CN214486326U - Device for separating water vapor from humid air - Google Patents

Device for separating water vapor from humid air Download PDF

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Publication number
CN214486326U
CN214486326U CN202022995261.5U CN202022995261U CN214486326U CN 214486326 U CN214486326 U CN 214486326U CN 202022995261 U CN202022995261 U CN 202022995261U CN 214486326 U CN214486326 U CN 214486326U
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pressure
composite membrane
membrane separator
separation
air
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罗二平
姜茂刚
景达
汤池
谢康宁
翟明明
李远辙
颜泽栋
刘娟
张晨旭
罗鹏
李新
顾修筑
贾吉来
谢东红
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SHANGHAI SUISHAN INDUSTRIAL CO LTD
Air Force Medical University of PLA
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SHANGHAI SUISHAN INDUSTRIAL CO LTD
Air Force Medical University of PLA
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Abstract

The utility model belongs to the technical field of gas separation, specifically be a device of separation vapor in following moisture-containing air. The utility model discloses the device includes: filters, blowers, composite membrane separators, compressors, condensers, and some control valves and necessary piping. The air containing wet raw materials firstly enters a filter to filter out particles, and then is sent into a composite membrane separator through an air blower, low-partial-pressure water vapor firstly contacts an adsorption layer of the composite membrane to be adsorbed and enriched, and preferentially permeates the membrane separator to be output as water vapor through an outlet of the compressor under the action of separation power provided by the compressor, liquid water can be continuously and efficiently obtained through a condensation technology, and lean water vapor is discharged out of a system from a retention side of the membrane separator. The utility model discloses compare in with the simple membrane separation method or simply with the adsorption separation method, or directly adopt methods such as compression, efficiency is higher to the separation process can go on in succession.

Description

Device for separating water vapor from humid air
Technical Field
The utility model belongs to the technical field of gas separation, concretely relates to from device of separation vapor in air.
Background
Due to large-scale mining and environmental damage of human beings and climate abnormality caused by the damage, extremely uneven distribution of water resource time and space in China and aggravation of water pollution, surface water resources are seriously deficient, especially in special operation modes and environments such as some arid areas, desert areas, water shortage areas in the west, islands, coastal wet areas, wild scientific studies, border military stations, high mountain radar stations and the like, fresh water supply is very difficult, in the areas, the main mode of obtaining water depends on a small amount of rainfall accumulation or base replenishment, inconvenience, instability or high cost is inconvenient, and the bottleneck problem of restricting the economic and social development of the areas is caused.
The method for solving the problem of fresh water shortage in local areas mainly comprises the following steps: (1) the method comprises the following steps of (1) sending water in different places and mechanically supplying, (2) obtaining drinking water by methods of purification, seawater desalination and the like depending on a surface water source, but no matter which method is based on the surface water source, the problems of the fresh water source in the specific area and the specific application environment cannot be solved fundamentally and well:
(1) the remote water supply and the mobile supply are not only limited by the transportation conditions, but also have high transportation cost;
(2) the technology depends on the surface water source for recycling by adopting a purification method, is not only limited by the existence of non-purifiable toxins and the existence of non-purifiable toxins of the surface water source, but also has high purification treatment cost, for example, a high mountain radar station can only obtain drinking water by water storage and purification again in sight, and can bear high cost, for example, seawater desalination, although the technology is regarded as one of main water sources in the future of human beings, and has large-scale application in engineering, the water production cost is not acceptable, and the technology is also influenced by the geographical position of a water-using area, so that the technology cannot be applied in the special operation modes and environments of wide drought, desert areas, water-lacking areas in the west, field scientific research, border military stations, high mountain radar stations and the like.
In fact, the atmosphere is a huge fresh water reservoir, water vapor in the air is clean and renewable, and the air can become an important water source for obtaining fresh water under the condition of no surface water source, for example, even in a sahara desert, the annual average relative humidity is about 20-30%, the humidity in the air at night is higher, and the water vapor in the air is separated and converted into liquid water, so that the water can be used by people living or working in the specific area and the specific environment.
