DE102006023563A1 - Photovoltaic system for transforming of solar power into electricity, has strings with solar modules attached with transducers, where one of transducers is charged with output voltage of series connection of strings by using switching units - Google Patents

Photovoltaic system for transforming of solar power into electricity, has strings with solar modules attached with transducers, where one of transducers is charged with output voltage of series connection of strings by using switching units

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Publication number
DE102006023563A1
DE102006023563A1 DE200610023563 DE102006023563A DE102006023563A1 DE 102006023563 A1 DE102006023563 A1 DE 102006023563A1 DE 200610023563 DE200610023563 DE 200610023563 DE 102006023563 A DE102006023563 A DE 102006023563A DE 102006023563 A1 DE102006023563 A1 DE 102006023563A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
dc
photovoltaic system
characterized
strings
system according
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE200610023563
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Eduard Bergmann
Marwin Kinzl
Dieter Röttger
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Kostal Industrie Elektrik GmbH
Original Assignee
Kostal Industrie Elektrik GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Kostal Industrie Elektrik GmbH filed Critical Kostal Industrie Elektrik GmbH
Priority to DE200610023563 priority Critical patent/DE102006023563A1/en
Publication of DE102006023563A1 publication Critical patent/DE102006023563A1/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/34Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering
    • H02J7/35Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering with light sensitive cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J1/00Circuit arrangements for dc mains or dc distribution networks
    • H02J1/10Parallel operation of dc sources
    • H02J1/102Parallel operation of dc sources being switching converters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • H02J3/383Solar energy, e.g. photovoltaic energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M1/00Details of apparatus for conversion
    • H02M2001/0067Converter structures employing plural converter units, other than for parallel operation of the units on a single load
    • H02M2001/007Plural converter units in cascade
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • Y02E10/563Power conversion electric or electronic aspects for grid-connected applications
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • Y02E10/566Power conversion electric or electronic aspects concerning power management inside the plant, e.g. battery charging/discharging, economical operation, hybridisation with other energy sources

Abstract

The system has strings (ST1-ST3) with solar cell modules attached with DC/DC transducers (DCW1-DCW3). The direct current/direct current (DC/DC) transducers are attached to a common inverter bridge at an output side. One of the DC/DC transducers at an input side is charged with a total output voltage of a series connection of the strings by using switching units. A current and voltage control is provided at each DC/DC transducer. A part of the switching units is designed as diodes (D1-D3).

