DE10127261B4 - Measuring device for the flow rate of a gas, in particular for use in plasma surgery - Google Patents

Measuring device for the flow rate of a gas, in particular for use in plasma surgery

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Publication number
DE10127261B4
DE10127261B4 DE2001127261 DE10127261A DE10127261B4 DE 10127261 B4 DE10127261 B4 DE 10127261B4 DE 2001127261 DE2001127261 DE 2001127261 DE 10127261 A DE10127261 A DE 10127261A DE 10127261 B4 DE10127261 B4 DE 10127261B4
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
measuring
flow
flow sensor
gas
device according
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
DE2001127261
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German (de)
Other versions
DE10127261A1 (en
Inventor
Volker Bartel
Martin Fritz
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Erbe Elecktromedizin GmbH
Original Assignee
Erbe Elecktromedizin GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Erbe Elecktromedizin GmbH filed Critical Erbe Elecktromedizin GmbH
Priority to DE2001127261 priority Critical patent/DE10127261B4/en
Publication of DE10127261A1 publication Critical patent/DE10127261A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of DE10127261B4 publication Critical patent/DE10127261B4/en
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Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating
    • A61B18/042Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating using additional gas becoming plasma
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01FMEASURING VOLUME, VOLUME FLOW, MASS FLOW OR LIQUID LEVEL; METERING BY VOLUME
    • G01F1/00Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow
    • G01F1/05Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by using mechanical effects
    • G01F1/34Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by using mechanical effects by measuring pressure or differential pressure
    • G01F1/36Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by using mechanical effects by measuring pressure or differential pressure the pressure or differential pressure being created by the use of flow constriction
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01FMEASURING VOLUME, VOLUME FLOW, MASS FLOW OR LIQUID LEVEL; METERING BY VOLUME
    • G01F1/00Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow
    • G01F1/68Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by using thermal effects
    • G01F1/696Circuits therefor, e.g. constant-current flow meters
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01FMEASURING VOLUME, VOLUME FLOW, MASS FLOW OR LIQUID LEVEL; METERING BY VOLUME
    • G01F1/00Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow
    • G01F1/68Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by using thermal effects
    • G01F1/696Circuits therefor, e.g. constant-current flow meters
    • G01F1/6965Circuits therefor, e.g. constant-current flow meters comprising means to store calibration data for flow signal calculation or correction
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01FMEASURING VOLUME, VOLUME FLOW, MASS FLOW OR LIQUID LEVEL; METERING BY VOLUME
    • G01F7/00Volume-flow measuring devices with two or more measuring ranges; Compound meters

Abstract

measuring device for the flow rate a gas having at least a first and at least a second Flow Sensor (10, 12) operating in a gas flow space (14) are arranged, wherein the at least first flow sensor (10) a first progressive measuring characteristic (16) and the at least second flow sensor (12) has a second, from the first different degressive measuring characteristic (18).