Chinese patent CN1131359C describes an "adsorption type air water intake device", which mainly comprises an adsorption bed, a condenser, a water purification system and a water storage device, and uses a specific adsorbent to enhance the water intake effect, and uses a specific adsorption bed and a condenser structure including a heater to enhance the heat transfer of the adsorbent and the heat exchange of the condenser, and to enhance the water intake efficiency by using waste heat or natural energy, so as to realize the process of taking water from air in a multiple cycle in one day.
Chinese patent CN 101851946B describes a 'water production method and device for enriching air water vapor by using a separation membrane', which comprises an air main water production device and an air auxiliary water production device, wherein the air main water production device comprises a main water production air pretreatment device, a membrane dehumidification component, a purge gas pressure reducing valve, a dehumidified air precooler, a dehumidified air expander, a purge gas precooler, a main water production device and a water tank, the air auxiliary water production device comprises an auxiliary water production air induced draft fan, an auxiliary water production air filter and an auxiliary water production device, continuous water production is ensured by specific process connection, the technical defects of water production by enriching water vapor by an adsorption method are overcome, the water vapor in air is enriched by using the separation membrane, and the enriched gas is cooled to produce liquid water, however, the method only adopts a membrane separation technology to separate the water vapor from mixed gas with very low water vapor partial pressure in the atmosphere, the membrane separation process is enhanced by providing a sweep gas form to the permeation side of the membrane separator in order to improve the water production and water production efficiency, but the application of the membrane separation process is limited due to high energy consumption and complex system of a positive pressure type membrane separation process which is carried out under higher pressure (typically, air is boosted to 4-15 bar pressure by a compressor), typically, the pressure ratio of the compressor boosted to 7bar pressure reaches (7 + 1)/1 =8 times, the energy consumption is very high, and particularly, the scheme is difficult to efficiently produce water in a low-humidity arid region.
Disclosure of Invention
The utility model aims to overcome the technical defect that the water vapor is enriched from the air only by an adsorption method or a membrane separation method or directly by adopting a compression condensation method, and provides a device which has compact structure, can continuously and efficiently directly separate the water vapor from the humid air so as to further prepare liquid water.
The utility model provides a device for directly separating water vapor from moisture-containing air, which is different from the simple membrane separation process or the adsorption separation process in the prior art, and forms a brand-new and efficient continuous separation device based on complete coupling of adsorption and membrane separation materials by organically combining the membrane separation technology and the adsorption separation technology; and the coupling separation method can be combined with the conventional compression condensation process, and can efficiently meet the requirement of water production from air in various humidity environments.
The utility model provides a direct device of following moisture-laden air and separating vapor, its structure is seen as shown in figure 1, include:
(1) preferably, but not necessarily, at least one filter AF 01; used for filtering out impurities such as dust in the air;
(2) at least one first pressure raising device AB01 arranged in front of the composite membrane separator for raising the pressure of the raw material gas to a certain pressure and sending the raw material gas to the composite membrane separator; the pressure boosting equipment can also be placed behind the composite membrane separator to exhaust the retained gas exhausted from the composite membrane separator; typically, the first pressure boosting device AB01 may employ a blower;
(3) at least one second pressure increasing means AB02 for establishing a transmembrane pressure ratio across the membrane separator; typically, the second pressure increasing device AB02 may employ a compressor;
(4) at least one group of composite membrane separators M01A, which are made of composite membrane material loaded with adsorption separation material;
the composite membrane separator has a positive pressure side, also called a raw material gas side, namely an adsorption separation layer contact side, also called a high pressure side and a retentate gas side;
the composite membrane separator has a negative pressure side, also known as the permeate side, i.e., the membrane separation layer contact side, also known as the low pressure side;
the raw gas side of the composite membrane separator is connected with an outlet of a first pressure boosting device AB01, and the retentate gas side is discharged to the atmosphere; when a plurality of groups of composite membrane separators are arranged, the raw material gas side of the composite membrane separators can be connected with a first pressure boosting device AB01 in parallel and is intensively or respectively discharged to the atmosphere; the permeation side of the composite membrane separator is connected to the inlet of a second pressure boosting device AB02 in a gathering manner;
(5) at least one set of control valves and necessary pipelines for feeding raw air to the raw gas side of the composite membrane separator;
(6) at least one group of control valves and necessary pipelines for discharging the water vapor enriched at the permeation side of the composite membrane separator to the inlet of the compressor.
