DE102012200661B4 - Method and device for determining image acquisition parameters - Google Patents

Method and device for determining image acquisition parameters

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Publication number
DE102012200661B4
DE102012200661B4 DE102012200661.3A DE102012200661A DE102012200661B4 DE 102012200661 B4 DE102012200661 B4 DE 102012200661B4 DE 102012200661 A DE102012200661 A DE 102012200661A DE 102012200661 B4 DE102012200661 B4 DE 102012200661B4
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image
patient
data set
ray
imaged
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DE102012200661A1 (en
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Thomas Baust
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Siemens Healthcare GmbH
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Siemens Healthcare GmbH
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T11/002D [Two Dimensional] image generation
    • G06T11/003Reconstruction from projections, e.g. tomography
    • G06T11/008Specific post-processing after tomographic reconstruction, e.g. voxelisation, metal artifact correction
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/02Devices for diagnosis sequentially in different planes; Stereoscopic radiation diagnosis
    • A61B6/03Computerised tomographs
    • A61B6/032Transmission computed tomography [CT]
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/54Control of devices for radiation diagnosis
    • A61B6/542Control of devices for radiation diagnosis involving control of exposure
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/48Diagnostic techniques
    • A61B6/486Diagnostic techniques involving generating temporal series of image data
    • A61B6/487Diagnostic techniques involving generating temporal series of image data involving fluoroscopy
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/52Devices using data or image processing specially adapted for radiation diagnosis
    • A61B6/5211Devices using data or image processing specially adapted for radiation diagnosis involving processing of medical diagnostic data
    • A61B6/5217Devices using data or image processing specially adapted for radiation diagnosis involving processing of medical diagnostic data extracting a diagnostic or physiological parameter from medical diagnostic data
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/58Testing, adjusting or calibrating devices for radiation diagnosis
    • A61B6/582Calibration

Abstract

Method for determining image acquisition parameters for a radiographic image for imaging an object to be examined, namely a patient to be imaged, comprising the implementation of the following steps by a computer unit:
Loading a three-dimensional image data set of the object to be imaged, namely the patient to be imaged,
Analyzing the image data set with respect to expected attenuation of the X-rays penetrating the object,
- Determining the image acquisition parameters for the fluoroscopic image using the analysis of the image data set.