Description

  • The The invention relates to a measuring device for the flow rate a gas according to the preamble of claim 1.
  • In of high-frequency surgery makes the plasma surgery a whole This is a high-frequency electrical alternating current through an electrically conductive Gas is directed to a biological tissue to be treated. As electric conductive Gas is used for plasma. Preferably, in this case, the plasma a noble gas, for example argon or helium used. The Coagulation by argon plasma is described in the paper by G. Farin, K. E. Grund, "Technology of Argon Plasma Coagulation with particular regard to endoscopic application ", Endoscopic Surgery and Technologies, No 1, Vol. 2, 1994, pp. 71-77.
  • The above-mentioned monatomic noble gases, such as argon or helium used in terms of their various physical properties, for example due to their chemical neutrality involved in plasma surgery plays a particularly important role. Equally important is the ionizability, the unlike polyatomic gases like oxygen, nitrogen or Carbon dioxide or mixtures of various polyatomic gases such as Air is much better.
  • A known device for Plasma surgery has a source of rare gas, a radio frequency generator and an applicator. The high frequency generator ionizes on the one hand the noble gas electrically and on the other hand provides a High frequency alternating electrical current used for surgical procedures becomes. about the applicator is the high frequency alternating electrical current through the electrically ionized noble gas on a biological to be operated on Tissue applied.
  • Of the Applicator includes usually a flexible tube or hose through which the Noble gas in the form of a gas stream with a certain flow rate is directed. One possible constant flow rate is for a uniform coagulation of biological tissue is particularly important.
  • to Measurement of the flow rate can be a flow sensor be used, which is located in the pipe or hose, the Flow rate measures and generates a corresponding electrical measurement signal. The measuring signal can be used to display the measured flow rate and / or to control the Flow rate for example by means of a valve serve.
  • From the DE 43 39 771 C2 an electronic evaluation device is known for detecting a liquid flowing in a pipe with at least two transducers. The output signals of the transducers are combined to form a common output signal, thus determining creeping quantities in a water system. The composition of the output signals takes place in the ax that the signal range of the second transducer in the region of the first transducer is suppressed and that an electrically adjustable Meßbereichübergabepunkt is provided, in which the transition of the output signal of the first transducer takes place on the output signal of the second transducer.
  • From the US 4,487,063 is known a hot wire Anemometex whose output signal is calibrated by a temperature compensation by a temperature sensing element and thus is independent of the temperature of the measured gas.
  • In the US 4,264,961 describes a system that performs a flow measurement on the one hand by a differential pressure measurement and on the other hand by a hot wire anemometer. The output signals of the two measuring points are linearized in a computer by a mathematical function. The results are compared.
  • From the US 5,311,762 a calibration device for hot wire anemometer is known, which - are successively - arranged in a tube with a small clear width. Due to the spatial arrangement, the gas at the two anemometers at different temperatures, resulting in a difference in the energy loss of the two anemometers. The two anemometers are identical, but are subjected to different currents during calibration by different series resistors.
  • adversely at conventional Flow sensors However, it is only a very small area high sensitivity and / or measurement accuracy have. In particular, inexpensive flow sensors often have a very small measuring window, in the exact measurements the flow rate be achieved. Outside of the measuring window lying measurement results on the other hand are too inaccurate, for example, for a regulation of the flow rate to be used.
  • The present invention is therefore based on the object, a measuring device for the flow rate of a gas, in particular for use in plasma surgery, to propose that at a relatively simple structural design an exempt accurate measurement of the flow rate of the gas over the largest possible range allows.
  • These Task is by a measuring device solved with the features of claim 1. Preferred embodiments the measuring device arise from the dependent ones Claims.
  • Of the Invention is based on the idea, at least two flow sensors with different measuring characteristics for measuring the flow rate of a Gases in a flow space provided. Each of the sensors preferably covers one different measuring range from. this makes possible the use of inexpensive flow sensors, in their respective measuring range measure accurately.
  • In a device according to the invention for the flow rate of a gas are therefore at least a first and at least one second flow sensor in a flow space arranged. The at least first flow sensor has a first measurement characteristic and is preferably for measuring a first gas flow rate range educated. The at least second flow sensor has a second, from the first different measuring characteristic. Preferably it is for measuring a second gas flow rate range educated. As flow sensors for example flowmeter like a diaphragm or dynamic pressure gauge or thermal mass flow meter like a hot wire anemometer or a calorimetric sensor become.
  • The cover first and second flow sensors preferably different Meßgenauigkeits- and sensitivity ranges from. In other words, complete the flow sensors to a measuring device, the one relative to a single flow sensor relatively wide Measuring range with has relatively high accuracy and high sensitivity.
  • Preferably has the at least first flow sensor a high sensitivity and accuracy in a small, at least second flow sensor a high sensitivity and accuracy at a big one Gas flow rate on.
  • Of the at least first flow sensor can from the at least second flow sensor in the measuring principle differ. For example, a flow sensor according to the principle the dynamic pressure measurement with a calorimetric principle based flow sensor be combined. Depending on which gas flow rate range the corresponding flow sensor can be used for the corresponding gas flow rate range most suitable flow sensor be used for measuring.
  • alternative can first and second flow sensors also for the application of the same measuring principle be formed. They then differ in particular through her measurement window, in which you can make accurate measurements; d. H. specifically, that the first Flow sensors for measuring a first flow rate and the second flow sensors for measuring a second, different from the first flow rate are formed.
  • Preferably can at least the second flow sensors as a by-pass Bypass be formed in the at least first flow sensor, preferably operated with the bypass or the bypass at high flow rates becomes. This embodiment is particularly inexpensive, because a first and a second flow sensor in principle by a single sensor can be realized whose measuring range through the bypass or the bypass preferably to large flow rates adaptable is.