The utility model discloses in, the membrane separation material divide into the three-layer: one layer is an adsorption separation layer which can be composed of organic and inorganic hydrophilic adsorption materials capable of adsorbing and enriching water and being regenerated and is in contact with the positive pressure side of the membrane separator; one layer is a membrane separation layer which can be composed of all separation materials with selectivity to moisture/air, such as silicon rubber, poly-maple and the like, and is contacted with the negative pressure side of the membrane separator; one layer is a porous supporting layer and is positioned between the adsorption separation layer and the membrane separation layer, the supporting layer can carry the adsorption separation material and can also coat the membrane separation layer, and the membrane separator made of the composite separation material is obtained.
The utility model discloses in, the malleation side one end of composite membrane separator (M01A) is equipped with feed gas entry (A0), and composite membrane separator M01A's malleation side other end is equipped with and is detained gas outlet A1, also is the export of poor humid air, and membrane separator (M01A) negative pressure side is equipped with infiltration side export A2-1, also is the vapor outlet.
The utility model discloses in, still include pressure monitoring equipment PE01 for monitor the pressure of second pressure boost equipment AB02 entry; the pressure monitoring device PE01 may be installed anywhere that reflects the pressure of the gas entering the second pressure boosting device in real time, and may be a pressure-sensitive or any other type of pressure monitoring device.
As the known technology, the device of the utility model also needs to contain necessary control components, so that the system power equipment can operate, and the control valve can be switched according to the requirements, etc.
Based on the device for separating water vapor from moisture-containing air, water vapor with lower partial pressure can be efficiently and continuously separated from air. According to the attached drawings, the specific operation steps are as follows:
(1) the wet raw material air firstly enters a filter AF01, and impurities such as dust and the like are filtered by a filter AF 01; then, controlling the first pressure boosting device AB01 to boost pressure to 100 pa-15 Kpa, and providing a sufficient separation air quantity by overcoming the flow resistance of the composite membrane separator M01A;
(2) the wet air treated in the step (1) enters a composite membrane separator M01A from a raw material gas inlet A0: because the composite adsorption material in the composite membrane separator M01A is a porous and hydrophilic material, the water vapor in the mixed gas component to be separated has adsorption; the composite membrane separator M01A adsorbs and enriches the moisture in the incoming air, and provides a vacuum pressure of-10 to-30 KPa on the permeation side of the composite membrane separator M01A by the second pressure boosting device AB02, a transmembrane pressure difference is formed on two sides of the composite membrane separator M01A, namely a high pressure side and a permeation side, under the suction of the pressure difference, two sides of the hydrophilic adsorption separation layer contact the incoming air on one side to adsorb the moisture, the other side contacts the support layer and is connected with the membrane separation layer and the negative pressure side to continuously desorb the moisture to obtain continuously regenerated enriched water vapor, and the water vapor is output through the outlet of the second pressure boosting device AB02 by permeating the membrane separator preferentially;
meanwhile, because the membrane separator discharges at least a part of water vapor from the permeation side and discharges lean gas with less water vapor at the detention side of the membrane separator, the separation process is continuously carried out and is suitable for incoming air with various humidity, in particular water vapor under the condition of low water partial pressure.
The water vapor discharged from the outlet of the second self-boosting device AB02 after separation can continuously and efficiently obtain drinking water by adopting the conventional well-known condensation technology. That is, the outlet of the second pressure boosting device AB02 (such as a compressor) is connected with a condenser, a purifier and other devices, and the water vapor at the outlet of the second pressure boosting device AB02 is condensed and purified to obtain liquid water which can be drunk. Thus, liquid water is prepared by a compression and condensation method; the conventional compression condensation process is organically combined, and the process is combined, so that water can be produced from air in various humidity environments with high efficiency, and the environmental adaptability is improved.
The utility model discloses in, the vapor of lower partial pressure means like the desert area, and air humidity will be low to 20% relative humidity's extreme operating mode condition.