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for determining image acquisition parameters for a fluoroscopic image for imaging an object to be examined, namely a patient to be imaged, and a corresponding device. Particularly in the context of medical X-ray imaging, it is important to determine suitable image acquisition parameters in order to ensure the desired quality of the image.
  • In order to avoid unnecessary dose for the patient to be treated, the energy of the radiation is reduced to a minimum during the production of X-ray images, but only to the extent that all medically relevant contents are visible in good quality. Among other things, the dose is determined indirectly by the acceleration current of the X-ray tube and / or the exposure time of the detector, which are selected such that the quality of the image is ensured while at the same time keeping the dose as low as possible for the patient.
  • Although a fixed setting of the image acquisition parameters is the easiest to accomplish, this is generally clearly too inflexible. In particular, if different areas are to be displayed, the necessary flexibility is not guaranteed.
  • Another possibility is the use of organ-specific settings of the image acquisition parameters, so-called "organ program". Essentially, several predefined, fixed settings are stored. Depending on the organ to be imaged by the X-ray, the parameters are selected according to the settings stored for this organ.
  • Another possibility is to make a test recording with a very small dose, ie with very little energy, immediately before the actual X-ray recording is made. This test recording, sometimes referred to as fluoroscopic recording, can then be evaluated and, based thereon, the x-ray device and in particular the x-ray tube can be adjusted so that the relevant brightness range of the image is displayed in good quality.
  • The publication DE 10 2010 020 287 A1 discloses a method for determining the position of an examination subject. A set of 2-D image data representing the examination subject is detected, and virtual 2D image data of 3-D volume data of the examination subject are computationally determined and compared with the acquired 2-D image data to determine a position of the examination subject.
  • From the publication DE 10 2006 033 885 A1 It is known to generate an artificial 2D projection image from a 3D volume data set. When changing mechanical parameters of a C-arm system, a 2D projection image is generated and output with correspondingly changed parameters.
  • The publication DE 102 10 646 A1 teaches a registration and superimposed representation of a 2D fluoroscopic image and a 3D reconstruction image.
  • From the publication DE 10 2004 042 060 A1 For example, an automatic setting of an X-ray dose for producing a tomogram is known. Operating parameters for the examination of a particular organ or body area are selected from a table.
  • It is the object of the invention to provide a method with which the image acquisition parameters for the preparation of a fluoroscopic image can be determined simultaneously and flexibly for an organ to be imaged. Furthermore, it is the object of the invention to provide a corresponding device.
  • The object of the invention is solved by the subject matters of the independent claims. Further developments of the invention can be found in the features of the dependent claims.
  • The method according to the invention for determining image acquisition parameters for a fluoroscopic image for imaging an object to be examined, namely a patient to be imaged, comprises the following steps performed by a computer unit:
    • Loading a three-dimensional image data set of the object to be imaged, namely the patient to be imaged,
    • Analyzing the image data record with regard to expected attenuation of the object-penetrating X-radiation,
    • - Determining the image acquisition parameters for the fluoroscopic image using the analysis of the image data set.
  • It has been recognized that the use of fixed, organ-dependent settings sometimes leads to unsatisfactory results, as not all features due to differences between the individual patients are sufficiently taken into account.
  • It has also been recognized that the use of a fluoro-recording to determine the parameters has the disadvantage that a additional intake - albeit with low energy - is necessary. On the one hand, this increases the time required since the fluoro intake must be specially prepared and evaluated, and on the other hand, it is also associated with increased radiation exposure for the patient.
  • The invention is based on the recognition that often already of the patient to be imaged is a three-dimensional image, in which the organ to be imaged is shown. This can be for example a computed tomography. This volume rendering can now be used for the purpose of determining the appropriate image capture parameters. This ensures an adaptation of the image acquisition parameters to the individual patient characteristics.
  • In particular, in the course of a radiation therapy, in particular particle therapy, an X-ray is repeatedly taken in a patient, e.g. each before the start of a radiation session to properly position a patient with respect to the treatment beam.
  • In such a case, however, there is already a three-dimensional image of the patient, as this was prepared and used for the preparation of the treatment planning. This three-dimensional image, usually a computed tomography, can now be used for other purposes and used to determine the optimal image acquisition parameters for the subsequent X-ray image.
  • In this case, the three-dimensional image can be used to estimate the patient-typical attenuation of the X-ray radiation. From this estimation the most optimal image acquisition parameters for the subsequent transillumination recording can be determined.
  • For example, it can be ascertained in advance on the basis of the three-dimensional image data set that a patient is to be expected to have a particularly pronounced attenuation of X-rays due to the anatomical conditions and, accordingly, the dose adapted for subsequent fluoroscopy - and in this case increased.
  • The determination of the image acquisition parameters can additionally be carried out in a variant embodiment by using stored data dependent on the object to be examined. In this variant, the image acquisition parameters are not determined solely by the evaluation of the three-dimensional image data set, but it is also possible to incorporate additional information that was previously organ-specific, e.g. have been deposited in a table. Thus, e.g. From this deposited data are taken as how the acceleration current, the acceleration voltage and / or the exposure time for the X-ray device or for the X-ray tube are to be adapted organ-specific.
  • On the basis of these organ-specific recording settings, it is possible to focus on what is relevant for the acquisition of the fluoroscopic image to be made. For example, it is advantageous to use a higher accelerator tension for bones than for other organs. Also, in this way, e.g. the preferred maximum exposure time is specified organ-specific, so as to set the preferred maximum exposure time in the case of moving organs. This information can sometimes not be obtained from an analysis of the three-dimensional recording data set, but must also be deposited.
  • The stored data is usually dependent on the X-ray system used (e.g., the type of X-ray tube, detector, etc.). The deposited data can come from empirical values and / or be determined by a calibration.
  • In the analysis of the image data set with regard to the expected attenuation of X-ray radiation, a digitally reconstructed X-ray image can be calculated (also referred to as DRR for "digitally reconstructed radiograph"). The DRR has the advantage that it is very similar to the X-ray image to be made in terms of image properties. Therefore, the expected quality of a fluoroscopic image can be easily estimated from the DRR. In this way, the parameter settings can be determined for optimum quality.