Description

  • The The present invention relates to a photovoltaic system with several in each case several solar cell modules comprising strings, which each a DC / DC converter is assigned, wherein the DC / DC converter on the output side are connected to a common inverter bridge.
  • Photovoltaic systems serve to convert solar energy into electrical energy, for example, for the autonomous supply of a house or to Feed into a public power grid can be provided. As output voltage of a photovoltaic system is therefore usually an AC voltage in the amount of the usual mains voltage and with the usual Mains frequency desired.
  • The Solar cell modules for operating a photovoltaic system are common interconnected in series with several so-called strings. Each of these strings supplies a DC voltage which is supplied by DC / DC converters, in the following briefly as a DC / DC converter referred to, in their voltage level adapted and is converted by an inverter into an AC voltage.
  • In the German Offenlegungsschrift DE 199 19 766 A1 is described a photovoltaic system in which photovoltaic elements are connected in strings and each string is associated with a DC / DC converter. The DC / DC converters are connected in parallel with each other and connected to a common inverter bridge.
  • Advantageous It is because everyone String can be regulated individually. In contrast, it is disadvantageous that the voltages at the individual entrances the DC / DC converter Depending on the wiring, they are often too low and sometimes high Need to become. One such operation is for the efficiency unfavorable.
  • Problematic is also that the voltage generated by the strings from solar radiation and Depend on ambient temperature and therefore not constant over time. In addition, can themselves at a given time the electrical outputs of Strings also due to different arrangement, for example on different sides of a house, different from each other.
  • Desirable would be therefore a photovoltaic system that provides varying voltage and power outputs the strings are automatically taken into account. At many times could you put the individual strings in series, because the strings are switched on often about the same size streams deliver. For very different currents should be connected in series be waived. Another reason to go to the series connection dispense with very high voltages at idle, which is an inverter to destroy can.
  • It Therefore, the task is to develop a circuit that flexible and automatic to the applied string voltages adapts and a particularly favorable one Operation of a photovoltaic system allows.
  • The Task is solved by that over switching elements affected at least one DC / DC converter on the input side with the sum output voltage a series circuit of its associated string and at least another string can be acted upon.
  • in the Detail is the solution in that on the one hand between the various DC / DC converters switching elements for coupling are arranged, on the other hand built into the DC / DC converter switching elements are that make it possible the single DC / DC converter with the ground of the DC link of the inverter to separate.
  • A Such a circuit can increase the efficiency of a photovoltaic system significantly increase under many operating conditions and the power loss reduce. Advantageously, it is thus possible, the Heat sink of Inverter and thus the transformer system belonging to the photovoltaic system To dimension considerably smaller and thus to save considerable costs.
  • Further advantageous embodiments and further developments of a photovoltaic system according to the invention are in the dependent claims listed.
  • in the The following is the invention with reference to some schematic diagrams illustrated and explained in more detail.
  • It demonstrate
  • 1 a schematic diagram of a photovoltaic system according to the invention,
  • 2 some advantageous embodiments of the in the 1 illustrated switching elements.
  • The circuit principle of a photovoltaic system according to the invention shows the 1 , The photovoltaic system consists of several, here exemplified three DC / DC converters (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3), the interconnected output voltages as so-called intermediate circuit voltage (UZK) am Input of an inverter bridge (WR). The inverter bridge (WR) generates on the output side preferably a multi-phase AC voltage, which coincides in voltage level and frequency with the usual mains AC voltage and is therefore suitable for feeding into a public power grid.
  • The DC / DC converters (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3) are on the input side each with one of several series-connected photovoltaic elements existing string (ST1, ST2, ST3) connected. The individual DC / DC converters (DCW1, DCW2, DC DCW3) are designed here as simple up-switching converter, which according to a known Working principle. By a clocked activation of a Circuit breaker (LS1, LS2, LS2) is the input voltage of the Switching converter periodically at a storage choke (L1, L2, L3) at. In the switch-on phases of the circuit breaker (LS1, LS2, LS2) stored in the storage inductor (L1, L2, L3) electrical Energy is generated in the blocking phases of the circuit breaker (LS1, LS2, LS2) over a diode (D1, D2, D3) transferred to an output capacitor (C). The Output voltage of the switching converter increases depending on from the duty cycle when controlling the circuit breaker (LS1, LS2, LS2) to one Value, the higher than the value of the input voltage.
  • The Control of the circuit breaker (LS1, LS2, LS2) is carried out by a control device not shown here, depending on of electrical quantities, and Although in particular the voltage applied to the DC / DC converters (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3) Input voltages, which controls circuit breakers. The control device serves over it in addition to detecting the input currents of the DC / DC converters (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3), as well as to control the following Switching elements. Particularly simple and advantageous, such Control device by a microcontroller-containing Circuit arrangement executed be.
  • The mentioned switching elements (S11, S12, S21, S22), which can be actuated by the control device, are in the 1 can be seen and have the function, the strings (ST1, ST2, ST3) of the three DC / DC converters (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3) depending on the input voltages generated by the strings (ST1, ST2, ST3) either individually or in one Series connection to operate.
  • It be first assume that the switching elements S11 and S21 are closed and the switching elements S12 and S22 are open. In this case work the three DC / DC converters (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3) independently of each other, with their Output voltages parallel to the DC link lines (ZK +, ZK-) abut. This mode is especially advantageous if all three strings (ST1, ST2, ST3) provide voltage values that are consistent with a good Efficiency through the DC / DC converters (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3) up to increase the value of the DC link voltage (UZK).