In the present invention, the so-called high-efficiency separation of water vapor is more efficient than the conventional methods such as a membrane separation method or an adsorption separation method, or a direct compression and condensation method, and can continuously separate water vapor from moisture-containing air.
In the present invention, selectivity is also called separation coefficient, alpha (alpha) value, which is generally defined as:
α (alpha) value, selectivity of air component to water vapor = (Q water/Q dry air component);
wherein the dry air component and the water component of Q represent the permeation amounts of the pure components of the dry air component and the water vapor to be separated of the membrane separation material through the membrane material under the unit time and the pressure respectively, and the typical permeation amount ratio is 1 atmosphere, 20 ℃ and the alpha (alpha) value.
In the utility model, the membrane separation material is membrane separation material with various forms, wherein the separation coefficient of air components and water vapor reaches 50-5000.
The adsorption material (organic hydrophilic adsorption material, inorganic material molecular sieve) carried on the support layer of the utility model is various adsorption materials which can adsorb moisture and can regenerate.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of an apparatus and method for producing liquid water by separating vapor from air.
Reference numbers in the figures: AF01 is an air filter, DDV 01/DDV 02 and DDV03 are cut-off valves, AB01 is a first pressure boosting device, AB02 is a second pressure boosting device, TC01 is a condensing device, PE01 is a pressure monitoring device, M01A is a composite membrane separator, A0 is a raw material gas inlet, namely a moisture-containing air inlet, A1 is a retentate gas outlet, namely a moisture-poor air outlet, and A2-1 is a negative pressure side, namely a permeation side outlet and a water vapor outlet of the membrane separator.
Detailed Description
The invention is further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings. As shown in fig. 1, wherein:
AF01 is an air filter that can be in various forms including fibrous form, filter media form, bag filter, preferably in a self-cleaning form or various combinations, for filtering and cleaning the feed air entering the separator to ensure the cleanliness requirements of the separator on the feed air.
The DDV01, DDV02 and DDV03 are automatic cut-off valves, and can be replaced by two-way valves with the same process purpose and required functions, can be various manual, automatic control and regulation stop valves, butterfly valves, gate valves and the like, preferably adopt various automatic regulating valves, and can be pneumatic, electric and hydraulically controlled automatic valves for switching, isolating and regulating the air to be separated entering and exiting the membrane separator; wherein, in the case of automatic regulating valves, they can be opened, regulated or closed according to preset logic and regulated in terms of flow, time, temperature, etc. according to monitored temperature (not shown), pressure, etc.
The AB01 is a first pressure raising device which can be various compression devices, such as piston type, centrifugal type, screw rod, vortex, Roots, liquid ring and the like, and raises the pressure of the gas to a proper pressure, wherein, the AB01 is used for raising the pressure of the component to be separated to the separation pressure needed by the component to enter the separator, and preferably, various blowers are adopted to raise the pressure of the moisture-containing air to be separated to 100 pa-15 Kpa, so as to overcome the flow resistance and provide the full amount of separated gas as the preferred design target, and the AB01 can also be arranged on a process pipeline (not shown in the figure) behind the membrane separator and before the adsorption separator.
AB02 is a second pressure increasing device, such as a compressor, for reducing the pressure of the process gas from the negative pressure side of the membrane separator to the pressure required for separation and overcoming the subsequent process compression condensation and overcoming the resistance of fluid transportation, and typically, the suction pressure is between-10 KPa and-50 KPa, and the output pressure is between 50KPa and 200KPa, and various compressors and blowers are preferably adopted.
PE01 is a pressure monitoring device for monitoring the pressure at the inlet of the compressor, and can be installed anywhere that reflects the pressure of the gas entering the compressor in real time, and can be a pressure-sensitive or any other form of pressure monitoring device.