  • It is particularly advantageous to use the imaging geometry of the x-ray device for calculating the DRR, with which the fluoroscopic image is then to be made. This ultimately means one of the x-ray device to be used adapted evaluation of the three-dimensional image data set.
  • To calculate the DRR, the density values stored in the three-dimensional image data record can be summed up. In the case of a CT scan, the Hounsfield Unit (HU) values can simply be summed up. The HU values of a computed tomography correspond to the density of the tissue to be imaged relative to water.
  • The calculation of the DRR can therefore be performed using patient-specific data, for example the region of the patient to be X-rayed, the CT volume, etc., and with data given by the structure of the X-ray device. Typical data in this regard are the distance source detector (English: "source-detector"), the distance source-patient (English: "source-patient"), ie data that ultimately characterize the imaging geometry of the X-ray device.
  • Unlike DRR calculation algorithms, which are used for conventional DRR calculations, a simplified DRR calculation algorithm can be used here. This is possible because the calculated DRR is not used for the image display, but merely serves to estimate the quality of the DRR or to determine the parameter settings for the subsequent fluoroscopy. It is e.g. it is possible to simply sum up the HU values along the virtual X-rays. The air outside the CT volume can also be taken into account. Such a summation algorithm is particularly easy to implement.
  • The determination of the image acquisition parameters for the transillumination recording can now be carried out by evaluation of the DRR. Thus, the DRR image can be automatically evaluated, e.g. with regard to the calculated gray values. For example, in the case where only the HU values are added up, the minimum accumulated HU value, the maximum accumulated HU value and / or the average of the accumulated HU values can be determined. From these values it can be estimated how much X-ray radiation is absorbed during the passage through the object to be imaged, and how, therefore, the image acquisition parameters are to be set for optimum transillumination.
  • The inventive apparatus for determining image acquisition parameters for a radiographic image for imaging an object to be examined, namely a patient to be imaged, according to the inventive method comprises a computer unit comprising:
    • an interface for loading a three-dimensional image data set of the object to be imaged, the patient to be imaged, a component for analyzing the imaging data set with respect to an expected attenuation of the object-penetrating X-rays, and a component for determining the image acquisition parameters for the fluoroscopic image using the analysis of the imaging data set.
  • The device can be integrated, for example, in a control device for the X-ray recording device.
  • The device is designed or configured to perform the method according to the invention during operation.
  • The preceding and following description of the individual features, their advantages and their effects relates both to the device category and to the process category, although this is not explicitly mentioned in detail in each case; The individual features disclosed in this case can also be essential to the invention in combinations other than those shown.
  • Embodiments of the invention will be described with reference to the following drawing, but without being limited thereto. Show it:
    • 1 a flow diagram of an embodiment of the method according to the invention,
    • 2 a highly schematic representation of an x-ray imaging device.
  • 1 shows a flowchart of an embodiment of the method. The aim of the method is to determine parameter settings for an X-ray device, which make it possible to produce a high-quality X-ray image of a patient's organ to be imaged.
  • The starting point of the method is a three-dimensional image data record that already exists for the patient and in whose 3D volume the organ to be imaged is already displayed (step 11 ). The imaging data set may be a computed tomography, which was in particular the starting point for the preparation of an irradiation plan.
  • Based on the three-dimensional data set, a DRR is calculated (step 13 ).
  • Preferably, the calculation of the DRR is based on the imaging geometry of the x-ray device. The positioning of the imaging data record with respect to the virtual beam path, which is the basis of the calculation of the DRR, thereby corresponds to the positioning of the patient with respect to the X-ray device, as planned for the preparation of the X-ray image.
  • In a radiation therapy system, for example, the positioning of the patient with respect to an X-ray machine, with which a position verification is performed immediately before the start of irradiation, is determined during the planning of the irradiation sessions and is therefore known in advance. This position is usually stored in the system and can then be used to calculate the DRR.
  • As already described above, a simplified algorithm can be used to calculate the DRR in which HU density values of a computed tomography are only added up along the virtual X-rays.
  • After the DRR image has been calculated, the DRR image is evaluated (step 15 ).
  • From the DRR image, for example, the accumulated minimum density, the accumulated maximum density or the accumulated average density can be taken. These quantities represent values representing the expected attenuation of X-ray radiation as it passes through the patient.
  • Based on these values, the parameter settings for an optimized X-ray image can then be determined. One way, e.g. It is, for the sizes that characterize the attenuation of the X-ray radiation as it passes through the patient, to deposit each of the appropriate parameter settings in a look-up table. The parameter settings may relate to the x-ray tube accelerator voltage (kV), the x-ray tube accelerator current (mA), and / or the exposure time (ms).
  • Through the method, the settings of the X-ray machine can be adapted to the individual differences of different patients, without having to make a fluoroscopic recording beforehand.
  • Finally, computed tomography is used to estimate the optimal radiant energy and / or exposure time for the subsequent radiograph. This will reduce the time it takes to get a high quality X-ray. In addition, the dose for the patient is reduced.
  • In an optional step (step 17 ) the parameter settings can be additionally modified depending on the organ to be imaged. Thus, for example, in the case of an x-ray image optimized for bone, the parameter settings (in addition to the adaptation to the patient specifics) can be chosen differently than in the case of an x-ray image optimized for a soft tissue organ. For example, a higher kV value can be specified for bones than for abdominal organs. Also, in the case of moving organs, a preferred maximum exposure time can be specified. Ultimately, this means that the parameter settings are adapted not only to the inter-individual circumstances but also to the organ-specific requirements. The organ-specific adaptation can also be implemented using a look-up table.
  • Since the organ-specific settings deposited in the look-up table are highly dependent on the x-ray system used (e.g., the x-ray tube, the detector, etc.), they are preferably determined from experience and / or calibration.
  • Once the parameter settings have been determined, an X-ray can be taken for the patient's organ (step 19 ).
  • 2 shows a highly schematized X-ray machine. You can see an x-ray tube 31 and an opposing detector 33 , A patient 35 is positioned in the beam path for imaging.
  • The X-ray machine is controlled by a control device 37 controlled. The control device comprises a computer unit 39 in which the method described above is implemented. For this purpose, the computer unit has an input 41 via which an already existing volume data set can be provided. After the volume data set has been loaded, the computer unit can 39 with specification of the organ to be imaged, perform the method described above and thus perform the X-ray to be performed on the organ to be imaged and on the individuality of the patient 35 determine adjusted parameter settings.