  • In a preferred embodiment is an evaluation device for processing of the flow sensors generated electrical measuring signals intended. The evaluation device selects depending on a predefinable flow rate the measuring signal the at least one first or second flow sensor for determination the gas flow rate in the flow space. This means that the Evaluation device based on the measurement signals supplied by the flow sensors determines which of the flow sensors to be used for the measurement.
  • In a development of the measuring device can a control device may be provided which controls the gas flow rate in the flow space dependent on from the selected one measuring signal regulates.
  • In addition, but also instead of a selection of a measuring signal, an evaluation device for Processing the generated by the flow sensors be provided electrical signals which the measuring signals for determining the gas flow rate in the flow space added. This can be a linearization of the total measuring characteristic the measuring device result. This causes an improvement, above all an increase in the sensitivity and / or Accuracy of measurements.
  • Preferably, a warning device is further provided which correlates the measurement signals generated by the flow sensors and in a deviation of one of the measured signals of the measuring characteristic of the corresponding flow sensor generates a warning signal. If the flow rate of the gas flow in the flow space leaving the covered by the flow sensors measuring range, it usually leads to Meßabweichun conditions that can be signaled by the warning signal. Preferably, therefore, the warning device can lock the flow space in case of a deviation of one of the measured signals from the measuring characteristic of the corresponding flow sensor in order to interrupt the gas flow.
  • The Deviation of a measuring signal from the measuring characteristic the corresponding flow sensor can also be used to determine the gas in the flow space. This works especially well if the probability of Errors in the flow sensors is very low or detected these errors in a different way become. In particular, in this case, a gas detection device from the deviation of a measuring signal automatically determine the gas.
  • Finally is the measuring device preferably part of a device for plasma surgery.
  • In a preferred embodiment has the at least first flow sensor a progressive measuring characteristic on.
  • In a further preferred embodiment the at least second flow sensor has one degressive measuring characteristic on.
  • Preferably becomes the measuring device used in plasma surgery.
  • One embodiment The invention will now be described with reference to the drawings. These show in
  • 1 an embodiment of a measuring device according to the invention and
  • 2 the measuring characteristics of the flow sensors of 1 illustrated measuring device.
  • In 1 are a first flow sensor 10 and a second flow sensor 12 one behind the other in the direction indicated by the arrow 30 indicated flow direction of a gas in a flow space 14 arranged in the form of a channel. The flow sensors 10 and 12 may be, for example, hot wire or thin film anemometers. Preferably, the flow sensor provided for small flow rates will be a differential anemometer. The advantage of such anemometers is that they directly generate an electrical signal for evaluation by electronic device.
  • The first flow sensor 10 has a first measuring characteristic 16 whose course in 2 is shown. The measuring characteristic is progressive, ie the strength of the flow sensor 10 The signal emitted increases progressively with the gas flowing past the sensor gas or mass, and thus the flow rate. In contrast, the second flow sensor has 12 a degressive characteristic on - as in 2 shown in the right diagram. According to this degressive characteristic 18 takes the strength of one of the second flow sensor 12 disproportionate with increasing gas flow, ie on the sensor vorbeifließender gas quantity or mass to. This is the first flow sensor 10 for larger, the second flow sensor 12 designed for smaller flow rates. The characteristic 16 of the first flow sensor essentially corresponds to the measuring characteristic of a differential pressure measurement. A degressive characteristic 18 of the second flow sensor 12 typically has a calorimetric sensor.
  • The electrical signals emitted by the two flow sensors 11 and 13 become an evaluation device 20 fed. Further, this becomes a signal 22 supplied, which corresponds to a predetermined gas flow rate. This predeterminable gas flow rate is determined from the critical gas flow rates of the flow sensors 10 and 12 for each in the flow space 14 located gas determined.
  • This is done for each flow sensor 10 and 12 determines at which gas flow rate, despite different characteristics 16 and 18 have the same sensitivity and / or accuracy. According to the detected gas flow rates for the two flow sensors 10 and 12 result in two characteristic signal strengths caused by two threshold values in the evaluation device 20 over the signal 22 be determined.
  • The evaluation device 20 now selects the supplied signal for evaluation 11 or 13 the flow sensors 10 respectively. 12 which is greater or less than the respective gas flow rate. In other words, the flow sensor is selected for the measurement, whose determined critical flow rate is closer to the actually measured gas flow rate in the flow channel 14 lies.
  • The selected measurement signal 11 ' or 13 is from the evaluation device 20 a control device 24 supplied, which regulate the flow rate in the flow space 14 is provided. This derives a control signal from the supplied signal 25 starting from the position of a throttle 32 in the flow channel 14 controls. By means of the throttle 32 can the flow rate of the gas in the flow channel 14 to adjust. The control signal 25 becomes according to a predetermined control algorithm in the control device 24 from the of the evaluation 20 derived signal derived.
  • The measuring signals 11 and 13 the flow sensors 10 respectively. 12 are also a warning device 26 fed. This signals via a warning lamp 28 a deviation of one of the measured signals 11 and 13 from the measuring characteristic of the corresponding flow sensor 10 respectively. 12 , In addition, the warning device generates 26 a warning signal 27 that the gas flow in the flow space 14 can interrupt by moving the throttle 32 in the flow space 14 brings into a blocking position, in which the flow space 14 Is blocked.
  • 10
    first Flow Sensor
    11
    measuring signal
    12
    second Flow Sensor
    13
    measuring signal
    14
    flow chamber
    16
    First measurement characteristic
    18
    Second measurement characteristic
    20
    evaluation
    22
    specifiable Gas flow rate signal
    24
    control device
    25
    control signal
    26
    warning device
    27
    warning
    28
    warning light
    30
    flow direction
    32
    throttle