M01A is a composite membrane separator, which can be a plate-type membrane, a roll-type membrane, a hollow fiber membrane, the membrane separation material is divided into at least three layers, one adsorption layer can be composed of hydrophilic adsorption materials which can adsorb and enrich water and can be regenerated, such as organic and inorganic materials, the adsorption layer can be contacted with the positive pressure side of the membrane separator, the other layer is a membrane separation layer can be composed of separation materials which have selectivity to water/air, such as silicon rubber and poly-maple, the negative pressure side of the membrane separator is contacted with the porous support layer which is positioned between the adsorption separation layer and the membrane separation layer, the support layer can carry the adsorption separation material and can also coat the membrane separation layer, the membrane separator made of the composite separation material is obtained, the positive pressure side is the raw material gas side (adsorption separation layer contact side) of the membrane separator, also is called the high pressure side and the gas retention side, the negative pressure side is the permeating side (membrane separation layer contact side) of the membrane separator, also referred to as the low pressure side.
Unlike the conventional art, in a typical separation process such as that using a roll-to-roll or plate separator, the AB01 is mainly used for supplying fresh air, overcoming the resistance of fluid delivery, typically increasing pressure by 100 Pa-1500 Pa, preferably establishing a wind pressure of 100 Pa-500 Pa to overcome the gas circulation resistance of the membrane separator, if the plate-type membrane is adopted, even the wind pressure of tens to hundreds of pascals is needed to be built, and the AB01 is placed behind the plate-type membrane to be used as an exhaust gas exhaust fan, the aim is only to overcome the resistance of raw air entering the membrane separator so as to continuously provide moisture-containing air, unlike other membrane separation processes which employ higher pressures, the present process is generally employed with lower energy consumption due to the elimination of the need to compress the air to higher pressures (typically, higher pressures such as to 7 bar).
Different from the conventional art, the utility model discloses the disengaging process of coupling for the process of separation vapor is continuous, and, because of comparing with other techniques, more thorough separation the vapor in the moisture-laden air, perhaps say, compare with single membrane separation process, can adopt still less membrane area, lower separation pressure, compare with single adoption adsorption separation process, can adopt still less adsorbent, in addition, the utility model discloses a power equipment be continuous operation like air-blower, compressor in the disengaging process, and piece-rate system has more the efficiency, and this is in the very low area of moisture content such as desert arid, and the vapor partial pressure is extremely low, adopts this system to have technical advantage on can obtaining the vapor in succession.
The contrast adopts the method of the separation vapor of adsorbent (molecular sieve) among the heating regeneration adsorption separator, the utility model discloses in the disengaging process of coupling, the compressor both had been regarded as the separation power source of membrane separation process, can carry the adsorption and separation material that the composite separation ware bore again and carry out continuous vacuum regeneration, and this point vacuum power contrast heating regeneration's energy is said, not only is negligible, and the system is more simple and convenient moreover.
The utility model discloses having solved single technical defect to containing lower minute water vapor in the humid air that goes on with membrane separation method or adsorption separation method with the construction cost of relative low price, having higher efficiency to compare in the adsorption separation process that generally all is intermittent type formula operation, this separation process is continuous, need not to be interrupted and switches regeneration.
The utility model discloses still include the vapor condensation that can export the compressor, equipment such as purification, the preferred indirect heating equipment that can be used for carrying out optimization such as heat transfer with the raw materials air to the compressor export, can be more efficient with the vapor cooling of compressor export, the coupling is on the main part flow, in the high humid area more than 80% if humidity, can directly compress condensation system water, stronger operational flexibility has, and simultaneously, also, do not get rid of waste gas heat energy, solar energy is used for accelerating all measures of adsorption separator desorption, in order to further improve the energy efficiency ratio.
The present invention is preferably applied to the separation of air containing wet components, but the basic principles disclosed can be applied to many other separation applications. Typical examples of separations that can be achieved by the process of the present invention include oxygen/nitrogen separations, gas drying, carbon dioxide/methane separations, carbon dioxide/nitrogen separations, hydrogen/nitrogen separations, and olefin/alkane separations.