Claims (11)

  1. Method for determining image acquisition parameters for a radiographic image for imaging an object to be examined, namely a patient to be imaged, comprising the implementation of the following steps by a computer unit: Loading a three-dimensional image data set of the object to be imaged, namely the patient to be imaged, Analyzing the image data set with respect to expected attenuation of the X-rays penetrating the object, - Determining the image acquisition parameters for the fluoroscopic image using the analysis of the image data set.
  2. Method according to Claim 1 , wherein the image data set is a three-dimensional computer tomographic data set, which was prepared in particular in the context of an irradiation planning for the patient.
  3. Method according to one of the above claims, wherein the determination of the image acquisition parameters is additionally performed using stored data dependent on the object to be examined.
  4. The method of any of the above claims, wherein analyzing the image data set for expected attenuation comprises calculating a digitally reconstructed x-ray image.
  5. Method according to Claim 4 , wherein for the calculation of the digitally reconstructed X-ray image, the imaging geometry of the X-ray device making the X-ray exposure is used.
  6. Method according to Claim 4 or 5 , wherein for the calculation of the digitally reconstructed X-ray image, the density values stored in the three-dimensional image data record are summed up.
  7. Method according to one of Claims 4 to 6 , wherein the determination of the image acquisition parameters for the fluoroscopic image is carried out by evaluation of the digitally reconstructed radiography.
  8. Method according to one of Claims 4 to 7 , wherein the digitally reconstructed radiography is evaluated with respect to the calculated gray values.
  9. Method according to one of the above claims, wherein the fluoroscopic image for positioning the patient in a radiation therapy system is made.
  10. Apparatus for determining image acquisition parameters for a radiographic image for imaging an object to be examined, namely a patient to be imaged, according to the method according to one of the above claims, comprising a computer unit (39) with: an interface (41) for loading a three-dimensional image data record of the object to be imaged, namely the patient to be imaged, a component for analyzing the image data set with respect to an expected attenuation of the object-penetrating X-rays, and a component for determining the image acquisition parameters for the fluoroscopic image using the analysis of the image data set.
  11. Device after Claim 10 wherein the device is part of a control device (37) of an X-ray recording device (31, 33).
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DE102013218821A1 (en) 2013-09-19 2015-03-19 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method and device for displaying an object with the aid of X-rays

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE10210646A1 (en) 2002-03-11 2003-10-09 Siemens Ag Method for displaying a medical instrument brought into an examination area of a patient
DE102004042060A1 (en) 2003-09-11 2005-05-04 Siemens Ag A method of automatically adjusting an X-ray dose to produce a tomogram
DE102006033885A1 (en) 2006-07-21 2008-01-31 Siemens Ag X-ray diagnostic device i.e. C-arm system, operating method, involves producing simulated two-dimensional projection image from three-dimensional volume data set, where projection image corresponds to mechanical parameters of device
DE102010020287A1 (en) 2010-05-12 2011-11-17 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for detecting position of investigation object during treatment of fracture, involves determining object position based on set of diagram parameter values determined around correspondence between acquired and virtual image data

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE10210646A1 (en) 2002-03-11 2003-10-09 Siemens Ag Method for displaying a medical instrument brought into an examination area of a patient
DE102004042060A1 (en) 2003-09-11 2005-05-04 Siemens Ag A method of automatically adjusting an X-ray dose to produce a tomogram
DE102006033885A1 (en) 2006-07-21 2008-01-31 Siemens Ag X-ray diagnostic device i.e. C-arm system, operating method, involves producing simulated two-dimensional projection image from three-dimensional volume data set, where projection image corresponds to mechanical parameters of device
DE102010020287A1 (en) 2010-05-12 2011-11-17 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for detecting position of investigation object during treatment of fracture, involves determining object position based on set of diagram parameter values determined around correspondence between acquired and virtual image data

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