Claims (13)

  1. Measuring device for the flow rate of a gas with at least one first and at least one second flow sensor ( 10 . 12 ), which are in a gas flow space ( 14 ), wherein the at least first flow sensor ( 10 ) a first progressive measuring characteristic ( 16 ) and the at least second flow sensor ( 12 ) a second, different from the first degressive measuring characteristic ( 18 ) having.
  2. Measuring device according to claim 1, characterized in that the at least first flow sensor ( 10 ) high sensitivity and accuracy in a small and at least second flow sensor ( 12 ) has high sensitivity and accuracy at a large gas flow rate.
  3. Measuring device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the at least first flow sensor ( 10 ) and the at least second flow sensor ( 12 ) differ in the measuring principle.
  4. Measuring device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the at least first flow sensor ( 10 ) and the at least second flow sensor ( 12 ) Apply the same measuring principle and are designed to measure different flow rates.
  5. Measuring device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the at least second flow sensor ( 12 ) as a bypass in the at least first flow sensor ( 10 ) is formed, with or the at least the first flow sensor ( 10 ) is operated at high flow rates.
  6. Measuring device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that an evaluation device ( 20 ) for processing the flow sensors ( 10 . 12 ) derived electrical measuring signals ( 11 . 13 ) is provided, which depends on a predeterminable gas flow rate ( 22 ) the measuring signal ( 11 . 13 ) of a flow sensor ( 10 . 12 ) for determining the gas flow rate in the flow space ( 14 ) selects.
  7. Measuring device according to claim 6, characterized in that a control device ( 24 ), which determines the gas flow rate in the flow space ( 14 ) depending on the selected measuring signal ( 11 . 13 ) regulates.
  8. Measuring device according to one of claims 1 - 5, characterized in that an evaluation device for processing the flow sensors ( 10 . 12 ) generated electrical measuring signals ( 11 . 13 ) is provided, which the measuring signals ( 11 . 13 ) for determining the gas flow rate in the flow space ( 14 ) added.
  9. Measuring device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a warning device ( 26 ) provided by the flow sensors ( 10 . 12 ) generated electrical measuring signals ( 11 . 13 ) and in the case of a deviation of one of the measuring signals ( 11 . 13 ) of the measuring characteristic ( 16 . 18 ) of the corresponding flow sensor ( 10 . 12 ) a warning signal ( 27 ) generated.
  10. Measuring device according to claim 9, characterized in that the warning device ( 26 ) in the event of a deviation of one of the measuring signals ( 11 . 13 ) of the measuring characteristic ( 16 . 18 ) of the corresponding flow sensor ( 10 . 12 ) the flow space ( 14 ) locks to interrupt the gas flow.
  11. Measuring device according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that a gas detection device is provided which consists of the deviation of one of the measuring signals ( 11 . 13 ) of the measuring characteristic ( 16 . 18 ) of the corresponding flow sensor ( 10 . 12 ) determines the gas.
  12. measuring device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized that she Part of a device for plasma surgery is.
  13. Use of a measuring device according to one of previous claims in plasma surgery.
DE2001127261 2001-06-05 2001-06-05 Measuring device for the flow rate of a gas, in particular for use in plasma surgery Active DE10127261B4 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE2001127261 DE10127261B4 (en) 2001-06-05 2001-06-05 Measuring device for the flow rate of a gas, in particular for use in plasma surgery

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE2001127261 DE10127261B4 (en) 2001-06-05 2001-06-05 Measuring device for the flow rate of a gas, in particular for use in plasma surgery

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DE10127261B4 true DE10127261B4 (en) 2005-02-10