An embodiment relates to a water preparation system for taking water from air, which is connected according to the attached drawing, wherein a membrane separator adopts an MO-20 type plate membrane separator produced by Shanghai Daffy materials science and technology limited company, the separation coefficient of dry air and water is 1850, the membrane area loading is 5.5m2, a non-woven fabric is adopted as a supporting layer, and 0.5kg of SSAT # HG55 hydrophilic material produced by Shanghai Daffy materials science and technology limited company is carried, and 1 water preparation system with the flow of 400m is matched and selected3The water content in the air is as follows when the following conditions of the environment temperature of 25 ℃ and the relative humidity RH20% in the air are operated, and 35L of drinking water can be prepared every day after water vapor at the outlet of the compressor is condensed:
Figure DEST_PATH_IMAGE002
the above described embodiments only illustrate some important features of the invention, and it should be understood by those skilled in the art that although the present invention has been described in part in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, this is only an example of the use of the invention or a method, and that all other variations which do not violate the spirit and scope of the invention are within the scope of the invention, which is limited only by the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (4)

1. An apparatus for separating water vapor from moisture-containing air, comprising:
(1) at least one filter (AF 01);
(2) at least one first boost device (AB 01); the first pressure raising equipment is arranged in front of the composite membrane separator and used for raising the pressure of the raw material gas to a certain pressure and sending the raw material gas into the composite membrane separator; or the first pressure boosting equipment is arranged behind the composite membrane separator and used for exhausting the retentate gas exhausted from the composite membrane separator;
(3) at least one second pressure boosting device (AB 02) to establish a transmembrane pressure ratio across the composite membrane separator;
(4) at least one group of composite membrane separators (M01A) made of composite membrane material carrying adsorption separation material; wherein the membrane separation material is divided into three layers:
one layer is an adsorption separation layer, consists of a hydrophilic adsorption material which can adsorb and enrich water and can be regenerated and contacts the positive pressure side of the composite membrane separator;
one layer is a membrane separation layer, which is made of a separation material selective to moisture/air, and contacts the negative pressure side of the composite membrane separator;
one layer is a porous supporting layer and is positioned between the adsorption separation layer and the membrane separation layer, and the supporting layer can carry adsorption separation materials and can also be coated with a membrane separation layer, so that the membrane separator made of the composite separation material is formed;
the composite membrane separator (M01A) has a positive pressure side, also called the feed gas side, i.e. the adsorption separation layer contact side, also called the high pressure side, the retentate gas side;
the composite membrane separator (M01A) has a negative pressure side, also known as the permeate side, i.e. the membrane separation layer contact side, also known as the low pressure side;
the raw gas side of the composite membrane separator (M01A) is connected with the outlet of the first pressure boosting device (AB 01), and the retentate gas side is discharged to the atmosphere; when the membrane separators are a plurality of groups, the raw material gas side of the membrane separators can be connected with a first pressure boosting device in parallel and is intensively or respectively discharged to the atmosphere;
the permeation side of the composite membrane separator is connected to the inlet of a second pressure boosting device (AB 02) in a gathering way;
(5) control valves and their necessary piping for feeding the raw air to the raw gas side of the composite membrane separator (M01A);
(6) a control valve and necessary pipelines thereof for discharging the water vapor enriched at the permeation side of the composite membrane separator (M01A) to the inlet of the second pressure boosting device (AB 02);
(7) the necessary control components to enable the plant power plant to operate, the control valves can be switched as required.
2. The device for separating water vapor from moisture-containing air according to claim 1, characterized in that the positive pressure side of the composite membrane separator (M01A) is provided with a raw material gas inlet (A0) at one end, and the positive pressure side of the composite membrane separator (M01A) is provided with a retentate gas outlet (A1), namely a moisture-poor air outlet; the negative pressure side of the composite membrane separator (M01A) is provided with a permeation side outlet (A2-1), namely a water vapor outlet.
3. An apparatus for separating water vapour from moisture-containing air according to claim 1 or 2, further comprising a pressure monitoring device (PE 01) for monitoring the pressure at the inlet of the second pressure boosting device (AB 02); is installed in any position that can reflect the pressure of the gas entering the second pressure boosting device (AB 02) in real time.
4. The apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the first pressure boosting device (AB 01) is a blower and the second pressure boosting device (AB 02) is a compressor.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN115945041A (en) * 2022-12-30 2023-04-11 浙江研一新能源科技有限公司 Phosphorus pentafluoride purification device and phosphorus pentafluoride preparation method

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN115945041A (en) * 2022-12-30 2023-04-11 浙江研一新能源科技有限公司 Phosphorus pentafluoride purification device and phosphorus pentafluoride preparation method

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