  • is this is not the case, so it is more advantageous to operate with at least two series-connected strings (ST1, ST2, ST3) provide. Suppose the first and the second string (ST1, ST2) returns respectively a tension that does not interfere with good efficiency in the DC link voltage (UCC) while the sum of the two voltages one in this regard would give sufficient value. In this case, it is convenient to connect the two strings (ST1, ST2) to each other in series and with its output voltage on the input side of the DC / DC converter (DCW1).
  • This is achieved by the Control device, the switching element S11 opens and the switching element S12 closes. As a result, those on the DC / DC converters DCW1 and DCW2 adjacent strings ST1 and ST2 connected in series, whose positive potential is over the positive line of the DC / DC converter DCW1, ie the storage inductor L1 and the diode D1 to the positive line (ZK +) of the DC link out is while the DC / DC converter DCW2 over the closed switch S21 to the common ground potential the ground line (ZK-) of the DC link leads.
  • There the circuit breaker LS1 of the DC / DC converter DCW1 also with the ground line (ZK-) the DC link is connected, this now clocks the full-fitting Total voltage of strings ST1 and ST2. The plus line of the second DC / DC converter (DCW2) is decoupled by the diode D2.
  • These Operating mode is advantageous if the voltage applied to the DC / DC converters String voltages are low and therefore only with a relatively poor efficiency can be converted into the DC link voltage (UZK). By need this circuit the tensions of the individual strings are set lower as without series connection. The inverter works well better efficiency, generates less heat, therefore regulates less frequently, and can work more economically.
  • Corresponding can also the strings (ST2, ST3) of the DC / DC converters DCW2 and DCW3 temporarily be connected in series or all three strings (ST1, ST2, ST3) in common.
  • The process for switching can be carried out so that the inverter with The individual DC / DC converters (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3) start separately. After the open circuit voltage has been released and a lower voltage has been reached on each DC / DC converter (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3), it is possible to switch over. When switching during operation, make sure that the "lower", ie closer to ground DC / DC converter is no longer clocked and then quickly switched.
  • One reasonable criterion for the switching from single operation to series connection is that approximately equal currents through the strings to be switched (ST1, ST2, ST3) flow and that the sum of the individual voltages is less than the maximum allowable Tension.
  • Especially is advantageous if for each string (ST1, ST2, ST3) the operating data, such as input voltage, Output current or output power, can be sampled individually, in particular also with series connection of the strings. For this, the current values can be directly, the voltage values by simple subtraction of the individual voltage values be determined. Furthermore is it possible the optimal operating point of each string also in a series connection to monitor individually. Thus, when connected in series easily detected in a simple manner be whether individual operation makes more sense and is more economical. at Demand can therefore be reacted quickly. Such situations occur usually with partial shading of the photovoltaic strings on.
  • criteria for the Canceling the series circuit is so that in single operation per string more energy can be generated. This can be z. B. by suitable algorithms are determined. The circuit described here This makes the cost-effectiveness of photovoltaic systems clear increase.
  • The in the 1 schematically illustrated as a simple switch switching elements are designed in practice as electronic or electromechanical components.
  • Possible advantageous embodiments of the switching elements are in the 2 shown schematically. Here, the switching element S1 each represents a switching element in the ground line of a DC / DC converter (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3), corresponding to, for example, the switching element S11 in the 1 while the switching element S2 stands for a switching element which comprises two DC / DC converters (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3) corresponding, for example, to the switch S12 in FIG 1 , can connect with each other.
  • A particularly simple way to realize the switching elements shows the 2a , The first switching element (S1) is designed here as a diode while the second switching element (S2) is a relay contact. Upon actuation of the relay contact (S2), the diode blocks (S1) and removes the connection of the negative potential of the associated string with the negative line (ZK-) of the intermediate circuit.
  • With a switching element S2, which has an additional switching contact ( 2 B ), the diode losses that occur when the inputs are individually controlled can be minimized by bridging the diode (S1).
  • A particularly advantageous embodiment consists in designing the switching elements (S1, S2) as field-effect transistors ( 2c ). These allow contactless and particularly fast switching of the inputs.
  • An exclusive use of relay contacts as switching elements (S1, S2) is also mentioned ( 2d ). This option is the most cost-effective, but requires a particularly good timing in the control.
  • to Formation of the switching elements may also be a combination of a field effect transistor and a relay can be provided, wherein the field effect transistor only must have a high dielectric strength and the current only for a very short time, typically a few milliseconds. Vice versa that must be Relay not for high switching voltages are designed, but only for the corresponding currents since the switching process itself by the field effect transistor or is effected by a diode. This is additionally the costly Switching DC voltages over Relay greatly simplified.
  • To the Switching it is particularly advantageous when the circuit breaker of the lower DC / DC converter first is clocked so that the voltage of the string approaches zero. In this case, the switches are only during the switching process exposed to low voltages.
  • C
    output capacitor
    D1, D2, D3
    diodes
    L1, L2, L3
    chokes
    ST1, ST2, ST3
    strings
    DCW1, DCW2, DCW3
    DC / DC converter
    LS1, LS2, LS3
    breakers
    WR
    Inverter bridge
    S1, S11, S21
    (first) switching elements
    S2, S12, S22
    (second) switching elements
    UDC
    Intermediate circuit voltage
    ZK
    DC link line (ground)
    ZK +
    DC link (plus)

