned that the envelope gas flow with the aerosol vortex-free into the aerosol tube 11 can occur.
  • Based on 8th A third embodiment of the invention will be explained. This differs from the previous embodiment primarily in that the aerosol via a first inlet 104 is introduced into the aerosol chamber and the sheath gas via a separate Hüllgaseinstritt 101 is supplied. The envelope gas entry 101 has a boundary wall 106 on which the Hüllgasstrom in the direction of the wall 102 deflects and thereby the laminar flow along the wall 102 allows.
  • The envelope gas entry 101 is below the aerosol inlet 104 arranged so that turbulence resulting from the entry of the aerosol can be dissipated in the upper region of the aerosol chamber. Then, driven by gravity, the aerosol sinks down until it is detected by the envelope gas flow.
  • 9 shows a fourth embodiment of the present invention. In this case, the sheath gas entry 101 above the aerosol inlet 104 arranged. This feature has the effect of reliably transporting the aerosol from the enveloping gas so that the printhead 1 can be operated independent of location at least within certain limits, since a lowering of the aerosol with gravity is not required for the operation.
  • Of course, the invention is not limited to the embodiments shown in the figures. The above description is therefore not to be considered as limiting, but as illustrative. The following claims are to be understood as meaning that a named feature is present in at least one embodiment of the invention. This does not exclude the presence of further features.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • WO 2010/089081 A1 [0003]

Claims (13)

  1. Printhead ( 1 ) with at least one aerosol chamber ( 10 ), at least one aerosol tube ( 11 ) with a first end ( 111 ) and a second end ( 112 ) and at least one pressure nozzle ( 12 ), wherein in the operation of the printhead ( 1 ) of the pressure nozzle ( 12 ) an aerosol from the aerosol chamber ( 10 ) via the aerosol tube ( 11 ), characterized in that the aerosol from the aerosol chamber ( 10 ) to the pressure nozzle ( 12 ) is transportable by means of a laminar flow.
  2. Printhead according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one boundary wall ( 102 ) of the aerosol chamber ( 10 ) conically on the first end ( 111 ) of the aerosol tube ( 11 ).
  3. Printhead according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that at the transition from the ground ( 103 ) of the aerosol chamber ( 10 ) to the first end ( 111 ) of the aerosol tube ( 11 ) a chamfer ( 113 ) is trained.
  4. Printhead according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that at the first end ( 111 ) of the aerosol tube ( 11 ) a catchment volume ( 18 ) is trained.
  5. Printhead according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the first end ( 111 ) of the aerosol tube ( 11 ) over the ground ( 183 ) of the collection volume ( 18 ) survives.
  6. Printhead according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the walls ( 102 ) of the aerosol chamber ( 10 ) an angle (α) of less than 45 ° or less than 30 ° to the longitudinal extent of the aerosol tube ( 11 ) lock in.
  7. Printhead according to one of claims 1 to 6, further comprising an envelope gas inlet ( 101 ), by means of which a laminar gas flow along the wall ( 102 ) of the aerosol chamber ( 10 ) can be formed.
  8. Printhead according to claim 7, characterized in that the envelope gas inlet ( 101 ) a boundary wall ( 106 ), which in a longitudinal section parallel to the wall ( 102 ) of the aerosol chamber ( 10 ) runs.
  9. Printhead according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the number of aerosol tubes ( 11 ) and the number of pressure nozzles ( 12 ) is between 10 and 150 or between 60 and 100.
  10. Aerosol printing method, comprising the following steps: - generating an aerosol, - introducing the aerosol into at least one aerosol chamber ( 10 ), Introducing a laminar flow of an enveloping gas into the aerosol chamber ( 10 ), - transporting the aerosol from the aerosol chamber ( 10 ) to the pressure nozzle ( 12 ) through an aerosol tube ( 11 ) by laminar flow.
  11. Procedure ( 1 ) according to claim 10, further comprising the following step: introduction of a focusing gas into the pressure nozzle ( 12 ).
  12. Method according to one of claims 10 or 11, characterized in that the nitrogen and / or argon and / or xenon and / or helium.
  13. An aerosol printer with a printhead according to any one of claims 1 to 9.
DE201210205990 2012-04-12 2012-04-12 Printhead, aerosol printer and aerosol printing process Withdrawn DE102012205990A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE201210205990 DE102012205990A1 (en) 2012-04-12 2012-04-12 Printhead, aerosol printer and aerosol printing process

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE201210205990 DE102012205990A1 (en) 2012-04-12 2012-04-12 Printhead, aerosol printer and aerosol printing process
PCT/EP2013/057589 WO2013153158A1 (en) 2012-04-12 2013-04-11 Print head, aerosol printer and aerosol printing method

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102013205683A1 (en) * 2013-03-28 2014-10-02 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Printhead, kit and printing process

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2957876A1 (en) 2014-06-17 2015-12-23 Pepperl & Fuchs GmbH Component for an optoelectronic sensor and method for its production

Citations (3)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20090061077A1 (en) * 2007-08-31 2009-03-05 Optomec, Inc. Aerosol Jet (R) printing system for photovoltaic applications
US20100192847A1 (en) * 2004-12-13 2010-08-05 Optomec, Inc. Miniature Aerosol Jet and Aerosol Jet Array
WO2010089081A1 (en) 2009-02-06 2010-08-12 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Aerosol printer, the use thereof, and method for producing line interruptions in continuous aerosol printing methods

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6467871B1 (en) * 2000-11-28 2002-10-22 Xerox Corporation Ballistic aerosol marking process employing marking material comprising vinyl resin and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole)
WO2011129123A2 (en) * 2010-07-15 2011-10-20 セイコーエプソン株式会社 Liquid container, and liquid jet system

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100192847A1 (en) * 2004-12-13 2010-08-05 Optomec, Inc. Miniature Aerosol Jet and Aerosol Jet Array
US20090061077A1 (en) * 2007-08-31 2009-03-05 Optomec, Inc. Aerosol Jet (R) printing system for photovoltaic applications
WO2010089081A1 (en) 2009-02-06 2010-08-12 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Aerosol printer, the use thereof, and method for producing line interruptions in continuous aerosol printing methods

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102013205683A1 (en) * 2013-03-28 2014-10-02 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Printhead, kit and printing process

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