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7928338B2 (en) 2007-02-02 2011-04-19 Plasma Surgical Investments Ltd. Plasma spraying device and method
DE102009046653A1 (en) * 2009-11-12 2011-05-19 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Magnetically inductive flow rate measuring system for determining volume- and/or mass flow rate of measuring medium in e.g. automation engineering, has two resistance thermometers integrated into two electrodes, respectively
DE102009060302A1 (en) * 2009-12-23 2011-06-30 Truma Gerätetechnik GmbH & Co. KG, 85640 Gas supply device with mass flow sensor
US8030849B2 (en) 2007-08-06 2011-10-04 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Pulsed plasma device and method for generating pulsed plasma
US8105325B2 (en) 2005-07-08 2012-01-31 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Plasma-generating device, plasma surgical device, use of a plasma-generating device and method of generating a plasma
US8109928B2 (en) 2005-07-08 2012-02-07 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Plasma-generating device, plasma surgical device and use of plasma surgical device
US8613742B2 (en) 2010-01-29 2013-12-24 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Methods of sealing vessels using plasma
US8735766B2 (en) 2007-08-06 2014-05-27 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Cathode assembly and method for pulsed plasma generation
US9089319B2 (en) 2010-07-22 2015-07-28 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Volumetrically oscillating plasma flows

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SE529053C2 (en) 2005-07-08 2007-04-17 Plasma Surgical Invest Ltd The plasma apparatus, plasma surgical device and use of a plasma surgical device
DE102007037394A1 (en) * 2007-08-08 2009-02-12 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Flow meter for a medium through a pipeline measures pressure at a diaphragm reducing the pipe cross section, and the difference between two temperature sensors
DE102012109234A1 (en) * 2012-09-28 2014-04-03 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Volumetric flow meter for determining flow rate and/or composition of e.g. gas of e.g. oil refinery, has devices that determine flow rate of mediums based on transit time difference method and thermal mass flow measurement
DE102016011256A1 (en) 2016-09-17 2018-03-22 Diehl Metering Gmbh Method for determining the flow of a flowing medium

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US4264961A (en) * 1978-06-02 1981-04-28 Hitachi, Ltd. Air flow rate measuring apparatus
US4487063A (en) * 1983-07-11 1984-12-11 General Motors Corporation Solid state mass air flow sensor
EP0306193A1 (en) * 1987-08-28 1989-03-08 Schlumberger Industries Limited Fluid meter
GB2212277A (en) * 1987-11-07 1989-07-19 Sperryn & Co Limited Gas flow meter
US5311762A (en) * 1991-12-16 1994-05-17 Dxl Usa Flow sensor calibration
DE4339771C2 (en) * 1993-11-23 1996-09-12 Hiss Eckart Electronic evaluation device

Patent Citations (6)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4264961A (en) * 1978-06-02 1981-04-28 Hitachi, Ltd. Air flow rate measuring apparatus
US4487063A (en) * 1983-07-11 1984-12-11 General Motors Corporation Solid state mass air flow sensor
EP0306193A1 (en) * 1987-08-28 1989-03-08 Schlumberger Industries Limited Fluid meter
GB2212277A (en) * 1987-11-07 1989-07-19 Sperryn & Co Limited Gas flow meter
US5311762A (en) * 1991-12-16 1994-05-17 Dxl Usa Flow sensor calibration
DE4339771C2 (en) * 1993-11-23 1996-09-12 Hiss Eckart Electronic evaluation device

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8337494B2 (en) 2005-07-08 2012-12-25 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Plasma-generating device having a plasma chamber
US8465487B2 (en) 2005-07-08 2013-06-18 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Plasma-generating device having a throttling portion
US8105325B2 (en) 2005-07-08 2012-01-31 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Plasma-generating device, plasma surgical device, use of a plasma-generating device and method of generating a plasma
US8109928B2 (en) 2005-07-08 2012-02-07 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Plasma-generating device, plasma surgical device and use of plasma surgical device
US7928338B2 (en) 2007-02-02 2011-04-19 Plasma Surgical Investments Ltd. Plasma spraying device and method
US8030849B2 (en) 2007-08-06 2011-10-04 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Pulsed plasma device and method for generating pulsed plasma
US8735766B2 (en) 2007-08-06 2014-05-27 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Cathode assembly and method for pulsed plasma generation
DE102009046653A1 (en) * 2009-11-12 2011-05-19 Endress + Hauser Flowtec Ag Magnetically inductive flow rate measuring system for determining volume- and/or mass flow rate of measuring medium in e.g. automation engineering, has two resistance thermometers integrated into two electrodes, respectively
DE102009060302A1 (en) * 2009-12-23 2011-06-30 Truma Gerätetechnik GmbH & Co. KG, 85640 Gas supply device with mass flow sensor
US8613742B2 (en) 2010-01-29 2013-12-24 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Methods of sealing vessels using plasma
US9089319B2 (en) 2010-07-22 2015-07-28 Plasma Surgical Investments Limited Volumetrically oscillating plasma flows

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