Claims (11)

  1. Photovoltaic system with several each comprising a plurality of solar cell modules strings, each associated with a DC / DC converter, the DC / DC converter are the output side connected to a common inverter bridge, characterized in that via switching elements (S1, S2, S11, S12, S21, S22), at least one DC / DC converter (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3) on the input side with the sum output voltage of a series circuit of its associated string (ST1, ST2, ST3) and at least one further string (ST1, ST2, ST3 ) can be acted upon.
  2. Photovoltaic system according to claim 1, characterized in that that on each DC / DC converter (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3) current and voltage monitoring is provided.
  3. Photovoltaic system according to claim 2, characterized that via switching elements (S1, S2, S11, S12, S21, S22), at least one DC / DC converter (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3) on the input side with the total output voltage a series circuit of its associated string (ST1, ST2, ST3) and at least one further string (ST1, ST2, ST3) acted upon becomes when the seized output currents the respective DC / DC converter (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3) by no more than differentiate a given maximum amount and at the same time the sum of the output voltages of the respective DC / DC converters (DCW1, DCW2, DCW3) is below a predetermined maximum amount.
  4. Photovoltaic system according to claim 1, characterized in that that at least a part of the switching elements (S1) are formed as diodes.
  5. Photovoltaic system according to claim 1, characterized in that characterized in that at least a part of the switching elements (S1, S2, S11, S12, S21, S22) as a relay are formed.
  6. Photovoltaic system according to claim 1, characterized in that that at least a part of the switching elements (S1, S2) as a controllable semiconductor switch are formed.
  7. Photovoltaic system according to claim 6, characterized in that that the controllable semiconductor switches are designed as field effect transistors.
  8. Photovoltaic system according to claim 1, characterized in that that the Photovoltaic system has at least one microcontroller.
  9. Photovoltaic system according to claims 2 and 8, characterized in that the Current and / or voltage evaluation directly or indirectly through the Microcontroller takes place.
  10. Photovoltaic system according to claim 8, characterized in that characterized in that the Microcontroller at least part of the switching elements (S1, S2, S11, S12, S21, S22).
  11. Photovoltaic system according to claim 1, characterized in that that the Photovoltaic system for the supply of electrical energy in the public Power grid is provided.
DE200610023563 2006-05-19 2006-05-19 Photovoltaic system for transforming of solar power into electricity, has strings with solar modules attached with transducers, where one of transducers is charged with output voltage of series connection of strings by using switching units Pending DE102006023563A1 (en)

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DE102007032605A1 (en) * 2007-07-11 2009-02-05 Robert Maier Fotovoltaikanlage
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